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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the µmanagement¶ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn µsurplus¶ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of a
business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term ³management´. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley ± ³Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.´ In the words of George R. Terry ± ³Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.´ According to James L. Lundy ± ³Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.´ In the words of Henry Fayol ± ³To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.´ According to Peter F. Drucker ± ³Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work´. In the words of Koontz and O¶Donnel ± ³Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals´.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren ± ³The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.´ From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that ³management´ is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as ³management´. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a ³distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.´ From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as ³doing things right´. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization¶s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as ³doing the right things´. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of course, high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. And poor
management is an essential ingredient of an organization. 5. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. capital and materials. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals¶ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. 2. namely. 4.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. Thus. 1. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. staffing.management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. 7. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. Managers apply knowledge. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. feeling of management is result-oriented. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. Thus. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. although they can¶t observe it during operation. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. principles and techniques which have wide applications. informed employees. So it is treated as a science. labour and capital. 3. The application of these concepts. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. directing and controlling. principles and techniques requires specialized . Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. In essence. All these resources are made available to those who manage. organizing. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. 6. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. labour. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts.
Anthropology. the effective use of the five M¶s of management (money. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. materials. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. ongoing concern. Basically. 10. 8.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. Generally. In other words. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. 9. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. manpower. useful. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. government and hospital. For instance. Sociology and Psychology. and (iii) a class or elite. a hierarchy of command and control. labour and capital. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. According to Newman. military. materials. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. 1. that is. They transmit orders. In modern organizations. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. education. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. Similarly.e. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. people are bound by authority relationships. finance manager. (ii) a system of authority. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. According to Herbision and Myers. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. management is viewed as an art. how effectively and economically the five M¶s are combined together to produce desired results. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem . personnel manager etc. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. it refers to three distinct ideas. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. money and machines into a productive. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage.knowledge and skills on the part of the manager.
The levels of management depend upon its size. and the range of production. Purchase Manager. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. day-to-day matters. Foremen. the lower level of management). etc. For instance. etc. (i) administrative management (i. Marketing Manager. But in actual practice. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. Board of Directors. viz. ranks. or the Chief Executive. ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. Managing Director. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating . iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. its Chairman. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions.. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. Operative management is concerned with the ³doing´ function such as implementation of policies. but as head of wages and salary department. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as µManagement¶ which refers to the group. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility.. planning and setting up of standards. 1. As a separate group. Administrative management is concerned with ³thinking´ functions such as laying down policy. Production Manager. or..e. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise.e. We generally come across two broad levels of management. Supervisors. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine.and suggestions upward. policies and plans for the enterprise. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. technical facilities. Financial Controller.
duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. e) To assign activities. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. Without them the top management¶s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. machines and methods to put the plans into action. . d) To assemble the resources of money. materials. men. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. j) To report to top management. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. 2. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control.functions.
They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. To this end. an organization is merely a collection of men. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. Management makes group effort more effective. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. accounts officers and so on. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. In its absence. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. Management is goal-oriented. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. 3. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. machines. sales officers. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. counseling and effective leadership. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. money and material. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. methods. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. Without management. With a view to realize the . 1. Their authority and responsibility is limited. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual¶s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. procedures and reward systems. They have to get the work done through the workers. They allot various jobs to the workers.k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. supervisors. It consists of foreman. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment.
identifiable discipline. Failure to take note of customer¶s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for µIdeal java¶ in the two-wheeler market in India. techniques. Management . often threaten the survival of a firm. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. In the final analysis. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes.predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. Management as a profession By a professional manager. According to McFarland. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. the Indian Institute of Management. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. competition. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. Thus unnecessary deviations. But unlike medicine or law. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. and it is distinct. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. They try to put everything on the right tract.. Organize the resources properly. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. government policy. and specialized knowledge. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. etc. skills. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided.
management is not as exact as natural sciences. the American Management Association in U. Furthermore. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. the transfer of information. Half of these managers¶ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager¶s job. and disciplining employees. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. and decision-making. The term µmanagement roles¶ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. But in addition to these insights. bribing public officials to gain favours. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the . Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. sabotaging trade unions. the All India Management Association. Some individual business organizations. motivating. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. and short-duration activities. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions. however. 1. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. managers in general. All managers have a role as a leader. However. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. training. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature ± interpersonal roles. However. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. This role includes hiring. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. an art as well as a profession.S. do not seem to adhere to the principle of ³service above self´. For instance. In fact. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers.A. unpatterned. As a social science. etc. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships.Development Institute.. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles.
informers who provide favors performing other activities and information. Table 1. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. what competitors may be planning. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. This is the disseminator role. duties of a legal or social nature. manages also perform a spokesperson role. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. Mintzberg called this the monitor role.1: Mintzberg¶s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Liaison Symbolic head. Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. making phone subordinates to members of the calls to relay information. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. activities that involve responsible for staffing. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager¶s unit. Informational Roles: All managers. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association.liaison role. obliged to Greeting visitors. Typically. training. subordinates. Informational Monitor Disseminator . to some degree. and may be inside or outside the organization. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. that involve outsiders. and associated duties. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public¶s tastes. and the like. network of outside contacts and doing external board work. understanding of organization and environment.
managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. Last. performing all kinds ± in effect. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. etc. Inc. supervises design of certain projects as well. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the organizational decisions. results. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization¶s performance. serves as expert on organization¶s industry. managers are responsible for allocating human.Spokesperson organization ± some information is factual. outsiders on organization¶s giving information of the plans. As resource allocators. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. media. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to develop and initiates ³improvement new programs.. policies. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. Publishers. actions. programming of subordinates work. physical and monetary resources. As disturbance handlers. Decisional Roles: Finally. 1973). negotiations. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. As entrepreneurs. . Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Source: Henry Mintzberg. projects´ to bring about change.
as well as many middle managers. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. or manufacturing. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization¶s operations. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. Conversely. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers ± regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. . and inspire enthusiasm and trust. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization¶s speciality. the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. liaison. human. figurehead. Since managers deal directly with people. the roles of disseminator. In fact. During the early 1970. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager¶s level within the organization. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. They know how to communicate. Technical Skills: First-line managers. computers. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. this skill is crucial. and all managers are involved in making decisions. motivate. negotiator. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people.An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg¶s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. Specifically. research by Robert L. For example. lead. such as engineering. a manager¶s job is varied and complex. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. finance. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. and conceptual. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. However.
Thus. plans and policies of the organisation. Administration is a higher level function: Administration refers to policy-making. Table 1.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. Floerence and Tead. etc. Management relates to execution of decisions. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. Spriegal and Lansburg. iii) There is no distinction between the terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ and they are used interchangeably. It is a thinking function. Thus. Spriegel and Walter. administration is a higher level function. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. Meaning Administration Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives. It is a doing function. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. According to them. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. This view is held by Tead. on the other hand. 2.1.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. Administration is a determinative function. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. Administrators are basically concerned with planning and control. Administration relates to the decision-making. Management Management means getting the work done through and with others. Scope . Nature 3. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. It is concerned with the implementation of policies. Managers are concerned mainly with organisation and direction of human resources.
Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. 6. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. Define management. counseling and effective leadership. middle and lower. objectives. public organisations in the private sector and non-business sector. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. 7. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. organisations. DecisionMaking Administration determines Management decides who what is to be done and when it shall implement the is to be done. Usage of Term The term µadministration¶ is The term µmanagement¶ is often associated with widely used in business government offices. lower levels of management. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant at higher levels of management. 1. There are three levels of management-top. 3. administrative decisions.e.4. Still management is not completely a profession. ___________. . i. __________is principally the task of planning. _________. 2. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective..8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. environmental forces. Self Assessment Questions 1.9 Terminal Questions 1. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle level leading and motivation of executives. 5. Five M¶s of management (________. Explain its characteristics. operative workforce for the execution of plans. co-ordinating. 1. 8. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management.
10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. manpower 3. MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2. Refer section 1. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. Refer section 1.3 2. Refer section 1.3 Planning 2.1. 1.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2 Process of Management 2. Management 2. Money. materials.1 Introduction Objectives 2. 3. Discuss the importance of management.5 3.4 Organizing . teamwork Answers to TQs: 1.2.2.
in recent time. you will be able to: · Define Management process. Planning 2. Objectives: After this studying this unit.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2. Organizing 3. Coordinating 5.9 Terminal Questions 2. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. Controlling However. · Explain Planning.8 Summary 2. · Explain different functions of management Process.6 Directing 2. Motivating. Directing. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. Commanding 4.5 Staffing 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. Organizing.2. Management functions are as follows (Fayol. 1949): 1.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people´. Staffing. . One can also think of management functionally.
studies on passenger comfort. or where you want go to. Therefore. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. general strategies. Objectives are the ends. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. However. policies are the means to achieve those ends. overall goals. leadership is doing the right things³. 2. the decision to change the design of a product. the two are not quite the same. while a policy. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. cost structure and so on. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. thus. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. driving comfort. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: . it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined.2. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. fuel and machine efficiency. and then set out the method for achieving it. There is a degree of overlap between the two. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization¶s mission. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. In the football field.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: ³Management is doing things right. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. Through leadership and management often overlap. and allocating resources. Even so. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. Decision ± Making Taking decisions is a process. say a passenger car. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do.
Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. Weaknesses. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization¶s potential. Thus. governments (local. How skilled is our workforce? 4. What is our market share? 5. professional. The mission statement is broad. Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. Are the facilities outdated? 3. and trade).A mission is the purpose of the organization. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. suppliers. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). Opportunities. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. federal. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. journals and reports (scientific. Is research and development adequate? 4. state. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. A mission statement should be short ± and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. customers (internal and external). SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. international). planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. What financing is available? 6. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. summarizing what the organization does. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: .
as well as gap analysis. Generally. effectiveness. Are there new competitors? 3. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations.1. What are the possible new markets? 3. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. What are the new regulations? 6. What substitute products exist? In general terms. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. What is the strength of the economy? 4. return on investment. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. What are the emerging technologies? 6. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. Are market tastes changing? 5. earnings per share. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. etc. Objectives are also called performance goals. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) . Are our rivals weak? 5. the best strategy is one that fits the organization¶s strengths to opportunities in the environment.
Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. and coordinated. procedures. how the tasks are to be grouped.4 Organizing It involves designing. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. who is to do. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. working toward common goals. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. who reports to whom. Strategic. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. and goals are clearly stated. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. and where decisions are to be made. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. lines of authority. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. structuring. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. and relationships between departments. Review plans 2. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. with ideas and resources. Assign work to individuals 6. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job 4. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. grouped. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established.Tactical plans are based on the organization¶s strategic plan. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. operational plans are based on the organization¶s tactical plans. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. 2. 2. In turn. tactical. Organizations are groups of people. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process.5 Staffing . Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs.
Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. This task has been referred to as staffing. placement. 2. 5. promotion. Koontz. 2. performance appraisal etc.It is not the machines. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. money. training. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. selection. 3. appraisal. inventorying the people available. 4. development. recruitment. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. placement. compensation and training of needed people´. Theo Haimann ± ³Concerned with the placement. selection. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. . growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals´. Definition: 1. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick ± ³Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work´ Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. recruitment. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. materials. O¶Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as ³filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. 3.
6. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through ± out the life of an organization. Direction function is performed at every level of management. 2. 5. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. selection. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. 8. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. training development and maintenance of personnel. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i.e. Through direction. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. management initiates actions in the organization. etc. Direction has dual objectives. It is instructing people as to what to do. 7. on the other. Direction is an important managerial function. Definition According to Koontz and O¶Donnel. 2. 4. directing is the ³interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals´. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. . It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. On the one hand. promotion. resignation. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. identifying the manpower requirements. vacancies arise out of retirement. recruitment. 3. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. It is an important managerial function. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. It is a continuing function. induction. motivate them. overseeing and leading people.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management.
Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. proposed by Maslow (1943). without guiding and overseeing subordinates. will vary depending upon his level. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. humanness and psychological health a person will show. 2. Theories X and Y. belongingness. recognition. shelter. The needs are arranged in order of importance. ³without the issuance of directives. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. As Theo Haimann puts it. the more individuality. The further they progress up the hierarchy. sex. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. 3. status. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. and external esteem factors. self-respect. teach. autonomy. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. and achievement. such as. thirst. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. satisfied needs cannot. coach and supervise his subordinates. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. guide. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. 2. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. 4. The manager never ceases to direct. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. such as. from the basic to the complex. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. and the Two-Factor theory. and attention . acceptance.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished´.
and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. anxious to accept greater responsibility. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. company policy. if they can. responsibility. externally. Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people¶s attitudes about work. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager¶s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions.· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. Motivators are intrinsic factors. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. such as. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. esteem. advancement. and salary are hygiene factors. and exercise self-control. whereas. Social. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. supervision. includes growth. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. such as. Extrinsic factors. interpersonal relations. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. recognition. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. It is also believed that. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. self-motivated. Theory X ± In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. autonomy and empowerment. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. working conditions. . self-direction. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. Theory Y ± In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. achieving one¶s potential. From the above. and achievement. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals.
motivators describe a person¶s relationship with what she or he does. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment.In summary.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: . Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. many related to the tasks being performed. Planning involves the process of defining goals. 2. When hygiene factors are adequate. neither will they be satisfied. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. who reports to whom. Organization involves designing. how the tasks are to be grouped. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. Explain Staffing in detail 3. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. who is to do. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. 3. people will not be dissatisfied.9 Terminal Questions 1. What is planning? 2. 2. Hygiene factors on the other hand. 2. have to do with a person¶s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. recruitment. structuring. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. 2. Self Assessment Questions 1. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. performance appraisal etc. Write a short not on directing. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. To motivate people. and where decisions are to be made.
4 Categories of OD 3.3 Characteristics of OD 3.8 Problems in OD .3 2.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1. Follett 2. SWOT 3.5 Goals of OD 3.2 Definitions 3.6 OD and Management Development 3. Reference 2.1 Introduction Objectives 3.7 Role of OD 3. Reference 2. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3.5 3. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1. Reference 2.
increased competition. and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. take advantage of opportunities.Self Assessment Questions 3. In summary. strategy formulation and implementation. teams.10 Terminal Questions 3. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today¶s world is a daunting task. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology. and the organization¶s human and social processes. and processes. and profitability. ³Knowledge´ work is replacing ³muscle´ work. efficiency.9 Summary 3. . OD focuses on issues related to the ³human side´ of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals. old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today ± threats to effectiveness. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. Basically. Although new jobs are being created at record rates. A variety of solutions exists. strategy. and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. Early returns were encouraging. and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges ± finding satisfaction in and through work. survive. culture. Today. challenges from turbulent environments. fighting obsolescence of one¶s knowledge and skills. organization structure. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. conflict resolution. organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. and the like. and learn how to do that better and better over time. Simple survival ± continuing to have an adequate job ± is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. organization development is a process of teaching people how to solve problems. the answer is ³yes´.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3. maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope. And organization development (OD) is one of them. adapt.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. and changing customer demands.
and the dizzying rate of change itself. · Explain the characteristics of OD. and culture. markets. planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. strategy.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change. values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies. people. using reflexive. 1971) Organizational development is a process of planned change. 1989) . (Burke and Hornstein. · State the goals of OD. you will be able to: · Define organization development. and 3) Developing the organization¶s self-renewing capacity (Beer. attitudes. (Schmuck and Miles. 1980). · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. A ³process for improving processes´ ± that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill. self-analytic methods. and challenges. 1969). processes. a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs. (Bennis. Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives«. 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure. OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement. 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions.Objectives: After studying this unit. 3. · Discuss the categories of OD programme.change of an organization¶s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making.
´ (Porras and Robertson. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. There is no ³quick fix´ when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. and problem-solving processes. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. values. including action research. serious business. All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. By long-term effort. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. it is more accurate to describe ³improvement´ as a never-ending journey of continuous change.³Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories. what practices should be included and excluded. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. ³Organization development is a long-term effort. In fact. research. they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. Collectively. 1992) ³OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau.´ This definition is lengthy. Now let¶s turn to our definition of organization development. through an ongoing. and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions.several years in most cases. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving.´ (Cummings and Worley. learning. and theory. Likewise. to improve an organization¶s visioning. strategies. Organizational change is hard. through the alteration of organizational members¶ on-the-job behaviours. 1993) ³Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization¶s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field. these definitions overlap a great deal (that¶s encouraging). empowerment. 1994) As you can see. Top management must initiate the improvement . and contain several unique insights (that¶s enlightening). collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance. We do not propose it as the ³right´ definition.´ (Burke. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. that is. these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. and processes for improving an organization¶s effectiveness. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. structure. led and supported by top management. We will explain this definition in some detail.
that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. has a stake in making the organization work. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. vitality. make decisions. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. and take actions on problems. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization¶s members. developing the strategy for getting there. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. expectations. commitment. interactions. and processes makes each important. By visioning processes. opportunities. and culture. By including culture so prominently in our definition. one of widespread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization¶s purposes. sentiments. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. attitudes. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. learning. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. assumptions. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. or became distracted with other duties. we mean those interacting. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. first. And second. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as ³« organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. Just as visioning. beliefs. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. and artifacts. activities. and common purposes of all members of the organization. we mean. team. The reciprocal influence among culture. and challenges in the organization¶s environment and its internal functioning. processes. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. strategy. in contrast to having only a select few involved.´ Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. where collective aspiration is set free. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. By empowerment processes. By learning processes. structure. coherent. Michael Beer¶s definition called for ³developing new and creative organizational solutions´. structure. and making it happen. listening. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. empowerment. so is managing the culture. We further believe that having compelling. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization¶s culture. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. culture is of . By empowerment. and organizational learning. and each influences the others. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations.³journey´ and be committed to seeing it through. norms. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. not just a small group. For empowerment to become fact of life. solve problems. lost its commitment. Still.
Further. Over time. This method resulted in loss of synergy. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. When teams function well. manufacturing. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. He uses the terms µmultifunctional projectization¶ and µhorizontal systems¶ to describe these teams and their work. learning. empowerment. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. wasted time. By intact work teams and other configurations. think. so they are the place OD programs often begin ± getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. (b) invented. much rework. Processes are relatively easy to change. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. and feel in relation to those problems. In Liberation Management. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. Temporary. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. hiring. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. the process ³threw the results over the wall´ to the next functional unit. So culture consists of basic assumptions. maintaining quality control. . The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. think. and problem-solving processes. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the ³right´ ways. firing. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. discovered. When one function finished with its part of the project. members are trained in competencies such as planning.primary importance. such as design. and using management information. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. individuals and the organization function well. or developed by a given group. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: ³Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. Today¶s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. engineering. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. and procurement. values. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. and training. Processes are how things get done. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. and we highlight the importance of visioning. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. empowerment. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. But in many organizations today. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be ³brain work´) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task.
constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. 2. collaborators. 10. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. Specifically. OD . and co-learners with the client system. This µplanned¶ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. so that change is easily observed. Attempting to create ³win-win´ solutions is standard practice in OD programs. 5. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. To summarize. 3. OD practitioners are facilitators. 4. rather than focusing attention on individuals. 7. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1.3 Characteristics of OD 1. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. 8. 6. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. 2. 3.multifunctional. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today¶s fast-paced market place. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. dynamic and adaptive system. 9. OD focuses on culture and processes. according to Peters. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization.
OD attempts to provide opportunities to be µhuman¶ and to increase awareness. 3. they are ongoing. Action research is the basis for such intervention. 6. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. At the individual level. 7. growth. 3. Thus. evaluates these data. temporary. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. and cyclic processes. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. participation. 4. rather. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. further more. and revitalization. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. and then. third party change agent. he conducts surveys. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. problem-solving. The relationship involves mutual trust. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. joint goals and means. identity. rather. or catalyst. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. and mutual influence. and integrate individual and organizational goals. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed.efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. collects relevant data. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. It recognizes that organizational goals change. Rather. Key areas are the normative type of model. interactive. They discourage µdo it yourself¶ approach. OD efforts are not one-shot actions.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. He shares a social philosophy about human values. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements . Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that µnorms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones¶. takes actions for intervention. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. 5. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. or isolated problems.
(b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. (c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization¶s goals (profit or service) and development of people. with the authority of knowledge and competence. Two important elements of Organization Development are. This Organization Development progrmmes. like other normative re-educative programmes. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. practitioners and the client laymen. second. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization.of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. 3. . (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. problem solving climate throughout an organization.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. first. (g) To increase the sense of µownership¶ or organization¶s objectives throughout the work force.
(i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. . Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager¶s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization.(h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one¶s area of responsibility. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. (ii) competitiveness. management development has been defined as follows: ³Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. The term µdevelopment¶ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. with their existing objectives and structure. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. 3. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table.6 OD and Management Development At this stage. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. according to him. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. (iii) assertiveness. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. and greater display of feelings and emotions.´ Organization development differs from management development. less individual competitiveness. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. Before making a comparison between the two. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. more attention to peer-groups. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. Based on this. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. According to him. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. However.
To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. 2. 5. 6. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. Trained specialists required. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. however.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. 3. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. By 70s. . In early 60s. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. plays key role in organizational improvement. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. 3. Focus on design. horizontally. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing organization. Problem-solving approach.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. Thus. No special requirement. not on the managers. however.Focus Approach Time Specialist accomplishments. focus on achieving improvement in design. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. Educative and training Short-range. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. and laterally. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. 7. 3. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. 4.
Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. OD programmes are often quite costly. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. some specific efforts are required. If an organization is laden with these people. it is useless to try OD. it fails even as a long-term strategy. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. Therefore. In general. 2. 4. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. Therefore. 5. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. etc. in order to make best use of OD efforts. particularly in bottom-line ones. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. Hence. Research studies have also failed to conclude significant contributions of OD in all organizations. Self Assessment Questions . 3. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically.confrontation techniques. There should be proper use of OD interventions. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. However. 4. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. For example. 3. Thus. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. 5. 2. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience.
Define OD. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. Explain the various characteristics of OD. Distinguish between µorganizational development¶ and µmanagement development¶. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. There is no µquick fix¶ to organizations¶ problems.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Peter Senge . 4.10 Terminal Questions 1. 3. 2. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. Who is associated with the ³Learning Organizations´? 5. ±±±±±±± is associated with ³Liberation Management´. problem-focused µnature of OD¶ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. _____________is a short-term strategy. Empowerment 4. 5. Organization development should be led and supported by ±±±±±±±. Tom Peters 3. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. 3. collaborative. 4. 3. ±±±±±±±±± is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. OD focuses on culture and processes. 3. 2. Explain its salient features.1. Top management 2. State the various roles of OD. The participative.
3 3.5 Leadership Development 4. Refer section 3.6 4.3 Process Consultation 4.4 Grid Training 4.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2 2. Refer section 3.6 Team-building . MU0002-Unit-04.Organization Development ± Interventions Structure: 4.5.7 5. Refer section 3. Refer section 3. Management development Answers to TQs: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 4.2 Survey Feedback 4.Organization Development ± Interventions Unit-04. Refer section 3.
various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. Historically. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels.11 Terminal Questions 4. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. mediation and negotiation activities. the classification of OD interventions shows variation. group level. Subsequently. However. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. For example. grid training.´ There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. management grid. Further. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the range of change that an organization requires. work group.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4.7 Inter Group Development 4. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. and survey feedback method. People¶s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. Therefore. techno-structural activities. process consultation. they make things happen. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: ³Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement.4. inter-group activities. education and training. survey feedback.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour.8 Change Agents 4. interpersonal level.10 Summary 4. other techniques like process . Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. and organizational level. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. and organizational culture. team-building. inter-group level. Thus. Nevertheless.
consultation, team- building, and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives, have been added. Our further discussion follows this development. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. · Explain grid training. · Describe process consultation. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Role of change agents. 4.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid), the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier, Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan, USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 2. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection, feedback of information, developing action plans based on feedback, and follow up. 1. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership ± managerial support, managerial goal emphasis, managerial work facilitation, peer support, peer goal emphasis, peer work facilitation, and peer interaction facilitation, organizational climate-communication with the company, motivation, decision-making, control within the company, co-ordination between departments, and general management, and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company, satisfaction with the supervisor, satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with the pay, and satisfaction with the work group. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization¶s personnel.
After the questionnaires are completed, data are classified, tabulated, and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 2. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed, feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. In oral system of feedback, it is provided through group discussion or problemsolving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively, feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted, it should be constructive and suggestive, rather, threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case, follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building, by the consultant. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. In particular, survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. 2. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However, effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. First, questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. If it is biased, all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Second, even if valid and reliable information is collected, it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change; it provides base for action for change. 4.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Edgar Schein, the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows:
³The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client¶s environment.´ The basic objectives of P.C are as follows: 1. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership, communication, roles and functions of group members, group decision-making and problemsolving, group norms, and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD. 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 2. Define the Relationship: At this stage, client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees, and spelling out services, time, etc. At this stage, the client¶s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. 3. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. At this stage, the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 4. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 5. Intervene: At this stage, the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural change. 6. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.C is completed, the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes, he assists the
C programmes. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. groups. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. In the review of various P. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. problem-solving. traditions. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. . and the organization as a whole. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. inter-group. knowledge. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. P. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. like other OD intervention techniques. P. and alike. group. focuses on skills. The skills relating to planning. From this point of view. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. 1. objective-setting. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. 4. The grid organization development consists of six phases. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. 3.organizational members to incorporate those changes. Inter-group Development: At this phase. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. 2.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. and teamwork. However. and problemsolving are also developed. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. communication skills. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice.C is also not free from criticisms. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant¶s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. 2. 3. and total organizational levels.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. However. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations.
grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. 4. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. If you are to manage change effectively. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. They have maintained that ³managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. Also during these times of change. they maintained the same stand. therefore. The strategy is then implemented. is the ability of leadership to«well. in spite of these criticisms. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. the various programmes may be redesigned. competence. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. lead. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. Slogging Through The Swamp. and regular. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. concerned and committed to their welfare. Systematic Critique: In this stage. We will look more carefully at each of these. grid training is a non-rigorous method.´ In a later work. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. confident and effective decision-making. it discounts reality. Furthermore. In this light. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. complete communication that is timely. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. and credibility of senior and middle management.5 Leadership Development When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). and After Arrival. During drastic change times. Further.4. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. while at the same time . 5. 6.
These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as ³who will be members of the team?´ ³Who will perform what functions?´ ³Who will contribute what?´ ³What rules will be . how synergy is generated through team-work. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. The existence of this trust. widely accepted. teambuilding is the most important. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. 4. storming. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. In a climate of distrust.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. performing. therefore. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. if allowed to go on for too long. problems in team-work. but more importantly. if haven¶t established a track record of effective leadership.recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. These stages are: forming. brings hope for better times in the future. 4. French and Bell have opined that ³probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. employees expect nothing positive. For example. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone¶s best interests. norming. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team¶s time together. Unfortunately. it may be too late. which. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. Leadership before. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. As against these. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. let us consider the life cycle of a team. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams.´ A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team.
they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. 4. 3. They share personal information. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team¶s goals. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. 2. After the adjournment of the team. Norming: After storming stage. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. each team has to be adjourned. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. However. Sooner or later. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: ³Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. 5. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. team members start settling. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. committee. because of individual differences. jockeying for relative control. The adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect.followed?´ ³How can conflicts among members be resolved?´ and so on. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. etc. start to accept others. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned.´ . Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. At this stage. At this stage. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck.
other factors remaining the same. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. They averaged 138. in one experiment. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. In fact. For example. the individual average dropped down still lower-68.2 pounds. the complementarity among members is achieved. group of eight. From this statement. and so on. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. group efforts tend to slacken. goals. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group¶s meetings. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent.Thus. In the above paragraph. To the extent. In such an assignment. that is. it appears that there are many . the team would be effective. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. and attitudes. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. fail to perform their assigned tasks.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. 2. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. other factors remaining the same. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. it was found that individuals¶ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves.
have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance. Katzenbatch and Smith. Rewards of both types. they will put their maximum. 4. . These factors are skills and role clarity. Therefore. and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. Further. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. 3. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. 3. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. Even if one member lacks behind. organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size.factors in an effective team. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group. super-ordinate goals and team rewards.financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. goals. or propose discipline for team members. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. then. customer satisfaction. two things are required from its members. make recommendations regarding a new supervisor. supportive environment. common purpose. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. 2. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. complementary skills. unify efforts. These super-ordinate goals. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. Thus. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one¶s own role as well as roles of other members. management consultants. 1. and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. 2. serve to focus attention. While skills are relevant for job performance.
2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. At this stage. Analyzing how the work is performed. the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure. rather. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. For achieving these. 2. and rewards. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. personality and attitudes. Analyzing how the team is working. Setting goals and priorities for the team. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. recognition. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds. and 5. generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. such as. . 4. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. 4. Fig. they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared. group problems to even personal problem. and 5. In problem identification. 2. the emphasis should be on consensus. their value systems. 3. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. Providing positive feedback. Analyzing how team¶s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization.4. 1.
members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. ensuring. there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. undermining morale. the stying with the topic or going off on tangents. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. (iii) Clarifying: resting. understanding. information. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time. At this stage. Negative Behaviour (i) Over talk: interrupting. the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. cynicism. At the time of discussion of feedback. who was talking more or who was talking less. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. 4. clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team. criticizing person. about the issue. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings. etc. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. 5. with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. Often.3. people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. (iii) Negative: cooling. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. talking together with speaker. Followup action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of team-building. and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility. belittling. who was trying to resolve the differences. If this process is adopted several times. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team¶s responsibilities. feelings. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas. the way people talk about the issue. . (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. etc. also provides opportunity to understand themselves. encouraging others to participate. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours: Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. (ii) Attacking: deriding. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. seeking relevant information.
and feedback skills). in different degrees. It seeks to change to attitudes. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. etc. monitoring. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier. one of the more . 4. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. to encourage and sustain such feelings. communicating.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. 2. and perceptions that groups have of each other. In spite of these problems. it is not that effective in isolation. It improves the organization¶s problem-solving and decision-making ability.. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. However. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the organization¶s outcomes. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations.These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. In general. team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. However. As a result. 2. listening. are not given adequate attention. stereotypes. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. Therefore. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. structure. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. team-building has a positive outlook. 3. though. However. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage.
as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. the groups can move to the integration phase ± working to develop solutions that will improve relations. employees of the organization.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . 4. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. with members from each of the conflicting groups. Outside consultants. but one thing he/she is not the driver´. the other group. however. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes ± which can be benefit or a disadvantage ± because they don¶t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. after which similarities and differences are discussed. and personnel. as the accelerator to build up momentum. 4. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization¶s history. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. For major change efforts. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. In contrast. or outside consultants. Trainer . In this method. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. Differences are clearly articulate.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. Subgroups. culture. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance.Popular methods emphasize problem solving. According to Curtis Mial: ³The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. operating procedures.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. as the break for too quick action. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. The groups then share their lists. and how it believes the other group perceivers it.
What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? . Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. feedback of information. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. Self Assessment Questions 1. Team-building is most important. attitudes and beliefs. changing (intervening) and refreezing. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. 4. 2. group discussions. Data collection. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. inter-group and total organization levels. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. Grid Training was developed by ±±±±±±±±±±±± 3. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. group. Training is required for enhancing knowledge. It focuses on skills. presentations.A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. Training is used both in µcontent orientation¶ and process orientation¶. skills and change in behavior. diagnosis.11 Terminal Questions 1. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. role-plays and instruments. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies ± lectures.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. In process consultation. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. cases and experiential learning etc. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. films. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested.
Refer section 4. Assumptions. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. and Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values. Blake and Mouton.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. MU0002-Unit-05-Values. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? 3. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1.1 Introduction .6 4. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4. 3. 4.2 3.2.4 2.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Assumptions. Data collection 2. Refer section 4. Refer section 4. Refer section 4.
2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5.7 Terminal Questions 5. 5. · List the chronology of events of values.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development.5.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5.1 Introduction A set of values. beliefs and assumptions. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers. beliefs and assumptions. assumptions.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions. Objectives: After studying this unit. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field.Objectives 5.2 Definitions . you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.2 Definitions 184.108.40.206 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5.
Simple. Values. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. optimistic. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. strongly held. assumptions. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist.g. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources ± the Hawthorne studies. dishonesty). . greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. it is a cognitive fact for the person. Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or µgood¶ (e. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. reason.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought y Frederick Winslow Taylor s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. and the like. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. and that rationality. treat people with respect and dignity. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process." or slacking off. and democratic. values. Taylor s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work.. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them.. OD values tend to be humanistic. 5. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. research on the effects of different leadership styles. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. free speech) and what is undesirable or µbad¶ (e. As these ingredients accumulated. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. assumptions. the human relations movement.g. the laboratory training movement. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. or spirit of the time. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. and assumptions being. with values being beliefs about good and bad. Thus.A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true.
impersonal rules. Lippitt (1939). their feelings and attitudes about the work. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people s beliefs about organizational behaviour. Their simple. Research by Lewin.y The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of bureaucracy as the best. y y y y y y y . much of the research. wrote an article on The Giving of Orders advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. apathy. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. These approaches possessed many desirable features. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. In a sense. Group Dynamics (1940) The scientific study of groups using experimental research methodswas launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. organizations were not machines. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. and a general humanizing of the workplace. extensive division of labor. greater attention to workers social needs. The human relations movement advocated participative management. A strong hierarchy of authority. theory. the work environment. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. People came to work as whole people. Mary Parker Follett (1926). The Functions of the Executive by Chester 1. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). a management theorist and astute observer of labour-management relations. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. and the supervisor determined their performance. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. aggressiveness and poor performance. People were not cogs. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. most efficient way to organize people. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945.
In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. healthy adults. a direct precursor of OD. indifferent to the organization s needs. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. In an environment of slow change. higherlevel needs become dominant. resist change. caring social climate. to assume responsibility. are self-centered. Overcoming Resistance to Change. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. P. increase self-understanding. a mechanistic organization y y y y y y y y . Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. pioneers in laboratory training. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. The theory postulated that when lower-level needs are satisfied. The task of management is to change organizational structures. This article introduced the concept of organizations as socio-technical systems. Chris Argyrif s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. lack ambition. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. and need to be led. and understand group dynamics. reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. this book popularized Maslow s motivation theory. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. French s (1948) article. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. dislike responsibility. Rogers focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. management practices. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). Lester Coch and John R. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic.y These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done.
compromise. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. and negative consequences. and shares decision-making with the work group. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. Values have always been an integral part of OD. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. optimistic. goal-oriented. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. Writing in 1969. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. an organic organization form is preferred. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. and democratic. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. in an environment of high change." that is. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company OD Six-Pack. and unprincipled power. dysfunctions. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. theory. groups. · Development of more effective "team management. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems.structure may be appropriate. The Social Psychology of Organizations by Daniel Katz and Robert L. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. one-on-one leadership style. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. humanistic. y y This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. and greater individual autonomy. . practice. open communications. bureaucracy. as we have said. and organizations that is. Out of this zeitgeist. y Rensis Likert s New Patterns of Management (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. and values of the field. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. These six books presented the theory.
a professor and Sheldon Davis. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. Therefore. Robert Tannenbaum. 4. Stalker used the term ³mechanistic´ in contrast to ³mechanical." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. not individuals." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. sub-units of organizations. . mutual trust." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. 5. Controls are interim measurements. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. director of organization development. Organizations. "People support what they help create. 2. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article." like pushing buttons. not the basis of managerial strategy. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems.· Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. M. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. the basic units of change are groups. and confidence between and across levels. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. They listed these ³values in transition´ as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. 6.´ For example." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. 1. Here is his list. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. 3. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication.
· Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. participation and contribution by all organization members. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. · Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. the legitimacy of feelings. decentralized decision making. 5. collaboration and co-operation. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time.· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. open communication. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. appropriate uses of power. autocratic. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. toward seeing them as being in process. authentic interpersonal relations. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions .
To do this. Most people want to develop their potential. encourage risk-taking. personal growth. invest training time and money to increase group members¶ skills. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. Implications of these assumptions are several. leaders need to give important work to teams. set high standards.5. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group¶s effectiveness and development. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. This skill is a trainable one. support. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. Second. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. listen. remove obstacles and barriers. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. and usually with more than one group. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. . conflict management. including peers and boss. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. Also. support. at both the formal and informal levels. and reward success. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. permit failure. facilitation. not a one-on-one leadership style.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. not individuals. Hence. the family. give autonomy. and job satisfaction. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. and are capable of making.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. in addition. First. and organizations? 5. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. and co-operation within the group. challenge.Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members.5. groups. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. 5. a church or club group. and interpersonal communication. give responsibility. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. Third. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. and so on. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. such as a work group. What occurs in the work group. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making.
The implication is that people are an organization¶s most important resource. Frequently the challenge is broader. adherence to the chain of command. Finally. organizing structures. grouping by specialized function. and empowering. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good.5. By implication. in which one side wins and the other side loses. The rapid technological. emphasis on topdown directives. they change over time. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. societal. and ways to optimize human potential. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. developmental. Therefore. a growing awareness that ³win-lose´ organizational situations. quality of output. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. 5.Finally. values are never static. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. D. In addition. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization¶s leaders. Still. Concluding Comment: . and so on-are obsolete. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. and E can support these changes. and profitability. are dysfunctional over the long run and highlight the need for a ³win win´ attitude. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. an optimistic. formalized cross-functional communication. By implication. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where ³putting people first´ paid off handsomely in profits and performance. including how persons C. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace.
5. The concept of ±±±±±±±±±± was introduced by MaxWeber.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. 4. 5. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. Values. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners.7 Terminal Questions 1. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. 2. Values. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. Values are also beliefs.The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. Define concepts. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. 2. optimistic and democratic. 5. but are widely accepted today. The outcome of ±±±±±±±± was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. beliefs. 3. Write a note about F. beliefs and assumptions. 5. values. __________ is associated with scientific management. Values. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true.W. and assumptions are all ±±±±±±±±±± facts. Cognitive . OD values tend to be humanistic. Taylor¶s principles of scientific management. Self Assessment Questions 1. 3. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts.
1 Introduction Objectives 6.3 5.3 3. Refer section 5.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 5.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6. W.2.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2 Beyond the Quick Fix .2 2. Taylor 3. Hawthorne experiments 5. Refer section 5. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6. Refer section 5.3 4.2.2. F. Bureaucracy 4. Refer section 5.
2 Congruence among System Elements 6.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice.10 Summary 6.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 220.127.116.11 Participation and Empowerment 6. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.5 Teams and Teamwork 6.11 Terminal Questions 6. In this discussion.3.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6. you will be able to: .1 The Nature of Systems 18.104.22.168 Parallel Learning Structures 6.3 Systems Theory 6.3.3. Objectives: After studying this unit.
2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. · Explain systems theory. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in . The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. That is. · Explain the terms µparticipation¶ and µempowerment¶. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved.· Explain various models and theories of planned change.2. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. describe those features as variables. in words or pictures. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. and specify the relationships among the variables.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. Models and theories depict. · Describe the parallel learning structures. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field. We will examine the following concepts: · Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. the important features of some phenomenon. 6.
For example. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. judge things. mentor. Likewise. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. Lewin¶s second idea was a model of the change process itself. feel things. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. that is. Next. Finally. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. etc. that is. moving to new level of behaviour. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. With a technique called the force-field analysis. Identifying with a new role model. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. b. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another.opposing directions. he must move. Lewin¶s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. Scanning the environment for new relevant information .
In stage 1. unfreezing. Phases 3. b. which cause guilt and anxiety. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. Jeanne Watson. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. That is. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. refreezing. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person¶s personality. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. The total personality and self-concept. change will not occur. that is. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s unfreezing phase. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system¶s problem. Significant relationships. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. moving. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. This motivating evidence is gained by.Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. and fit with the individual¶s social surroundings. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. and 5 correspond ro Lewin¶s moving phase. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. which motivate the person to change. . for example. terminating the client-consultant relationship. establishing goals and intentions of action. and Bruce Westley. That is. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. The primary task in stage 3. and attitudes. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. 4. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person¶s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin¶s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. In stage 2. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s refreezing phase.
3) The team-building track. 2) The management skills track." that. 6. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. critique practices and procedures. Interventions include training programs. when functioning properly. 4) The strategy-structure track. cause the organization to be successful. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? . These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. problem-solving sessions.2.This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. and 5) The reward system track. Kilmann¶s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. Change programs take from one to five years to complete. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. called "tracks. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. and so forth. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. 2) Diagnosing the problems.2 Beyond the ³Quick Fix´ A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change.
and all resources with the new strategic direction. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. communication. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. adaptive. departments. jobs. or discontinuous change. revolutionary. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. information sharing. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. work groups. the use of updated management skills. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. beginning with the culture track. The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions.and second-order change. 6. incremental. . Ford General Electric. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered ± the organization is transformed. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. General Foods.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. Westinghouse. Eastman Kodak. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call ³transactional change´ and ³transformational change´). and so forth. OD programs are directed toward both first. or continuous change. and Xerox with good results. radical. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature.The culture track enhances trust.2. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit ± thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. In second-order change. and its holistic view of organization change and development. then moving to the team-building track. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. evolutionary. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. TRW. In first-order change. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. then moving to the management skills track.
" Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. management practices. and difficult to change. friendly or unfriendly. 6. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees¶ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. hard-working or easy-going. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. Fig. and organization culture result in second-order change.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First ± Order Change . We will do so in several steps. On the other hand. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. management practices.Organizational climate is defined as people¶s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. values. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. and beliefs that are enduring." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. Changing structure. in turn. leadership. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. individual and organizational performance. often unconscious. and so forth. which change motivation and.
structure. Interventions directed toward management practices. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. and organization culture. we must change mission and strategy. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. 6. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. as shown in the above figure. leadership styles. that is. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. . mission and strategy.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second ± Order Change On the other hand. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. These factors are able to change the climate. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance.´ We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change.Fig. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization¶s culture. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. To summarize. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. Burke says: ³Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics.
social factors. which determine organizational performance and individual development. management style. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. which influence on-the job behaviours. . and interaction processes will affect social factors.2. physical setting. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. It is how OD works. rewarded). strategies. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members¶ cognitions (they learn what is expected. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. and technology. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology.Fig. OD interventions that focus on goals. For example. required. 6. Interventions that focus on culture. according to Porras and Robertson.
Systems . Fig. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. 6. describes the characteristics of systems.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders.Fig. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. 6. This section explains systems theory. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966.
" Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized.system." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts." To summarize. dynamics. Here.theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. Open systems have purposes and goals. money. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. the organization will cease to exist. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. that is the system.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. interconnectedness. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. 6. and if the environment does not want these outputs. information." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. the organization¶s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. Every system is delineated by a boundary. or transformation processes that change the inputs. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. What is inside the boundary is the system. Organizations are open systems. in that they permit exchange of information. They do something to the inputs via throughput. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. the reasons for their existence. conversion. resources. Therefore. system denotes interdependency. . The words µarrangement¶ and µinterrelated¶ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. raw material and so on. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. and energy between system and environment. or subsystems. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. For example. people. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. components. Thus. when taking a systems approach. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms.3. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. Boundaries of open systems are permeable.
It is sometimes called deviationamplifying feed back.Fig. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. but most are not useful. while screening out other information. aerospace. however. say. . Positive feedback comes from the environment. Information is important to systems in several ways. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. and the system adjusts to a new goal." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. 6. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems ³run down´ and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. Systems require two kinds of feedback. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. and the like. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. mining. For example. eating fads. that information is called positive feedback. competitors. By the same token. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. negative and positive. For example. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. "return to earth. Say your company makes buggy whips. and so on. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. If the mission (target) changes. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. and makes a course correction. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it.
important events. and systems for performing the work. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state ± systems have multiple paths to goals. failures.Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis.3. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. this process is called differentiation.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. unit/group level. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). 6. perceptions. differentiated. and informal organization.´ Also. With increased differentiation. 2) Resources available to the organization. As Katz and Kahn say: ³The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. specialized. knowledge. such as capital. and individual level. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. and the workforce¶s expectations. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. . the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. which includes the organization¶s culture informal rules and understandings. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. people. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. processes. which includes formal structures. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. systems tend to get more elaborated. knowledge. Subsystems exist within larger systems. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. formal organization. work. The three major input factors are: 1) The environment. which includes skills. and complex over time. either internal or external. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. and technology. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary.
" and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. a social system and a technical system. organizations must optimize both systems. multi-skilled teams. fit) must be present among the system¶s components¶ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. to the workers doing the job.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model¶s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. performance will suffer. controlling variance at the source. 6. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work. and that changes in one system affect the other system. training group members in multiple skills. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. For example. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. In a company that is performing poorly. and information to the point of action. performance will suffer. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. performance will suffer.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. that is.Fig. Fred Emery. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. If the organization¶s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. 6. . which components are "not functioning correctly. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. Hanna writes: . To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. forming autonomous work groups. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. especially autonomous work groups (selfregulated teams or self-direct teams). and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency." The premise is that alignment (harmony. if people don¶t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. two active segments of OD today.3.
from their activities. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). First. Of all these disciplines. and systems thinking. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. building shared vision. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. but seen in relation to other issues. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. is the most important. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. team learning. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. because most phenomena have more than one cause. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. 6. and 3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stakeholders. For example. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. not single effects.´ In conclusion. therefore. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. the fifth discipline. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. He says of systems thinking: ³It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. according to Peter Senge. Second. . issues. forces. systems thinking. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. Charles Krone. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate.In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. events.3. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. Third. mental models. events and forces. changing one part of a system influences other parts.KI Jayaram.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. Without a systemic orientation. G. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP).
This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. produce better solutions to problems. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. The other view. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. increase commitment to the organization. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. to change a system. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. survey feedback. reduce stress levels. to exert influence. to contribute their ideas. autonomous work groups. and change. team building. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). search conferences. which they call "mechanistic. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1." These authors believe the organic view. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. quality of work life programs. They believed that it was about risk-taking. Participation enhances empowerment. and to be responsible. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. one changes the system." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. and give more power to more people. involvement and participation energize greater performance.Fourth. Further." is bottom-up and less controlling. quality circles. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. and growth. growth. with its emphasis on risk-taking. One view. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. But . personal initiative. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. To empower is to give someone power. And fifth. is the more useful perspective. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. 6. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. not just its component parts. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. For example. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. called "organic." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem.
Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. and relationships if they are to be effective. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. changes those norms and values. they must if personally connected to the organization. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. research.both views contain valid ideas: for example. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. that is. people must work together to accomplish them. teams create synergy. . the noun team has become a verb.´ 6. then. Teams and teamwork are "in. processes. While management can create a context that is more empowering. to name just a few. Second. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. HPOs (high-performance organizations). the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). Theory. but rather a mindset that employees have about their roles in the organization. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. If the team. STS (socio-technical systems). systems. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today ± gurus extol the virtues of teams. is not something that management does to employees. as a team. employees must choose to be empowered. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. QCs (quality circles). They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. Team Taurus developed Ford¶s best-selling automobile. confident about their abilities. teaming. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: ³Empowerment. Third. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team.
and explore ways to realize that potential. status. inter-group team-building. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. parallel learning structures. Examples are team-building. cross-functional teams. and set ever-higher goals. and responsibility charting. teams satisfy people¶s needs for social interaction.Fourth. temporary teams. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. role negotiation technique. including collegiate football national champions. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. . Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. heart transplant surgical teams. team performance declines. and the like. quality circles. process consultation. help each other. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. find innovative ways around barriers. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. In this section. and others. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. that they achieve synergy. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. When any one feature is lost. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. recognition. and respect-teams nurture human nature. socio-technical systems programs. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance.
and continuous learning. talking. If you don¶t implement different norms and procedures.´ The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. you don¶t have a parallel structure. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. At Ford Motor Company. What¶s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. Union Pacific Railroad. autonomous. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. Titeflex. and initiate needed changes. High responsibility. and report to one of your subordinates on another team.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing .´ Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. deciding.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. superior customer service. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization¶s methods of work and/or culture. 6. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. clear objectives. Interestingly. managers. and employees. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. Asea Brown Boveri. Projects are the work of the future. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. It isn¶t the supplemental structure that¶s important. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. projects will be performed by teams. 6. flexible response. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. and then leading the process. In essence. Bushe and Shani say: ³The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems).Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as ³a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. constitute another important foundation of organization development. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system.
Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normativereductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. Patterns of action and practice are supported ± by sociocultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. and significant relationships. information. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. OD clearly falls within the normative-reeducative category. doubts. and¶ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. according to this view. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. skills. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied.Organization development involves change. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. relationships and customary ways of doing things. and together they define problems and seek solutions." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. based on the assumptions that people are rational. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. attitudes. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. will follow their rational self-interest. not just changes in knowledge. that is. Change in a pattern of practice or action. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-re-eductive and the empirical-rational strategies. rather than the OD practitioner. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. values. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. . they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. The first type is empirical rational strategies. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. Evaluated against these three change strategies. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. anxieties.
The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge.´ Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. success corroborating the diagnosis. 6. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. behavioural science knowledge. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined.´ From this "practice theory.e. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. hopefully. practices. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. by modifying a group norm or standards. or practice. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. not the individual." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. Greenwood states: ³The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together. Thus. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. applied science or practice. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. and (2) "technology. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. . Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. On this point. OD emphasizes the latter. pressing problems. Burke writes: ³If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs." applied science. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. re-establishes the equilibrium. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. on the basis of selected variables. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. The practitioner examines the problem situation. thereby solving the problem." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. i. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. for example. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis..
and doing or implementing change efforts. and research leading to social action« This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. had this to say about it: ³The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. Action research involves three processes: data collection. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations.´ Concluding Comments: These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. form of applied behavioural science. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true.Fig. practice research and practice theory. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. perhaps more accurately. and action planning based on the data. the two top in puts. feedback of the data to the client system members. represent contributions from applied science. 6. represent contributions from pure or basic science. It is a type of action-research. Self Assessment Questions . 6. The two bottom inputs. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. who developed the concept of action research. Taken collectively. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing ± learning about the dynamics of organizational change.9 Action Research The action research model ± a data-based. Kurt Lewin.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. Taken separately.
_____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. 3. Unfreezing 2. 3. Explain Kurt Lewin¶s models and theories of planned organizational change. ±±±±±±±±±± means moving to new level of behaviour. 2. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5.1. Action research model combines learning and doing. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. 4. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. 4. 6. ±±±±±±±±±± gave the model ³Beyond the Quick Fix´. Ralph Kilmann 3.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. 6.´ Comment on this statement. 2. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change.11 Terminal Questions 1.´ 5. 6. Transactional change . A _____________ is defined as ³a set of elements standing in interaction. ³Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. Bring out the essence of ³managing beyond the quick fix´ model of organizational development. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. First²order change is also called ___________. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change.
3 4. System 5.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture 7.4.2 3.1 2. Refer section 6.3 5.3 Types of Organization Culture. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1. 22.214.171.124 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .Refer section 6.2.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7.6 Summary . Refer section 6. Refer section 6. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7. Refer section 6.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7.1 Introduction Objectives 7.
what members wear.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. Which in many organizations come down to ³Do not do too much. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. Practitioners are coming to realize that. but also changing the corporate culture as well. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. Standards of behavior exist. Objectives: After studying this unit. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. When organizational participants interact with one another. · Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. do not do too little?´ . thinking.7 Terminal Questions 7. what they brag about. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. For example. 7. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. Martin and Meyerson. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. Observed behavioral regularities. despite the best-laid plans. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. terminology. 2. Culture is one of those terms that¶s difficult to express distinctly. discovered. but everyone knows it when they sense it.1 Introduction Basically. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. the culture of a large. etc. 1986). they use common language. values. including guidelines on how much work to do. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization.7. ± similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone¶s personality. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. Norms.
Market cultures are outward looking.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber¶s original view of bureaucracy. 4. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization¶s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. Organizational climate: This is an overall ³feeling´ that is conveyed by the physical layout. Typical examples are high product quality. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. 6. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. 7. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. shared goals. In an efficient market organization. Transactions are exchanges of value. Rather than strict rules and procedures. New-comers must learn those ³ropes´ in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. outputs and outcomes.3. 5. processes and procedures. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. . Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. people are driven through vision. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. but one where all transactions. the way participants interact. They often have well-defined policies. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. internal and external are viewed in market terms. In contrast to Hierarchies. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. For many years. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility.
· The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. systems and subsystems. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. etc. discovered. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). but critical to shaping its behavior. 1986). The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. invisible to the naked eye. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. the jargon they use. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. although not necessarily documented. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. 7. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. Rules. Martin and Meyerson. . thinking. · Its rituals. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability.strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. and procedures. culture is like the DNA of an organization. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. the way they dress etc. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. Clan leaders act in a facilitative.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. 1993). do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. big-bang projects and development. In biological terms. plaques. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. rules. norms. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. supportive way and may take on a parental role. symbols.
and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. believing. . organizational growth. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management¶s policies. profitability. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization¶s social environment and evolve of behavior. productivity. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. Though each individual¶s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. there are numerous variables.Values: These are the social principles. its core value are limited to a few in number. and behaviour. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. intervening and end result. skills. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. individually and collectively. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. From this point of view. from the basis of its policies and action. goals.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. Though an organization espouses a series of values. 1. communicating. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. the personality of the organization). For example. also called as organizational success or growth. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. and what is right and what is wrong. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. and doing. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. various terms such as efficiency. decisions. business and leadership strategies. Identifying.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. are often used interchangeably. or standards held by members of an organization. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. to denote organizational effectiveness. Thus. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. there is often contradiction in various approaches. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization.
g. and a common history begins to be built. motivations. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. communication. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. building. 7. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. money. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. motivational. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. e. is workable. costs. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction.2. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of ±date. However. scrap loss. 3.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. 3. and decision-making. and earnings. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. incorporating. and so on. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. End ± result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. and they tend to be longterm goals. others are brought into the organization. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: 1. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. obtaining patents. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization.. and perceptual cluster. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. According to Likert. and energy that will be required. performance goals. That is. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. 4. attitudes. 2. For example. . locating space. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. At this point. the loyalties. and is worth the investment of time. is worth running some risks for.
Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. or even customers may support the existing culture. 7. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. take these losses early. Make changes from the top down. age. the geographic location. if possible. 3. roles. especially when making changes in rules and processes. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. 2. 4. . the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. 3. habits. management. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. commitment. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. and history of two firms. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. the ³culture contract´ that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. 1. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. 6. In addition. relationships. Staffs.Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. Emotions. and patterns of daily behavior. The personal feelings. Assess the current culture. 2. 5. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. Structure. and whether products and/or services are involved. These factors from the two cultures include the size. Include employees in the culture change process. attitudes. Politics. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can¶t be done successfully?. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. powerful stakeholders such as unions.
9. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. and strategic constituencies approach. Artifacts 2. 7. 7. Market 3. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach.8. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. Finally.7 Terminal Questions 1.6 Summary Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. 2.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Causal variables Answers to TQs: . Self Assessment Questions 1. 3. ________cultures are outward looking. behavioural approach. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. 2. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. 7. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. Stay the course by being persistent. 3. system-resource approach. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables.goal approach. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization.
2 2.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8. Refer section 7.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8. Refer section 7.3 Two Faces of Power 8.Power. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8.9 Summary 8.3 3. Politics and Organization Development Unit-08.1.10 Terminal Questions .6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8. Refer section 7.1 Introduction Objectives 8. MU0002-Unit-08.Power.
emotions. indisputable facts of organizational life. · Explain theories about the sources of power. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related." ³Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired. to effect outcomes.´ Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations. power must be exercised. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. and for change to occur in an organization. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD.8. The French word µpouvoir¶ stands for both the noun µpower¶ and the verb µto be able." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting.´ ³A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid today. Potential power is the capacity to do so.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. and behaviours of people.¶ To have power is to be able to get desired things done.1 Introduction Power and politics.actions and the decisions that precede them. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations." . In this unit. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations. Objectives: After this studying this unit. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. 8.
hurting. According to him. forcing. for organizations to function. Without leadership (power) in medical. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. an authority or power dimension is required. influence. however." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. confiscation. not the possession of power as such. political. In fact. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. Leading. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" ± positive and negative. or positive. selling. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one¶s way in a social situation." A moment¶s reflection. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. influencing. with collective. and lead. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. financial. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. bestowed. being exercised. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. unsocialized need to dominate others. 8. the act or ability of influencing others. technological. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. Power-in-action may take many forms. absolute power corrupts absolutely. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. and repression. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson¶s "Power-Dependence theory.Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one¶s way. spiritual. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. both positive and negative. power being the predominant mode. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. and organizational activities. or acquired? In this unit. 8. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. Crushing." .
to give something valued by the other. When the net balance for us is positive. goals. information. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R." · Mintzberg¶s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations." These authors suggested five sources. that person has power over us. Legitimate power ± power based on everyone¶s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. P. Referent power ± power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. we will terminate or alter the relationship. blame. or bases. hate. Coercive power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. rejection. power. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. attraction. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. and desired by the other. Expert power ± power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. Reward power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A¶s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. that is." In other words. The sociologist. that is. 5. 3. 4. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. respect." · Salancik and Pfeffer¶s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. praise. 2. we will continue the exchange relationship. and so forth. Viewed in this light. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. . influence. of social power as follows: 1. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. when the net balance for us is negative.· French and Raven¶s "Bases of Social Power. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. rewards) that are controlled by one party. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. to give something negatively valued by the other. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory.
In this theory, power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals, units, or departments) most important for solving the organization¶s most critical problems. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. This theory, like the ones discussed previously, supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by- others-in this case, the special expertise needed for the organization¶s survival-have power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits, indeed, used by all who have it, to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources, through the placement of allies in key positions, and through the definition of organizational problems and policies." These authors view organizational power as a good thing, for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. This theory, "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players, called influencers, seek to control the organization¶s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power, coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. According to Mintzberg, the five possible bases of power are, first, control of a resource; second, control of a technical skill; and, third, control of a body of knowledge. All of these must be critical to the organization. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. In addition to a base of power, the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. An organization has many potential influencers, such as the board of directors, the managers, the top executives, the employees, the unions, suppliers, customers, regulators, and so forth. The important aspects of Mintzberg¶s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others, that power-in-action requires will and skill, and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In summary, these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar ± power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. The resources may be ability to reward and
punish, being in control of critical skills, knowledge, or information, the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined ³politics simply as the study of who gets what, when, and how´. ³Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices´. ³Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups´. ³Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means´. Thus, we view politics as a subset of power, treating it as informal power, illegitimate in nature. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power, but in this sense, formal power, the power vested in office, the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. Both relate to getting one¶s way-effectance. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. For our purposes, organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations; it is engaging in activities to get one¶s way. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities; the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics, like power, has two faces. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest; unsocialized needs to dominate others; a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win, you must lose-rather than win-win terms; and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy, surprise, holding hidden agendas, withholding information, deceiving. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others; viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible; engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing; a relative absence of the tactics of fighting; and a socialized need to lead, initiate, and influence others. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making, resource allocation, and conflict resolution processes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose; they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. In fact, one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation, conflict resolution, and choosing among alternative means and goals.
8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. Virtually, all OD interventions promote problem-solving, not politics, as a preferred way to get things accomplished. OD interventions increase problem-solving, collaboration, co-operation, fact-finding, and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. For example, OD interventions typically generate valid, public data about the organization¶s culture, processes, strengths, and weaknesses. Valid, public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations; rather, they enhance the positive face of power, thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy, it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme power-oriented situations. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power, but not with the negative face of power. Values such as trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first, problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations; second, power equalization, being one aspect of the positive face of power, increases the amount of power available to organization members, and by so doing adds power to the organization. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator, catalyst, problem solver, and educator. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. According to Chris Argyris, the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information, (2) to promote free, informed choice, and (3) to promote the client¶s internal commitment to the choices made. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner, his or her program, and his or her values, methods, and expertise. The OD consultant, like all consultants, provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors, as we discussed earlier. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. In summary, organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. This major strength of OD derives from the strategy of change, the technology, the values, and the roles of OD practitioners.
both as a person and as a professional. and ability to gain organizational support. 6. it will gain more power. and expertise. According to the framework of French and Raven. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization)." 4. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. coaching. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. it will be strong externally. experience. ."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. 3. Success leads to credibility and stature. communicating. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. in powerful places. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. acceptability. 2. preferably multiple sponsorship. Skills such as listening. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. problem solving. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. 5. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1.8. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. First. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization¶s decision makers). expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge).
Rule Six: Mind your own business. . Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. which is to be an expert on process. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. Rule Five: Mind your own business. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. A valuable byproduct of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization¶s powerholders. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one¶s own or in others¶ political struggles. constructive social relationships. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one¶s power base. not the OD consultant. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. usually managers. the manager will vigorously defend it. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. not by getting involved in the answers. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. The OD program belongs to the manager. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. not content. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. those issues vital to the organization¶s success. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity.counseling. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. OD programs should be results-oriented. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being managercentered.
dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. and using contacts for information. Networking is recognized as a potent. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. individual power derives from knowledge.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. and personality characteristics. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. catalyst. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. 8. not power activist or power broker." which arouses defensive actions. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. and educator. the strategy and tactics of influence. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others¶ legitimate "turf. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated." and "going around the formal system. negotiations the nature of power and politics. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires." "using social networks.Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. As shown in the figure. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. others¶ support. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. problem solver. We could propose more rules of thumb. viable.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge · Expertise · Information · Tradition Others¶ Support y y Strategies for Success Playing It Straight · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Political access Staff support . A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. Table 8. yet legitimate means of acquiring power.
no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what¶s expected of them. ³One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. arises from expertise. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. criticality-how important one¶s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. a person¶s power comes from two main sources. personal attraction. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. This practical. visibility-how much one¶s work is seen by influential people. and legitimacy. effort. Indeed. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. . and relevance-how important one¶s task is in relation to organizational priorities. personal power and position power. Personal power. even those of little power.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network.Personality y y y Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don¶t) use organization rules Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. In this model. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. Whetton and Cameron¶s model is shown in following figure. in turn. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks´.
actually using it to get things done is another. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners." And. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. Having power is one thing. and (6) build on success. and are amenable to positive control. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. and retribution. 8. Power and politics are similar in nature. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. Retribution refers to coercion and threats. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. reciprocity. Whetton and Cameron suggest several means of resisting others¶ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power.Fig. and (3) empowering others. collaborative work environment. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. According to these authors. Usually reason is the preferred strategy. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. power-in-use is called influence." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people¶s inappropriate influence attempts. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. Our suggestions for . (2) provide a positive. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. Concluding Comments: In this unit. arise from known conditions. Reason refers to persuasion by facts.
and are amenable to positive control. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ±±±± ±±±±±±±.. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. when. and how. 5. Describe briefly various theories of power. 4.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. ±±±±±±±±±± is made up of Charisma. 8. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another.10 Terminal Questions 1. reputation and professional credibility. McClelland 3. 4. 8. 2. Define organization politics. 2. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. Power and politics are similar in nature. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. when and how. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. Self Assessment Questions 1. 5. 3. ±±±±±± is the intentional influence over the beliefs. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. _____________ has identified two faces of power.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. Harold Lasswell . Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. Power can be either positive or negative. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. Power 2. 3. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success.using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. arise from known conditions. ±±±±±±±± defined politics as the study of who gets what. Referent power 4. emotions or behaviour of people. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. 8.
Refer section 8.1 Introduction Objectives 9.5 4.3 Socio Technical Systems 9. Refer section 8.6 5. Refer section 8.4 3.2 2. Refer section 8.5.5 Quality Circles 9. Refer section 8. Personality Answers to TQs: 1.4 Management By Objectives 9.2 Meaning and Definitions 9.6 Quality of Work Life Projects . MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .
you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. In this dynamic and fluid environment. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures.8 Total Quality Management 9. actions. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.9.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. Objectives: After studying this unit.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9.10 Summary 9. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. · Explain Total Quality Management.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. · Explain Reengineering. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program.11 Terminal Questions 9. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization. organizational problems may repeat. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. .
9. Basic reinforcement theories. Cost is Low. 4. 1988): Determining the environmental demands Creating a vision statement Educating organizational members . 2. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. 1976. It could involve the following steps (Foster. Rapidity of change. Pasmore. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. Succession Doesn¶t Destroy Change Effort. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. From a benefit cost analysis.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. 5. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. Cummings. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. Greater Predictability. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. and more critically. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. It endeavors to re-design the organization¶s structure.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. In addition. organization theory. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. The cost of structural change is generally ³front-end´ loaded. Organization Acceptance of Change. 1967. This normally is a reasonable.9. 3. Downsizing associated with restructuring. Structure changes are normally ³institutionalized´ and less subject to this problem. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change.
often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of .´ The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: ³MBO is a result-centered.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. Certain degree of overlapping is there. On the other hand. Creating the change structure Conducting socio-technical analysis Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. It is a particular way of thinking about management. 2. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. As an approach to management. its features can be identified as follows: 1. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. therefore. its definitional aspect.´ Based on the definition of MBO. non-specialist. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. Since then. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. In fact. physical. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. with objective orientation as its essence. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance.
3. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. 5. Questions. are determined on the basis of objectives. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis.management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. What business are we in?´ and what should be our business?´ provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. normally once a year. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. Therefore. (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. Similarly. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. the clarity and balance of objectives. Therefore. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. such as. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. and participation of the managers with accountability for results. its subsystems and people. It works as an integrating device. delegation of authority. (ii) long-range . It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. This. its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. The performance review is held regularly. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. ³why does the organization exist?´. 4. 6. then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. Therefore. Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. etc. Resource allocation. superiors and subordinates. all the units or departments and individual manager. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. including the corporate level. in interaction with external factors. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. enhancement of employee commitment and participation. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. 1.. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources.
4. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). and (viii) public responsibility. Thereafter. In turn. a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. 3. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives. However. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. (vii) manager performance. with the experience gained over the period of time. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability. (iv) productivity. (v) individual manager¶s objectives. If not. the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate.and strategic objectives. Even though KRAs are most durable. there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. (iii) short-term organizational objectives. (iii) innovation. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully. 5. Therefore. (v) worker performance. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization. what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. Therefore. . a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization¶s health and the top management perspective for the future. the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. (vi) financial and physical resources. there should be matching between objectives and resources. It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. they also indicate the resource requirement. Therefore. this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. The process of objective setting begins with superior¶s proposed recommendations for his subordinate¶s objectives. there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate¶s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by setting easily achievable objectives. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. By relating these to objectives. the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. 2. resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. Sometimes. (ii) market standing. Setting Subordinates¶ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. By relating these to objectives. the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. In fact.
information. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. Quality circle program consists of several circles. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. which consequently result into high level of task variety. 9. this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. or in people¶s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s. · Make recommendations for improvement. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. knowledge. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. 9. 9. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. QWL programs. . in general. require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. on paper. appropriate feedback and employee discretion. what happens at each level may affect other levels also. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power. each having three to fifteen members. and rewards. Therefore.6. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization¶s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases. hierarchical structure. but in its contemporary form.
self-managed teams and task forces. service. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization¶s activities around the concept of quality.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. such as cost.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. eliminating. quality. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. statistical quality control. contemporary measures of performance. including the use of quality circles. statistical process control. 9. and extensive use of employee participation. It is very popular in USA in 1990s. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches. · Participative management. and speed. · Competitive benchmarking.9. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. It is also called continuous quality improvement. Reengineering is a top-down process. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. provides relevant information to all employees. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. Self Assessment Questions .
__________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. Intervention 2. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. Drucker 3. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. 9. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. Quality circle Answers to TQs: . 3. 9. 9. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. Explain Management By Objectives? 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. actions. Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. provides relevant information to all employees. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. From a benefit cost analysis. 2. It is also called continuous quality improvement. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3.11 Terminal Questions 1. actions. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs.1.
3 Resistance to Change 10.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change.8 Terminal Questions 10. MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 9.5 4.1.2 3.Refer section 9. 10.2 Nature of Change 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10.7 Summary 10. Refer section 9. Refer section 9.3 2. Self Assessment Questions 10.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs .4 Causes for Resistance to Change.
others. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. However.2 Nature of Change The term µchange¶ refers to an alteration in a system. some parts of organization may be affected more. job design and people. organizational change may have the following features: 1. Objectives: After studying this unit. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change.10. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. 10. Any change may effect the whole organization. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change.whether physical. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. indirectly. Organizational change is a continuous process. may require special change efforts. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. structural arrangement. biological. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled . organizational problems may repeat. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. less. or social. When change occurs in any part of the organization.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. Thus. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. some parts may be affected directly. 3. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. · Impact of change on future managers. 2. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. Thus. and others. which are major ones. Hence. and others. In this dynamic and fluid environment.
Similarly. employees want to maintain a status quo.´ Resistance as Benefit: . We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. more serious upsets may occur. Homeostasis implies selfcorrecting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. it has stretched slightly. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. commented. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. 10. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. that is. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations.balloon. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). We shall take new workers at the new place. Madhur Bajaj. In fact. it becomes indented at the point of contact. On this phenomenon. In fact. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. If people resist to change. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. In fact. if we look minutely. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it.as cost and as benefit. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. adjustment is fairly routine. but when a change is major or unusual. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. However. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. so is the resistance to change. However. because it produces identical symptoms. Though this phenomenon will be taken later.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. We wanted a new culture and new layout. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. ³The Pune plant is fully saturated. Thus. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. there are two sides of resistance.
On the one hand, resistance to change is costly affair, and on the other, it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. While on negative side, the reality lies in between. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Thus, resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: 1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Therefore, the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. These feelings, either real or emotional, may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic, psychological and social. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological, job security etc. precede over other needs. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques, technology, etc., whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them, they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India, it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely, reduce job options, and turn into technological unemployment. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match.
3. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes, bonus, etc. All these are well-established in the old system. Whenever there is change, people may feel that in the new system, they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Psychological Factors Psychological factors are based on people¶s emotions, sentiments and attitudes towards change. These are qualitative and, therefore, may be logical from people¶s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent¶s point of view. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness, status quo, lack of trust in change agent, low tolerance for change, and fear of unknown. 1. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego, people resist change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Thus, the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. 2. Status Quo: People want status quo. i.e. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore, everyone tries to avoid it. 3. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo, people may differ. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Therefore, these people resist any new idea. 4. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent, that is, the person who initiates change. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent, they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 5. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The change will bring results in future, which is always uncertain. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction, particularly social needs, through their mutual compatible interactions. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change, people resist it. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.
1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. When there is any change, their existing social interactions are likely to be changed, which people do not want. Therefore, they resist change. 2. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class, e.g., change initiated by managers affecting workers. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change, even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. For example, Sumantra Ghoshal, a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru, has commented as follows: ³Nothing fails like success; nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation, Caterpillar, Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles, all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called µThe Failure of Success¶. Strategies, values, resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés, dogmas, millstones and routines.´ This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought, these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes, stability of systems, resource limitations, sunk cost, and inter-organizational agreement. Some of these reasons are basic while others are byproducts of those. For example, first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. 1. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices, they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. 2. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. For example, a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules, prescribes rigid authority relationships, and institutes reward and punishment system. All these work in some circumstances. It a change is required in these aspects, the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system.
it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. building and training for its personnel. Thus.´ This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. analyzers. Once the assets are acquired. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. Resource Limitations: No doubt. This can be in the form of people also. 2. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. broad environmental scanning. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. those who watch things happen. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. Let us see what someone has said long back: ³There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. For example. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. In this interaction process. these can be used for specific period. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. 1. innovative. and has zeal for progress. In such a case. Now. decentralized controls. if the change is required. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. It depends more on the style of top management. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. if any change is to be incorporated. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. and commensurate expenses on other items also. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. it will require resources to procure machine.defenders. If it is risk-taking. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. centralized control. intensive planning. forward-looking.3. those who wonder what happened. . 5. 4. if new technology is adopted. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. For example. and reactors. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. 3. prospectors. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost.
Resistance can be overt. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. you find a single route and you use it regularly. engaging in a work showdown. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. To cope with this complexity. They may. The same applies to employee. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. threatening to go on strike. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won¶t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you¶re like most people. And people in general don¶t like the unknown. when you go to work or school. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one¶s income. we¶re creatures of habit. When we are confronted with change. it means you¶re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. and so on.4. finding a new parking place. therefore. we all rely on habits. we don¶t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. they cannot survive. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. or the like. Otherwise. Life is complex enough. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. If for example. or programmed responses. Therefore. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. As human beings. we¶ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. implicit.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn¶t necessarily surface in standardized ways. immediate. or deferred. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. 10. Let¶s look at the sources of resistance. developing a new lunchtime routine. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. adjusting to the new office layout. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. taking a new set of streets to work. some may fear they¶ll be unable to do so. Organizational resistance . Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. For instance. Habit Every day. For analytical purpose.
For example. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. Formalization provides job description. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. and benefits administration ± has been resisted by many human resource departments. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. group norms may act as a constraint. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. The . Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. he¶s likely to resist.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. accountants work with marketers. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization¶s structure to match. An individual union member. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. Will the change. For example. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. They tend to be content with the way things are. 10. rules and procedures for employees to follow. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself.Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. For example. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities ± such as training. for instance. development of pay plans. That is. for instance. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. You can¶t change one without affecting the others.
For this purpose. People always have some . More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. Therefore. In addition. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue ± not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. both at the formal and informal levels. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. Stephen Robbins suggests that ³«« managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. the following efforts can be taken: 1. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people¶s resistance to change successfully. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. this is not a one-time action. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. For example. Unless this problem is overcome properly.´ Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels.ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. 10. at the level of individual and at the level of group. that is. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected.´ The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. through group dynamics. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. typically by way of computer network links. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. It implies explanation and then discussion of the proposed changes. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. the problems can be solved at the same level. However. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. Locavini observes that ³the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. In many cases.
An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. sometimes. 2. the group itself should be the point of contact. helped to change attitudes. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. . the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: 1. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. education must be a part of the manager¶s everyday activity on the job.ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. as discussed earlier. 4. he expresses it through a group. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. 3. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. It grows slowly along with relationship. However. For this purpose. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. However. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. (ii) In group. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. more than one person is involved in the change. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. They must be taught new skills. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. People should be educated to become familiar with change. The same is true of problem-solving. is an important trust-building task. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. and indoctrinated in new relationships. Usually. to become effective. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. Getting opinions out in the open. Thus. Thus. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. most of the times. and conferences. As this process goes. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. meetings. Though each person interprets the change individually often. its basic nature. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. its process and working. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. so that they are looked at and evaluated.
and sensitivity or T-group training. 3. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. and how members contribute.such aspects as the reasons for change. 2. many things about change can be made clear. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. structural arrangement. 10.Through the group contact. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. 3. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. social factors. or deferred. psychological factors. __________ are based on people¶s emotions. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing . mere participation may not help. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. 2. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. Research studies also support this aspect. job design and people. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. Economic factors. benefits of change. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members.7 Summary Change is inevitable. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. immediate. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. However. Resistance can be overt. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. implicit. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. group resistance and vested interests. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. Self Assessment Questions 1. It purports how the results are. Such training techniques include role playing. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. psychodrama. For instance. sentiments and attitudes towards change.
Principles and Practices. or the like. Psychological factors 3.4 3. threatening to go on strike. 10. French and Cecil H. · Cummings & Worley. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels.6.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1.8 Terminal Questions 1. Organization Theory and Design. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. through group dynamics. P.management of Organization Change. Regal Publications New Delhi. Refer section 10. eighth edition. both at the formal and informal levels. Refer section 10.. · Harigopal K. .2 2. at the level of individual and at the level of group. Thomson South Western. N. engaging in a work showdown. New Delhi. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. New Delhi. Thomson · Daft Richard L. Reference: · Wendell L. Bell. Explain the nature of change? 2. · J.Response Books. Organizational change 2. P. Refer section 10.complaints. that is. Jain. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. Why do organizations resist change? 3.Singh. Modern Organization Development and Change. 10. Organization Development. Organization Development & Change. Jr..
edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp598. Prentice-Hall of India.umd.pdf http://webuser. Principles & Practice of Management. · Laxmi Devi. New Delhi.com/opm/grtl/OLS/ols6.managementtoday.managementhelp.1lowry. Management.edu/cameronk/CULTURE%20BOOK-CHAPTER%201.bus.htm#anchor73776 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . New Delhi. Prentice-Hall of India. · Stephen P. New Delhi. Stoner and R. Organizational Behaviour.org/docrep/w7503e/w7503e05.oup.co. Dhanpat Rai & Co.jhu. E References y y y y y y y y y y y http://fds. · L.oup. M.jp/~kyodo/kokyuroku/contents/pdf/1461-15. Educatiional Publishers.pdf http://www. Prasad.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v005/5.htm www.humtech.uk/search/article/634958/the-ceos-role-managing-change/ http://www. Edward Freeman.kurims.co. Ltd.pdf www. Pvt. Chhabra.edu/groups/learning/wp8. Prentice-Hall India.cfm http://www.· James A.lib.pdf http://www.html http://muse. New Delhi. Robbins.org/org_chng/org_chng. F.uk/pdf/bt/fincham/Chapter15. Robbbins.com/www.fao. Organizational Development.work911. 12th edition. · T.kyoto-u.umich. N.pdf http://www.wdi.htm#TopOfPage http://www.com/articles/leadchange. Organizational Behaviour. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.umich. Management. · Stephens P. . Sultan Chand & Sons.ac.
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