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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the µmanagement¶ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn µsurplus¶ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of a
business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term ³management´. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley ± ³Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.´ In the words of George R. Terry ± ³Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.´ According to James L. Lundy ± ³Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.´ In the words of Henry Fayol ± ³To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.´ According to Peter F. Drucker ± ³Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work´. In the words of Koontz and O¶Donnel ± ³Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals´.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren ± ³The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.´ From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that ³management´ is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as ³management´. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a ³distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.´ From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as ³doing things right´. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization¶s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as ³doing the right things´. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of course, high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. And poor
labour. capital and materials. 4. informed employees. principles and techniques which have wide applications. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals¶ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. 7. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. staffing. The application of these concepts. 5. All these resources are made available to those who manage.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. feeling of management is result-oriented. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. Thus.management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. directing and controlling. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. labour and capital. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. namely. 6. 1. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. In essence. 2. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. So it is treated as a science. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. Thus. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. 3. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. although they can¶t observe it during operation. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. organizing. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. principles and techniques requires specialized . Managers apply knowledge. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others.
Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. Sociology and Psychology. it refers to three distinct ideas. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem . productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. government and hospital. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. According to Herbision and Myers. money and machines into a productive. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. 8. For instance. and (iii) a class or elite. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. people are bound by authority relationships. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. 9. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. that is. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. (ii) a system of authority. materials. In modern organizations. personnel manager etc. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. Anthropology. Similarly. materials. education. In other words.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. military. 10. useful. They transmit orders. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. the effective use of the five M¶s of management (money. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. According to Newman. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced.knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. 1.e. Generally. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. ongoing concern. finance manager. management is viewed as an art. a hierarchy of command and control. labour and capital. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. Basically.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. manpower. how effectively and economically the five M¶s are combined together to produce desired results. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering.
Supervisors. Purchase Manager. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating . Administrative management is concerned with ³thinking´ functions such as laying down policy. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. Financial Controller. Board of Directors. planning and setting up of standards. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. and the range of production. policies and plans for the enterprise. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors.. Operative management is concerned with the ³doing´ function such as implementation of policies. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels.. etc.e. As a separate group. For instance.and suggestions upward. or. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as µManagement¶ which refers to the group. Production Manager. The levels of management depend upon its size. day-to-day matters.e. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. We generally come across two broad levels of management. ranks. but as head of wages and salary department. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. etc. (i) administrative management (i. its Chairman. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. viz.. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. Managing Director. Foremen. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. Marketing Manager. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. 1. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. the lower level of management). or the Chief Executive. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. technical facilities. But in actual practice.
b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. machines and methods to put the plans into action. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. . h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. 2. men. j) To report to top management. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management.functions. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. e) To assign activities. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. Without them the top management¶s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. d) To assemble the resources of money. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. materials.
manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. It consists of foreman. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. an organization is merely a collection of men. money and material. Without management. sales officers. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. methods. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. supervisors. They have to get the work done through the workers. To this end. accounts officers and so on. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. 3. With a view to realize the . evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. machines. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. procedures and reward systems. counseling and effective leadership. Management is goal-oriented. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. 1. Their authority and responsibility is limited. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. They allot various jobs to the workers. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. In its absence.k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual¶s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. Management makes group effort more effective.
Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. the Indian Institute of Management. They try to put everything on the right tract. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. competition. and specialized knowledge. In the final analysis. Organize the resources properly. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. techniques. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. But unlike medicine or law. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. skills. According to McFarland.. often threaten the survival of a firm. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. Management as a profession By a professional manager. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. identifiable discipline. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. and it is distinct. government policy. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. Management . Failure to take note of customer¶s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for µIdeal java¶ in the two-wheeler market in India. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. Thus unnecessary deviations. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field.predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. etc.
little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. motivating. Half of these managers¶ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. This role includes hiring. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. and short-duration activities. and disciplining employees. and decision-making. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job.Development Institute. But in addition to these insights. 1. However. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions. For instance. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. sabotaging trade unions. However. do not seem to adhere to the principle of ³service above self´. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. In fact.A. training. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the . the transfer of information. The term µmanagement roles¶ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. management is not as exact as natural sciences. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. unpatterned. As a social science. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. bribing public officials to gain favours. managers in general. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. All managers have a role as a leader. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature ± interpersonal roles.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. the All India Management Association. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. Some individual business organizations. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal.. etc. however. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager¶s job. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. the American Management Association in U.S. an art as well as a profession. Furthermore. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession.
The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. Informational Roles: All managers. and the like. Typically. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public¶s tastes. informers who provide favors performing other activities and information. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. When they represent the organisation to outsiders.1: Mintzberg¶s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Liaison Symbolic head. network of outside contacts and doing external board work. to some degree. This is the disseminator role. subordinates.liaison role. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. Table 1. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. manages also perform a spokesperson role. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. duties of a legal or social nature. what competitors may be planning. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. activities that involve responsible for staffing. Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. understanding of organization and environment. and associated duties. and may be inside or outside the organization. Informational Monitor Disseminator . that involve outsiders. obliged to Greeting visitors. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager¶s unit. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. making phone subordinates to members of the calls to relay information. training.
managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. outsiders on organization¶s giving information of the plans. 1973). programming of subordinates work. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. managers are responsible for allocating human. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. Inc. As entrepreneurs. . Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Source: Henry Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. As disturbance handlers. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization¶s performance. serves as expert on organization¶s industry. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. media. physical and monetary resources. projects´ to bring about change. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. results. negotiations. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. As resource allocators. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to develop and initiates ³improvement new programs. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. supervises design of certain projects as well. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. policies. Publishers. Last. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices.. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. etc.Spokesperson organization ± some information is factual. actions. Decisional Roles: Finally. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the organizational decisions. performing all kinds ± in effect.
Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. liaison. negotiator. such as engineering. Conversely. human. finance. . and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization¶s speciality. However. this skill is crucial. motivate. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers ± regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. During the early 1970. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. Technical Skills: First-line managers.An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg¶s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager¶s level within the organization. Since managers deal directly with people. They know how to communicate. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. Specifically. or manufacturing. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization¶s operations. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. the roles of disseminator. figurehead. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. lead. and all managers are involved in making decisions. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. as well as many middle managers. research by Robert L. a manager¶s job is varied and complex. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. In fact. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. For example. computers. and conceptual. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people.
2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. Scope . ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. etc. Management Management means getting the work done through and with others.1. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. 2. Administration is a determinative function. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. Thus. Managers are concerned mainly with organisation and direction of human resources. Spriegel and Walter. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. Spriegal and Lansburg. plans and policies of the organisation. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. Management relates to execution of decisions. Meaning Administration Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives. Thus. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. Floerence and Tead. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. Administrators are basically concerned with planning and control. According to them. It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies. It is a doing function. Administration is a higher level function: Administration refers to policy-making. It is a thinking function. This view is held by Tead. on the other hand. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. Administration relates to the decision-making. Nature 3. iii) There is no distinction between the terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ and they are used interchangeably. It is concerned with the implementation of policies. Table 1. administration is a higher level function.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ has been a controversial issue in the management literature.
Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. 6. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle level leading and motivation of executives. There are three levels of management-top. Usage of Term The term µadministration¶ is The term µmanagement¶ is often associated with widely used in business government offices. 7. objectives. i. organisations. counseling and effective leadership.4. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. 1. 5. 1.. ___________. _________. public organisations in the private sector and non-business sector. administrative decisions. Still management is not completely a profession. 2. lower levels of management. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. 8.e. 3. operative workforce for the execution of plans. co-ordinating. Five M¶s of management (________. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant at higher levels of management. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. Explain its characteristics. .9 Terminal Questions 1. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. Define management. middle and lower. __________is principally the task of planning. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. DecisionMaking Administration determines Management decides who what is to be done and when it shall implement the is to be done. environmental forces.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. Self Assessment Questions 1. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities.
Discuss the importance of management.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Money.2. 3. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management.4 Organizing .1. Management 2.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . materials. manpower 3. MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2.3 2. Refer section 1.2. teamwork Answers to TQs: 1.5 3. Refer section 1.2 Process of Management 2. 1.3 Planning 2. Refer section 1.
· Explain Planning. . in recent time.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people´. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Directing.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2.9 Terminal Questions 2. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2.8 Summary 2. Objectives: After this studying this unit. Coordinating 5. you will be able to: · Define Management process. 1949): 1. One can also think of management functionally. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. Motivating. Organizing. Management functions are as follows (Fayol. · Explain different functions of management Process. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. Controlling However.5 Staffing 2.6 Directing 2. Staffing.2. Commanding 4.
Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. leadership is doing the right things³. the two are not quite the same. thus. leadership is about setting the desirable goals.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: ³Management is doing things right. Decision ± Making Taking decisions is a process. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. or where you want go to. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. There is a degree of overlap between the two. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. In the football field. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. policies are the means to achieve those ends. Through leadership and management often overlap. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: . fuel and machine efficiency. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. Therefore. and allocating resources.2. general strategies. the decision to change the design of a product. say a passenger car. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. and then set out the method for achieving it. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. Even so. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. while a policy. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. However. studies on passenger comfort. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. cost structure and so on. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. driving comfort. overall goals. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. 2. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization¶s mission. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. Objectives are the ends.
Thus. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. summarizing what the organization does. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. The mission statement is broad. governments (local. and trade). professional. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. state. How skilled is our workforce? 4. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. international). For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment.A mission is the purpose of the organization. Is research and development adequate? 4. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). Weaknesses. suppliers. What is our market share? 5. What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. federal. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. Opportunities. customers (internal and external). journals and reports (scientific. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization¶s potential. Are the facilities outdated? 3. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: . What makes the organization distinctive? 2. Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. What financing is available? 6. A mission statement should be short ± and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory.
Objectives are also called performance goals. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. Are there new competitors? 3. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. What are the possible new markets? 3. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. Are market tastes changing? 5. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) . earnings per share. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. effectiveness. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. Are our rivals weak? 5. etc. return on investment. What substitute products exist? In general terms. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums.1. the best strategy is one that fits the organization¶s strengths to opportunities in the environment. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. What is the strength of the economy? 4. as well as gap analysis. What are the emerging technologies? 6. Generally. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. What are the new regulations? 6. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission.
The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. 2.5 Staffing . and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. tactical. working toward common goals. 2. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. grouped.Tactical plans are based on the organization¶s strategic plan. who is to do. lines of authority. Organizations are groups of people. procedures. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. operational plans are based on the organization¶s tactical plans. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. and relationships between departments. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. Assign work to individuals 6. and goals are clearly stated. structuring. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. who reports to whom. In turn. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles.4 Organizing It involves designing. Strategic. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. Review plans 2. how the tasks are to be grouped. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. and coordinated. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job 4. with ideas and resources. and where decisions are to be made.
inventorying the people available. appraisal. O¶Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as ³filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. 2. performance appraisal etc. development. money. Koontz. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. 4. 2. compensation and training of needed people´. 3. promotion. Theo Haimann ± ³Concerned with the placement. This task has been referred to as staffing. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. placement. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals´. selection. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. selection. 5. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick ± ³Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work´ Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. 3.It is not the machines. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. . recruitment. training. Definition: 1. recruitment. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. materials. placement. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also.
5.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. . Thus staffing is an ongoing process through ± out the life of an organization. 4. 8. selection. directing is the ³interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals´. recruitment. etc. Definition According to Koontz and O¶Donnel. Direction function is performed at every level of management. motivate them. Direction has dual objectives. 3. resignation. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. induction. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. on the other. management initiates actions in the organization. On the one hand. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. Through direction. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. Direction is an important managerial function. overseeing and leading people. It is an important managerial function. 2. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. training development and maintenance of personnel. 2.e. promotion. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. vacancies arise out of retirement. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. It is instructing people as to what to do. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. 7. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. identifying the manpower requirements.6. It is a continuing function. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i.
nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished´. and external esteem factors. sex. coach and supervise his subordinates. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. 2. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. status. The needs are arranged in order of importance. 2. the more individuality. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. and achievement. belongingness. guide. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. and attention . teach. such as. acceptance.Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. thirst. Theories X and Y. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. The further they progress up the hierarchy. humanness and psychological health a person will show. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. from the basic to the complex. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. The manager never ceases to direct. As Theo Haimann puts it. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. 3. and the Two-Factor theory. recognition. will vary depending upon his level. self-respect. ³without the issuance of directives. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. such as. satisfied needs cannot. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. shelter. proposed by Maslow (1943). 4.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. autonomy. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning.
responsibility. It is also believed that. and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. Theory X ± In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. . The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction.· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. achieving one¶s potential. such as. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager¶s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. company policy. recognition. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. whereas. and salary are hygiene factors. esteem. Extrinsic factors. such as. From the above. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. Social. interpersonal relations. and exercise self-control. self-direction. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. advancement. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. includes growth. if they can. anxious to accept greater responsibility. working conditions. Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people¶s attitudes about work. and achievement. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. Motivators are intrinsic factors. self-motivated. Theory Y ± In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. supervision. autonomy and empowerment. externally.
Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. When hygiene factors are adequate. 2. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. performance appraisal etc. Write a short not on directing.9 Terminal Questions 1. 2. motivators describe a person¶s relationship with what she or he does. have to do with a person¶s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. establishing strategies for achieving these goals.In summary. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. 2.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. many related to the tasks being performed. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. and where decisions are to be made. Self Assessment Questions 1. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. Hygiene factors on the other hand. who is to do. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. Explain Staffing in detail 3. Organization involves designing. recruitment. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. neither will they be satisfied. who reports to whom. 3. Planning involves the process of defining goals. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. how the tasks are to be grouped. To motivate people. What is planning? 2. 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: . emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. structuring. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. people will not be dissatisfied.
1 Introduction Objectives 3.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Follett 2. Reference 2.3 Characteristics of OD 3.1.5 Goals of OD 3. Reference 2.2 Definitions 3. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1. SWOT 3.7 Role of OD 3. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3.8 Problems in OD .4 Categories of OD 3.5 3.3 2.6 OD and Management Development 3. Reference 2.
culture.Self Assessment Questions 3. adapt. And organization development (OD) is one of them. OD focuses on issues related to the ³human side´ of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals. Today. In summary. increased competition. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges ± finding satisfaction in and through work. and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately. Early returns were encouraging. strategy formulation and implementation. organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. and changing customer demands. Basically. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today ± threats to effectiveness. challenges from turbulent environments. survive. Although new jobs are being created at record rates. old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. and the like.9 Summary 3. organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today¶s world is a daunting task. the answer is ³yes´. and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks. conflict resolution. and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology. and profitability. ³Knowledge´ work is replacing ³muscle´ work. and the organization¶s human and social processes.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. and processes. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. strategy. take advantage of opportunities. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope. Simple survival ± continuing to have an adequate job ± is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks.10 Terminal Questions 3. A variety of solutions exists. and learn how to do that better and better over time. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3. organization structure. efficiency. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. teams. maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals. . organization development is a process of teaching people how to solve problems. fighting obsolescence of one¶s knowledge and skills.
2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change. 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure. 1989) . (Bennis. 1971) Organizational development is a process of planned change. Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives«. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. (Schmuck and Miles. using reflexive. and challenges. you will be able to: · Define organization development. · Explain the characteristics of OD. OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement. a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs. markets. people. processes. values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies. (Burke and Hornstein. · State the goals of OD. A ³process for improving processes´ ± that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill. and culture. 1980). and the dizzying rate of change itself. 1969).change of an organization¶s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making. planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. attitudes. 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions. 3. and 3) Developing the organization¶s self-renewing capacity (Beer. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD.Objectives: After studying this unit. self-analytic methods. strategy.
strategies. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. led and supported by top management. these definitions overlap a great deal (that¶s encouraging). and problem-solving processes. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. through an ongoing. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science.´ (Cummings and Worley. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. and theory. Collectively. and contain several unique insights (that¶s enlightening). We do not propose it as the ³right´ definition. research. 1994) As you can see. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. Likewise.³Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories. Organizational change is hard. In fact.´ This definition is lengthy. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. learning. and processes for improving an organization¶s effectiveness.several years in most cases. they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. There is no ³quick fix´ when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. that is. these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. including action research. Top management must initiate the improvement . 1993) ³Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization¶s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies. ³Organization development is a long-term effort. We will explain this definition in some detail. 1992) ³OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies. structure. empowerment. serious business. Now let¶s turn to our definition of organization development.´ (Burke. it is more accurate to describe ³improvement´ as a never-ending journey of continuous change. values. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. what practices should be included and excluded. By long-term effort. to improve an organization¶s visioning. through the alteration of organizational members¶ on-the-job behaviours. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions. and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance.´ (Porras and Robertson.
one of widespread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization¶s purposes. strategy. lost its commitment. For empowerment to become fact of life. structure. vitality. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. and challenges in the organization¶s environment and its internal functioning. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. processes. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization¶s members. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. team. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. beliefs. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. empowerment. first. so is managing the culture. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. We further believe that having compelling. interactions. Michael Beer¶s definition called for ³developing new and creative organizational solutions´. and processes makes each important. in contrast to having only a select few involved. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. expectations. culture is of . and where people are continually learning how to learn together. has a stake in making the organization work. developing the strategy for getting there. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. and common purposes of all members of the organization. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations.´ Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. opportunities. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. And second. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. attitudes. we mean. By empowerment processes. and artifacts. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization¶s culture. commitment. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as ³« organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. or became distracted with other duties. structure. Just as visioning. where collective aspiration is set free. solve problems. make decisions. By learning processes. coherent. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. By including culture so prominently in our definition. and culture. and take actions on problems. and each influences the others.³journey´ and be committed to seeing it through. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. The reciprocal influence among culture. activities. norms. we mean those interacting. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. and making it happen. learning. sentiments. assumptions. and organizational learning. not just a small group. By empowerment. By visioning processes. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. listening. Still.
and using management information. and training. When teams function well. the process ³threw the results over the wall´ to the next functional unit. think. Temporary. So culture consists of basic assumptions. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. maintaining quality control. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: ³Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. and problem-solving processes. wasted time. Processes are how things get done. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. .primary importance. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be ³brain work´) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. By intact work teams and other configurations. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. much rework. When one function finished with its part of the project. Today¶s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. In Liberation Management. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. and procurement. so they are the place OD programs often begin ± getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. empowerment. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. discovered. Processes are relatively easy to change. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. or developed by a given group. such as design. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. hiring. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. empowerment. But in many organizations today. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. and feel in relation to those problems. members are trained in competencies such as planning. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the ³right´ ways. think. values. This method resulted in loss of synergy. Further. firing. Over time. He uses the terms µmultifunctional projectization¶ and µhorizontal systems¶ to describe these teams and their work. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. and we highlight the importance of visioning. (b) invented. manufacturing. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. individuals and the organization function well. engineering. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. learning. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams.
and co-learners with the client system. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today¶s fast-paced market place. Attempting to create ³win-win´ solutions is standard practice in OD programs. To summarize. OD practitioners are facilitators. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. 5. according to Peters. 4.3 Characteristics of OD 1. so that change is easily observed. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. collaborators. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. 3. 3. 7. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. 6. 10. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. This µplanned¶ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. 9.multifunctional. dynamic and adaptive system. OD focuses on culture and processes. Specifically. 2. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. 8. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. 2. OD . The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. rather than focusing attention on individuals.
Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. and mutual influence. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. further more. or catalyst. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. and integrate individual and organizational goals. It recognizes that organizational goals change. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. Thus. takes actions for intervention. 5. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. they are ongoing. growth. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that µnorms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones¶. 6. He shares a social philosophy about human values. or isolated problems. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be µhuman¶ and to increase awareness. problem-solving. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. 3. The relationship involves mutual trust. 7. evaluates these data. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. identity. and then. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. Rather. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. third party change agent. Action research is the basis for such intervention. They discourage µdo it yourself¶ approach. joint goals and means. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements . and cyclic processes. participation. he conducts surveys. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. interactive. and revitalization.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. 3. Key areas are the normative type of model. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. collects relevant data. temporary. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. At the individual level. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. 4.efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. rather. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. rather.
the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization¶s goals (profit or service) and development of people. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. . (g) To increase the sense of µownership¶ or organization¶s objectives throughout the work force. with the authority of knowledge and competence. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. (c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. problem solving climate throughout an organization. first. like other normative re-educative programmes. second. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. 3. This Organization Development progrmmes. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. practitioners and the client laymen. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible.of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. Two important elements of Organization Development are.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. the collaborative relationships between the scientists.
While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. more attention to peer-groups. 3. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. According to him.(h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one¶s area of responsibility. Based on this. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. Before making a comparison between the two. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. management development has been defined as follows: ³Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. and greater display of feelings and emotions. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. . Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager¶s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization.6 OD and Management Development At this stage. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. However. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. (ii) competitiveness. less individual competitiveness. (iii) assertiveness. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent.´ Organization development differs from management development. The term µdevelopment¶ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. with their existing objectives and structure. according to him. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment.
In early 60s.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. plays key role in organizational improvement. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. however. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. focus on achieving improvement in design. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. Problem-solving approach. 6. not on the managers. By 70s. Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing organization. however. 3. Trained specialists required. Focus on design. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. horizontally. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. 3.Focus Approach Time Specialist accomplishments. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. 7. and laterally. 4. . Thus. Educative and training Short-range. 2. 5. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. No special requirement. 3. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal.
it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. 5. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. In general. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. 5. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. If an organization is laden with these people. 4. Research studies have also failed to conclude significant contributions of OD in all organizations. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. 4. Thus. 3. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. it fails even as a long-term strategy. 3. Self Assessment Questions .confrontation techniques. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. However. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. in order to make best use of OD efforts. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. Therefore. OD programmes are often quite costly. Hence. 2. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. some specific efforts are required. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. etc. particularly in bottom-line ones. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. it is useless to try OD. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. For example. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. There should be proper use of OD interventions. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. 2. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. Therefore.
_____________is a short-term strategy. 4. OD focuses on culture and processes. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. Peter Senge . 2. There is no µquick fix¶ to organizations¶ problems. State the various roles of OD. Distinguish between µorganizational development¶ and µmanagement development¶. Empowerment 4. The participative.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.1. ±±±±±±± is associated with ³Liberation Management´. Define OD. 3. Top management 2. collaborative. Organization development should be led and supported by ±±±±±±±. 3. ±±±±±±±±± is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. 5. Tom Peters 3. Management development aims at developing the managers individually.10 Terminal Questions 1. 2. 4. Who is associated with the ³Learning Organizations´? 5. 3. Explain its salient features. problem-focused µnature of OD¶ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. 3. Explain the various characteristics of OD. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3.
Refer section 3. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.1 Introduction Objectives 4.6 4. Management development Answers to TQs: 1.3 Process Consultation 4. Refer section 3.2 Survey Feedback 4.5.4 Grid Training 4. Refer section 3. MU0002-Unit-04.5 Leadership Development 4.Organization Development ± Interventions Unit-04.Organization Development ± Interventions Structure: 4.2 2.7 5.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .6 Team-building .3 3.
team-building. Subsequently. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. Therefore. education and training. group level. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the range of change that an organization requires. inter-group activities. management grid. they make things happen. Historically. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. People¶s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. work group. and organizational level. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization.4. techno-structural activities. the classification of OD interventions shows variation. interpersonal level. other techniques like process . process consultation.10 Summary 4. Further. Nevertheless.7 Inter Group Development 4. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: ³Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. survey feedback. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels. and survey feedback method. inter-group level. However. grid training.´ There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. and organizational culture. For example. Thus. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach.11 Terminal Questions 4. mediation and negotiation activities.8 Change Agents 4.
consultation, team- building, and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives, have been added. Our further discussion follows this development. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. · Explain grid training. · Describe process consultation. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Role of change agents. 4.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid), the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier, Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan, USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 2. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection, feedback of information, developing action plans based on feedback, and follow up. 1. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership ± managerial support, managerial goal emphasis, managerial work facilitation, peer support, peer goal emphasis, peer work facilitation, and peer interaction facilitation, organizational climate-communication with the company, motivation, decision-making, control within the company, co-ordination between departments, and general management, and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company, satisfaction with the supervisor, satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with the pay, and satisfaction with the work group. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization¶s personnel.
After the questionnaires are completed, data are classified, tabulated, and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 2. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed, feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. In oral system of feedback, it is provided through group discussion or problemsolving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively, feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted, it should be constructive and suggestive, rather, threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case, follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building, by the consultant. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. In particular, survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. 2. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However, effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. First, questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. If it is biased, all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Second, even if valid and reliable information is collected, it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change; it provides base for action for change. 4.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Edgar Schein, the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows:
³The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client¶s environment.´ The basic objectives of P.C are as follows: 1. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership, communication, roles and functions of group members, group decision-making and problemsolving, group norms, and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD. 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 2. Define the Relationship: At this stage, client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees, and spelling out services, time, etc. At this stage, the client¶s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. 3. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. At this stage, the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 4. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 5. Intervene: At this stage, the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural change. 6. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.C is completed, the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes, he assists the
Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. The grid organization development consists of six phases. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. . 1. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. 3. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. Inter-group Development: At this phase. objective-setting. 3. knowledge. P. and teamwork. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. The skills relating to planning. like other OD intervention techniques. and problemsolving are also developed. and alike.C is also not free from criticisms.C programmes. In the review of various P.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. traditions. However. From this point of view. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. However. groups.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. and total organizational levels. problem-solving. inter-group. 2. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant.organizational members to incorporate those changes. P. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. focuses on skills. group. 4. and the organization as a whole. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. 2. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant¶s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. communication skills.
some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. the various programmes may be redesigned. lead. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. confident and effective decision-making. concerned and committed to their welfare. During drastic change times. they maintained the same stand. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. is the ability of leadership to«well. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. We can call these Preparing For the Journey.5 Leadership Development When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). Slogging Through The Swamp. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. Furthermore. 5. They have maintained that ³managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance.´ In a later work. it discounts reality. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. and credibility of senior and middle management. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. The strategy is then implemented. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. Also during these times of change. 4. We will look more carefully at each of these. while at the same time . complete communication that is timely. therefore. competence. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. and regular. 6. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. Further. If you are to manage change effectively. grid training is a non-rigorous method. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. in spite of these criticisms. Systematic Critique: In this stage. and After Arrival.4. In this light.
storming.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. let us consider the life cycle of a team.recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team¶s time together. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. which. The existence of this trust. 4. therefore. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. As against these. In a climate of distrust. how synergy is generated through team-work. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as ³who will be members of the team?´ ³Who will perform what functions?´ ³Who will contribute what?´ ³What rules will be . and that makes coping with drastic change much easier.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. but more importantly. Unfortunately. These stages are: forming. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone¶s best interests. Leadership before. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. widely accepted. if haven¶t established a track record of effective leadership. it may be too late. 4.´ A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. For example. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. problems in team-work. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. French and Bell have opined that ³probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. if allowed to go on for too long. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. employees expect nothing positive. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. brings hope for better times in the future. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. norming. teambuilding is the most important. performing.
start to accept others. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. team members start settling. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team¶s goals. each team has to be adjourned. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. At this stage. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. Sooner or later. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. After the adjournment of the team. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: ³Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. However. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. etc.followed?´ ³How can conflicts among members be resolved?´ and so on. because of individual differences. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. 3. 4. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. 2. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. They share personal information. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team.´ . Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. Norming: After storming stage. committee. jockeying for relative control. 5. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. The adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. At this stage.
other factors remaining the same. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. 2. fail to perform their assigned tasks. In fact. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. the individual average dropped down still lower-68. From this statement. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. group efforts tend to slacken. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. it appears that there are many . A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. the complementarity among members is achieved. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. the team would be effective. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. To the extent. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. In the above paragraph. They averaged 138. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. In such an assignment. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. that is. in one experiment. other factors remaining the same.2 pounds. For example. and so on. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. and attitudes. it was found that individuals¶ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts.Thus. goals. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group¶s meetings. group of eight. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it.
or propose discipline for team members. These super-ordinate goals. These factors are skills and role clarity. Thus. common purpose. goals. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials. While skills are relevant for job performance. organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. . understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. serve to focus attention. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. 3. unify efforts. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. super-ordinate goals and team rewards.factors in an effective team. complementary skills. 2. Therefore. and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. 1. and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. supportive environment. 2. two things are required from its members. Further. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. Rewards of both types. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. management consultants. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals. customer satisfaction. they will put their maximum. Katzenbatch and Smith. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting.financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. make recommendations regarding a new supervisor. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality. 3. 4. then. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one¶s own role as well as roles of other members. Even if one member lacks behind.
and 5. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. Setting goals and priorities for the team. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared. Analyzing how team¶s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. their value systems. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. For achieving these. and rewards. Fig. the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure. such as. Analyzing how the team is working. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. 1. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. the emphasis should be on consensus. Providing positive feedback. 2. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. and 5. group problems to even personal problem. In problem identification. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. recognition. 4. Analyzing how the work is performed. personality and attitudes. At this stage. 2. 3. . Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. rather. 4. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem.4.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action. generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are.
Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility. etc. Often. who was talking more or who was talking less. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. undermining morale. the stying with the topic or going off on tangents. encouraging others to participate. about the issue. talking together with speaker. 4. also provides opportunity to understand themselves. ensuring. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. (ii) Attacking: deriding. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas. criticizing person. people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. who was trying to resolve the differences. . etc.3. (iii) Negative: cooling. clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. feelings. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing. At this stage. belittling. Followup action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of team-building. cynicism. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. At the time of discussion of feedback. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings. the way people talk about the issue. understanding. If this process is adopted several times. (iii) Clarifying: resting. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. information. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours: Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time. seeking relevant information. 5. Negative Behaviour (i) Over talk: interrupting. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team¶s responsibilities. members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours.
One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage. team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. 2. and perceptions that groups have of each other. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the organization¶s outcomes. one of the more . management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. to encourage and sustain such feelings.. 3. It seeks to change to attitudes. in different degrees.These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. etc. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. listening. However. communicating. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. and feedback skills). It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. However. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. though. It improves the organization¶s problem-solving and decision-making ability. stereotypes. monitoring. However. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. As a result. In general. team-building has a positive outlook. Therefore. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. are not given adequate attention. 4. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier. In spite of these problems. 2. it is not that effective in isolation. structure.
internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. and personnel. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes ± which can be benefit or a disadvantage ± because they don¶t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. the groups can move to the integration phase ± working to develop solutions that will improve relations. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. The groups then share their lists. or outside consultants. after which similarities and differences are discussed. According to Curtis Mial: ³The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. Trainer .Popular methods emphasize problem solving. For major change efforts. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. as the break for too quick action. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. the other group.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. In this method. employees of the organization. 4. as the shock absorber when the going is rough.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. as the accelerator to build up momentum.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . Outside consultants. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. Differences are clearly articulate. however. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. Subgroups. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. culture. with members from each of the conflicting groups. operating procedures. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization¶s history. 4. but one thing he/she is not the driver´. In contrast. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations.
diagnosis. role-plays and instruments. presentations. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? . Data collection. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. Grid Training was developed by ±±±±±±±±±±±± 3. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. changing (intervening) and refreezing. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. 2. feedback of information. attitudes and beliefs. It focuses on skills. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4.A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies ± lectures. inter-group and total organization levels. group. cases and experiential learning etc. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. In process consultation. generation of new behavioral science knowledge.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. group discussions. skills and change in behavior. Training is used both in µcontent orientation¶ and process orientation¶. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. 4. Self Assessment Questions 1. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events.11 Terminal Questions 1. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. films. Training is required for enhancing knowledge. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. Team-building is most important.
MU0002-Unit-05-Values.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Blake and Mouton. Assumptions.6 4. Assumptions.2 3. Refer section 4. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5. and Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values.4 2. Refer section 4. Data collection 2. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? 3.2. 3. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1.1 Introduction . Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. 4. Refer section 4.
and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development. beliefs and assumptions.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5.1 Introduction A set of values. · List the chronology of events of values. assumptions.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field.5.5.2 Definitions 5.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5. 5. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions. beliefs and assumptions. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.7 Terminal Questions 5.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5. Objectives: After studying this unit. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers.5. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies.2 Definitions .Objectives 5. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves.
the laboratory training movement. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good.g. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. As these ingredients accumulated. Values. and democratic. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. Simple. 5. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies.A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. or spirit of the time. OD values tend to be humanistic.. values. free speech) and what is undesirable or µbad¶ (e. treat people with respect and dignity. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources ± the Hawthorne studies. it is a cognitive fact for the person. reason. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth." or slacking off. strongly held. and the like. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. the human relations movement. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. dishonesty).g. assumptions. assumptions. Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or µgood¶ (e. Taylor s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. and that rationality. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly. research on the effects of different leadership styles. with values being beliefs about good and bad.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought y Frederick Winslow Taylor s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. ." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned.. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. optimistic. and assumptions being. Thus.
extensive division of labor. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. wrote an article on The Giving of Orders advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. In a sense. much of the research. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. a management theorist and astute observer of labour-management relations. Group Dynamics (1940) The scientific study of groups using experimental research methodswas launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. People came to work as whole people. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people s beliefs about organizational behaviour. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. aggressiveness and poor performance. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. The Functions of the Executive by Chester 1. These approaches possessed many desirable features. and the supervisor determined their performance. organizations were not machines. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. Lippitt (1939). repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. People were not cogs. apathy. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. theory. most efficient way to organize people. y y y y y y y . Their simple. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. The human relations movement advocated participative management. impersonal rules. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. their feelings and attitudes about the work. Research by Lewin.y The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of bureaucracy as the best. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. and a general humanizing of the workplace. Mary Parker Follett (1926). and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. greater attention to workers social needs. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. the work environment. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. A strong hierarchy of authority. authoritarian leadership caused dependency.
P. Overcoming Resistance to Change. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. caring social climate. Lester Coch and John R. increase self-understanding. higherlevel needs become dominant. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. In an environment of slow change. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). resist change. to assume responsibility. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. This article introduced the concept of organizations as socio-technical systems. The theory postulated that when lower-level needs are satisfied. are self-centered. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. dislike responsibility. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop.y These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). this book popularized Maslow s motivation theory. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. management practices. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. and understand group dynamics. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. French s (1948) article. lack ambition. healthy adults. Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. indifferent to the organization s needs. a direct precursor of OD. pioneers in laboratory training. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. Rogers focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. The task of management is to change organizational structures. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. a mechanistic organization y y y y y y y y . and need to be led. Chris Argyrif s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions.
· Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. dysfunctions. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. theory. The Social Psychology of Organizations by Daniel Katz and Robert L. and organizations that is. groups. compromise. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. and greater individual autonomy. open communications. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. y Rensis Likert s New Patterns of Management (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. Values have always been an integral part of OD. Writing in 1969." that is. and shares decision-making with the work group. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. one-on-one leadership style. goal-oriented. Out of this zeitgeist. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company OD Six-Pack. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. and democratic. and values of the field. y y This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. humanistic. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. and unprincipled power. in an environment of high change. practice.structure may be appropriate. and negative consequences. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. · Development of more effective "team management. optimistic. as we have said. These six books presented the theory. an organic organization form is preferred. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. bureaucracy. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. .
Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. Organizations. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. mutual trust. 3. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. They listed these ³values in transition´ as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust.· Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. not individuals. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. "People support what they help create. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). Robert Tannenbaum. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. 1. . more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. 2. M. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. 5. Here is his list. Stalker used the term ³mechanistic´ in contrast to ³mechanical. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. a professor and Sheldon Davis. 6. Therefore. and confidence between and across levels." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice." like pushing buttons. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. sub-units of organizations. director of organization development. the basic units of change are groups. 4." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. Controls are interim measurements. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition.´ For example. not the basis of managerial strategy.
open communication. collaboration and co-operation. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. 5. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. participation and contribution by all organization members.· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions . and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. decentralized decision making. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. the legitimacy of feelings. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. appropriate uses of power. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. authentic interpersonal relations. · Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. toward seeing them as being in process. autocratic. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them.
Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. This skill is a trainable one. and so on. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group¶s effectiveness and development. . give autonomy. the family. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask.5. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. encourage risk-taking. Most people want to develop their potential. To do this. not individuals. not a one-on-one leadership style. and reward success. 5. support. facilitation.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. personal growth. including peers and boss. a church or club group. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. Second. set high standards. invest training time and money to increase group members¶ skills. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. leaders need to give important work to teams. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. support. listen. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. conflict management. and job satisfaction. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. First. at both the formal and informal levels. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. Implications of these assumptions are several.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. permit failure. and interpersonal communication. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. in addition. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. groups. Hence. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and.5. remove obstacles and barriers. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. such as a work group. and are capable of making. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. and co-operation within the group. and usually with more than one group. Third. and organizations? 5. Also. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. give responsibility. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. What occurs in the work group. challenge. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving.
they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. Still. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. By implication. adherence to the chain of command. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. in which one side wins and the other side loses. societal. a growing awareness that ³win-lose´ organizational situations.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization¶s leaders. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. Concluding Comment: . 5. they change over time. quality of output. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. D. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. grouping by specialized function. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. and ways to optimize human potential. and so on-are obsolete. By implication." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. In addition. emphasis on topdown directives.5. The implication is that people are an organization¶s most important resource. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. values are never static. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where ³putting people first´ paid off handsomely in profits and performance. Finally. developmental. and profitability. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. are dysfunctional over the long run and highlight the need for a ³win win´ attitude. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. including how persons C.Finally. The rapid technological. Frequently the challenge is broader. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. organizing structures. and empowering. an optimistic. Therefore. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. and E can support these changes. formalized cross-functional communication.
These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. but are widely accepted today. optimistic and democratic. The concept of ±±±±±±±±±± was introduced by MaxWeber. beliefs. Write a note about F. and assumptions are all ±±±±±±±±±± facts. 2.W. The outcome of ±±±±±±±± was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. Values. values. 2. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. __________ is associated with scientific management. beliefs and assumptions. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. Values. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. 5. Taylor¶s principles of scientific management. OD values tend to be humanistic. 3.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations.7 Terminal Questions 1. Self Assessment Questions 1. Values. Cognitive . 4. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. Values are also beliefs. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. Define concepts. 5. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. 5. 3. 5.
3 5.3 4. F. Refer section 5.3 3.2 2. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1.2. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6. Bureaucracy 4. Refer section 5.2 Beyond the Quick Fix . Refer section 5. Taylor 3.2.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6. Refer section 5. Hawthorne experiments 5.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2. W.1 Introduction Objectives 6. Refer section 5.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6.
you will be able to: .3.2.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.3. In this discussion.3 Systems Theory 6.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 126.96.36.199 Terminal Questions 6. Objectives: After studying this unit.5 Teams and Teamwork 6. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning.6.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.10 Summary 6.1 The Nature of Systems 6.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.2.4 Participation and Empowerment 6.
· Explain the terms µparticipation¶ and µempowerment¶. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces.2. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. Models and theories depict. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. and specify the relationships among the variables. · Describe the parallel learning structures. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. · Explain systems theory. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in . describe those features as variables. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. 6. in words or pictures. That is. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field. the important features of some phenomenon. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. We will examine the following concepts: · Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6.· Explain various models and theories of planned change.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context.
Scanning the environment for new relevant information . we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. he must move. etc. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. judge things. mentor. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. With a technique called the force-field analysis.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour.opposing directions. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. that is. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. moving to new level of behaviour. Identifying with a new role model. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. For example. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). Lewin¶s second idea was a model of the change process itself. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. Next. Lewin¶s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. b. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. feel things. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. Likewise. that is. Finally. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant.
In stage 2. b. for example. The total personality and self-concept. In stage 1. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. and Bruce Westley. . That is. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. moving. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. 4. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. which motivate the person to change. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. that is. terminating the client-consultant relationship. and attitudes. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. Jeanne Watson. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. Phases 3. which cause guilt and anxiety. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. establishing goals and intentions of action. and fit with the individual¶s social surroundings. Significant relationships. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person¶s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin¶s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system¶s problem. and 5 correspond ro Lewin¶s moving phase. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s unfreezing phase. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s refreezing phase.Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. The primary task in stage 3. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. That is. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person¶s personality. This motivating evidence is gained by. refreezing. unfreezing. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. change will not occur.
" that. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management.This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. Interventions include training programs. 4) The strategy-structure track. Change programs take from one to five years to complete.2. 2) Diagnosing the problems. 3) The team-building track. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. and 5) The reward system track. called "tracks. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? . Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. critique practices and procedures.2 Beyond the ³Quick Fix´ A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. cause the organization to be successful. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. 6. Kilmann¶s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. when functioning properly. 2) The management skills track. problem-solving sessions. and so forth. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program.
. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. and all resources with the new strategic direction. incremental. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit ± thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. TRW. Westinghouse. and Xerox with good results.and second-order change. evolutionary. Eastman Kodak. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. jobs. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. or discontinuous change. OD programs are directed toward both first. Ford General Electric. work groups.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. In first-order change. then moving to the management skills track. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered ± the organization is transformed. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups.The culture track enhances trust. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. departments. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. or continuous change. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. revolutionary. and so forth. radical. the use of updated management skills.2. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call ³transactional change´ and ³transformational change´). and its holistic view of organization change and development. 6. General Foods. In second-order change. communication. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. adaptive. information sharing. beginning with the culture track. then moving to the team-building track.
individual and organizational performance. and so forth. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. and beliefs that are enduring. values. management practices. Changing structure. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. in turn. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. often unconscious. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees¶ reactions to current managerial and organization practices.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First ± Order Change . and difficult to change. management practices. 6. hard-working or easy-going. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. and organization culture result in second-order change. leadership. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change.Organizational climate is defined as people¶s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. friendly or unfriendly. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. On the other hand. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. Fig. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. which change motivation and. We will do so in several steps. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change.
To summarize. . mission and strategy. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. These factors are able to change the climate. Burke says: ³Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second ± Order Change On the other hand. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. we must change mission and strategy. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change.Fig. leadership styles. 6. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. Interventions directed toward management practices. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. structure. that is. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization¶s culture. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance.´ We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. and organization culture. as shown in the above figure. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational).
required.2. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. and interaction processes will affect social factors. social factors. physical setting. and technology. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. which influence on-the job behaviours. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. according to Porras and Robertson. It is how OD works. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. For example. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology.Fig. which determine organizational performance and individual development. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. Interventions that focus on culture. management style. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. strategies.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. 6. . rewarded). The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members¶ cognitions (they learn what is expected. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. OD interventions that focus on goals.
5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6. This section explains systems theory. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures. Systems . Fig. describes the characteristics of systems. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. 6. 6.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD.Fig. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966.
when taking a systems approach. or transformation processes that change the inputs. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. Every system is delineated by a boundary. conversion. people. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. Therefore. interconnectedness. Organizations are open systems. . raw material and so on. They do something to the inputs via throughput.3. components. Here. What is inside the boundary is the system. Thus." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized. the reasons for their existence. resources. The words µarrangement¶ and µinterrelated¶ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. For example. that is the system. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. information. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. in that they permit exchange of information. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes." To summarize. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. 6.system." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. money. system denotes interdependency. and if the environment does not want these outputs. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. or subsystems. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy.theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. the organization¶s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. dynamics. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. the organization will cease to exist. Open systems have purposes and goals. and energy between system and environment." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction.
eating fads. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. and makes a course correction. Positive feedback comes from the environment.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems ³run down´ and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. "return to earth. aerospace.Fig. competitors. . For example. negative and positive. while screening out other information. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. and so on. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. By the same token. however. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. and the like. but most are not useful. that information is called positive feedback. Systems require two kinds of feedback. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. Information is important to systems in several ways. It is sometimes called deviationamplifying feed back. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. Say your company makes buggy whips. 6. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. and the system adjusts to a new goal. say. mining. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. If the mission (target) changes. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. For example.
either internal or external.´ Also. . formal organization. differentiated. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. and the workforce¶s expectations. 2) Resources available to the organization. important events. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. 6. and technology. work. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state ± systems have multiple paths to goals. systems tend to get more elaborated. and systems for performing the work. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it.3. processes. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. and complex over time. which includes the organization¶s culture informal rules and understandings. unit/group level. perceptions. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. knowledge. this process is called differentiation. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. such as capital. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. The three major input factors are: 1) The environment. knowledge. people. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). specialized.Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. As Katz and Kahn say: ³The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. which includes skills. and individual level. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. Subsystems exist within larger systems. failures. With increased differentiation. which includes formal structures. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. and informal organization.
To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. 6. to the workers doing the job. controlling variance at the source. 6. fit) must be present among the system¶s components¶ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. that is. . which components are "not functioning correctly. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. Fred Emery. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. performance will suffer.3. For example. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. two active segments of OD today.Fig. organizations must optimize both systems. performance will suffer. if people don¶t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. training group members in multiple skills. Hanna writes: . If the organization¶s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring." and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model¶s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements." The premise is that alignment (harmony. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. multi-skilled teams. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. and that changes in one system affect the other system. performance will suffer. especially autonomous work groups (selfregulated teams or self-direct teams).socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work. In a company that is performing poorly. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. forming autonomous work groups. a social system and a technical system. and information to the point of action.
Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. the fifth discipline. from their activities. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. and systems thinking.3. Third. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stakeholders.´ In conclusion. mental models. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. because most phenomena have more than one cause. He says of systems thinking: ³It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. For example. issues. therefore. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). according to Peter Senge. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. events. events and forces. . G. Charles Krone. By enhancing each of the other disciplines.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. Second. systems thinking. forces. but seen in relation to other issues. not single effects. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena.KI Jayaram. team learning. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. changing one part of a system influences other parts. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. Without a systemic orientation. 6. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). and 3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. is the most important. First. building shared vision.In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. Of all these disciplines. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice.
increase commitment to the organization. They believed that it was about risk-taking. and give more power to more people. survey feedback. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1." is bottom-up and less controlling. involvement and participation energize greater performance. team building. it is extended broadly throughout the organization." These authors believe the organic view. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. to exert influence. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. For example. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). called "organic." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. is the more useful perspective. and growth. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation.Fourth. reduce stress levels. quality circles. And fifth. produce better solutions to problems. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. search conferences. with its emphasis on risk-taking. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. one changes the system. and to be responsible. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. to change a system. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. The other view. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. quality of work life programs. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. Further. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. not just its component parts. To empower is to give someone power. which they call "mechanistic. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. to contribute their ideas.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. growth. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. Participation enhances empowerment." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. and change. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. autonomous work groups. But . treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. personal initiative. One view. 6.
Team Taurus developed Ford¶s best-selling automobile. STS (socio-technical systems). Teams and teamwork are "in. QCs (quality circles). While management can create a context that is more empowering. but rather a mindset that employees have about their roles in the organization. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. people must work together to accomplish them. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. that is. is not something that management does to employees. HPWSs (high-performance work systems).both views contain valid ideas: for example. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. as a team. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. changes those norms and values. If the team. confident about their abilities.´ 6. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. . Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. teaming. Third. Second. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: ³Empowerment. the noun team has become a verb. employees must choose to be empowered. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. HPOs (high-performance organizations). to name just a few. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today ± gurus extol the virtues of teams. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. then. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. research. processes. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. they must if personally connected to the organization. systems. Theory. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. teams create synergy. and relationships if they are to be effective. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development.
Fourth. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. recognition. parallel learning structures. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. quality circles. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. cross-functional teams. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. and others. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. heart transplant surgical teams. teams satisfy people¶s needs for social interaction. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. and explore ways to realize that potential. role negotiation technique. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. process consultation. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. and the like. status. and responsibility charting. When any one feature is lost. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. socio-technical systems programs. find innovative ways around barriers. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. including collegiate football national champions. Examples are team-building. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. that they achieve synergy. temporary teams. team performance declines. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. and respect-teams nurture human nature. and set ever-higher goals. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. . In this section. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. inter-group team-building. help each other.
a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. What¶s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing . deciding. Union Pacific Railroad. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). and continuous learning.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. flexible response. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. constitute another important foundation of organization development. autonomous. 6. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. projects will be performed by teams. and then leading the process. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. Projects are the work of the future. In essence. managers. Interestingly. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. It isn¶t the supplemental structure that¶s important. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. and initiate needed changes. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. Titeflex. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization¶s methods of work and/or culture. If you don¶t implement different norms and procedures.Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. At Ford Motor Company. 6. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. talking. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as ³a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. and employees. clear objectives. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. superior customer service. High responsibility. you don¶t have a parallel structure.´ The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. Bushe and Shani say: ³The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking.´ Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. Asea Brown Boveri.
and together they define problems and seek solutions. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. based on the assumptions that people are rational. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. that is. not just changes in knowledge. The first type is empirical rational strategies. . The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. Evaluated against these three change strategies. information. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normativereductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. doubts. according to this view. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. rather than the OD practitioner. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. or intellectual rationales for action and practice.Organization development involves change. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. anxieties. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. Change in a pattern of practice or action." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. and¶ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. will follow their rational self-interest. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. Patterns of action and practice are supported ± by sociocultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. values. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. and significant relationships. OD clearly falls within the normative-reeducative category. attitudes. relationships and customary ways of doing things. skills. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-re-eductive and the empirical-rational strategies. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies.
then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. OD emphasizes the latter. 6. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. not the individual. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. and (2) "technology. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. Burke writes: ³If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. hopefully. on the basis of selected variables. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. Thus. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. by modifying a group norm or standards. . thereby solving the problem.´ From this "practice theory.e. success corroborating the diagnosis.. Greenwood states: ³The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together. i. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that.´ Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. applied science or practice. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. behavioural science knowledge. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. On this point. The practitioner examines the problem situation.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours." applied science. for example." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. re-establishes the equilibrium. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. practices. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. or practice. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. pressing problems.
The two bottom inputs. who developed the concept of action research. Taken collectively. represent contributions from pure or basic science. and doing or implementing change efforts. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. 6. form of applied behavioural science.9 Action Research The action research model ± a data-based. 6. perhaps more accurately.Fig. Taken separately. Self Assessment Questions . feedback of the data to the client system members. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing ± learning about the dynamics of organizational change. the two top in puts. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. represent contributions from applied science. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. It is a type of action-research.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change.´ Concluding Comments: These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. Kurt Lewin. and action planning based on the data. Action research involves three processes: data collection. and research leading to social action« This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. practice research and practice theory. had this to say about it: ³The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering.
Action research model combines learning and doing. 2. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. ±±±±±±±±±± means moving to new level of behaviour. 4. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. Ralph Kilmann 3. A _____________ is defined as ³a set of elements standing in interaction. 2.´ 5. 6. ³Work teams are building blocks of organizational development.1. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change. Explain Kurt Lewin¶s models and theories of planned organizational change. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. Transactional change . Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment.11 Terminal Questions 1. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. ±±±±±±±±±± gave the model ³Beyond the Quick Fix´. First²order change is also called ___________. 6. 3.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Unfreezing 2. 3.´ Comment on this statement. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. 4. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. 6. Bring out the essence of ³managing beyond the quick fix´ model of organizational development.
Refer section 6. Refer section 6.2. Refer section 6.2 3.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture 7.6 Summary . Refer section 6.1 2.3 5.1 Introduction Objectives 7.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1.3 4.2. Refer section 6. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7. System 5.3 Types of Organization Culture. 7.4.2.
Practitioners are coming to realize that. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. they use common language. terminology. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. · Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. 2. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. values. organizational culture is the personality of the organization.7 Terminal Questions 7. Which in many organizations come down to ³Do not do too much. despite the best-laid plans. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. do not do too little?´ . Standards of behavior exist. Martin and Meyerson. 1986).1 Introduction Basically. what members wear.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. etc. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. but everyone knows it when they sense it. Culture is one of those terms that¶s difficult to express distinctly. discovered. thinking. but also changing the corporate culture as well.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. For example. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. Objectives: After studying this unit. Observed behavioral regularities. what they brag about. the culture of a large. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. 7. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. When organizational participants interact with one another.7. ± similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone¶s personality. including guidelines on how much work to do. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. Norms. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving.
processes and procedures. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization¶s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. New-comers must learn those ³ropes´ in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. 6. 5. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. shared goals. For many years. 4. outputs and outcomes. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. people are driven through vision. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. Market cultures are outward looking. In contrast to Hierarchies. . are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. Rather than strict rules and procedures. In an efficient market organization. but one where all transactions. They often have well-defined policies. Organizational climate: This is an overall ³feeling´ that is conveyed by the physical layout.3. Transactions are exchanges of value. internal and external are viewed in market terms. 7. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. the way participants interact. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. and in particular taking note of transaction cost.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber¶s original view of bureaucracy. Typical examples are high product quality.
norms. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). big-bang projects and development. thinking. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. etc. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. Martin and Meyerson. rules. the jargon they use. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. . Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. symbols. and procedures. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. but critical to shaping its behavior. · Its rituals. In biological terms. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. supportive way and may take on a parental role. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. discovered. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. the way they dress etc. 1993). systems and subsystems. culture is like the DNA of an organization. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. invisible to the naked eye. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. Rules. plaques. 1986). 7. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein.strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. although not necessarily documented.
the personality of the organization). Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. Though each individual¶s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management¶s policies. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization¶s social environment and evolve of behavior. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question.Values: These are the social principles. 1. goals. organizational growth. and what is right and what is wrong. business and leadership strategies. and behaviour. Identifying. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. and doing. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. there is often contradiction in various approaches. decisions. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. or standards held by members of an organization. individually and collectively. various terms such as efficiency. Thus. also called as organizational success or growth. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. from the basis of its policies and action. For example. skills. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. intervening and end result. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. profitability. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. believing. From this point of view. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. . there are numerous variables. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. its core value are limited to a few in number. Though an organization espouses a series of values. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. communicating. are often used interchangeably. productivity. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. to denote organizational effectiveness. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment.
5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. For example. and decision-making. the loyalties. 2. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. That is. 3. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. performance goals. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. building. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. attitudes. 4. and earnings. According to Likert. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. . if the appropriate organization culture is in place. others are brought into the organization. motivations. and energy that will be required. motivational.. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: 1. and perceptual cluster. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. is workable. incorporating. scrap loss. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. locating space. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. However. is worth running some risks for. At this point. and they tend to be longterm goals. money. End ± result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness.2. obtaining patents. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. and is worth the investment of time. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of ±date. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. costs.g. communication. 3. and a common history begins to be built. 7. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. e. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. and so on.
or even customers may support the existing culture. Staffs. Structure. 3. The personal feelings. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. 6. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. These factors from the two cultures include the size. powerful stakeholders such as unions. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. Politics. and whether products and/or services are involved. 7. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. and history of two firms. . 2. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. management. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. commitment. 1. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. Emotions. Assess the current culture. 5.Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. the ³culture contract´ that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. especially when making changes in rules and processes. attitudes. In addition. take these losses early. Make changes from the top down. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. habits. 3. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. the geographic location. and patterns of daily behavior. 4. Include employees in the culture change process. if possible. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can¶t be done successfully?. age. roles. 2. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. relationships.
2. behavioural approach. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. ________cultures are outward looking. Self Assessment Questions 1.goal approach. 7. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. Artifacts 2. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. 7. and strategic constituencies approach. Market 3. system-resource approach. 7. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. Causal variables Answers to TQs: . Stay the course by being persistent. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. 3. 2.6 Summary Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. 9. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. 3.7 Terminal Questions 1. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive.8. Finally.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture.
Refer section 7.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.Power. Refer section 7. MU0002-Unit-08.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8.Power. Politics and Organization Development Unit-08.3 3.10 Terminal Questions .9 Summary 8.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1.2 2.1 Introduction Objectives 8.3 Two Faces of Power 8.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8. Refer section 7.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8.
Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related. The French word µpouvoir¶ stands for both the noun µpower¶ and the verb µto be able. indisputable facts of organizational life. and behaviours of people. Potential power is the capacity to do so. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. Objectives: After this studying this unit." ³Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes.1 Introduction Power and politics.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development. power must be exercised. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD.¶ To have power is to be able to get desired things done.8.´ Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations.´ ³A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. 8.actions and the decisions that precede them. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. emotions. to effect outcomes." .11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8. and for change to occur in an organization. In this unit. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid today. · Explain theories about the sources of power.
and outcomes favoring one party over the other. being exercised. 8. spiritual. bestowed. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. with collective. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. or acquired? In this unit. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. hurting." . humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. both positive and negative. power being the predominant mode. not the possession of power as such. an authority or power dimension is required. absolute power corrupts absolutely. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. influencing. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. financial. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. According to him. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson¶s "Power-Dependence theory.Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one¶s way. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. and organizational activities. the act or ability of influencing others. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. In fact. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. unsocialized need to dominate others. Power-in-action may take many forms. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" ± positive and negative." A moment¶s reflection." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. or positive. confiscation. and lead. Crushing. Leading. selling. and repression. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one¶s way in a social situation. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. technological. for organizations to function. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. however. political. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. Without leadership (power) in medical. 8. influence.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. forcing.
respect. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. 5. influence. we will continue the exchange relationship." · Salancik and Pfeffer¶s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. 3. hate. we will terminate or alter the relationship. The sociologist. Legitimate power ± power based on everyone¶s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. P. blame. power. rejection. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. When the net balance for us is positive. . Reward power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. to give something valued by the other. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. or bases. Viewed in this light.· French and Raven¶s "Bases of Social Power. and so forth. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. Expert power ± power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. 2. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. praise. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. that person has power over us. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place." In other words. Coercive power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. when the net balance for us is negative. goals." · Mintzberg¶s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. 4. Referent power ± power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. to give something negatively valued by the other. of social power as follows: 1. information. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. that is. rewards) that are controlled by one party. that is. attraction. and desired by the other. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A¶s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B." These authors suggested five sources.
In this theory, power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals, units, or departments) most important for solving the organization¶s most critical problems. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. This theory, like the ones discussed previously, supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by- others-in this case, the special expertise needed for the organization¶s survival-have power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits, indeed, used by all who have it, to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources, through the placement of allies in key positions, and through the definition of organizational problems and policies." These authors view organizational power as a good thing, for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. This theory, "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players, called influencers, seek to control the organization¶s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power, coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. According to Mintzberg, the five possible bases of power are, first, control of a resource; second, control of a technical skill; and, third, control of a body of knowledge. All of these must be critical to the organization. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. In addition to a base of power, the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. An organization has many potential influencers, such as the board of directors, the managers, the top executives, the employees, the unions, suppliers, customers, regulators, and so forth. The important aspects of Mintzberg¶s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others, that power-in-action requires will and skill, and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In summary, these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar ± power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. The resources may be ability to reward and
punish, being in control of critical skills, knowledge, or information, the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined ³politics simply as the study of who gets what, when, and how´. ³Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices´. ³Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups´. ³Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means´. Thus, we view politics as a subset of power, treating it as informal power, illegitimate in nature. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power, but in this sense, formal power, the power vested in office, the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. Both relate to getting one¶s way-effectance. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. For our purposes, organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations; it is engaging in activities to get one¶s way. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities; the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics, like power, has two faces. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest; unsocialized needs to dominate others; a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win, you must lose-rather than win-win terms; and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy, surprise, holding hidden agendas, withholding information, deceiving. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others; viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible; engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing; a relative absence of the tactics of fighting; and a socialized need to lead, initiate, and influence others. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making, resource allocation, and conflict resolution processes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose; they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. In fact, one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation, conflict resolution, and choosing among alternative means and goals.
8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. Virtually, all OD interventions promote problem-solving, not politics, as a preferred way to get things accomplished. OD interventions increase problem-solving, collaboration, co-operation, fact-finding, and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. For example, OD interventions typically generate valid, public data about the organization¶s culture, processes, strengths, and weaknesses. Valid, public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations; rather, they enhance the positive face of power, thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy, it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme power-oriented situations. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power, but not with the negative face of power. Values such as trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first, problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations; second, power equalization, being one aspect of the positive face of power, increases the amount of power available to organization members, and by so doing adds power to the organization. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator, catalyst, problem solver, and educator. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. According to Chris Argyris, the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information, (2) to promote free, informed choice, and (3) to promote the client¶s internal commitment to the choices made. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner, his or her program, and his or her values, methods, and expertise. The OD consultant, like all consultants, provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors, as we discussed earlier. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. In summary, organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. This major strength of OD derives from the strategy of change, the technology, the values, and the roles of OD practitioners.
it will gain more power. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization¶s decision makers). According to the framework of French and Raven. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. preferably multiple sponsorship. coaching. and expertise. 6. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success." 4. experience.8. Skills such as listening. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. problem solving. in powerful places.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. Success leads to credibility and stature. First. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. it will be strong externally. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. acceptability. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. 5. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). and ability to gain organizational support. 2. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. 3. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. communicating. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). . informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). both as a person and as a professional. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally.
Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. those issues vital to the organization¶s success. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being managercentered. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. The OD program belongs to the manager. not by getting involved in the answers. Rule Six: Mind your own business. usually managers. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. which is to be an expert on process. the manager will vigorously defend it. Rule Five: Mind your own business. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. constructive social relationships. not content. not the OD consultant. OD programs should be results-oriented. A valuable byproduct of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one¶s power base. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization¶s powerholders. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. . to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one¶s own or in others¶ political struggles.counseling. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable.
and personality characteristics. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers." and "going around the formal system. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires." "using social networks. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. others¶ support. negotiations the nature of power and politics. the strategy and tactics of influence. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others¶ legitimate "turf. problem solver. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. viable. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. and using contacts for information. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. and educator.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge · Expertise · Information · Tradition Others¶ Support y y Strategies for Success Playing It Straight · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Political access Staff support . thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. yet legitimate means of acquiring power. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. Table 8. We could propose more rules of thumb. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation.Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. Networking is recognized as a potent. catalyst. 8. individual power derives from knowledge." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. not power activist or power broker. As shown in the figure." which arouses defensive actions.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker.
Personal power. in turn. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. arises from expertise. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. criticality-how important one¶s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks´.Personality y y y Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don¶t) use organization rules Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. visibility-how much one¶s work is seen by influential people. personal power and position power. and relevance-how important one¶s task is in relation to organizational priorities. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. . no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what¶s expected of them. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. This practical. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. personal attraction. effort. In this model. Indeed. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. even those of little power. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. ³One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. Whetton and Cameron¶s model is shown in following figure. and legitimacy. a person¶s power comes from two main sources.
Retribution refers to coercion and threats. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work.Fig. arise from known conditions. Whetton and Cameron suggest several means of resisting others¶ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. and (6) build on success. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. and retribution. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. Power and politics are similar in nature. Usually reason is the preferred strategy. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. (2) provide a positive. collaborative work environment. Reason refers to persuasion by facts.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. and are amenable to positive control. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. actually using it to get things done is another. 8. power-in-use is called influence. Having power is one thing. reciprocity. Concluding Comments: In this unit. Our suggestions for . and (3) empowering others." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people¶s inappropriate influence attempts." And. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. According to these authors.
Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. when and how. 3. when. Power and politics are similar in nature. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. Power 2. emotions or behaviour of people. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ±±±± ±±±±±±±. Self Assessment Questions 1.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. Harold Lasswell . reputation and professional credibility. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. 4. Describe briefly various theories of power. ±±±±±±±± defined politics as the study of who gets what. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. 5. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. arise from known conditions.. 5. 8. _____________ has identified two faces of power.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. 2. Referent power 4. 8. 4. and are amenable to positive control.10 Terminal Questions 1. ±±±±±±±±±± is made up of Charisma. and how. Power can be either positive or negative.using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. McClelland 3. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. 2. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. ±±±±±± is the intentional influence over the beliefs. 3. 8. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. Define organization politics.
3 Socio Technical Systems 9.2 Meaning and Definitions 9.4 Management By Objectives 9.4 3.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1 Introduction Objectives 9. Refer section 8.6 Quality of Work Life Projects . Refer section 8. Refer section 8.5. Refer section 8.5 Quality Circles 9. Personality Answers to TQs: 1.2 2. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9.5 4.Refer section 8.6 5.
7 Parallel Learning Structures 9. · Explain Reengineering.9.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9. · Explain Total Quality Management. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. . In this dynamic and fluid environment. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. actions. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. organizational problems may repeat. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures.8 Total Quality Management 9. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9. Objectives: After studying this unit. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program.11 Terminal Questions 9. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities.10 Summary 9.
The cost of structural change is generally ³front-end´ loaded. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. 3. Pasmore. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. It endeavors to re-design the organization¶s structure. 4. 2. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. Cost is Low. 1976. From a benefit cost analysis. 9. 1967. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. In addition. organization theory. and more critically. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. Succession Doesn¶t Destroy Change Effort. 1988): Determining the environmental demands Creating a vision statement Educating organizational members . Rapidity of change.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. Structure changes are normally ³institutionalized´ and less subject to this problem. 5. Cummings. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. Downsizing associated with restructuring.9. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. Greater Predictability. It could involve the following steps (Foster. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. Basic reinforcement theories. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. This normally is a reasonable. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. Organization Acceptance of Change.
its features can be identified as follows: 1. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. Creating the change structure Conducting socio-technical analysis Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. As an approach to management. In fact. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD.´ Based on the definition of MBO. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. physical.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. 2. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. therefore. Certain degree of overlapping is there. its definitional aspect. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. On the other hand. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives.´ The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: ³MBO is a result-centered. non-specialist. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. Since then. It is a particular way of thinking about management. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of . A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. with objective orientation as its essence.
each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. 3. ³why does the organization exist?´. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. normally once a year. (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. enhancement of employee commitment and participation. 5. It works as an integrating device. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. Similarly. in interaction with external factors. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. The performance review is held regularly. including the corporate level. delegation of authority. etc. This. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. such as.management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. Therefore. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. and participation of the managers with accountability for results. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be.. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities. the clarity and balance of objectives. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. superiors and subordinates. Therefore. (ii) long-range . 4. 1. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. Therefore. are determined on the basis of objectives. Questions. 6. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. What business are we in?´ and what should be our business?´ provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization. Resource allocation. its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. its subsystems and people. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. all the units or departments and individual manager.
Even though KRAs are most durable. the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. 2. It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. (iv) productivity. Therefore. the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. Therefore. Sometimes. However. (iii) short-term organizational objectives. each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. (vii) manager performance. (v) individual manager¶s objectives. The process of objective setting begins with superior¶s proposed recommendations for his subordinate¶s objectives. 5. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully. By relating these to objectives. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate¶s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by setting easily achievable objectives. and (viii) public responsibility. In turn. Setting Subordinates¶ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. (vi) financial and physical resources. (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives. resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. Thereafter. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability. In fact. If not. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. 3. . with the experience gained over the period of time. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager.and strategic objectives. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. 4. there should be matching between objectives and resources. what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. By relating these to objectives. (ii) market standing. there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization¶s health and the top management perspective for the future. (iii) innovation. (v) worker performance. they also indicate the resource requirement. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. Therefore. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization.
The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. each having three to fifteen members. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis. information. . require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing. on paper. 9.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. which consequently result into high level of task variety. or in people¶s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. but in its contemporary form. knowledge. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. hierarchical structure. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization¶s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases. appropriate feedback and employee discretion. 9. what happens at each level may affect other levels also.6.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. Therefore. in general.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s. this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. Quality circle program consists of several circles. QWL programs. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. 9. and rewards. · Make recommendations for improvement. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems.
9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. Reengineering is a top-down process.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. provides relevant information to all employees. eliminating. 9. service. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization¶s activities around the concept of quality. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. contemporary measures of performance. It is also called continuous quality improvement. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches. statistical process control. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. · Participative management. including the use of quality circles. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. statistical quality control. such as cost. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. · Competitive benchmarking. and extensive use of employee participation. and speed.9. quality. self-managed teams and task forces. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. It is very popular in USA in 1990s. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. Self Assessment Questions . · Top management support on an ongoing basis. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization.
It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. actions. From a benefit cost analysis. Intervention 2. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. It is also called continuous quality improvement. 9.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. 3. Drucker 3. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. 9. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities.1. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. 9. 2. Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. provides relevant information to all employees.11 Terminal Questions 1. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. Quality circle Answers to TQs: . Write a short note on Total Quality Management. actions. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness.
Refer section 9. Refer section 9.Refer section 9.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs .1 Introduction Objectives 10.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10.3 2.7 Summary 10.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change.8 Terminal Questions 10.2 3. Self Assessment Questions 10. MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.3 Resistance to Change 10. 10. Refer section 9.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1.5 4.4 Causes for Resistance to Change.2 Nature of Change 10.
· Impact of change on future managers. and others.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. However. some parts of organization may be affected more. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). or social. job design and people. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.10.2 Nature of Change The term µchange¶ refers to an alteration in a system. Hence. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled . and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. When change occurs in any part of the organization. 2. In this dynamic and fluid environment. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. Any change may effect the whole organization. which are major ones. organizational problems may repeat. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. Organizational change is a continuous process. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. 10. biological. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. Thus. 3. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. organizational change may have the following features: 1. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. may require special change efforts. indirectly. others. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. some parts may be affected directly.whether physical. structural arrangement. and others. Thus. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. less. Objectives: After studying this unit.
Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. because it produces identical symptoms. so is the resistance to change.´ Resistance as Benefit: . there are two sides of resistance. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. adjustment is fairly routine. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. Similarly. Madhur Bajaj. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself.balloon. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. 10. more serious upsets may occur. ³The Pune plant is fully saturated. employees want to maintain a status quo. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. If people resist to change. On this phenomenon. We wanted a new culture and new layout. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. it has stretched slightly. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. However. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. that is. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). but when a change is major or unusual. However. In fact. In fact. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. Thus. it becomes indented at the point of contact. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. We shall take new workers at the new place. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. if we look minutely. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. commented. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization.as cost and as benefit. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. In fact. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. Homeostasis implies selfcorrecting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship.
On the one hand, resistance to change is costly affair, and on the other, it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. While on negative side, the reality lies in between. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Thus, resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: 1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Therefore, the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. These feelings, either real or emotional, may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic, psychological and social. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological, job security etc. precede over other needs. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques, technology, etc., whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them, they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India, it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely, reduce job options, and turn into technological unemployment. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match.
3. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes, bonus, etc. All these are well-established in the old system. Whenever there is change, people may feel that in the new system, they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Psychological Factors Psychological factors are based on people¶s emotions, sentiments and attitudes towards change. These are qualitative and, therefore, may be logical from people¶s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent¶s point of view. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness, status quo, lack of trust in change agent, low tolerance for change, and fear of unknown. 1. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego, people resist change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Thus, the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. 2. Status Quo: People want status quo. i.e. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore, everyone tries to avoid it. 3. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo, people may differ. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Therefore, these people resist any new idea. 4. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent, that is, the person who initiates change. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent, they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 5. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The change will bring results in future, which is always uncertain. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction, particularly social needs, through their mutual compatible interactions. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change, people resist it. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.
1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. When there is any change, their existing social interactions are likely to be changed, which people do not want. Therefore, they resist change. 2. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class, e.g., change initiated by managers affecting workers. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change, even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. For example, Sumantra Ghoshal, a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru, has commented as follows: ³Nothing fails like success; nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation, Caterpillar, Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles, all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called µThe Failure of Success¶. Strategies, values, resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés, dogmas, millstones and routines.´ This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought, these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes, stability of systems, resource limitations, sunk cost, and inter-organizational agreement. Some of these reasons are basic while others are byproducts of those. For example, first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. 1. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices, they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. 2. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. For example, a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules, prescribes rigid authority relationships, and institutes reward and punishment system. All these work in some circumstances. It a change is required in these aspects, the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system.
intensive planning. 1. 3. decentralized controls. Let us see what someone has said long back: ³There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal.3. those who wonder what happened. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. 4. innovative. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change.defenders. centralized control. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. 5. In this interaction process. For example. For example. Now. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. If it is risk-taking. broad environmental scanning. . It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. and reactors. those who watch things happen. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. In such a case. building and training for its personnel. prospectors. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. if any change is to be incorporated. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. 2. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use.´ This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. It depends more on the style of top management. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. if the change is required. and commensurate expenses on other items also. Resource Limitations: No doubt. forward-looking. if new technology is adopted. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. analyzers. and has zeal for progress. Once the assets are acquired. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. This can be in the form of people also. Thus. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. these can be used for specific period. it will require resources to procure machine.
therefore. Habit Every day. taking a new set of streets to work. we¶ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. immediate. If for example. Resistance can be overt. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. When we are confronted with change. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. finding a new parking place. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. you find a single route and you use it regularly. Life is complex enough. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. They may. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one¶s income. To cope with this complexity. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won¶t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. some may fear they¶ll be unable to do so. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. The same applies to employee. implicit. As human beings. it means you¶re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. when you go to work or school. developing a new lunchtime routine. adjusting to the new office layout. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. we don¶t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. or programmed responses. engaging in a work showdown. And people in general don¶t like the unknown. Therefore. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known.4. Otherwise. Let¶s look at the sources of resistance. or the like. we¶re creatures of habit. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. threatening to go on strike. or deferred. For analytical purpose. they cannot survive. 10. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. we all rely on habits. and so on.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. For instance.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn¶t necessarily surface in standardized ways. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you¶re like most people. Organizational resistance .
the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. and benefits administration ± has been resisted by many human resource departments. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities ± such as training. development of pay plans. 10. he¶s likely to resist. For example. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. For example. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. You can¶t change one without affecting the others. The . That is. An individual union member. for instance. They tend to be content with the way things are. group norms may act as a constraint. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company.Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization¶s structure to match. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. Will the change. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. accountants work with marketers. rules and procedures for employees to follow. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. For example. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. for instance. Formalization provides job description.
this is not a one-time action. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. In addition. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. 10. both at the formal and informal levels. For this purpose. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. People always have some . that is. For example. Locavini observes that ³the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. In many cases. at the level of individual and at the level of group. Unless this problem is overcome properly. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. It implies explanation and then discussion of the proposed changes. Therefore. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. However. the problems can be solved at the same level. the following efforts can be taken: 1.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people¶s resistance to change successfully. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue ± not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels.ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. through group dynamics.´ Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels.´ The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. typically by way of computer network links. Stephen Robbins suggests that ³«« managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations.
2. most of the times. (ii) In group. . helped to change attitudes. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: 1. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. and conferences. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. The same is true of problem-solving. Though each person interprets the change individually often. For this purpose. Usually. It grows slowly along with relationship. sometimes. Getting opinions out in the open. so that they are looked at and evaluated. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. They must be taught new skills. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. However. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. more than one person is involved in the change. its basic nature. meetings. 4. Thus. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. Thus. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. and indoctrinated in new relationships. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. education must be a part of the manager¶s everyday activity on the job. People should be educated to become familiar with change. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases.ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. to become effective. 3. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. However. as discussed earlier. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. its process and working. As this process goes. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. he expresses it through a group. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. the group itself should be the point of contact. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. is an important trust-building task.
It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing . 3. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. __________ are based on people¶s emotions. structural arrangement. implicit. and how members contribute. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. For instance. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate.7 Summary Change is inevitable. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. Economic factors. benefits of change. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. mere participation may not help. and sensitivity or T-group training. Research studies also support this aspect. or deferred.such aspects as the reasons for change. immediate. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. many things about change can be made clear. 10. psychological factors. social factors. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. job design and people. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. psychodrama. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. However.Through the group contact. 2. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. group resistance and vested interests. Resistance can be overt. It purports how the results are. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. 3. Self Assessment Questions 1. Such training techniques include role playing. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. sentiments and attitudes towards change. 2.
Response Books. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. · Cummings & Worley.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1.management of Organization Change. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited.6. Modern Organization Development and Change. Why do organizations resist change? 3.2 2.. · J.complaints. Refer section 10. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change.8 Terminal Questions 1. engaging in a work showdown. French and Cecil H. · Harigopal K. . Explain the nature of change? 2. P. Refer section 10. P.Singh. Thomson South Western. Organization Development. 10. Jr. New Delhi. New Delhi. 10.4 3. at the level of individual and at the level of group. through group dynamics. that is. Jain. Organization Theory and Design. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 10. Organization Development & Change. Psychological factors 3. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. threatening to go on strike. Principles and Practices. eighth edition.. Organizational change 2. N. Reference: · Wendell L. Thomson · Daft Richard L. both at the formal and informal levels. Regal Publications New Delhi. or the like. Bell.
work911.· James A.com/opm/grtl/OLS/ols6. Organizational Behaviour. N. Stoner and R.umich. Dhanpat Rai & Co.html http://muse. Management. Organizational Behaviour. Robbbins. Principles & Practice of Management. · Stephen P. Prasad.jp/~kyodo/kokyuroku/contents/pdf/1461-15. New Delhi. Chhabra.cfm http://www.managementtoday.wdi.jhu.lib.1lowry.pdf http://www.edu/groups/learning/wp8.humtech. · Stephens P.uk/search/article/634958/the-ceos-role-managing-change/ http://www.kurims.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v005/5.pdf http://www.uk/pdf/bt/fincham/Chapter15. · L.htm#TopOfPage http://www.managementhelp. Prentice-Hall India. Pvt. F. New Delhi.com/articles/leadchange.umich.co. Ltd.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp598. New Delhi. Robbins. · Laxmi Devi. Prentice-Hall of India.kyoto-u.ac. New Delhi. M.umd. Sultan Chand & Sons.pdf http://webuser. 12th edition.pdf www. Organizational Development. Prentice-Hall of India. Anmol Publications Pvt.edu/cameronk/CULTURE%20BOOK-CHAPTER%201.co.htm www.htm#anchor73776 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .bus.org/docrep/w7503e/w7503e05. E References y y y y y y y y y y y http://fds. Management.pdf http://www.com/www.fao. Edward Freeman.org/org_chng/org_chng.oup.oup. . · T. Ltd. Educatiional Publishers.
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