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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the µmanagement¶ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn µsurplus¶ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of a
business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term ³management´. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley ± ³Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.´ In the words of George R. Terry ± ³Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.´ According to James L. Lundy ± ³Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.´ In the words of Henry Fayol ± ³To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.´ According to Peter F. Drucker ± ³Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work´. In the words of Koontz and O¶Donnel ± ³Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals´.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren ± ³The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.´ From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that ³management´ is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as ³management´. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a ³distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.´ From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as ³doing things right´. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization¶s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as ³doing the right things´. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of course, high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. And poor
The application of these concepts. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. organizing. namely. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning.management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. directing and controlling. All these resources are made available to those who manage. Thus. 4. 3. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. 6. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. feeling of management is result-oriented. In essence. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. 7. labour and capital. principles and techniques which have wide applications. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. So it is treated as a science. Thus. although they can¶t observe it during operation. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. capital and materials. informed employees. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals¶ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. 1. labour. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. 5.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. 2. staffing. principles and techniques requires specialized . Managers apply knowledge.
Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem . the degree of authority gets gradually reduced.knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. people are bound by authority relationships. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. materials. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates.e. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. In other words. (ii) a system of authority. how effectively and economically the five M¶s are combined together to produce desired results. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. useful. labour and capital. government and hospital. a hierarchy of command and control. and (iii) a class or elite. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. According to Herbision and Myers. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. Similarly. finance manager. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. In modern organizations. ongoing concern. Anthropology. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. Sociology and Psychology. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. education. management is viewed as an art. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. For instance. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. personnel manager etc. 8. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. According to Newman. the effective use of the five M¶s of management (money. Basically. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. manpower. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. 10. 9. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. money and machines into a productive. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. Generally. They transmit orders. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. 1. materials. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. military. it refers to three distinct ideas. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. that is. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession.
Financial Controller. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. or. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors.. Purchase Manager. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. As a separate group. ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. Administrative management is concerned with ³thinking´ functions such as laying down policy. Operative management is concerned with the ³doing´ function such as implementation of policies. 1. planning and setting up of standards. but as head of wages and salary department.e. Production Manager... etc. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. Marketing Manager. day-to-day matters. Foremen.e. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating . its Chairman. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success.and suggestions upward. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. and the range of production. viz. technical facilities. Managing Director. For instance. The levels of management depend upon its size. ranks. But in actual practice. the lower level of management). All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as µManagement¶ which refers to the group. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. (i) administrative management (i. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. policies and plans for the enterprise. We generally come across two broad levels of management. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. etc. Supervisors. or the Chief Executive. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. Board of Directors. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents.
men. j) To report to top management. e) To assign activities.functions. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. materials. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. . The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. Without them the top management¶s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. d) To assemble the resources of money. f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. 2. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. machines and methods to put the plans into action.
Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. Their authority and responsibility is limited. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. They have to get the work done through the workers. Without management. Management is goal-oriented. They allot various jobs to the workers. counseling and effective leadership. methods. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. procedures and reward systems. 3. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. sales officers. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. money and material. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. In its absence. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. 1. accounts officers and so on. To this end. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. Management makes group effort more effective. supervisors. machines. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. an organization is merely a collection of men. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance.k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. It consists of foreman. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual¶s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. With a view to realize the .
They try to put everything on the right tract. government policy. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles.predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. Thus unnecessary deviations. the Indian Institute of Management. In the final analysis. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. Management as a profession By a professional manager. But unlike medicine or law. techniques. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. and it is distinct.. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. often threaten the survival of a firm. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. identifiable discipline. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. According to McFarland. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. Organize the resources properly. Management . etc. and specialized knowledge. skills. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. Failure to take note of customer¶s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for µIdeal java¶ in the two-wheeler market in India. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. competition.
. the All India Management Association. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. the American Management Association in U. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the . and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. do not seem to adhere to the principle of ³service above self´. the transfer of information. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. All managers have a role as a leader. etc. however. unpatterned. and short-duration activities. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. he or she is acting in a figurehead role.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. motivating. training. For instance.A. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. In fact. management is not as exact as natural sciences. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. However. This role includes hiring. managers in general. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager¶s job. The term µmanagement roles¶ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. and disciplining employees. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. But in addition to these insights. As a social science. However. bribing public officials to gain favours. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature ± interpersonal roles. sabotaging trade unions. 1. an art as well as a profession. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions. Half of these managers¶ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others.S. and decision-making. Some individual business organizations. Furthermore.Development Institute.
Typically. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. This is the disseminator role. Informational Monitor Disseminator . informers who provide favors performing other activities and information. to some degree. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. and associated duties. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. activities that involve responsible for staffing. obliged to Greeting visitors. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. manages also perform a spokesperson role. what competitors may be planning. duties of a legal or social nature. Informational Roles: All managers. Table 1. subordinates. and may be inside or outside the organization.liaison role. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. making phone subordinates to members of the calls to relay information. understanding of organization and environment. training. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. network of outside contacts and doing external board work. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. and the like. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public¶s tastes. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager¶s unit. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. that involve outsiders.1: Mintzberg¶s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Liaison Symbolic head.
physical and monetary resources.Spokesperson organization ± some information is factual. Last. Inc. projects´ to bring about change. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization¶s performance. 1973).. . Decisional Roles: Finally. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. As disturbance handlers. policies. Publishers. media. Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Source: Henry Mintzberg. serves as expert on organization¶s industry. actions. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. programming of subordinates work. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the organizational decisions. results. managers are responsible for allocating human. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. As entrepreneurs. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. As resource allocators. performing all kinds ± in effect. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. negotiations. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to develop and initiates ³improvement new programs. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. outsiders on organization¶s giving information of the plans. supervises design of certain projects as well. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. etc. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg.
and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. such as engineering. and conceptual. research by Robert L. the roles of disseminator. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization¶s speciality. this skill is crucial. motivate. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. For example. In fact. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. . During the early 1970. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. negotiator. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. figurehead. computers. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. and all managers are involved in making decisions. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization¶s operations. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. a manager¶s job is varied and complex. human. liaison. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager¶s level within the organization. finance. lead. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. They know how to communicate. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. Since managers deal directly with people. However. Technical Skills: First-line managers. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. Conversely.An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg¶s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers ± regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. or manufacturing. Specifically. as well as many middle managers.
1. etc. It is concerned with the implementation of policies. Nature 3. Meaning Administration Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. Management relates to execution of decisions. It is a thinking function. Administration is a higher level function: Administration refers to policy-making. Thus. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. Management Management means getting the work done through and with others. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. It is a doing function. Spriegel and Walter. Thus. Administrators are basically concerned with planning and control. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. Scope . administration is a higher level function. Spriegal and Lansburg. According to them. Floerence and Tead. Table 1. This view is held by Tead. Managers are concerned mainly with organisation and direction of human resources. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies. on the other hand. iii) There is no distinction between the terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ and they are used interchangeably.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. plans and policies of the organisation. Administration is a determinative function. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. Administration relates to the decision-making. 2. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration.
It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant at higher levels of management. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. 5. There are three levels of management-top. . i. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. Define management. co-ordinating. public organisations in the private sector and non-business sector. ___________. organisations. Five M¶s of management (________. 3.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. Still management is not completely a profession. 8.9 Terminal Questions 1. administrative decisions. 7. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. environmental forces. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle level leading and motivation of executives. lower levels of management. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. Explain its characteristics.e. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. DecisionMaking Administration determines Management decides who what is to be done and when it shall implement the is to be done. 1. Usage of Term The term µadministration¶ is The term µmanagement¶ is often associated with widely used in business government offices. __________is principally the task of planning. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. middle and lower. _________. counseling and effective leadership. objectives. Self Assessment Questions 1. 2. 1. operative workforce for the execution of plans. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation.. 6.4. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.
1. 3. manpower 3. Management 2. teamwork Answers to TQs: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 2. Refer section 1. Refer section 1.2. 1.4 Organizing . MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2. Refer section 1. Discuss the importance of management.3 Planning 2.2 Process of Management 2.3 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2. materials. Money.5 3.
. · Explain different functions of management Process. management functions have been regrouped into four categories.6 Directing 2. One can also think of management functionally. Motivating. Commanding 4. in recent time.5 Staffing 2. Staffing. Coordinating 5. Objectives: After this studying this unit.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2.2.9 Terminal Questions 2. · Explain Planning.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2.8 Summary 2. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. you will be able to: · Define Management process. 1949): 1. Directing.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people´. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. Organizing. Management functions are as follows (Fayol. Controlling However. Organizing 3. Planning 2.
planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. There is a degree of overlap between the two. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. Even so. the two are not quite the same. fuel and machine efficiency. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization¶s mission. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: .2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: ³Management is doing things right. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. thus. and then set out the method for achieving it.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. In the football field. policies are the means to achieve those ends. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. overall goals. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. Therefore. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. and allocating resources. Objectives are the ends. Through leadership and management often overlap. cost structure and so on. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. or where you want go to. 2. general strategies. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. driving comfort. say a passenger car. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. However. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. while a policy. it is not a decision in which any process is involved.2. leadership is doing the right things³. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. studies on passenger comfort. the decision to change the design of a product. Decision ± Making Taking decisions is a process. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal.
Are the facilities outdated? 3. professional. What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. A mission statement should be short ± and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. federal.A mission is the purpose of the organization. international). The mission statement is broad. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization¶s potential. summarizing what the organization does. Thus. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). Opportunities. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. Weaknesses. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. journals and reports (scientific. suppliers. and trade). The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: . Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. state. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. What financing is available? 6. governments (local. customers (internal and external). How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. How skilled is our workforce? 4. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. What is our market share? 5. Is research and development adequate? 4.
Are there new competitors? 3. What are the emerging technologies? 6. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. effectiveness. What are the new regulations? 6. Are market tastes changing? 5. What substitute products exist? In general terms. Are our rivals weak? 5. the best strategy is one that fits the organization¶s strengths to opportunities in the environment. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. Objectives are also called performance goals. return on investment. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. What are the possible new markets? 3. What is the strength of the economy? 4. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. earnings per share. as well as gap analysis. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1.1. Generally. etc. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) .
Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. Strategic. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. Assign work to individuals 6. In turn. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. and where decisions are to be made. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. procedures. how the tasks are to be grouped. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5.5 Staffing . 2. who is to do. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. who reports to whom. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. 2. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. lines of authority. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. grouped.4 Organizing It involves designing. with ideas and resources. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job 4. working toward common goals. Organizations are groups of people. and coordinated. tactical. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. and goals are clearly stated. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles.Tactical plans are based on the organization¶s strategic plan. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. operational plans are based on the organization¶s tactical plans. and relationships between departments. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. Review plans 2. structuring. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization.
Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. Definition: 1. 4. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick ± ³Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work´ Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. performance appraisal etc. recruitment. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. appraisal. placement. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. recruitment. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. materials. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. . placement. selection. O¶Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as ³filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. development. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. money. 2. inventorying the people available. This task has been referred to as staffing.It is not the machines. 3. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. 2. training. promotion. 3. compensation and training of needed people´. 5. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals´. Koontz. selection. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. Theo Haimann ± ³Concerned with the placement.
4. overseeing and leading people. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. It is a continuing function. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. Definition According to Koontz and O¶Donnel. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. 3. resignation. motivate them.e. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only.6. selection. On the one hand. It is an important managerial function. identifying the manpower requirements.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. Direction is an important managerial function. 7. 8. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. Through direction. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. recruitment. 5. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through ± out the life of an organization. Direction has dual objectives. Direction function is performed at every level of management. on the other. directing is the ³interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals´. vacancies arise out of retirement. induction. management initiates actions in the organization. It is instructing people as to what to do. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. promotion. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. . Direction is the managerial function of guiding. etc. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. training development and maintenance of personnel. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. 2. 2. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do.
self-respect. and external esteem factors. guide. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. teach. The manager never ceases to direct. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. and the Two-Factor theory. acceptance. and attention . the more individuality. shelter. ³without the issuance of directives. The further they progress up the hierarchy. satisfied needs cannot. coach and supervise his subordinates. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. proposed by Maslow (1943). 3. sex. belongingness. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. Theories X and Y. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. 2. The needs are arranged in order of importance. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. and achievement. As Theo Haimann puts it. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve.Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. recognition.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. status. autonomy. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished´. 2. such as. humanness and psychological health a person will show. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. thirst. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. 4. will vary depending upon his level. such as. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. from the basic to the complex.
and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. From the above. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. . such as. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. Extrinsic factors. esteem. and achievement. whereas. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. includes growth. achieving one¶s potential. Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people¶s attitudes about work. It is also believed that. externally. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. self-motivated. recognition. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. interpersonal relations. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. company policy.· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. Theory X ± In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. anxious to accept greater responsibility. working conditions. responsibility. if they can. autonomy and empowerment. such as. and exercise self-control. Motivators are intrinsic factors. self-direction. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. and salary are hygiene factors. advancement. Social. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. supervision. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager¶s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. Theory Y ± In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious.
2. many related to the tasks being performed. Planning involves the process of defining goals. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise.9 Terminal Questions 1. and where decisions are to be made. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. motivators describe a person¶s relationship with what she or he does. What is planning? 2. performance appraisal etc. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment.In summary. Organization involves designing. Explain Staffing in detail 3. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. who is to do. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: . neither will they be satisfied. who reports to whom. have to do with a person¶s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. 2. When hygiene factors are adequate. Write a short not on directing. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. 2. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. recruitment. 2. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. Self Assessment Questions 1. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. structuring.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. To motivate people. Hygiene factors on the other hand. 3. how the tasks are to be grouped. people will not be dissatisfied.
Reference 2. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1.5 Goals of OD 3. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3.7 Role of OD 3.8 Problems in OD .2 Definitions 3. SWOT 3.3 2. Reference 2.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 Characteristics of OD 3.4 Categories of OD 3.1 Introduction Objectives 3.1. Follett 2.5 3. Reference 2.6 OD and Management Development 3.
Basically. organization structure.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope. teams. adapt. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. take advantage of opportunities.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3. And organization development (OD) is one of them. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges ± finding satisfaction in and through work. and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. increased competition.10 Terminal Questions 3.Self Assessment Questions 3. Early returns were encouraging. and changing customer demands. old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. Simple survival ± continuing to have an adequate job ± is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. In summary. and profitability. strategy formulation and implementation. challenges from turbulent environments. maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals. organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology. culture. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. efficiency. Although new jobs are being created at record rates. . Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today ± threats to effectiveness. OD focuses on issues related to the ³human side´ of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals. the answer is ³yes´. and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today¶s world is a daunting task. A variety of solutions exists. and learn how to do that better and better over time. Today. conflict resolution. organization development is a process of teaching people how to solve problems. strategy. and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately. survive.9 Summary 3. organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. and processes. and the like. fighting obsolescence of one¶s knowledge and skills. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. and the organization¶s human and social processes. ³Knowledge´ work is replacing ³muscle´ work.
1980). values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies. 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure. using reflexive. and 3) Developing the organization¶s self-renewing capacity (Beer. A ³process for improving processes´ ± that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill. you will be able to: · Define organization development. and culture. (Bennis. 1969). attitudes. OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change.Objectives: After studying this unit. · Explain the characteristics of OD. markets. and challenges. (Burke and Hornstein. 1971) Organizational development is a process of planned change. processes. Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives«. · State the goals of OD. people.change of an organization¶s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making. 3. a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs. 1989) . self-analytic methods. (Schmuck and Miles. 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. and the dizzying rate of change itself. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. strategy.
they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. what practices should be included and excluded. Top management must initiate the improvement . and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance. it is more accurate to describe ³improvement´ as a never-ending journey of continuous change. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. these definitions overlap a great deal (that¶s encouraging). serious business. In fact. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. through the alteration of organizational members¶ on-the-job behaviours. ³Organization development is a long-term effort. to improve an organization¶s visioning. and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions. 1992) ³OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies. Likewise. these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. research. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential.´ (Cummings and Worley. Collectively. Now let¶s turn to our definition of organization development. and theory. 1993) ³Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization¶s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau.several years in most cases.´ (Porras and Robertson. through an ongoing. 1994) As you can see. and processes for improving an organization¶s effectiveness. By long-term effort.³Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories. led and supported by top management. We do not propose it as the ³right´ definition. values.´ This definition is lengthy. All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving. Organizational change is hard. and problem-solving processes. learning. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field.´ (Burke. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. There is no ³quick fix´ when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. strategies. including action research. and contain several unique insights (that¶s enlightening). empowerment. that is. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field. We will explain this definition in some detail. structure.
We further believe that having compelling. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as ³« organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. structure. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. norms. developing the strategy for getting there. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. beliefs. and organizational learning. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. first.´ Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. lost its commitment. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. solve problems. processes. one of widespread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization¶s purposes. learning. coherent. make decisions. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. The reciprocal influence among culture. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. For empowerment to become fact of life. activities. By including culture so prominently in our definition. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization¶s members. structure. listening. strategy. and artifacts. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. and each influences the others. interactions. attitudes. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. sentiments. empowerment. has a stake in making the organization work. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. Just as visioning. Still. Michael Beer¶s definition called for ³developing new and creative organizational solutions´. so is managing the culture. expectations. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. By learning processes. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. assumptions. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. not just a small group. team. opportunities. and processes makes each important. and common purposes of all members of the organization. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. vitality. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. and take actions on problems. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. By empowerment processes. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. in contrast to having only a select few involved. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization¶s culture. we mean those interacting. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. and culture. By visioning processes.³journey´ and be committed to seeing it through. By empowerment. we mean. and making it happen. And second. culture is of . commitment. or became distracted with other duties. where collective aspiration is set free. and challenges in the organization¶s environment and its internal functioning.
Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the ³right´ ways. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. By intact work teams and other configurations. . values.primary importance. He uses the terms µmultifunctional projectization¶ and µhorizontal systems¶ to describe these teams and their work. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. such as design. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be ³brain work´) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. But in many organizations today. and feel in relation to those problems. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. empowerment. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. This method resulted in loss of synergy. Processes are how things get done. When one function finished with its part of the project. Over time. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. (b) invented. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. manufacturing. firing. and procurement. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. individuals and the organization function well. discovered. When teams function well. Processes are relatively easy to change. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. So culture consists of basic assumptions. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. learning. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. and we highlight the importance of visioning. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. Today¶s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. Further. so they are the place OD programs often begin ± getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. In Liberation Management. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. and training. and problem-solving processes. think. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. hiring. the process ³threw the results over the wall´ to the next functional unit. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. and using management information. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: ³Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. maintaining quality control. wasted time. much rework. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. or developed by a given group. members are trained in competencies such as planning. Temporary. engineering. think. empowerment.
6. 2. Specifically. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. 3. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. according to Peters. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. collaborators. 8. Attempting to create ³win-win´ solutions is standard practice in OD programs. 10. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. 7. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. OD . Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. This µplanned¶ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. dynamic and adaptive system. OD focuses on culture and processes. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. 9. rather than focusing attention on individuals.3 Characteristics of OD 1. so that change is easily observed. 3. OD practitioners are facilitators.multifunctional. and co-learners with the client system. 4. 2. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today¶s fast-paced market place. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. To summarize. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. 5.
They discourage µdo it yourself¶ approach. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements . interactive. or catalyst. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. takes actions for intervention. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. rather. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be µhuman¶ and to increase awareness. and cyclic processes. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. rather. 3. and mutual influence. third party change agent. 4. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that µnorms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones¶. Action research is the basis for such intervention. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. 6. collects relevant data. identity. It recognizes that organizational goals change. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. and revitalization. and then. Rather. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. they are ongoing. he conducts surveys. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. further more. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. 5. The relationship involves mutual trust. growth. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. or isolated problems. He shares a social philosophy about human values. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change.efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. participation. 3. evaluates these data. Thus. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. Key areas are the normative type of model. temporary. At the individual level. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. joint goals and means. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. 7. and integrate individual and organizational goals.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. problem-solving.
second. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible.of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. This Organization Development progrmmes. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. Two important elements of Organization Development are. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. with the authority of knowledge and competence. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. problem solving climate throughout an organization.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. like other normative re-educative programmes. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. practitioners and the client laymen. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization¶s goals (profit or service) and development of people. 3. first. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. . (g) To increase the sense of µownership¶ or organization¶s objectives throughout the work force. (c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system.
(i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. Before making a comparison between the two. 3. and greater display of feelings and emotions. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. management development has been defined as follows: ³Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. Based on this. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD.´ Organization development differs from management development. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization.(h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one¶s area of responsibility. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. with their existing objectives and structure.6 OD and Management Development At this stage. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. according to him. more attention to peer-groups. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. . (ii) competitiveness. The term µdevelopment¶ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. less individual competitiveness. (iii) assertiveness. However. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager¶s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. According to him. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent.
7. . To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. 4. however. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. No special requirement.Focus Approach Time Specialist accomplishments. 3. 5. 2. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. and laterally. By 70s. 3. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. Focus on design. 3. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing organization. focus on achieving improvement in design. Thus. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. plays key role in organizational improvement. Problem-solving approach. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. horizontally.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. however. not on the managers. Educative and training Short-range. Trained specialists required. In early 60s. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. 6. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically.
Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. particularly in bottom-line ones. 3. Thus. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. 5. it is useless to try OD. 4. Research studies have also failed to conclude significant contributions of OD in all organizations. it fails even as a long-term strategy. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. If an organization is laden with these people. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. Therefore. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. Self Assessment Questions .confrontation techniques. 2. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. Hence. In general. 3. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. etc. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. some specific efforts are required. in order to make best use of OD efforts. However. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. For example. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. 2. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. There should be proper use of OD interventions. 4. Therefore. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. OD programmes are often quite costly. 5. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems.
Empowerment 4. 5.10 Terminal Questions 1. 4. 2. Explain the various characteristics of OD. Distinguish between µorganizational development¶ and µmanagement development¶. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. Tom Peters 3. Peter Senge . The participative. ±±±±±±± is associated with ³Liberation Management´. 2. _____________is a short-term strategy. 4. Who is associated with the ³Learning Organizations´? 5. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. 3. Explain its salient features. problem-focused µnature of OD¶ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. State the various roles of OD.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Organization development should be led and supported by ±±±±±±±. ±±±±±±±±± is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. collaborative. OD focuses on culture and processes. 3. There is no µquick fix¶ to organizations¶ problems. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. 3. Define OD. Top management 2.1. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. 3.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy.
6 4.Organization Development ± Interventions Structure: 4. Refer section 3.Organization Development ± Interventions Unit-04.3 3.7 5. MU0002-Unit-04. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.5.5 Leadership Development 4.2 Survey Feedback 4.4 Grid Training 4. Refer section 3.2 2.6 Team-building .1 Introduction Objectives 4. Management development Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 3.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 Process Consultation 4.
9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. Thus. and survey feedback method. the classification of OD interventions shows variation. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels.7 Inter Group Development 4. Further. Subsequently.´ There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways.4. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. grid training. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the range of change that an organization requires. Therefore. they make things happen. other techniques like process . Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. Nevertheless. interpersonal level.8 Change Agents 4. management grid. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. and organizational culture.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. Historically. and organizational level.10 Summary 4. team-building. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. techno-structural activities. However. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. process consultation. People¶s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. inter-group activities.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: ³Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement.11 Terminal Questions 4. group level. mediation and negotiation activities. inter-group level. work group. education and training. survey feedback. For example.
consultation, team- building, and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives, have been added. Our further discussion follows this development. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. · Explain grid training. · Describe process consultation. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Role of change agents. 4.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid), the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier, Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan, USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 2. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection, feedback of information, developing action plans based on feedback, and follow up. 1. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership ± managerial support, managerial goal emphasis, managerial work facilitation, peer support, peer goal emphasis, peer work facilitation, and peer interaction facilitation, organizational climate-communication with the company, motivation, decision-making, control within the company, co-ordination between departments, and general management, and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company, satisfaction with the supervisor, satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with the pay, and satisfaction with the work group. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization¶s personnel.
After the questionnaires are completed, data are classified, tabulated, and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 2. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed, feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. In oral system of feedback, it is provided through group discussion or problemsolving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively, feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted, it should be constructive and suggestive, rather, threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case, follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building, by the consultant. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. In particular, survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. 2. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However, effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. First, questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. If it is biased, all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Second, even if valid and reliable information is collected, it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change; it provides base for action for change. 4.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Edgar Schein, the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows:
³The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client¶s environment.´ The basic objectives of P.C are as follows: 1. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership, communication, roles and functions of group members, group decision-making and problemsolving, group norms, and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD. 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 2. Define the Relationship: At this stage, client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees, and spelling out services, time, etc. At this stage, the client¶s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. 3. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. At this stage, the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 4. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 5. Intervene: At this stage, the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural change. 6. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.C is completed, the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes, he assists the
C programmes. traditions. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant¶s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. 3. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. like other OD intervention techniques. Inter-group Development: At this phase. 2. P. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. 2. . The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. However. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. group. groups. communication skills. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. problem-solving. In the review of various P. 1. P. inter-group. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. 3. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. The skills relating to planning. and the organization as a whole. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. and total organizational levels. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. objective-setting. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. The grid organization development consists of six phases. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. From this point of view. focuses on skills. knowledge. and teamwork.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. and alike.organizational members to incorporate those changes.C is also not free from criticisms. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. However. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. and problemsolving are also developed. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. 4.
Systematic Critique: In this stage. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. We will look more carefully at each of these. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant.5 Leadership Development When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). confident and effective decision-making. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. competence. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. and regular. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. Further. lead. concerned and committed to their welfare. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. complete communication that is timely. therefore. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. They have maintained that ³managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. 4. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. and After Arrival. Slogging Through The Swamp.´ In a later work. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important.4. If you are to manage change effectively. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. In this light. The strategy is then implemented. it discounts reality. Furthermore. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. Also during these times of change. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. is the ability of leadership to«well. the various programmes may be redesigned. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. in spite of these criticisms. 6. During drastic change times. while at the same time . and credibility of senior and middle management. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. 5. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. grid training is a non-rigorous method. they maintained the same stand. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton.
As against these. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as ³who will be members of the team?´ ³Who will perform what functions?´ ³Who will contribute what?´ ³What rules will be . performing. norming.´ A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. In a climate of distrust. French and Bell have opined that ³probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. if haven¶t established a track record of effective leadership. teambuilding is the most important. These stages are: forming. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. 4. problems in team-work. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team¶s time together. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. but more importantly. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. For example. 4. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. it may be too late. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up.recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. how synergy is generated through team-work. if allowed to go on for too long. therefore. storming. employees expect nothing positive. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. brings hope for better times in the future. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone¶s best interests.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. Leadership before. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. widely accepted. The existence of this trust. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. which. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. Unfortunately. let us consider the life cycle of a team.
different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team¶s goals. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. 4. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. 5. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. At this stage. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. 2. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. team members start settling. because of individual differences. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. At this stage. Sooner or later. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: ³Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. start to accept others. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. jockeying for relative control. each team has to be adjourned. 3.followed?´ ³How can conflicts among members be resolved?´ and so on. The adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. Norming: After storming stage. However. They share personal information. After the adjournment of the team. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed.´ . etc. committee. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck.
Thus. group of eight. fail to perform their assigned tasks. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. that is. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. other factors remaining the same. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts.2 pounds. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. goals. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. They averaged 138. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group¶s meetings. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. group efforts tend to slacken. the complementarity among members is achieved. other factors remaining the same. in one experiment. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. In the above paragraph. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. it appears that there are many . When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. 2. the individual average dropped down still lower-68. In such an assignment. the team would be effective. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. it was found that individuals¶ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. and attitudes. From this statement. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. For example. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. and so on. In fact. To the extent.
have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance. 4. or propose discipline for team members. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one¶s own role as well as roles of other members. serve to focus attention. common purpose. 1. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size. then. . complementary skills. organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. 3. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. two things are required from its members. Katzenbatch and Smith. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group. management consultants. supportive environment. goals. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. These super-ordinate goals. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. Even if one member lacks behind. Rewards of both types. make recommendations regarding a new supervisor. and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. These factors are skills and role clarity. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. Therefore. they will put their maximum. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. 3. 2. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team.factors in an effective team. customer satisfaction. Thus. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality. 2. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. unify efforts. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule.financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals. and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. While skills are relevant for job performance. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. Further. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage.
Analyzing how the team is working. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. Analyzing how the work is performed. 4. 3. group problems to even personal problem. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. and 5. . Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. For achieving these. Providing positive feedback. personality and attitudes. the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure. 2. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds. rather. recognition. and 5. In problem identification. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. Fig. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared. 1. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. Setting goals and priorities for the team. the emphasis should be on consensus. generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. Analyzing how team¶s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. 4. such as. 2. they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure.4. At this stage. their value systems.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action. and rewards. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1.
etc. . At this stage. (iii) Clarifying: resting. If this process is adopted several times.3. information. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas. 4. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings. encouraging others to participate. people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. the way people talk about the issue. (ii) Attacking: deriding. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. 5. talking together with speaker. who was trying to resolve the differences. there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. seeking relevant information. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time. with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours: Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team¶s responsibilities. criticizing person. At the time of discussion of feedback. who was talking more or who was talking less. clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team. and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. (iii) Negative: cooling. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. undermining morale. feelings. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. cynicism. understanding. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. belittling. Followup action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of team-building. Often. the stying with the topic or going off on tangents. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. ensuring. about the issue. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing. Negative Behaviour (i) Over talk: interrupting. etc. also provides opportunity to understand themselves.
Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the organization¶s outcomes. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. and feedback skills). team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. structure. though. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage. 2. one of the more . in different degrees. As a result. 3. to encourage and sustain such feelings. team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. Therefore. it is not that effective in isolation. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. In general. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. However. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. However. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier. monitoring.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. It seeks to change to attitudes. 2. team-building has a positive outlook. it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. It improves the organization¶s problem-solving and decision-making ability. However. 4. and perceptions that groups have of each other. etc. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working.These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. stereotypes. communicating. listening. are not given adequate attention. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology.. In spite of these problems.
4. employees of the organization.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. after which similarities and differences are discussed. In contrast. According to Curtis Mial: ³The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. as the accelerator to build up momentum. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. with members from each of the conflicting groups. but one thing he/she is not the driver´. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action.Popular methods emphasize problem solving. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. culture.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. the other group. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. Outside consultants. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. the groups can move to the integration phase ± working to develop solutions that will improve relations. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. as the break for too quick action. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. and personnel. Differences are clearly articulate. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. however. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. operating procedures. Trainer .9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . For major change efforts. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes ± which can be benefit or a disadvantage ± because they don¶t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. Subgroups. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization¶s history. In this method. The groups then share their lists. or outside consultants. 4.
group. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. Team-building is most important. group discussions.A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. attitudes and beliefs. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. feedback of information.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. Data collection. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies ± lectures. role-plays and instruments. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. 2. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. 4. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. Self Assessment Questions 1. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. inter-group and total organization levels. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire.11 Terminal Questions 1. diagnosis. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Training is required for enhancing knowledge. It focuses on skills. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. presentations. Training is used both in µcontent orientation¶ and process orientation¶. changing (intervening) and refreezing. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. In process consultation. Grid Training was developed by ±±±±±±±±±±±± 3. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. cases and experiential learning etc. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. skills and change in behavior. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? . Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. films.
Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4. Refer section 4. 3. Assumptions. and Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values. 4.6 4. Refer section 4. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? 3. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. Assumptions.1 Introduction . Refer section 4. Blake and Mouton.2 3. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5.2. Refer section 4. Data collection 2.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. MU0002-Unit-05-Values.4 2.
Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5.2 Definitions 5. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development.1 Introduction A set of values.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5.5.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies.5.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5.5.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves. 5.Objectives 5. beliefs and assumptions. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5. assumptions. Objectives: After studying this unit. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers.7 Terminal Questions 5. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions. beliefs and assumptions.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5.2 Definitions . · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5. · List the chronology of events of values.
with values being beliefs about good and bad. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. Simple. Taylor s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. reason. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. Thus. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. or spirit of the time. research on the effects of different leadership styles. treat people with respect and dignity. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought y Frederick Winslow Taylor s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. dishonesty). and that rationality. and assumptions being. the human relations movement. 5. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering.g. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. OD values tend to be humanistic.A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. assumptions. Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or µgood¶ (e. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual.. strongly held. Values. free speech) and what is undesirable or µbad¶ (e. it is a cognitive fact for the person. and democratic. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources ± the Hawthorne studies.. . assumptions. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. values. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process.g. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. the laboratory training movement. As these ingredients accumulated." or slacking off. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly. and the like. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. optimistic. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics.
most efficient way to organize people.y The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of bureaucracy as the best. a management theorist and astute observer of labour-management relations. Mary Parker Follett (1926). The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. People were not cogs. The Functions of the Executive by Chester 1. the work environment. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. and a general humanizing of the workplace. much of the research. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. apathy. extensive division of labor. Lippitt (1939). A strong hierarchy of authority. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. and the supervisor determined their performance. aggressiveness and poor performance. wrote an article on The Giving of Orders advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. In a sense. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. These approaches possessed many desirable features. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. impersonal rules. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. Group Dynamics (1940) The scientific study of groups using experimental research methodswas launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. Their simple. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. Research by Lewin. People came to work as whole people. The human relations movement advocated participative management. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. greater attention to workers social needs. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. theory. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. organizations were not machines. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). their feelings and attitudes about the work. y y y y y y y . by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people s beliefs about organizational behaviour.
Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). French s (1948) article. increase self-understanding. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. Chris Argyrif s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. a direct precursor of OD. to assume responsibility. and need to be led. higherlevel needs become dominant. a mechanistic organization y y y y y y y y . P. The task of management is to change organizational structures. The theory postulated that when lower-level needs are satisfied. this book popularized Maslow s motivation theory. reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. management practices. dislike responsibility. Overcoming Resistance to Change. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. This article introduced the concept of organizations as socio-technical systems.y These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). pioneers in laboratory training. Rogers focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. healthy adults. caring social climate. In an environment of slow change. are self-centered. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. and understand group dynamics. Lester Coch and John R. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. resist change. lack ambition. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. indifferent to the organization s needs. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so.
summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. and negative consequences. open communications. y Rensis Likert s New Patterns of Management (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. and greater individual autonomy. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company OD Six-Pack. (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. and organizations that is. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. humanistic. one-on-one leadership style. Out of this zeitgeist. as we have said. groups. in an environment of high change. Values have always been an integral part of OD. and values of the field. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. Writing in 1969. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. theory. bureaucracy. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. optimistic. compromise. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate.structure may be appropriate. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. goal-oriented. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. · Development of more effective "team management. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. dysfunctions. an organic organization form is preferred." that is. These six books presented the theory. and democratic. y y This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. and shares decision-making with the work group. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. . Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. practice. The Social Psychology of Organizations by Daniel Katz and Robert L. and unprincipled power.
Here is his list. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. Stalker used the term ³mechanistic´ in contrast to ³mechanical. and confidence between and across levels. not the basis of managerial strategy. sub-units of organizations. Robert Tannenbaum. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. director of organization development. They listed these ³values in transition´ as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. . The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. Therefore.´ For example. 1. "People support what they help create. 2. a professor and Sheldon Davis. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). not individuals. 4." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. 5. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. the basic units of change are groups. Controls are interim measurements. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. 3." like pushing buttons. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. M.· Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. Organizations." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. 6. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. mutual trust. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard.
· Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. appropriate uses of power. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. participation and contribution by all organization members. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. the legitimacy of feelings. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. collaboration and co-operation. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions . · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. autocratic. authentic interpersonal relations. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. open communication. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. · Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. decentralized decision making. 5. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. toward seeing them as being in process. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them.· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings.
The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. and co-operation within the group. Second. not a one-on-one leadership style. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask.5. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. give responsibility. 5.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. and are capable of making. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. support. personal growth. First. Implications of these assumptions are several. facilitation. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. Hence. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. including peers and boss. a church or club group. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group¶s effectiveness and development. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. permit failure. set high standards. and usually with more than one group. support. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. give autonomy. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. leaders need to give important work to teams. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. at both the formal and informal levels. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. To do this. and reward success. listen. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. not individuals. . most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. What occurs in the work group. the family. Third. Also. Most people want to develop their potential. invest training time and money to increase group members¶ skills. conflict management. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. and organizations? 5. such as a work group.5. and job satisfaction. and interpersonal communication. in addition. groups. remove obstacles and barriers. This skill is a trainable one. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group.Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. and so on. encourage risk-taking. challenge. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development.
and empowering. By implication. they change over time. grouping by specialized function. developmental. Therefore. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. adherence to the chain of command. and profitability. 5. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. organizing structures. The rapid technological. Concluding Comment: . This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. in which one side wins and the other side loses. Finally. a growing awareness that ³win-lose´ organizational situations. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative.5. By implication. Still. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. including how persons C." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. values are never static. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. and ways to optimize human potential. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization¶s leaders. quality of output. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. emphasis on topdown directives. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. and so on-are obsolete.Finally. and E can support these changes. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. In addition. are dysfunctional over the long run and highlight the need for a ³win win´ attitude. societal. The implication is that people are an organization¶s most important resource. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. formalized cross-functional communication. an optimistic. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. D. Frequently the challenge is broader. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where ³putting people first´ paid off handsomely in profits and performance.
The concept of ±±±±±±±±±± was introduced by MaxWeber.W. beliefs and assumptions.7 Terminal Questions 1. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. 5. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. The outcome of ±±±±±±±± was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation.The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. values. OD values tend to be humanistic. 2. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. 5. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. Values. Define concepts. __________ is associated with scientific management. 5.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. beliefs. optimistic and democratic. 5. Values are also beliefs. Values. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. 3. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. 3. Values. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. Self Assessment Questions 1. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. and assumptions are all ±±±±±±±±±± facts. Taylor¶s principles of scientific management. Cognitive . Write a note about F. 2. 4. but are widely accepted today.
Hawthorne experiments 5. Refer section 5.3 5.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6. W. Taylor 3. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6. Refer section 5. Bureaucracy 4.2 Beyond the Quick Fix . F.3 4.2. Refer section 5.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6.3 3.2.1 Introduction Objectives 6.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2 2. Refer section 5. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1.2. Refer section 5.
2 Congruence among System Elements 6. Objectives: After studying this unit.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.11 Terminal Questions 6.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6.1 The Nature of Systems 6.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.3.5 Teams and Teamwork 6.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.3.6. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.3.3 Systems Theory 6. In this discussion. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning.10 Summary 6.4 Participation and Empowerment 126.96.36.199.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6. you will be able to: .6 Parallel Learning Structures 6.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6.
and specify the relationships among the variables. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in . 6. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field. That is. · Explain systems theory. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. We will examine the following concepts: · Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD.2. · Explain the terms µparticipation¶ and µempowerment¶. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. describe those features as variables. · Describe the parallel learning structures. Models and theories depict.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. in words or pictures.· Explain various models and theories of planned change. the important features of some phenomenon. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved.
opposing directions. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. b. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. judge things. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. that is. Lewin¶s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. With a technique called the force-field analysis. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. that is. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. etc. moving to new level of behaviour. he must move. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. Next. Finally. feel things. Likewise. For example. mentor. Scanning the environment for new relevant information . Lewin¶s second idea was a model of the change process itself. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. Identifying with a new role model. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point.
Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system¶s problem. establishing goals and intentions of action. b. and fit with the individual¶s social surroundings. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. This motivating evidence is gained by. The primary task in stage 3. That is. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person¶s personality. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. That is. change will not occur. The total personality and self-concept. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. In stage 1. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s refreezing phase. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. that is. Significant relationships. Jeanne Watson. for example. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. refreezing. and attitudes. moving. Phases 3. and Bruce Westley. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. . which cause guilt and anxiety. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. which motivate the person to change. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. unfreezing. 4. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. and 5 correspond ro Lewin¶s moving phase. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person¶s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin¶s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. terminating the client-consultant relationship. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change.Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. In stage 2. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s unfreezing phase.
4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. Change programs take from one to five years to complete. critique practices and procedures.2 Beyond the ³Quick Fix´ A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program." that.This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting.2. 2) Diagnosing the problems. and 5) The reward system track. 3) The team-building track. 2) The management skills track. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? . called "tracks. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. when functioning properly. Interventions include training programs. and so forth. 4) The strategy-structure track. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. Kilmann¶s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. cause the organization to be successful. 6. problem-solving sessions. 3) Scheduling the "tracks".
The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions.and second-order change. beginning with the culture track. and all resources with the new strategic direction. then moving to the team-building track. work groups. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. radical. then moving to the management skills track. the use of updated management skills. In second-order change. departments. Westinghouse. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. . its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. communication. Ford General Electric. jobs. 6. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call ³transactional change´ and ³transformational change´). or continuous change. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit ± thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. information sharing. OD programs are directed toward both first. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered ± the organization is transformed. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. Eastman Kodak. and so forth. General Foods. incremental. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. In first-order change. TRW. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. evolutionary.The culture track enhances trust. revolutionary. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence.2. or discontinuous change. adaptive. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. and Xerox with good results. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. and its holistic view of organization change and development. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T.
friendly or unfriendly. and systems cause changes in work unit climate." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. and difficult to change. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. values. On the other hand. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. often unconscious. individual and organizational performance. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. in turn. hard-working or easy-going. management practices. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees¶ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. and beliefs that are enduring. management practices. leadership. Changing structure. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. and organization culture result in second-order change. and so forth. We will do so in several steps. Fig." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First ± Order Change .Organizational climate is defined as people¶s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. 6. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. which change motivation and. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate.
and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. Burke says: ³Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. that is. mission and strategy. 6. leadership styles. as shown in the above figure. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization¶s culture. To summarize. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. These factors are able to change the climate.Fig. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational).2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second ± Order Change On the other hand. we must change mission and strategy. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. structure. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. . The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. Interventions directed toward management practices. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization.´ We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. and organization culture. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate.
strategies.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. which determine organizational performance and individual development.Fig. . The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. It is how OD works. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. and technology. rewarded). physical setting.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. For example. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. which influence on-the job behaviours. and interaction processes will affect social factors. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. 6. according to Porras and Robertson. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. Interventions that focus on culture. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members¶ cognitions (they learn what is expected. required. social factors. OD interventions that focus on goals. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology.2. management style.
and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. 6. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures. This section explains systems theory. Fig. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. describes the characteristics of systems. 6. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD.Fig. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory. Systems .5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6.
What is inside the boundary is the system. They do something to the inputs via throughput. components. when taking a systems approach. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. interconnectedness. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. people.theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. For example. dynamics.system." To summarize.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. system denotes interdependency. Therefore. the organization will cease to exist. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. the reasons for their existence. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. Thus. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. 6. The words µarrangement¶ and µinterrelated¶ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. conversion. resources. in that they permit exchange of information. or subsystems. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. Organizations are open systems. that is the system. information. and energy between system and environment. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. and what is outside the boundary is the environment." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. Here." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized.3. the organization¶s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. . and if the environment does not want these outputs. or transformation processes that change the inputs. raw material and so on. money. Open systems have purposes and goals. Every system is delineated by a boundary. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms.
"return to earth. that information is called positive feedback. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. . negative and positive. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. Positive feedback comes from the environment. and makes a course correction. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. It is sometimes called deviationamplifying feed back. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. however. Systems require two kinds of feedback. Say your company makes buggy whips. and the system adjusts to a new goal. mining. aerospace. say. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. For example. By the same token. eating fads. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. For example. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. If the mission (target) changes. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. 6. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. and the like. competitors. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. while screening out other information.Fig. but most are not useful. Information is important to systems in several ways.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems ³run down´ and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. and so on. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs.
Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. knowledge. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. and informal organization. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. With increased differentiation. this process is called differentiation. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state ± systems have multiple paths to goals. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. and individual level. differentiated. 6. . failures. As Katz and Kahn say: ³The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. The three major input factors are: 1) The environment. people. 2) Resources available to the organization. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). knowledge. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. which includes skills. and systems for performing the work. specialized. formal organization. perceptions. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary.´ Also. which includes formal structures.Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. important events.3. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. processes. systems tend to get more elaborated. and the workforce¶s expectations. unit/group level. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. which includes the organization¶s culture informal rules and understandings. work. and complex over time. either internal or external. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. Subsystems exist within larger systems. such as capital. and technology.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change.
if people don¶t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. In a company that is performing poorly. which components are "not functioning correctly. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. training group members in multiple skills. that is. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model¶s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. multi-skilled teams. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. organizations must optimize both systems. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. to the workers doing the job. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. and that changes in one system affect the other system. a social system and a technical system. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist." and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. forming autonomous work groups. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory.Fig. fit) must be present among the system¶s components¶ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. For example. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. . Hanna writes: . performance will suffer." The premise is that alignment (harmony. 6. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems.3. especially autonomous work groups (selfregulated teams or self-direct teams). and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. two active segments of OD today. performance will suffer. If the organization¶s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. 6. performance will suffer. and information to the point of action. Fred Emery. controlling variance at the source.
Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. . systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. forces. events and forces. and systems thinking. Second. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands.3. Without a systemic orientation. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. G. the fifth discipline. Of all these disciplines. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. mental models. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. but seen in relation to other issues.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. Charles Krone. For example. systems thinking. team learning. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. First. issues. therefore.In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. from their activities. He says of systems thinking: ³It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. according to Peter Senge. events. because most phenomena have more than one cause. changing one part of a system influences other parts. OD practitioners expect multiple effects.´ In conclusion. Third. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stakeholders.KI Jayaram. 6. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. is the most important. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. and 3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). building shared vision. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). not single effects.
One view. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). which they call "mechanistic. reduce stress levels. and to be responsible. is the more useful perspective. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being." is bottom-up and less controlling. and change. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. And fifth. search conferences. personal initiative. But . produce better solutions to problems. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. quality circles. to change a system." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. one changes the system. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment.Fourth. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. not just its component parts. involvement and participation energize greater performance. Participation enhances empowerment. Further. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. with its emphasis on risk-taking." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. to exert influence. autonomous work groups. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. and growth. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. The other view. increase commitment to the organization. 6." These authors believe the organic view. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. They believed that it was about risk-taking. and give more power to more people. For example. called "organic. team building. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. growth. survey feedback. quality of work life programs. To empower is to give someone power. to contribute their ideas.
as a team. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: ³Empowerment. Theory. then. If the team. systems. Second. but rather a mindset that employees have about their roles in the organization. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). processes. Teams and teamwork are "in. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. confident about their abilities. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. and relationships if they are to be effective. . The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. that is. teams create synergy. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today ± gurus extol the virtues of teams. employees must choose to be empowered.both views contain valid ideas: for example. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. STS (socio-technical systems). "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. Third. the noun team has become a verb. research. is not something that management does to employees. they must if personally connected to the organization. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. changes those norms and values. HPOs (high-performance organizations). teaming. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. people must work together to accomplish them. to name just a few. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. QCs (quality circles). Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. While management can create a context that is more empowering. Team Taurus developed Ford¶s best-selling automobile. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First.´ 6. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion.
status. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. and others. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. that they achieve synergy. find innovative ways around barriers. . elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. and explore ways to realize that potential. teams satisfy people¶s needs for social interaction. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. When any one feature is lost. and respect-teams nurture human nature. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. parallel learning structures. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. In this section. process consultation. and set ever-higher goals. temporary teams. and responsibility charting. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. heart transplant surgical teams. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. recognition. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. team performance declines. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. help each other. including collegiate football national champions. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork.Fourth. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. Examples are team-building. cross-functional teams. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. role negotiation technique. socio-technical systems programs. inter-group team-building. and the like. quality circles.
High responsibility. projects will be performed by teams. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. constitute another important foundation of organization development. and initiate needed changes. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as ³a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. deciding. Union Pacific Railroad. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. 6. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures.Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. clear objectives. and then leading the process. It isn¶t the supplemental structure that¶s important. flexible response. autonomous. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. talking.´ Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). superior customer service. managers. 6. In essence. and employees.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing . parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. you don¶t have a parallel structure.´ The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. Projects are the work of the future. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. If you don¶t implement different norms and procedures. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. Interestingly. What¶s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. At Ford Motor Company. Bushe and Shani say: ³The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization¶s methods of work and/or culture. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. Asea Brown Boveri. and continuous learning. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. Titeflex. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality.
Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. and together they define problems and seek solutions. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. values. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. that is. not just changes in knowledge. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. attitudes. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normativereductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. Change in a pattern of practice or action. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. rather than the OD practitioner. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. and¶ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. doubts. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-re-eductive and the empirical-rational strategies. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. and significant relationships. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. relationships and customary ways of doing things. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. Patterns of action and practice are supported ± by sociocultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. information. skills. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. anxieties. will follow their rational self-interest. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. based on the assumptions that people are rational. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. The first type is empirical rational strategies. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. according to this view. ." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values.Organization development involves change. Evaluated against these three change strategies. OD clearly falls within the normative-reeducative category.
re-establishes the equilibrium. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice.. hopefully. Thus. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory.´ Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. 6." applied science. Greenwood states: ³The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. and (2) "technology. success corroborating the diagnosis. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. placing it in a classification scheme or typology.´ From this "practice theory. applied science or practice. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. or practice. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. i. practices. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. The practitioner examines the problem situation. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. for example. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. thereby solving the problem. OD emphasizes the latter. pressing problems. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. by modifying a group norm or standards.e. behavioural science knowledge. on the basis of selected variables. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. not the individual. . Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. Burke writes: ³If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. On this point.
who developed the concept of action research. Taken separately. had this to say about it: ³The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. The two bottom inputs. Self Assessment Questions .9 Action Research The action research model ± a data-based. the two top in puts.Fig. Action research involves three processes: data collection. form of applied behavioural science. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. and research leading to social action« This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. 6. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. 6.´ Concluding Comments: These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. and doing or implementing change efforts. practice research and practice theory. Kurt Lewin.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. Taken collectively. It is a type of action-research. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing ± learning about the dynamics of organizational change. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. represent contributions from pure or basic science. represent contributions from applied science. and action planning based on the data. perhaps more accurately. feedback of the data to the client system members.
Unfreezing 2. A _____________ is defined as ³a set of elements standing in interaction.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. ³Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. Explain Kurt Lewin¶s models and theories of planned organizational change. 2. 6. 3. First²order change is also called ___________. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. Ralph Kilmann 3.1. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. 4. 4. ±±±±±±±±±± gave the model ³Beyond the Quick Fix´. Bring out the essence of ³managing beyond the quick fix´ model of organizational development. Transactional change . In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. Action research model combines learning and doing.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 6. ±±±±±±±±±± means moving to new level of behaviour.´ Comment on this statement. 3. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. 6. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment.11 Terminal Questions 1. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain.´ 5. 2.
3 Types of Organization Culture.2. Refer section 6.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture 7.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1 Introduction Objectives 7. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1.Refer section 6.3 4. Refer section 6.4.1 2. 7.2 3. Refer section 6.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.6 Summary . System 5. Refer section 6.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7.2.3 5.2.
including guidelines on how much work to do. 2.1 Introduction Basically.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. · Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. values. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. Culture is one of those terms that¶s difficult to express distinctly.7. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. Observed behavioral regularities. thinking. Standards of behavior exist. 7. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. despite the best-laid plans. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. what they brag about. When organizational participants interact with one another. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. discovered. terminology. but everyone knows it when they sense it. For example. etc. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. Which in many organizations come down to ³Do not do too much. Objectives: After studying this unit. Martin and Meyerson. Norms. do not do too little?´ . organizational culture is the personality of the organization. but also changing the corporate culture as well. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. Practitioners are coming to realize that. ± similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone¶s personality. the culture of a large. 1986). Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. what members wear. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. they use common language. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving.7 Terminal Questions 7.
. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. but one where all transactions. For many years. Market cultures are outward looking. New-comers must learn those ³ropes´ in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. 4. Transactions are exchanges of value. the way participants interact. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. 7. people are driven through vision. internal and external are viewed in market terms. In contrast to Hierarchies. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. processes and procedures. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. They often have well-defined policies. 6. outputs and outcomes. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. Typical examples are high product quality. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. 5. Rather than strict rules and procedures. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. shared goals. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods.3. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. In an efficient market organization. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization¶s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber¶s original view of bureaucracy. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. Organizational climate: This is an overall ³feeling´ that is conveyed by the physical layout.
Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. culture is like the DNA of an organization. and procedures. 1986). Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. 7. rules. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. In biological terms. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). although not necessarily documented. symbols. norms. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. Rules. discovered. the jargon they use. systems and subsystems. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. · Its rituals. etc. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. but critical to shaping its behavior. 1993). innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. thinking. Clan leaders act in a facilitative.strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. invisible to the naked eye. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. the way they dress etc. plaques. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. . Martin and Meyerson. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. big-bang projects and development.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. supportive way and may take on a parental role.
there is often contradiction in various approaches. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. various terms such as efficiency. and behaviour. Though each individual¶s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. skills. and doing. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization¶s social environment and evolve of behavior. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos.Values: These are the social principles. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. and what is right and what is wrong. believing. business and leadership strategies. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. individually and collectively. from the basis of its policies and action. there are numerous variables. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. decisions. or standards held by members of an organization. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. 1. to denote organizational effectiveness. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. also called as organizational success or growth. are often used interchangeably. . its core value are limited to a few in number. communicating. For example. profitability. goals. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. Thus.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. intervening and end result.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management¶s policies. Identifying. Though an organization espouses a series of values. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. productivity. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. the personality of the organization). From this point of view. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. organizational growth.
and energy that will be required. e. and decision-making. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. the loyalties. and is worth the investment of time. motivational. performance goals. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization.g. money. and a common history begins to be built. and they tend to be longterm goals.2. costs. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. That is. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. . scrap loss. others are brought into the organization. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. attitudes. However. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. locating space. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. End ± result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. 4. and earnings.. building. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. 7. According to Likert. and perceptual cluster. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. is workable. is worth running some risks for. 3. and so on.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. communication. motivations. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. At this point. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: 1. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. incorporating. For example. 2. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of ±date. 3. obtaining patents. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization.
moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can¶t be done successfully?. and whether products and/or services are involved. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. 6. 1. Make changes from the top down. Include employees in the culture change process. and patterns of daily behavior. habits. 4. age. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. or even customers may support the existing culture. and history of two firms. These factors from the two cultures include the size. if possible. Structure. relationships. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside.Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. Staffs. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. . 7. powerful stakeholders such as unions. Emotions. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. Assess the current culture. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. The personal feelings. roles. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. 5. management. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. 3. especially when making changes in rules and processes. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. 2. Politics. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. In addition. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. the ³culture contract´ that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. attitudes. 3. take these losses early. 2. the geographic location. commitment.
Causal variables Answers to TQs: . Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective.6 Summary Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. system-resource approach. Artifacts 2. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. Market 3. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. and strategic constituencies approach. 3. behavioural approach. Finally. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. Stay the course by being persistent. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. 9.7 Terminal Questions 1.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. ________cultures are outward looking. 2. 3.8. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. 2. 7. 7. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. Self Assessment Questions 1. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed.goal approach. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. 7.
3 3. Refer section 7.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8.Power.1 Introduction Objectives 8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8.2 2. Politics and Organization Development Unit-08.9 Summary 8.3 Two Faces of Power 8.10 Terminal Questions .Power. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1. MU0002-Unit-08. Refer section 7. Refer section 7.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.
´ ³A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. Potential power is the capacity to do so. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations. Objectives: After this studying this unit. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. and for change to occur in an organization. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting. emotions.actions and the decisions that precede them. and behaviours of people. to effect outcomes. indisputable facts of organizational life. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid today. The French word µpouvoir¶ stands for both the noun µpower¶ and the verb µto be able. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change. · Explain theories about the sources of power. power must be exercised. 8. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired.8. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD.´ Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs." .1 Introduction Power and politics." ³Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire.¶ To have power is to be able to get desired things done. In this unit." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes.
" . and lead. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" ± positive and negative. being exercised. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. Leading. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. political. According to him. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. or positive. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. financial. In fact. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power.Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one¶s way. confiscation. for organizations to function. forcing. the act or ability of influencing others. an authority or power dimension is required. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. 8. selling." A moment¶s reflection. both positive and negative. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. and repression. influencing. Crushing. and organizational activities. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. however. absolute power corrupts absolutely. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. power being the predominant mode. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. hurting. not the possession of power as such. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson¶s "Power-Dependence theory. influence. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. unsocialized need to dominate others. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. with collective. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. Without leadership (power) in medical. spiritual. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. or acquired? In this unit.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one¶s way in a social situation. 8. technological. bestowed. Power-in-action may take many forms.
Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. Viewed in this light. praise." · Mintzberg¶s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. 3. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. Legitimate power ± power based on everyone¶s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence.· French and Raven¶s "Bases of Social Power. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A¶s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. that is. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. that person has power over us. goals. or bases. blame. information. influence." · Salancik and Pfeffer¶s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power." In other words. we will continue the exchange relationship." These authors suggested five sources. The sociologist. when the net balance for us is negative. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. respect. to give something valued by the other. rejection. 4. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. of social power as follows: 1. and desired by the other. hate. power. Referent power ± power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. 2. Coercive power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. 5. attraction. . Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. and so forth. When the net balance for us is positive. to give something negatively valued by the other. that is. we will terminate or alter the relationship. P. rewards) that are controlled by one party. Expert power ± power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. Reward power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities.
In this theory, power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals, units, or departments) most important for solving the organization¶s most critical problems. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. This theory, like the ones discussed previously, supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by- others-in this case, the special expertise needed for the organization¶s survival-have power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits, indeed, used by all who have it, to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources, through the placement of allies in key positions, and through the definition of organizational problems and policies." These authors view organizational power as a good thing, for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. This theory, "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players, called influencers, seek to control the organization¶s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power, coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. According to Mintzberg, the five possible bases of power are, first, control of a resource; second, control of a technical skill; and, third, control of a body of knowledge. All of these must be critical to the organization. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. In addition to a base of power, the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. An organization has many potential influencers, such as the board of directors, the managers, the top executives, the employees, the unions, suppliers, customers, regulators, and so forth. The important aspects of Mintzberg¶s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others, that power-in-action requires will and skill, and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In summary, these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar ± power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. The resources may be ability to reward and
punish, being in control of critical skills, knowledge, or information, the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined ³politics simply as the study of who gets what, when, and how´. ³Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices´. ³Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups´. ³Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means´. Thus, we view politics as a subset of power, treating it as informal power, illegitimate in nature. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power, but in this sense, formal power, the power vested in office, the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. Both relate to getting one¶s way-effectance. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. For our purposes, organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations; it is engaging in activities to get one¶s way. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities; the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics, like power, has two faces. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest; unsocialized needs to dominate others; a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win, you must lose-rather than win-win terms; and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy, surprise, holding hidden agendas, withholding information, deceiving. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others; viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible; engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing; a relative absence of the tactics of fighting; and a socialized need to lead, initiate, and influence others. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making, resource allocation, and conflict resolution processes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose; they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. In fact, one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation, conflict resolution, and choosing among alternative means and goals.
8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. Virtually, all OD interventions promote problem-solving, not politics, as a preferred way to get things accomplished. OD interventions increase problem-solving, collaboration, co-operation, fact-finding, and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. For example, OD interventions typically generate valid, public data about the organization¶s culture, processes, strengths, and weaknesses. Valid, public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations; rather, they enhance the positive face of power, thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy, it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme power-oriented situations. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power, but not with the negative face of power. Values such as trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first, problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations; second, power equalization, being one aspect of the positive face of power, increases the amount of power available to organization members, and by so doing adds power to the organization. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator, catalyst, problem solver, and educator. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. According to Chris Argyris, the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information, (2) to promote free, informed choice, and (3) to promote the client¶s internal commitment to the choices made. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner, his or her program, and his or her values, methods, and expertise. The OD consultant, like all consultants, provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors, as we discussed earlier. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. In summary, organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. This major strength of OD derives from the strategy of change, the technology, the values, and the roles of OD practitioners.
and expertise. problem solving. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. coaching. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage.8. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). communicating. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). Skills such as listening. . 5. both as a person and as a professional. 6. it will be strong externally. preferably multiple sponsorship. 3."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. acceptability. it will gain more power. According to the framework of French and Raven. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. in powerful places. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization¶s decision makers). Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. Success leads to credibility and stature." 4. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). 2. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. experience. First. What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. and ability to gain organizational support.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment.
The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one¶s own or in others¶ political struggles. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. A valuable byproduct of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. usually managers. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. which is to be an expert on process. not by getting involved in the answers. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. OD programs should be results-oriented. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization¶s powerholders. not the OD consultant. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one¶s power base. constructive social relationships. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being managercentered. not content.counseling. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. Rule Six: Mind your own business. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. those issues vital to the organization¶s success. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. Rule Five: Mind your own business. . the manager will vigorously defend it. The OD program belongs to the manager.
others¶ support.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers.Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. and personality characteristics. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. and educator. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. Networking is recognized as a potent. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. problem solver." "using social networks. not power activist or power broker. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. We could propose more rules of thumb. As shown in the figure." which arouses defensive actions. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others¶ legitimate "turf. yet legitimate means of acquiring power. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. the strategy and tactics of influence. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions. individual power derives from knowledge. 8. negotiations the nature of power and politics. and using contacts for information.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge · Expertise · Information · Tradition Others¶ Support y y Strategies for Success Playing It Straight · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Political access Staff support . We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. Table 8." and "going around the formal system. viable. catalyst.
The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. visibility-how much one¶s work is seen by influential people. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. Personal power. This practical. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. ³One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. effort. Indeed.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network.Personality y y y Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don¶t) use organization rules Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. criticality-how important one¶s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks´. . personal power and position power. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. In this model. in turn. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what¶s expected of them. personal attraction. Whetton and Cameron¶s model is shown in following figure. a person¶s power comes from two main sources. and relevance-how important one¶s task is in relation to organizational priorities. even those of little power. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. arises from expertise. and legitimacy.
Whetton and Cameron suggest several means of resisting others¶ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. and (6) build on success. Usually reason is the preferred strategy. and retribution. power-in-use is called influence. (2) provide a positive. Power and politics are similar in nature. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. arise from known conditions. Concluding Comments: In this unit. Having power is one thing. and are amenable to positive control. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people¶s inappropriate influence attempts. and (3) empowering others. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy.Fig." And.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. Our suggestions for . 8. Retribution refers to coercion and threats. According to these authors. reciprocity. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. collaborative work environment. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. actually using it to get things done is another. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective.
Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. Define organization politics.using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. 8.. Describe briefly various theories of power. 4. 5. 8. and how. 2. _____________ has identified two faces of power. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. 4.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. when. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ±±±± ±±±±±±±. reputation and professional credibility. Referent power 4. ±±±±±±±± defined politics as the study of who gets what. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. Self Assessment Questions 1. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. Power 2. ±±±±±± is the intentional influence over the beliefs. when and how. emotions or behaviour of people. arise from known conditions.10 Terminal Questions 1. McClelland 3. 3. 2. Harold Lasswell . Power and politics are similar in nature. 5.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. ±±±±±±±±±± is made up of Charisma. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. 3. and are amenable to positive control. 8. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. Power can be either positive or negative.
5 Quality Circles 9. Personality Answers to TQs: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 9.Refer section 8.2 Meaning and Definitions 9. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9.6 Quality of Work Life Projects .4 3.5. Refer section 8. Refer section 8.2 2.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 8.3 Socio Technical Systems 9.5 4.6 5.4 Management By Objectives 9. Refer section 8.
.9.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9. Objectives: After studying this unit.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. · Explain Total Quality Management. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures.8 Total Quality Management 9.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change. · Explain Reengineering. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. In this dynamic and fluid environment.10 Summary 9. organizational problems may repeat. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program.11 Terminal Questions 9. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. actions.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design.
Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. The cost of structural change is generally ³front-end´ loaded. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. Cummings.9. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. 2. Organization Acceptance of Change. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. 1976. and more critically. Downsizing associated with restructuring. This normally is a reasonable. Greater Predictability. Pasmore. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. organization theory. In addition. It endeavors to re-design the organization¶s structure. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. 9.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. 1967. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. 3. Cost is Low. Structure changes are normally ³institutionalized´ and less subject to this problem. 5. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. From a benefit cost analysis. 1988): Determining the environmental demands Creating a vision statement Educating organizational members . It could involve the following steps (Foster. 4. Basic reinforcement theories. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. Succession Doesn¶t Destroy Change Effort. Rapidity of change.
Certain degree of overlapping is there. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. its features can be identified as follows: 1. its definitional aspect. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. Since then.´ Based on the definition of MBO. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. In fact. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. On the other hand. 2.´ The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: ³MBO is a result-centered. with objective orientation as its essence.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). Creating the change structure Conducting socio-technical analysis Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of . and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. As an approach to management. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. non-specialist. It is a particular way of thinking about management. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. therefore. physical.
etc. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. This. It works as an integrating device. normally once a year. (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. 6. then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities. in interaction with external factors. including the corporate level. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. Similarly. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. ³why does the organization exist?´. What business are we in?´ and what should be our business?´ provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. the clarity and balance of objectives.management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. 3. are determined on the basis of objectives.. 5. all the units or departments and individual manager. Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. such as. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. Therefore. The performance review is held regularly. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. delegation of authority. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. Resource allocation. 4. its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. 1. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. (ii) long-range . MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. Questions. Therefore. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. and participation of the managers with accountability for results. Therefore. enhancement of employee commitment and participation. superiors and subordinates. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. its subsystems and people. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO.
In the beginning of MBO process in an organization. this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. By relating these to objectives. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. By relating these to objectives. and (viii) public responsibility. (iii) short-term organizational objectives. However. resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. Thereafter. In turn. (v) individual manager¶s objectives. The process of objective setting begins with superior¶s proposed recommendations for his subordinate¶s objectives. Setting Subordinates¶ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. Therefore. 4. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability. the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. (iv) productivity. each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve.and strategic objectives. there should be matching between objectives and resources. (iii) innovation. . Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. 5. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. Therefore. there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate¶s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by setting easily achievable objectives. what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. In fact. (vii) manager performance. (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives. a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. Even though KRAs are most durable. with the experience gained over the period of time. they also indicate the resource requirement. there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. (v) worker performance. the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization¶s health and the top management perspective for the future. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully. the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. If not. (vi) financial and physical resources. 2. 3. (ii) market standing. Therefore. It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. Sometimes.
Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal. on paper.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. Quality circle program consists of several circles. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process.6. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London. or in people¶s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing. this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization. what happens at each level may affect other levels also. each having three to fifteen members. QWL programs. quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization¶s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. 9. Therefore. appropriate feedback and employee discretion. . Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. knowledge. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. information. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. but in its contemporary form. it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power. and rewards. in general. hierarchical structure. · Make recommendations for improvement. 9.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s. which consequently result into high level of task variety. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis. 9.
· Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization.9. It is also called continuous quality improvement. Reengineering is a top-down process. provides relevant information to all employees. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches. and speed. It is very popular in USA in 1990s. statistical quality control.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. self-managed teams and task forces.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization¶s activities around the concept of quality. contemporary measures of performance. statistical process control. 9. and extensive use of employee participation. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. · Participative management. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. including the use of quality circles. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. quality. · Competitive benchmarking. service. eliminating. Self Assessment Questions . · A major emphasis on continuous learning. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. such as cost.
__________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. 9. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. 9. provides relevant information to all employees. Drucker 3.11 Terminal Questions 1. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. From a benefit cost analysis.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. It is also called continuous quality improvement. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Quality circle Answers to TQs: . Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. 3. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives.1. Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. 9. Intervention 2. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. 2. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. actions. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. actions.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities.
8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1 Introduction Objectives 10.4 Causes for Resistance to Change.1. Refer section 9. 10. Refer section 9.2 3.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change.7 Summary 10.2 Nature of Change 10.3 2.5 4. Refer section 9.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs . Self Assessment Questions 10. MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.3 Resistance to Change 10.Refer section 9.8 Terminal Questions 10.
the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented).whether physical. Thus. or social. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled . cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. some parts of organization may be affected more. indirectly. Organizational change is a continuous process. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. organizational change may have the following features: 1. may require special change efforts. Thus. Objectives: After studying this unit. biological. and others. When change occurs in any part of the organization. some parts may be affected directly. Hence. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. Any change may effect the whole organization. 10. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. and others.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. which are major ones. 3. organizational problems may repeat. less. 2. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. · Impact of change on future managers.10. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. However. structural arrangement. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. In this dynamic and fluid environment. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization.2 Nature of Change The term µchange¶ refers to an alteration in a system. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. others. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. job design and people.
they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. However. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. 10. commented. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. so is the resistance to change. if we look minutely. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past.balloon. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant.as cost and as benefit. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. that is. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. Madhur Bajaj. In fact. We wanted a new culture and new layout.´ Resistance as Benefit: . On this phenomenon. there are two sides of resistance. ³The Pune plant is fully saturated. In fact. adjustment is fairly routine. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. Similarly. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. We shall take new workers at the new place. Homeostasis implies selfcorrecting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. Thus. If people resist to change. In fact. it becomes indented at the point of contact. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. it has stretched slightly. more serious upsets may occur. employees want to maintain a status quo. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). but when a change is major or unusual. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. because it produces identical symptoms.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. However.
On the one hand, resistance to change is costly affair, and on the other, it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. While on negative side, the reality lies in between. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Thus, resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: 1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Therefore, the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. These feelings, either real or emotional, may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic, psychological and social. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological, job security etc. precede over other needs. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques, technology, etc., whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them, they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India, it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely, reduce job options, and turn into technological unemployment. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match.
3. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes, bonus, etc. All these are well-established in the old system. Whenever there is change, people may feel that in the new system, they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Psychological Factors Psychological factors are based on people¶s emotions, sentiments and attitudes towards change. These are qualitative and, therefore, may be logical from people¶s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent¶s point of view. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness, status quo, lack of trust in change agent, low tolerance for change, and fear of unknown. 1. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego, people resist change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Thus, the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. 2. Status Quo: People want status quo. i.e. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore, everyone tries to avoid it. 3. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo, people may differ. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Therefore, these people resist any new idea. 4. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent, that is, the person who initiates change. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent, they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 5. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The change will bring results in future, which is always uncertain. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction, particularly social needs, through their mutual compatible interactions. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change, people resist it. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.
1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. When there is any change, their existing social interactions are likely to be changed, which people do not want. Therefore, they resist change. 2. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class, e.g., change initiated by managers affecting workers. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change, even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. For example, Sumantra Ghoshal, a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru, has commented as follows: ³Nothing fails like success; nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation, Caterpillar, Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles, all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called µThe Failure of Success¶. Strategies, values, resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés, dogmas, millstones and routines.´ This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought, these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes, stability of systems, resource limitations, sunk cost, and inter-organizational agreement. Some of these reasons are basic while others are byproducts of those. For example, first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. 1. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices, they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. 2. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. For example, a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules, prescribes rigid authority relationships, and institutes reward and punishment system. All these work in some circumstances. It a change is required in these aspects, the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system.
Now. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. those who watch things happen. 2. This can be in the form of people also. Resource Limitations: No doubt. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. intensive planning. 1. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. these can be used for specific period. and has zeal for progress.defenders. prospectors. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. For example. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. It depends more on the style of top management. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. and commensurate expenses on other items also. 5. decentralized controls.3. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. centralized control. For example. 3. Once the assets are acquired. building and training for its personnel. forward-looking. If it is risk-taking. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. analyzers. those who wonder what happened. it will require resources to procure machine.´ This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. if new technology is adopted. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. Let us see what someone has said long back: ³There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. . They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. if the change is required. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. 4. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. innovative. broad environmental scanning. In such a case. if any change is to be incorporated. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. In this interaction process. Thus. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. and reactors. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories.
taking a new set of streets to work. it means you¶re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. For instance. threatening to go on strike. As human beings. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. adjusting to the new office layout. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. They may. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. we don¶t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. finding a new parking place. or deferred. when you go to work or school. To cope with this complexity. Otherwise. Resistance can be overt. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won¶t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. implicit. or the like. we all rely on habits. Let¶s look at the sources of resistance. we¶re creatures of habit.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. they cannot survive. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. Therefore. or programmed responses. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. therefore. and so on. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. 10. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. developing a new lunchtime routine. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn¶t necessarily surface in standardized ways. When we are confronted with change. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one¶s income. If for example. some may fear they¶ll be unable to do so. And people in general don¶t like the unknown. Habit Every day. engaging in a work showdown. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you¶re like most people. we¶ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources.4. you find a single route and you use it regularly. The same applies to employee. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. Life is complex enough. For analytical purpose. Organizational resistance . immediate.
accountants work with marketers. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities ± such as training. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. For example. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. he¶s likely to resist. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. 10. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management.Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. group norms may act as a constraint. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization¶s structure to match. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. For example. Formalization provides job description. The . the way in which companies are configured today is changing. for instance. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. Will the change. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. and benefits administration ± has been resisted by many human resource departments. An individual union member. For example. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. rules and procedures for employees to follow. That is. for instance. development of pay plans. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. You can¶t change one without affecting the others. They tend to be content with the way things are. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out.
Unless this problem is overcome properly. the problems can be solved at the same level. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority.´ The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. However. In addition. For example. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. through group dynamics. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels.ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. Stephen Robbins suggests that ³«« managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. this is not a one-time action. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. It implies explanation and then discussion of the proposed changes. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. that is. For this purpose. In many cases. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. the following efforts can be taken: 1. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. at the level of individual and at the level of group. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. Therefore. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. typically by way of computer network links. 10.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people¶s resistance to change successfully. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes.´ Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue ± not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. both at the formal and informal levels. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. People always have some . Locavini observes that ³the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change.
helped to change attitudes. to become effective. he expresses it through a group. Though each person interprets the change individually often. most of the times. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. However. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. 2. For this purpose. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: 1. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. People should be educated to become familiar with change. more than one person is involved in the change. and conferences. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. so that they are looked at and evaluated. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. . Thus. It grows slowly along with relationship. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. as discussed earlier. sometimes. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. However. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. Getting opinions out in the open. Usually. Thus. They must be taught new skills. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. its process and working. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. 3. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. meetings. its basic nature. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. 4. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. As this process goes. education must be a part of the manager¶s everyday activity on the job. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. the group itself should be the point of contact. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. and indoctrinated in new relationships. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. The same is true of problem-solving. (ii) In group. is an important trust-building task.ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally.
social factors. benefits of change.Through the group contact. However. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. implicit. __________ are based on people¶s emotions. 10. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing . Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. sentiments and attitudes towards change.7 Summary Change is inevitable. structural arrangement. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. immediate. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. Economic factors. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. psychodrama. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. Self Assessment Questions 1. 2. and how members contribute. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. Resistance can be overt. job design and people. or deferred. group resistance and vested interests. 3. mere participation may not help. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. It purports how the results are. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. Such training techniques include role playing. psychological factors. Research studies also support this aspect. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. many things about change can be made clear. and sensitivity or T-group training. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. 3. 2. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. For instance. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully.such aspects as the reasons for change. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization.
. that is. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change..Singh. eighth edition.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. or the like. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. Thomson South Western. · Harigopal K. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. Explain the nature of change? 2.6. both at the formal and informal levels. 10. 10. Regal Publications New Delhi. Organizational change 2.8 Terminal Questions 1. . Organization Theory and Design. · Cummings & Worley.management of Organization Change. N. Thomson · Daft Richard L. Refer section 10. through group dynamics. Modern Organization Development and Change. · J. Organization Development & Change.Response Books. P. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. Jr.4 3. threatening to go on strike. Psychological factors 3. Refer section 10. New Delhi. engaging in a work showdown. New Delhi. at the level of individual and at the level of group. Why do organizations resist change? 3. Principles and Practices. Bell. Organization Development. Refer section 10.2 2. Reference: · Wendell L. Jain. French and Cecil H.complaints. P.
pdf http://www. Ltd.humtech. Stoner and R.jhu. · T. Ltd.managementtoday.ac. E References y y y y y y y y y y y http://fds. Prentice-Hall of India.pdf http://webuser.bus.pdf http://www. Robbbins.fao.pdf www.pdf http://www. Prasad.org/docrep/w7503e/w7503e05.1lowry.com/articles/leadchange.cfm http://www.kurims.oup. Prentice-Hall India.umich. Sultan Chand & Sons.org/org_chng/org_chng.managementhelp.com/www. · Laxmi Devi.uk/search/article/634958/the-ceos-role-managing-change/ http://www.edu/cameronk/CULTURE%20BOOK-CHAPTER%201. Pvt.co. Chhabra. Dhanpat Rai & Co. Anmol Publications Pvt. Management.htm#anchor73776 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Organizational Development. New Delhi. Educatiional Publishers. M.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v005/5.kyoto-u. Organizational Behaviour. Prentice-Hall of India. Edward Freeman.lib.work911. New Delhi.oup.co.umich.umd. · Stephens P. · L.htm#TopOfPage http://www. Robbins. F.com/opm/grtl/OLS/ols6.· James A.html http://muse. New Delhi. New Delhi.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp598. Principles & Practice of Management. Organizational Behaviour. 12th edition. . · Stephen P.wdi. Management. N.jp/~kyodo/kokyuroku/contents/pdf/1461-15.edu/groups/learning/wp8.uk/pdf/bt/fincham/Chapter15.htm www.
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