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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the µmanagement¶ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn µsurplus¶ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of a
business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term ³management´. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley ± ³Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.´ In the words of George R. Terry ± ³Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.´ According to James L. Lundy ± ³Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.´ In the words of Henry Fayol ± ³To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.´ According to Peter F. Drucker ± ³Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work´. In the words of Koontz and O¶Donnel ± ³Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals´.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren ± ³The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.´ From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that ³management´ is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as ³management´. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a ³distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.´ From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as ³doing things right´. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization¶s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as ³doing the right things´. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of course, high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. And poor
labour and capital. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. Thus. directing and controlling. labour. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals¶ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. The application of these concepts. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. So it is treated as a science. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. Managers apply knowledge. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. 2. namely. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. organizing. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. 7. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. staffing. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. In essence. principles and techniques requires specialized .management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. All these resources are made available to those who manage. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. 3. feeling of management is result-oriented. 1. 4. although they can¶t observe it during operation. 5. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. informed employees. Thus. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. principles and techniques which have wide applications. capital and materials. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. 6.
1. Similarly. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. 8. that is. materials.knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. ongoing concern. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. According to Herbision and Myers. money and machines into a productive. finance manager. They transmit orders.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. In other words. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. According to Newman. education. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. Anthropology. 10. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. and (iii) a class or elite. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. 9. it refers to three distinct ideas. materials. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. (ii) a system of authority.e. a hierarchy of command and control. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. personnel manager etc. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. how effectively and economically the five M¶s are combined together to produce desired results. useful. government and hospital. Generally. the effective use of the five M¶s of management (money. manpower. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. In modern organizations. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem . people are bound by authority relationships. labour and capital. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. military. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. For instance. management is viewed as an art. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. Sociology and Psychology. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. Basically. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation.
Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. (i) administrative management (i. Managing Director. the lower level of management). one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. The levels of management depend upon its size. ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. For instance. But in actual practice. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. Board of Directors. etc. Production Manager.. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. Purchase Manager.. but as head of wages and salary department. Supervisors. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented.. Foremen. day-to-day matters. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. and the range of production. policies and plans for the enterprise. etc. We generally come across two broad levels of management. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as µManagement¶ which refers to the group. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. Administrative management is concerned with ³thinking´ functions such as laying down policy. or the Chief Executive. 1. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. Marketing Manager.and suggestions upward. As a separate group. Operative management is concerned with the ³doing´ function such as implementation of policies. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. or. planning and setting up of standards. Financial Controller.e. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating . it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. ranks. viz. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. technical facilities.e. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. its Chairman. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility.
c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. men. materials. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. 2. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. j) To report to top management. e) To exercise effective control of the operations.functions. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. . f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. e) To assign activities. f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. d) To assemble the resources of money. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. machines and methods to put the plans into action. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. Without them the top management¶s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized.
To this end. With a view to realize the . manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. In its absence. supervisors. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. an organization is merely a collection of men. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. They have to get the work done through the workers. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. 1. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. They allot various jobs to the workers. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. sales officers.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual¶s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. accounts officers and so on. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. Their authority and responsibility is limited. counseling and effective leadership. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. procedures and reward systems. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. It consists of foreman. 3. Management makes group effort more effective. machines. Without management. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. money and material.k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. methods. Management is goal-oriented. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature.
often threaten the survival of a firm. They try to put everything on the right tract. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. Thus unnecessary deviations. skills. Management . and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. government policy. In the final analysis. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. and specialized knowledge. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. etc. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. Failure to take note of customer¶s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for µIdeal java¶ in the two-wheeler market in India. According to McFarland. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. techniques. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. the Indian Institute of Management. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. competition. But unlike medicine or law. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes.predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. Organize the resources properly. identifiable discipline.. Management as a profession By a professional manager. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. and it is distinct. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience.
do not seem to adhere to the principle of ³service above self´. This role includes hiring. But in addition to these insights. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. Some individual business organizations. The term µmanagement roles¶ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. In fact. 1. unpatterned. As a social science. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. the American Management Association in U. sabotaging trade unions. training. the transfer of information. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. an art as well as a profession. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. however.S. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager¶s job.Development Institute. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature ± interpersonal roles. For instance. bribing public officials to gain favours. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. management is not as exact as natural sciences.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. Half of these managers¶ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. All managers have a role as a leader.. However. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. etc. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. and disciplining employees.A. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the . Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. motivating. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. managers in general. Furthermore. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. and decision-making. and short-duration activities. the All India Management Association. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. However.
he or she has an outside liaison relationship. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager¶s unit. training. activities that involve responsible for staffing.liaison role. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. Informational Monitor Disseminator . This is the disseminator role. Typically. informers who provide favors performing other activities and information. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. Table 1. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public¶s tastes. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. duties of a legal or social nature. and may be inside or outside the organization. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. making phone subordinates to members of the calls to relay information. Informational Roles: All managers. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. obliged to Greeting visitors. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. and the like. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. manages also perform a spokesperson role.1: Mintzberg¶s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Liaison Symbolic head. subordinates. network of outside contacts and doing external board work. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. to some degree. Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. understanding of organization and environment. and associated duties. what competitors may be planning. that involve outsiders.
Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. serves as expert on organization¶s industry. programming of subordinates work. . As entrepreneurs. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row.. etc. media. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. performing all kinds ± in effect. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. 1973). Transmits information to Holding board meetings. actions. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the organizational decisions. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. Publishers. Decisional Roles: Finally. As resource allocators. physical and monetary resources. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to develop and initiates ³improvement new programs. outsiders on organization¶s giving information of the plans. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. Inc. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization¶s performance. projects´ to bring about change. Last. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. policies. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. managers are responsible for allocating human.Spokesperson organization ± some information is factual. As disturbance handlers. negotiations. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Source: Henry Mintzberg. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. supervises design of certain projects as well. results.
computers. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager¶s level within the organization. research by Robert L. the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. finance. human. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization¶s speciality. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. . it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. Conversely. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. For example. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. motivate. Technical Skills: First-line managers. In fact. a manager¶s job is varied and complex. However. lead. such as engineering. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization¶s operations. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. figurehead. Specifically.An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg¶s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers ± regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. as well as many middle managers. this skill is crucial. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. They know how to communicate. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. Since managers deal directly with people. liaison. the roles of disseminator. or manufacturing. and conceptual. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. and all managers are involved in making decisions. During the early 1970. negotiator.
iii) There is no distinction between the terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ and they are used interchangeably. administration is a higher level function. It is concerned with the implementation of policies. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. Thus. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. 2. Administration relates to the decision-making. This view is held by Tead. Administration is a higher level function: Administration refers to policy-making. Spriegal and Lansburg. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. Managers are concerned mainly with organisation and direction of human resources. Administrators are basically concerned with planning and control. Floerence and Tead. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. on the other hand. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. Table 1. According to them.1. Spriegel and Walter. Administration is a determinative function. It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies. It is a doing function. It is a thinking function. Meaning Administration Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives. Scope . Thus. Management relates to execution of decisions. Nature 3. plans and policies of the organisation. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. etc. Management Management means getting the work done through and with others.
administrative decisions. 3.. Explain its characteristics. lower levels of management. ___________. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. organisations. Still management is not completely a profession. Self Assessment Questions 1. middle and lower. counseling and effective leadership. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities.9 Terminal Questions 1. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle level leading and motivation of executives. i. _________. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. Usage of Term The term µadministration¶ is The term µmanagement¶ is often associated with widely used in business government offices. Define management.4. public organisations in the private sector and non-business sector. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. .8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people.e. 1. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. __________is principally the task of planning. 8. 6. Five M¶s of management (________. environmental forces. There are three levels of management-top. 1. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. DecisionMaking Administration determines Management decides who what is to be done and when it shall implement the is to be done. 5. objectives. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant at higher levels of management. 2. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. co-ordinating. 7. operative workforce for the execution of plans. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.
materials.5 3.2. 3.4 Organizing .1.3 Planning 2.2 Process of Management 2. Refer section 1.1 Introduction Objectives 2. Management 2. manpower 3. Discuss the importance of management.3 2. Money. Refer section 1. 1. MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2. Refer section 1. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. teamwork Answers to TQs: 1.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.
8 Summary 2. Coordinating 5.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2. Management functions are as follows (Fayol. 1949): 1. Commanding 4. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. you will be able to: · Define Management process. · Explain Planning. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. Motivating. Planning 2. . Objectives: After this studying this unit.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people´. One can also think of management functionally. Controlling However.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2. in recent time.5 Staffing 2.2. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent.6 Directing 2. Organizing 3. Organizing. Staffing.9 Terminal Questions 2. · Explain different functions of management Process. Directing.
Objectives are the ends. In the football field. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. and then set out the method for achieving it. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: . Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. and allocating resources. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. studies on passenger comfort. leadership is doing the right things³. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. cost structure and so on. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. However. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. policies are the means to achieve those ends. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. driving comfort. the decision to change the design of a product. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. Therefore. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning.2. while a policy. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. overall goals. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. the two are not quite the same. fuel and machine efficiency. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. general strategies. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. Even so. thus. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization¶s mission. Decision ± Making Taking decisions is a process. Through leadership and management often overlap.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: ³Management is doing things right. There is a degree of overlap between the two. or where you want go to. say a passenger car. 2.
For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization¶s potential. How skilled is our workforce? 4. Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. What is our market share? 5. Are the facilities outdated? 3. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. state. Is research and development adequate? 4. and trade). The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. federal. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. governments (local.A mission is the purpose of the organization. suppliers. Thus. summarizing what the organization does. The mission statement is broad. Weaknesses. customers (internal and external). What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: . How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. professional. What financing is available? 6. A mission statement should be short ± and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. journals and reports (scientific. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. international). Opportunities. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based.
Are there new competitors? 3. effectiveness. Objectives are also called performance goals. earnings per share. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. return on investment. the best strategy is one that fits the organization¶s strengths to opportunities in the environment. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. What are the new regulations? 6. etc. What substitute products exist? In general terms. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. as well as gap analysis. What are the possible new markets? 3.1. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. What are the emerging technologies? 6. Generally. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. Are our rivals weak? 5. Are market tastes changing? 5. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) . What is the strength of the economy? 4.
lines of authority. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job 4. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. 2. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. structuring. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. working toward common goals. Strategic. grouped. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. 2. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. Review plans 2. procedures.5 Staffing . In turn. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. who is to do. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. with ideas and resources. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. and relationships between departments. tactical. Assign work to individuals 6. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. List all tasks to be accomplished 3.4 Organizing It involves designing. who reports to whom. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. and goals are clearly stated. and where decisions are to be made. how the tasks are to be grouped. operational plans are based on the organization¶s tactical plans. and coordinated. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form.Tactical plans are based on the organization¶s strategic plan. Organizations are groups of people. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done.
selection. recruitment. promotion. appraisal. 5. selection. placement. money. 4. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise.It is not the machines. . Definition: 1. inventorying the people available. This task has been referred to as staffing. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. Koontz. 3. Theo Haimann ± ³Concerned with the placement. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals´. recruitment. performance appraisal etc. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. O¶Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as ³filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. materials. placement. development. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. compensation and training of needed people´. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. 2. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick ± ³Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work´ Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. training. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. 2. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. 3. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements.
3. identifying the manpower requirements. management initiates actions in the organization.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. Through direction. 2. motivate them. It is instructing people as to what to do. It is an important managerial function. induction. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. 2. It is a continuing function. recruitment. 5. on the other. On the one hand. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. . lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. Direction has dual objectives. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. etc. training development and maintenance of personnel.e. selection. directing is the ³interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals´. vacancies arise out of retirement. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. 4. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. resignation. Direction is an important managerial function. overseeing and leading people. 7. Direction function is performed at every level of management. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through ± out the life of an organization. 8. Definition According to Koontz and O¶Donnel. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1.6. promotion.
2. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. satisfied needs cannot.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. 4. ³without the issuance of directives. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. proposed by Maslow (1943). self-respect. 2. such as. and the Two-Factor theory. will vary depending upon his level. humanness and psychological health a person will show.Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. shelter. The further they progress up the hierarchy. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished´. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. guide. and external esteem factors. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. teach. autonomy. thirst. from the basic to the complex. coach and supervise his subordinates. The manager never ceases to direct. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. and achievement. and attention . The needs are arranged in order of importance. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. recognition. As Theo Haimann puts it. acceptance. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. sex. status. 3. the more individuality. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. belongingness. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. such as. Theories X and Y.
· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people¶s attitudes about work. and salary are hygiene factors. self-motivated. company policy. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. interpersonal relations. if they can. From the above. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. such as. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager¶s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. whereas. autonomy and empowerment. such as. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. responsibility. Theory Y ± In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. It is also believed that. and exercise self-control. achieving one¶s potential. Motivators are intrinsic factors. supervision. working conditions. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. self-direction. anxious to accept greater responsibility. externally. . Social. Theory X ± In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. includes growth. and achievement. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. advancement. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. esteem. Extrinsic factors. recognition. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order.
neither will they be satisfied. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. many related to the tasks being performed. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. When hygiene factors are adequate. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. have to do with a person¶s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. structuring. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. 2. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. who reports to whom. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. motivators describe a person¶s relationship with what she or he does. Planning involves the process of defining goals. To motivate people. who is to do. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise.9 Terminal Questions 1. people will not be dissatisfied.In summary. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. how the tasks are to be grouped. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. performance appraisal etc. recruitment. and where decisions are to be made. 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: . 2. What is planning? 2. Organization involves designing. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. Hygiene factors on the other hand. Self Assessment Questions 1. 2. Write a short not on directing. Explain Staffing in detail 3. 3. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment.
2 Definitions 3. Reference 2.8 Problems in OD .7 Role of OD 3.1 Introduction Objectives 3. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3. SWOT 3.4 Categories of OD 3.5 3.3 2.3 Characteristics of OD 3.5 Goals of OD 3. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1. Reference 2.6 OD and Management Development 3.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1. Reference 2. Follett 2.
The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. and the like. And organization development (OD) is one of them. efficiency.Self Assessment Questions 3. Basically. ³Knowledge´ work is replacing ³muscle´ work. Simple survival ± continuing to have an adequate job ± is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. organization development is a process of teaching people how to solve problems. and learn how to do that better and better over time. organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. the answer is ³yes´. strategy formulation and implementation. A variety of solutions exists. organization structure. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges ± finding satisfaction in and through work. and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. strategy. Although new jobs are being created at record rates. take advantage of opportunities. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. In summary. and changing customer demands. old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. culture.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3.9 Summary 3. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. and processes. adapt. and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals. and profitability. challenges from turbulent environments. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today ± threats to effectiveness. survive. OD focuses on issues related to the ³human side´ of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals. and the organization¶s human and social processes. fighting obsolescence of one¶s knowledge and skills.10 Terminal Questions 3. Today. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. . Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today¶s world is a daunting task. teams. and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks. Early returns were encouraging. and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology. conflict resolution. increased competition. organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society.
2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions. and the dizzying rate of change itself. Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives«.Objectives: After studying this unit. (Burke and Hornstein. · State the goals of OD. using reflexive. markets. self-analytic methods. and challenges. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs.change of an organization¶s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making. (Schmuck and Miles. processes. OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement. 1971) Organizational development is a process of planned change. and 3) Developing the organization¶s self-renewing capacity (Beer. A ³process for improving processes´ ± that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill. 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure. you will be able to: · Define organization development. 3. planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. people. strategy. attitudes.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change. (Bennis. 1989) . · Explain the characteristics of OD. 1980). and culture. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies. 1969).
empowerment. and processes for improving an organization¶s effectiveness. including action research. research. led and supported by top management. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort.´ (Porras and Robertson. We do not propose it as the ³right´ definition. serious business. and problem-solving processes. Collectively. structure. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. learning.´ (Cummings and Worley. that is. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. values. 1992) ³OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies. In fact. to improve an organization¶s visioning. By long-term effort. Organizational change is hard. and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance. and contain several unique insights (that¶s enlightening). these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. Now let¶s turn to our definition of organization development. it is more accurate to describe ³improvement´ as a never-ending journey of continuous change. through an ongoing. Likewise. through the alteration of organizational members¶ on-the-job behaviours.³Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories.´ This definition is lengthy. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field. these definitions overlap a great deal (that¶s encouraging). and theory. and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions. We will explain this definition in some detail.several years in most cases. they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change.´ (Burke. 1994) As you can see. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. Top management must initiate the improvement . but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. There is no ³quick fix´ when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. ³Organization development is a long-term effort. what practices should be included and excluded. 1993) ³Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization¶s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies. strategies. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving.
where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. By empowerment. opportunities. empowerment.´ Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. assumptions. strategy. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. team. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. or became distracted with other duties. By learning processes. and processes makes each important. we mean those interacting. attitudes. commitment. has a stake in making the organization work. activities. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. and artifacts. By empowerment processes. learning. and culture. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. not just a small group. sentiments. Still. and each influences the others. beliefs. solve problems. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. For empowerment to become fact of life. By visioning processes. and making it happen. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. Michael Beer¶s definition called for ³developing new and creative organizational solutions´. lost its commitment. developing the strategy for getting there. and challenges in the organization¶s environment and its internal functioning. and organizational learning. We further believe that having compelling. one of widespread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization¶s purposes. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. processes.³journey´ and be committed to seeing it through. and take actions on problems. vitality. By including culture so prominently in our definition. structure. The reciprocal influence among culture. expectations. interactions. we mean. Just as visioning. listening. culture is of . Peter Senge describes learning organizations as ³« organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization¶s culture. so is managing the culture. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. in contrast to having only a select few involved. where collective aspiration is set free. first. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. coherent. make decisions. norms. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. structure. and common purposes of all members of the organization. And second. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization¶s members. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality.
firing. or developed by a given group. wasted time. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments.primary importance. But in many organizations today. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. and feel in relation to those problems. and problem-solving processes. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. (b) invented. . values. When teams function well. think. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. and training. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the ³right´ ways. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. the process ³threw the results over the wall´ to the next functional unit. discovered. He uses the terms µmultifunctional projectization¶ and µhorizontal systems¶ to describe these teams and their work. individuals and the organization function well. Further. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: ³Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. So culture consists of basic assumptions. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. engineering. and using management information. By intact work teams and other configurations. maintaining quality control. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. so they are the place OD programs often begin ± getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. Processes are relatively easy to change. empowerment. and procurement. members are trained in competencies such as planning. manufacturing. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. and we highlight the importance of visioning. Today¶s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. In Liberation Management. learning. such as design. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. Temporary. Over time. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. Processes are how things get done. think. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be ³brain work´) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. This method resulted in loss of synergy. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. much rework. hiring. When one function finished with its part of the project. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. empowerment.
here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. 2. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. 10. Specifically. 3. 7. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. 6. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. and co-learners with the client system. 5. rather than focusing attention on individuals. 9. OD practitioners are facilitators. This µplanned¶ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. 4. To summarize. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. OD focuses on culture and processes. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. according to Peters.multifunctional. collaborators. so that change is easily observed. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. 3. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today¶s fast-paced market place. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides.3 Characteristics of OD 1. 2. OD . OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. dynamic and adaptive system. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. 8. Attempting to create ³win-win´ solutions is standard practice in OD programs. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes.
and then. and mutual influence. temporary. they are ongoing. third party change agent. and integrate individual and organizational goals. 4. 7. and cyclic processes. At the individual level. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. takes actions for intervention. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. Rather. Thus. growth. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. identity. or isolated problems. They discourage µdo it yourself¶ approach. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. collects relevant data. and revitalization. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. The relationship involves mutual trust. participation. problem-solving. interactive. 5. Action research is the basis for such intervention. he conducts surveys. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be µhuman¶ and to increase awareness. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. 3. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. Key areas are the normative type of model. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. evaluates these data. 6. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that µnorms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones¶. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. joint goals and means. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. further more. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements . rather.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. He shares a social philosophy about human values. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. 3.efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. rather. It recognizes that organizational goals change. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. or catalyst.
second. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. like other normative re-educative programmes. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization¶s goals (profit or service) and development of people. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. problem solving climate throughout an organization. This Organization Development progrmmes.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status.of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. . (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. first. Two important elements of Organization Development are. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. with the authority of knowledge and competence. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. practitioners and the client laymen. (c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. (g) To increase the sense of µownership¶ or organization¶s objectives throughout the work force. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. 3.
(i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. . according to him. with their existing objectives and structure. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager¶s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. more attention to peer-groups. The term µdevelopment¶ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes.´ Organization development differs from management development. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value.(h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one¶s area of responsibility. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. Based on this. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. management development has been defined as follows: ³Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. (ii) competitiveness. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. and greater display of feelings and emotions. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. less individual competitiveness. 3. According to him. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. Before making a comparison between the two. (iii) assertiveness. However. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table.6 OD and Management Development At this stage.
Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. Thus. 3. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. . plays key role in organizational improvement. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization.Focus Approach Time Specialist accomplishments. 3. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. Focus on design. 2. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. focus on achieving improvement in design. No special requirement. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. In early 60s.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. and laterally. 5. Educative and training Short-range. By 70s. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. Problem-solving approach. 4. horizontally. however. 6. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing organization. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. 3.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. however. Trained specialists required. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. 7. not on the managers.
For example. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. Self Assessment Questions . However. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. some specific efforts are required. 3. In general. 2. it fails even as a long-term strategy. it is useless to try OD. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. Therefore. 2. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. etc. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. Therefore. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. 3. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. Thus. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. 5. particularly in bottom-line ones.confrontation techniques. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. 5. 4. in order to make best use of OD efforts. 4. Hence. Research studies have also failed to conclude significant contributions of OD in all organizations. There should be proper use of OD interventions. OD programmes are often quite costly. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. If an organization is laden with these people.
3. Explain the various characteristics of OD.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. There is no µquick fix¶ to organizations¶ problems. Define OD. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. Tom Peters 3. The participative. collaborative. Management development aims at developing the managers individually.1. _____________is a short-term strategy. 2. 3. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. Organization development should be led and supported by ±±±±±±±. ±±±±±±± is associated with ³Liberation Management´.10 Terminal Questions 1. Distinguish between µorganizational development¶ and µmanagement development¶. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. 5. Top management 2. Empowerment 4. ±±±±±±±±± is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. 4. 2. 3. OD focuses on culture and processes.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. problem-focused µnature of OD¶ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. 3. Explain its salient features. Peter Senge . 4. State the various roles of OD. Who is associated with the ³Learning Organizations´? 5. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments.
Refer section 3. MU0002-Unit-04.2 2. Refer section 3.Organization Development ± Interventions Unit-04.3 3.Organization Development ± Interventions Structure: 4. Refer section 3.1 Introduction Objectives 4. Refer section 3.5. Management development Answers to TQs: 1.3 Process Consultation 4.4 Grid Training 4.2 Survey Feedback 4.7 5.6 4.5 Leadership Development 4.6 Team-building . Refer section 3.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .
techno-structural activities. other techniques like process . process consultation.10 Summary 4. Therefore. inter-group level.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. and survey feedback method. the classification of OD interventions shows variation. group level. Further.8 Change Agents 4.´ There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. mediation and negotiation activities. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. However. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. grid training. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. People¶s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: ³Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. and organizational culture. Subsequently. Thus. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. survey feedback.7 Inter Group Development 4. Historically. they make things happen. education and training. For example. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the range of change that an organization requires. team-building. Nevertheless. work group. management grid. inter-group activities.4. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. interpersonal level.11 Terminal Questions 4. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. and organizational level. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels.
consultation, team- building, and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives, have been added. Our further discussion follows this development. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. · Explain grid training. · Describe process consultation. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Role of change agents. 4.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid), the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier, Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan, USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 2. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection, feedback of information, developing action plans based on feedback, and follow up. 1. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership ± managerial support, managerial goal emphasis, managerial work facilitation, peer support, peer goal emphasis, peer work facilitation, and peer interaction facilitation, organizational climate-communication with the company, motivation, decision-making, control within the company, co-ordination between departments, and general management, and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company, satisfaction with the supervisor, satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with the pay, and satisfaction with the work group. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization¶s personnel.
After the questionnaires are completed, data are classified, tabulated, and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 2. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed, feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. In oral system of feedback, it is provided through group discussion or problemsolving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively, feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted, it should be constructive and suggestive, rather, threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case, follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building, by the consultant. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. In particular, survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. 2. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However, effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. First, questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. If it is biased, all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Second, even if valid and reliable information is collected, it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change; it provides base for action for change. 4.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Edgar Schein, the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows:
³The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client¶s environment.´ The basic objectives of P.C are as follows: 1. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership, communication, roles and functions of group members, group decision-making and problemsolving, group norms, and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD. 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 2. Define the Relationship: At this stage, client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees, and spelling out services, time, etc. At this stage, the client¶s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. 3. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. At this stage, the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 4. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 5. Intervene: At this stage, the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural change. 6. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.C is completed, the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes, he assists the
The grid organization development consists of six phases. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. and problemsolving are also developed. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. From this point of view.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. like other OD intervention techniques. 3. objective-setting. However. The skills relating to planning. and the organization as a whole. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant¶s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. inter-group. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. .C programmes. 2. problem-solving. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. P. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. group. traditions. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. 1. and alike. P.C is also not free from criticisms. Inter-group Development: At this phase. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. 3. 4.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation.organizational members to incorporate those changes. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. and teamwork. knowledge. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. In the review of various P. 2. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. communication skills. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. focuses on skills. However. and total organizational levels. groups.
Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. and regular. while at the same time . Also during these times of change. is the ability of leadership to«well. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. in spite of these criticisms. and After Arrival. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. 5. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. They have maintained that ³managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. 4. grid training is a non-rigorous method. In this light. competence. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. complete communication that is timely. The strategy is then implemented. Further. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. concerned and committed to their welfare. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. therefore. 6. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. confident and effective decision-making. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. lead. it discounts reality. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. During drastic change times. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. Furthermore. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. Systematic Critique: In this stage. and credibility of senior and middle management. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". If you are to manage change effectively. Slogging Through The Swamp.´ In a later work. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4.4. We will look more carefully at each of these.5 Leadership Development When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. the various programmes may be redesigned. they maintained the same stand. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant.
it may be too late. teambuilding is the most important. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. The existence of this trust. but more importantly. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. Unfortunately. As against these. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. storming. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. let us consider the life cycle of a team. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. In a climate of distrust. For example. employees expect nothing positive. brings hope for better times in the future. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as ³who will be members of the team?´ ³Who will perform what functions?´ ³Who will contribute what?´ ³What rules will be . 4. Leadership before. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. which. how synergy is generated through team-work.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. if allowed to go on for too long. therefore. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. norming.recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. if haven¶t established a track record of effective leadership.´ A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. problems in team-work. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team¶s time together. These stages are: forming. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. 4. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. widely accepted. French and Bell have opined that ³probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone¶s best interests. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. performing.
Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. each team has to be adjourned. At this stage. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. However. team members start settling. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. At this stage. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck.´ . etc. Norming: After storming stage. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. jockeying for relative control. After the adjournment of the team. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. 3.followed?´ ³How can conflicts among members be resolved?´ and so on. 4. Sooner or later. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. start to accept others. The adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. 5. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. because of individual differences. 2. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: ³Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. committee. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. They share personal information. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team¶s goals.
fail to perform their assigned tasks. and attitudes. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group¶s meetings. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. 2. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. other factors remaining the same.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. goals. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. it appears that there are many . Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. and so on. In fact. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. They averaged 138. For example.Thus. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. group efforts tend to slacken. group of eight. From this statement. it was found that individuals¶ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. To the extent. In such an assignment. other factors remaining the same. the complementarity among members is achieved. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. the individual average dropped down still lower-68. in one experiment. that is.2 pounds. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. the team would be effective. In the above paragraph.
Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. 2. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement.financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. These super-ordinate goals. Therefore. unify efforts. serve to focus attention. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance. make recommendations regarding a new supervisor. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. 1. and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. Katzenbatch and Smith. two things are required from its members. have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. While skills are relevant for job performance. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. Further. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials. supportive environment. 3. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. goals. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one¶s own role as well as roles of other members. Thus. management consultants. and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. 4. 2. organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. or propose discipline for team members. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals. Even if one member lacks behind. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group. customer satisfaction. These factors are skills and role clarity. then. they will put their maximum.factors in an effective team. complementary skills. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. Rewards of both types. 3. common purpose. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. . he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions.
they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. and rewards. personality and attitudes. and 5. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. 4. recognition. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. their value systems. In problem identification. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds. the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure. Setting goals and priorities for the team. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. 2. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. . the emphasis should be on consensus.4. 1. At this stage. and 5. For achieving these. such as. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action. Analyzing how the work is performed. Providing positive feedback. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. Fig. Analyzing how the team is working. 2. generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. Analyzing how team¶s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. 4. rather. group problems to even personal problem. 3.
Often. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. criticizing person. etc. 5. about the issue. (iii) Clarifying: resting. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours: Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. (iii) Negative: cooling. seeking relevant information. encouraging others to participate. also provides opportunity to understand themselves. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. If this process is adopted several times. the way people talk about the issue. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. At the time of discussion of feedback. Followup action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of team-building. the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. belittling. undermining morale. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing. the stying with the topic or going off on tangents. etc. with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. . talking together with speaker. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. who was talking more or who was talking less. who was trying to resolve the differences. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. information. cynicism. understanding. ensuring. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team¶s responsibilities. (ii) Attacking: deriding. 4. feelings. clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team. Negative Behaviour (i) Over talk: interrupting. and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility. there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings. At this stage. people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours.3.
However.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. and perceptions that groups have of each other. one of the more . Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier. It improves the organization¶s problem-solving and decision-making ability. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. listening. team-building has a positive outlook. it is not that effective in isolation. In spite of these problems. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. are not given adequate attention. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. In general. It seeks to change to attitudes.. 3. etc. to encourage and sustain such feelings. and feedback skills). Therefore. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. monitoring. in different degrees. 2. As a result. However. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage. structure. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. stereotypes. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the organization¶s outcomes. 2. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology.These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. though. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. communicating. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. 4. team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. However.
Popular methods emphasize problem solving. According to Curtis Mial: ³The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. The groups then share their lists. For major change efforts. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. 4. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. with members from each of the conflicting groups. as the break for too quick action. In contrast. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. however. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. and personnel.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. as the accelerator to build up momentum. operating procedures. after which similarities and differences are discussed. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. employees of the organization. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes ± which can be benefit or a disadvantage ± because they don¶t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. culture. 4.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. but one thing he/she is not the driver´. the groups can move to the integration phase ± working to develop solutions that will improve relations. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization¶s history. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. Outside consultants. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. Trainer . the other group. Differences are clearly articulate. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. In this method. or outside consultants. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. Subgroups.
A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. It focuses on skills. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies ± lectures. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. feedback of information. Grid Training was developed by ±±±±±±±±±±±± 3. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance.11 Terminal Questions 1. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Data collection. Team-building is most important. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? . role-plays and instruments. attitudes and beliefs. cases and experiential learning etc. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. skills and change in behavior. presentations. Training is used both in µcontent orientation¶ and process orientation¶. films. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. Training is required for enhancing knowledge. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. inter-group and total organization levels. Self Assessment Questions 1. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. 4. diagnosis. 2. group. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. group discussions. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. In process consultation. changing (intervening) and refreezing.
Refer section 4. Refer section 4. 3.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5. 4. Assumptions. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1.2 3.2.4 2. Blake and Mouton. and Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4. Assumptions. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? 3.1 Introduction . Data collection 2. Refer section 4. Refer section 4.6 4. MU0002-Unit-05-Values.
3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5.5. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies. · List the chronology of events of values. beliefs and assumptions.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5.2 Definitions .5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5. beliefs and assumptions.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5.Objectives 5. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.7 Terminal Questions 5.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers. Objectives: After studying this unit.5.5.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5. 5.1 Introduction A set of values. assumptions. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development.2 Definitions 5.
Taylor s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. optimistic. the human relations movement. research on the effects of different leadership styles. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. strongly held. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual.A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. reason. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. As these ingredients accumulated. the laboratory training movement. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. dishonesty). with values being beliefs about good and bad. 5. values. free speech) and what is undesirable or µbad¶ (e. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought y Frederick Winslow Taylor s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. OD values tend to be humanistic. Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or µgood¶ (e.g. it is a cognitive fact for the person. assumptions. Thus. and democratic. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. . Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources ± the Hawthorne studies. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. Simple." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned.g. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology.. and that rationality. assumptions. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. or spirit of the time. Values." or slacking off. and assumptions being.. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. and the like. treat people with respect and dignity.
In a sense.y The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of bureaucracy as the best. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. a management theorist and astute observer of labour-management relations. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). organizations were not machines. and the supervisor determined their performance. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people s beliefs about organizational behaviour. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. People were not cogs. A strong hierarchy of authority. Lippitt (1939). Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. y y y y y y y . The Functions of the Executive by Chester 1. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. extensive division of labor. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. greater attention to workers social needs. Research by Lewin. impersonal rules. Group Dynamics (1940) The scientific study of groups using experimental research methodswas launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. These approaches possessed many desirable features. aggressiveness and poor performance. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. The human relations movement advocated participative management. Mary Parker Follett (1926). authoritarian leadership caused dependency. apathy. People came to work as whole people. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. the work environment. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. their feelings and attitudes about the work. much of the research. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. and a general humanizing of the workplace. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. wrote an article on The Giving of Orders advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. theory. most efficient way to organize people. Their simple. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization.
Overcoming Resistance to Change. are self-centered. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. healthy adults. Chris Argyrif s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. this book popularized Maslow s motivation theory. and understand group dynamics. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. The theory postulated that when lower-level needs are satisfied.y These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). This article introduced the concept of organizations as socio-technical systems. a direct precursor of OD. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. The task of management is to change organizational structures. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. caring social climate. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. lack ambition. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. increase self-understanding. indifferent to the organization s needs. resist change. a mechanistic organization y y y y y y y y . P. Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. higherlevel needs become dominant. In an environment of slow change. French s (1948) article. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. pioneers in laboratory training. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. management practices. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. Rogers focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. to assume responsibility. Lester Coch and John R. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. and need to be led. dislike responsibility. reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it.
as we have said. compromise. in an environment of high change. . bureaucracy. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. and greater individual autonomy. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. open communications." that is. and organizations that is. Out of this zeitgeist. theory. practice. and negative consequences. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. one-on-one leadership style. y y This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. optimistic. · Development of more effective "team management. and shares decision-making with the work group. These six books presented the theory. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. an organic organization form is preferred. and values of the field. and democratic. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. dysfunctions. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian.structure may be appropriate. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company OD Six-Pack. y Rensis Likert s New Patterns of Management (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. Values have always been an integral part of OD. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. Writing in 1969. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. goal-oriented. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. and unprincipled power. The Social Psychology of Organizations by Daniel Katz and Robert L. humanistic. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. groups. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people.
and confidence between and across levels. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams)." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. Controls are interim measurements. 6. ." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. 2. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. mutual trust. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. Stalker used the term ³mechanistic´ in contrast to ³mechanical." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. Here is his list. not individuals. 4. 3. sub-units of organizations. 1. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. the basic units of change are groups. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. M. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. director of organization development. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. Robert Tannenbaum. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. They listed these ³values in transition´ as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good.· Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. Organizations." like pushing buttons. a professor and Sheldon Davis. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. Therefore.´ For example. 5. "People support what they help create. not the basis of managerial strategy.
· Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. 5. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. toward seeing them as being in process. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. the legitimacy of feelings.· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. appropriate uses of power. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. authentic interpersonal relations. autocratic. collaboration and co-operation. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. · Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. decentralized decision making. open communication. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions . participation and contribution by all organization members. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use.
facilitation. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. the family. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. give autonomy. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. at both the formal and informal levels. invest training time and money to increase group members¶ skills.Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. and usually with more than one group. and are capable of making. Hence. leaders need to give important work to teams. challenge. and co-operation within the group. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. personal growth. a church or club group. Third. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. What occurs in the work group. not a one-on-one leadership style. and reward success. encourage risk-taking. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. groups. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness.5. Second. and organizations? 5. and job satisfaction. listen. permit failure. . This skill is a trainable one.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. support. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. give responsibility.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. not individuals. First. including peers and boss. To do this. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. Most people want to develop their potential. Also. in addition. conflict management. and so on. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. support. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group¶s effectiveness and development. 5. and interpersonal communication. set high standards. Implications of these assumptions are several. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. remove obstacles and barriers. The second assumption is that most people desire to make.5. such as a work group.
they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. organizing structures. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. in which one side wins and the other side loses. developmental. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. In addition. including how persons C. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. 5. The implication is that people are an organization¶s most important resource. By implication. Still. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. an optimistic. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. formalized cross-functional communication. values are never static. quality of output. Finally. D. and so on-are obsolete. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. adherence to the chain of command.5. Therefore. are dysfunctional over the long run and highlight the need for a ³win win´ attitude." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. emphasis on topdown directives. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. By implication.Finally. a growing awareness that ³win-lose´ organizational situations. societal. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where ³putting people first´ paid off handsomely in profits and performance. and empowering. and ways to optimize human potential. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. Concluding Comment: . The rapid technological. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. and profitability. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. they change over time. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. Frequently the challenge is broader. grouping by specialized function. and E can support these changes. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization¶s leaders. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy.
beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts.7 Terminal Questions 1. optimistic and democratic. The concept of ±±±±±±±±±± was introduced by MaxWeber. __________ is associated with scientific management. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 5. values. 2. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. Cognitive . beliefs. OD values tend to be humanistic.The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. and assumptions are all ±±±±±±±±±± facts. 5. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from.W. beliefs and assumptions. Values. Define concepts. Write a note about F. 5. 5. but are widely accepted today. Values. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. 3.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. 2. Self Assessment Questions 1. 3. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. Values are also beliefs. The outcome of ±±±±±±±± was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. Taylor¶s principles of scientific management. 4. Values.
2.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6.3 4. Refer section 5. Hawthorne experiments 5. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6. Taylor 3.2. F.3 5. Refer section 5.3 3.2.2 Beyond the Quick Fix .2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6. Refer section 5. Refer section 5. Refer section 5. Bureaucracy 4.2 2.1 Introduction Objectives 6. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . W.
3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.10 Summary 6. you will be able to: .3.2 Congruence among System Elements 6. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.2.5 Teams and Teamwork 6.1 The Nature of Systems 6. In this discussion.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.3 Systems Theory 6.3.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice.2. Objectives: After studying this unit. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6.3.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6.4 Participation and Empowerment 6. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.11 Terminal Questions 6.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.3.6.
1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. We will examine the following concepts: · Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. and specify the relationships among the variables.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. Models and theories depict. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in . The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables. the important features of some phenomenon. · Describe the parallel learning structures. · Explain the terms µparticipation¶ and µempowerment¶. That is. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. describe those features as variables.· Explain various models and theories of planned change. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. 6.2. in words or pictures. · Explain systems theory. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change.
moving to new level of behaviour. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces.opposing directions. Likewise. he must move. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. Scanning the environment for new relevant information . Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. With a technique called the force-field analysis. that is. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. Lewin¶s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. Identifying with a new role model. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. mentor. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. etc. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. Lewin¶s second idea was a model of the change process itself. Creation of guilt or anxiety c.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. Next. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. judge things. that is. feel things. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. b. For example. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. Finally. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage.
is to integrate the new behaviours into the person¶s personality. which motivate the person to change. moving. The total personality and self-concept. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. This motivating evidence is gained by. refreezing. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. Jeanne Watson. The primary task in stage 3. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship.Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. terminating the client-consultant relationship. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person¶s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin¶s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. In stage 1. Phases 3. change will not occur. That is. Significant relationships. and 5 correspond ro Lewin¶s moving phase. and fit with the individual¶s social surroundings. establishing goals and intentions of action. . and attitudes. unfreezing. for example. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. which cause guilt and anxiety. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. 4. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system¶s problem. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s unfreezing phase. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s refreezing phase. that is. and Bruce Westley. In stage 2. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. That is. b.
2. and so forth. 2) The management skills track. 4) The strategy-structure track. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. when functioning properly. Interventions include training programs. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. Change programs take from one to five years to complete.This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. critique practices and procedures." that. problem-solving sessions. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? . called "tracks. cause the organization to be successful. 2) Diagnosing the problems.2 Beyond the ³Quick Fix´ A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. and 5) The reward system track. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". Kilmann¶s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. 3) The team-building track. 6.
General Foods. Eastman Kodak. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. and all resources with the new strategic direction. jobs.The culture track enhances trust. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. In second-order change. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered ± the organization is transformed. information sharing. or continuous change. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same.2. OD programs are directed toward both first.and second-order change. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. revolutionary. Ford General Electric. In first-order change. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call ³transactional change´ and ³transformational change´). and Xerox with good results. and so forth. radical. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. . The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. the use of updated management skills. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit ± thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. evolutionary. work groups. communication. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. TRW. beginning with the culture track. 6. then moving to the team-building track. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. incremental. Westinghouse. departments. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. adaptive. and its holistic view of organization change and development. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. then moving to the management skills track. or discontinuous change.
leadership. We will do so in several steps. and organization culture result in second-order change. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. friendly or unfriendly. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First ± Order Change . 6. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. which change motivation and. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. in turn. often unconscious. and so forth. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees¶ reactions to current managerial and organization practices.Organizational climate is defined as people¶s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. On the other hand. Fig." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. and beliefs that are enduring. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. values. management practices. and difficult to change. management practices. hard-working or easy-going. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. Changing structure. individual and organizational performance. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance.
These factors are able to change the climate.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second ± Order Change On the other hand. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. that is. . and organization culture. we must change mission and strategy. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. 6. Burke says: ³Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. Interventions directed toward management practices.´ We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization¶s culture. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. as shown in the above figure. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). mission and strategy. structure. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership.Fig. leadership styles. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. To summarize. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally.
The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. Interventions that focus on culture. and technology. 6. . It is how OD works.Fig. strategies. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. rewarded). according to Porras and Robertson.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members¶ cognitions (they learn what is expected. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. For example. which influence on-the job behaviours. management style. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works.2. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. and interaction processes will affect social factors. required. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. social factors. which determine organizational performance and individual development. physical setting. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. OD interventions that focus on goals.
Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures. Systems . 6. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. This section explains systems theory. describes the characteristics of systems.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. 6. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. Fig.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966.Fig.
Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. conversion. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. For example. money.system. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. They do something to the inputs via throughput.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. dynamics. system denotes interdependency. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. components. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. when taking a systems approach. Open systems have purposes and goals. or subsystems. raw material and so on.3. information. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. interconnectedness. Here. . These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. the organization will cease to exist. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. and what is outside the boundary is the environment." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. The words µarrangement¶ and µinterrelated¶ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. in that they permit exchange of information. that is the system. 6. Thus. Therefore. or transformation processes that change the inputs. Every system is delineated by a boundary. resources. the reasons for their existence. and if the environment does not want these outputs. people. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna.theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change." To summarize. the organization¶s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. What is inside the boundary is the system. and energy between system and environment. Organizations are open systems." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized.
Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. "return to earth. but most are not useful. Say your company makes buggy whips. and the system adjusts to a new goal. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. Systems require two kinds of feedback. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. Information is important to systems in several ways. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips.Fig. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. . By the same token.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems ³run down´ and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. It is sometimes called deviationamplifying feed back. aerospace. and the like. competitors. and makes a course correction. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. and so on. negative and positive. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. mining. eating fads. while screening out other information. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. For example. however. For example. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. that information is called positive feedback. Positive feedback comes from the environment. 6. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. If the mission (target) changes. say." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback.
3. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. formal organization. unit/group level. The three major input factors are: 1) The environment. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state ± systems have multiple paths to goals. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. and systems for performing the work.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. work. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. and informal organization. which includes the organization¶s culture informal rules and understandings. and complex over time. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. and individual level. knowledge. knowledge. Subsystems exist within larger systems. perceptions.´ Also. and the workforce¶s expectations. people. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. differentiated. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. such as capital. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. this process is called differentiation. which includes formal structures. As Katz and Kahn say: ³The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. which includes skills. specialized. failures. important events. and technology. processes. With increased differentiation. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. systems tend to get more elaborated. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). either internal or external.Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. 6. . Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. 2) Resources available to the organization.
organizations must optimize both systems. forming autonomous work groups. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. controlling variance at the source. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. that is. to the workers doing the job. which components are "not functioning correctly. training group members in multiple skills. For example. performance will suffer. In a company that is performing poorly.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model¶s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. Fred Emery. 6. multi-skilled teams. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory.Fig. performance will suffer. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. If the organization¶s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. a social system and a technical system. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work. two active segments of OD today. if people don¶t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work." and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. performance will suffer. and information to the point of action. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. especially autonomous work groups (selfregulated teams or self-direct teams). 6." The premise is that alignment (harmony. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. fit) must be present among the system¶s components¶ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. and that changes in one system affect the other system. .3. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. Hanna writes: .
events and forces. is the most important. Without a systemic orientation. mental models. and systems thinking. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stakeholders. and 3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. Third. team learning. forces. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. 6. systems thinking. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. Second.´ In conclusion.3. building shared vision. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. therefore. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. from their activities. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. Charles Krone. For example.KI Jayaram. He says of systems thinking: ³It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. the fifth discipline. because most phenomena have more than one cause. events.In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. issues. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. Of all these disciplines. according to Peter Senge.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. . Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). but seen in relation to other issues. First. not single effects. changing one part of a system influences other parts. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. G. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation.
and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. quality of work life programs. search conferences. autonomous work groups. survey feedback. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. reduce stress levels. But . Further. increase commitment to the organization. which they call "mechanistic. and to be responsible." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. growth. to contribute their ideas. team building. The other view.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. produce better solutions to problems. and growth." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. 6. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. They believed that it was about risk-taking." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. to change a system. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. and change. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. involvement and participation energize greater performance." is bottom-up and less controlling. To empower is to give someone power. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. to exert influence. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. is the more useful perspective. and give more power to more people. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). called "organic.Fourth. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. Participation enhances empowerment. not just its component parts." These authors believe the organic view. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. personal initiative. And fifth. one changes the system. One view. quality circles. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. For example. with its emphasis on risk-taking.
and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. If the team. Team Taurus developed Ford¶s best-selling automobile. the noun team has become a verb. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. they must if personally connected to the organization. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. research. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. teams create synergy. Second.both views contain valid ideas: for example. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. Theory. changes those norms and values. and relationships if they are to be effective.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. systems. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. then. is not something that management does to employees. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. confident about their abilities. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. that is. processes. Third. QCs (quality circles). . STS (socio-technical systems). Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. HPOs (high-performance organizations). as a team.´ 6. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: ³Empowerment. to name just a few. While management can create a context that is more empowering. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. employees must choose to be empowered. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. people must work together to accomplish them. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today ± gurus extol the virtues of teams. but rather a mindset that employees have about their roles in the organization. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). Teams and teamwork are "in. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. teaming.
and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. heart transplant surgical teams. and the like. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. team performance declines. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. help each other. When any one feature is lost. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. parallel learning structures. and others. status. cross-functional teams. In this section. temporary teams. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. socio-technical systems programs. inter-group team-building. and responsibility charting. recognition. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. role negotiation technique. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. including collegiate football national champions. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. and respect-teams nurture human nature. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. quality circles.Fourth. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. Examples are team-building. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. and explore ways to realize that potential. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. and set ever-higher goals. find innovative ways around barriers. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. . teams satisfy people¶s needs for social interaction. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. that they achieve synergy. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. process consultation. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams.
and continuous learning. 6. If you don¶t implement different norms and procedures. superior customer service. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. Projects are the work of the future.´ The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. Bushe and Shani say: ³The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. In essence. flexible response. Asea Brown Boveri. talking. Titeflex. you don¶t have a parallel structure. clear objectives. and initiate needed changes. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). Interestingly. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. 6. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. and then leading the process. What¶s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations.Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. constitute another important foundation of organization development. At Ford Motor Company. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization¶s methods of work and/or culture. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. projects will be performed by teams. It isn¶t the supplemental structure that¶s important. autonomous. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as ³a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing . Union Pacific Railroad. managers. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders.´ Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. deciding. and employees. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. High responsibility.
rather than the OD practitioner. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normativereductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. and¶ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. based on the assumptions that people are rational. information. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. skills. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members.Organization development involves change. Change in a pattern of practice or action. not just changes in knowledge. and significant relationships. Evaluated against these three change strategies. Patterns of action and practice are supported ± by sociocultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. The first type is empirical rational strategies. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. doubts. will follow their rational self-interest. that is." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. . anxieties. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-re-eductive and the empirical-rational strategies. relationships and customary ways of doing things. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. and together they define problems and seek solutions. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. attitudes. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. OD clearly falls within the normative-reeducative category. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. according to this view. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. values.
applied science or practice. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. pressing problems. . then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. Burke writes: ³If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. or practice.e. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments.. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. 6. not the individual. On this point. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. OD emphasizes the latter. thereby solving the problem. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. i. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. hopefully. behavioural science knowledge. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. by modifying a group norm or standards.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field." applied science. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. success corroborating the diagnosis. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. and (2) "technology. practices." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice. re-establishes the equilibrium. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. Greenwood states: ³The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis.´ Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. Thus. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. for example. The practitioner examines the problem situation.´ From this "practice theory. on the basis of selected variables. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment.
Action research is a method that combines learning and doing ± learning about the dynamics of organizational change. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. The two bottom inputs. represent contributions from pure or basic science. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. practice research and practice theory. and action planning based on the data.Fig. represent contributions from applied science. Taken separately. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development.´ Concluding Comments: These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. It is a type of action-research. and research leading to social action« This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. the two top in puts. Taken collectively. perhaps more accurately. 6. Action research involves three processes: data collection. form of applied behavioural science. 6. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory.9 Action Research The action research model ± a data-based. had this to say about it: ³The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. and doing or implementing change efforts. Self Assessment Questions . feedback of the data to the client system members. Kurt Lewin. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. who developed the concept of action research.
Ralph Kilmann 3. First²order change is also called ___________. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change. 6. ³Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. 4. 3. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. Unfreezing 2. ±±±±±±±±±± means moving to new level of behaviour. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. 6.´ 5.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. ±±±±±±±±±± gave the model ³Beyond the Quick Fix´. A _____________ is defined as ³a set of elements standing in interaction.1. 6. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. 3. 4. Bring out the essence of ³managing beyond the quick fix´ model of organizational development. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. Action research model combines learning and doing. 2. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. Transactional change . 2. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process.11 Terminal Questions 1. Explain Kurt Lewin¶s models and theories of planned organizational change.´ Comment on this statement.
3 5.3 Types of Organization Culture.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2. System 5.3 4.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7.2 3.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture 7.1 2.4.1 Introduction Objectives 7. Refer section 6. Refer section 6. 7.Refer section 6. Refer section 6. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1.2. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7. Refer section 6.6 Summary .2.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7.
terminology. the culture of a large. but also changing the corporate culture as well. ± similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone¶s personality. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization.1 Introduction Basically. but everyone knows it when they sense it. Standards of behavior exist. discovered. values.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. etc. Which in many organizations come down to ³Do not do too much. despite the best-laid plans. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. Practitioners are coming to realize that. For example. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change.7 Terminal Questions 7. what members wear. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. Observed behavioral regularities. · Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. 7. what they brag about. Culture is one of those terms that¶s difficult to express distinctly. Martin and Meyerson. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. thinking. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. 2.7. 1986). and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. Objectives: After studying this unit. When organizational participants interact with one another. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. they use common language. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. Norms. do not do too little?´ . including guidelines on how much work to do.
but one where all transactions. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization¶s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. New-comers must learn those ³ropes´ in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. They often have well-defined policies. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber¶s original view of bureaucracy. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. people are driven through vision. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. internal and external are viewed in market terms. 7. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. In contrast to Hierarchies. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. Market cultures are outward looking. Rather than strict rules and procedures. Organizational climate: This is an overall ³feeling´ that is conveyed by the physical layout. 4.3. In an efficient market organization. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. Typical examples are high product quality. processes and procedures. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. outputs and outcomes. the way participants interact. 6. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. Transactions are exchanges of value. For many years. shared goals. 5. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. .
Martin and Meyerson.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. etc. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). . 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. supportive way and may take on a parental role. 1993). the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. systems and subsystems. plaques. · Its rituals. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. the way they dress etc. symbols. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan.strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. In biological terms. invisible to the naked eye. thinking. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. norms. big-bang projects and development. discovered. but critical to shaping its behavior. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. although not necessarily documented. 1986). the jargon they use. 7. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. rules. Rules. culture is like the DNA of an organization. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. and procedures. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure.
are often used interchangeably. 1. and behaviour. Though an organization espouses a series of values. its core value are limited to a few in number.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. communicating. profitability. also called as organizational success or growth. For example.Values: These are the social principles. intervening and end result. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. and doing. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. the personality of the organization). individually and collectively. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. organizational growth. there is often contradiction in various approaches. From this point of view. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. or standards held by members of an organization. goals. . decisions.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. Thus. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. business and leadership strategies. to denote organizational effectiveness. believing. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management¶s policies. there are numerous variables. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. productivity. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization¶s social environment and evolve of behavior. from the basis of its policies and action. and what is right and what is wrong. skills. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. Identifying. various terms such as efficiency. Though each individual¶s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos.
and a common history begins to be built. 2.2. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. scrap loss. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. communication. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. performance goals. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. 4. and earnings. and decision-making. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization..g. and perceptual cluster. costs. and so on. However. others are brought into the organization. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. is worth running some risks for. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. the loyalties. building. locating space. For example. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: 1. money.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. e. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. and is worth the investment of time. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. and they tend to be longterm goals. obtaining patents. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. incorporating. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of ±date. motivations. and energy that will be required. 3. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. . According to Likert. motivational. is workable. End ± result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. 3. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. attitudes. That is. At this point. 7. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal.
and whether products and/or services are involved. Staffs. 3. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. powerful stakeholders such as unions. management. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. 6. take these losses early. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. 1. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can¶t be done successfully?. Assess the current culture. attitudes. Make changes from the top down. 7. the geographic location. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. 4. 2. relationships. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. Politics. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. or even customers may support the existing culture. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. Emotions. roles. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. and history of two firms.Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. and patterns of daily behavior. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. 3. In addition. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. Structure. . age. habits. the ³culture contract´ that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. 5. if possible. These factors from the two cultures include the size. 2. especially when making changes in rules and processes. The personal feelings. Include employees in the culture change process. commitment. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns.
Artifacts 2. 3. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. Finally.8. system-resource approach. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.7 Terminal Questions 1. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. 9.6 Summary Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. Self Assessment Questions 1. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. 2. Stay the course by being persistent. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. ________cultures are outward looking. Market 3. 7. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. behavioural approach. and strategic constituencies approach. Causal variables Answers to TQs: . 2.goal approach. 7. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. 3. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. 7. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive.
4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.3 Two Faces of Power 8.3 3.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8.1.10 Terminal Questions . Refer section 7.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.Power.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . MU0002-Unit-08. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8.1 Introduction Objectives 8.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8. Politics and Organization Development Unit-08. Refer section 7.9 Summary 8.Power.2 2. Refer section 7.
power must be exercised.actions and the decisions that precede them. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD." ³Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8. · Explain theories about the sources of power. to effect outcomes. The French word µpouvoir¶ stands for both the noun µpower¶ and the verb µto be able. In this unit. and behaviours of people. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. emotions. and for change to occur in an organization. Potential power is the capacity to do so. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid today. Objectives: After this studying this unit. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations.1 Introduction Power and politics.¶ To have power is to be able to get desired things done.´ ³A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes.8. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. 8.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development. indisputable facts of organizational life. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting.´ Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations." .
the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. both positive and negative. Without leadership (power) in medical. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one¶s way in a social situation." . technological. Leading. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt." A moment¶s reflection. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson¶s "Power-Dependence theory. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. influence. however. spiritual." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. 8. not the possession of power as such. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. power being the predominant mode. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. selling. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. an authority or power dimension is required. 8. financial. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. In fact. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. political. or positive.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" ± positive and negative. and organizational activities. bestowed. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. or acquired? In this unit. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others.Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one¶s way. unsocialized need to dominate others. Power-in-action may take many forms. Crushing. and lead. absolute power corrupts absolutely. and repression. confiscation. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. with collective. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. the act or ability of influencing others. influencing. for organizations to function. being exercised. hurting. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. forcing. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. According to him.
The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. Referent power ± power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. Expert power ± power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. blame. rewards) that are controlled by one party. praise. 2." · Mintzberg¶s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. information. power. to give something negatively valued by the other. and desired by the other. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. influence. . that is. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place.· French and Raven¶s "Bases of Social Power. 5. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R." · Salancik and Pfeffer¶s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. rejection. and so forth. we will continue the exchange relationship. respect. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. Viewed in this light." These authors suggested five sources. hate. or bases. Reward power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. that is. 3. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. attraction. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A¶s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. Coercive power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another." In other words. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. of social power as follows: 1. 4. when the net balance for us is negative. The sociologist. to give something valued by the other. we will terminate or alter the relationship. When the net balance for us is positive. P. that person has power over us. Legitimate power ± power based on everyone¶s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. goals. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services.
In this theory, power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals, units, or departments) most important for solving the organization¶s most critical problems. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. This theory, like the ones discussed previously, supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by- others-in this case, the special expertise needed for the organization¶s survival-have power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits, indeed, used by all who have it, to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources, through the placement of allies in key positions, and through the definition of organizational problems and policies." These authors view organizational power as a good thing, for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. This theory, "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players, called influencers, seek to control the organization¶s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power, coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. According to Mintzberg, the five possible bases of power are, first, control of a resource; second, control of a technical skill; and, third, control of a body of knowledge. All of these must be critical to the organization. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. In addition to a base of power, the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. An organization has many potential influencers, such as the board of directors, the managers, the top executives, the employees, the unions, suppliers, customers, regulators, and so forth. The important aspects of Mintzberg¶s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others, that power-in-action requires will and skill, and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In summary, these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar ± power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. The resources may be ability to reward and
punish, being in control of critical skills, knowledge, or information, the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined ³politics simply as the study of who gets what, when, and how´. ³Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices´. ³Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups´. ³Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means´. Thus, we view politics as a subset of power, treating it as informal power, illegitimate in nature. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power, but in this sense, formal power, the power vested in office, the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. Both relate to getting one¶s way-effectance. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. For our purposes, organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations; it is engaging in activities to get one¶s way. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities; the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics, like power, has two faces. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest; unsocialized needs to dominate others; a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win, you must lose-rather than win-win terms; and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy, surprise, holding hidden agendas, withholding information, deceiving. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others; viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible; engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing; a relative absence of the tactics of fighting; and a socialized need to lead, initiate, and influence others. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making, resource allocation, and conflict resolution processes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose; they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. In fact, one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation, conflict resolution, and choosing among alternative means and goals.
8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. Virtually, all OD interventions promote problem-solving, not politics, as a preferred way to get things accomplished. OD interventions increase problem-solving, collaboration, co-operation, fact-finding, and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. For example, OD interventions typically generate valid, public data about the organization¶s culture, processes, strengths, and weaknesses. Valid, public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations; rather, they enhance the positive face of power, thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy, it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme power-oriented situations. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power, but not with the negative face of power. Values such as trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first, problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations; second, power equalization, being one aspect of the positive face of power, increases the amount of power available to organization members, and by so doing adds power to the organization. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator, catalyst, problem solver, and educator. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. According to Chris Argyris, the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information, (2) to promote free, informed choice, and (3) to promote the client¶s internal commitment to the choices made. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner, his or her program, and his or her values, methods, and expertise. The OD consultant, like all consultants, provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors, as we discussed earlier. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. In summary, organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. This major strength of OD derives from the strategy of change, the technology, the values, and the roles of OD practitioners.
Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. preferably multiple sponsorship. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization¶s decision makers). and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). coaching. 3. and ability to gain organizational support. 2.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. Skills such as listening. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). communicating."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. 5. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. acceptability. Success leads to credibility and stature." 4. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. experience. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. First. According to the framework of French and Raven. it will gain more power. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. . Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. both as a person and as a professional. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. 6. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. and expertise. What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. in powerful places. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. problem solving.8. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. it will be strong externally.
Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. usually managers. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization¶s powerholders. constructive social relationships. The OD program belongs to the manager. Rule Six: Mind your own business.counseling. not by getting involved in the answers. those issues vital to the organization¶s success. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one¶s power base. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. . which is to be an expert on process. not content. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. A valuable byproduct of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. the manager will vigorously defend it. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. Rule Five: Mind your own business. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. not the OD consultant. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. OD programs should be results-oriented. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being managercentered. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one¶s own or in others¶ political struggles.
dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. catalyst. and educator. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated.Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. As shown in the figure. problem solver. Table 8." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power." and "going around the formal system. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others¶ legitimate "turf. viable. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. not power activist or power broker. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions." which arouses defensive actions. yet legitimate means of acquiring power. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. We could propose more rules of thumb.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge · Expertise · Information · Tradition Others¶ Support y y Strategies for Success Playing It Straight · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Political access Staff support . Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. individual power derives from knowledge." "using social networks. and using contacts for information. 8. negotiations the nature of power and politics. the strategy and tactics of influence.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. and personality characteristics. Networking is recognized as a potent. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. others¶ support.
and relevance-how important one¶s task is in relation to organizational priorities. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks´.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. Personal power. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. arises from expertise. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what¶s expected of them. personal power and position power. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. a person¶s power comes from two main sources. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base.Personality y y y Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don¶t) use organization rules Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. Indeed. criticality-how important one¶s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. visibility-how much one¶s work is seen by influential people. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. ³One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. effort. In this model. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. and legitimacy. personal attraction. Whetton and Cameron¶s model is shown in following figure. in turn. . the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. even those of little power. This practical.
Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. Power and politics are similar in nature. arise from known conditions. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. power-in-use is called influence. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. Retribution refers to coercion and threats. Usually reason is the preferred strategy." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people¶s inappropriate influence attempts.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. Whetton and Cameron suggest several means of resisting others¶ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. (2) provide a positive.Fig. and retribution. According to these authors. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. 8. reciprocity. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. Having power is one thing. Our suggestions for . (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. and (3) empowering others. collaborative work environment. and (6) build on success. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways." And. Concluding Comments: In this unit. and are amenable to positive control. actually using it to get things done is another.
Power 2.. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. 4. 4. 2.using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Harold Lasswell .10 Terminal Questions 1. 2. and are amenable to positive control. 8. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. Describe briefly various theories of power. when. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. 8. emotions or behaviour of people. 3. arise from known conditions. 5. when and how. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. ±±±±±± is the intentional influence over the beliefs. Define organization politics. _____________ has identified two faces of power. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. ±±±±±±±±±± is made up of Charisma. 8. and how. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. Referent power 4. McClelland 3. ±±±±±±±± defined politics as the study of who gets what. 5. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. Power and politics are similar in nature. Self Assessment Questions 1. Power can be either positive or negative. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ±±±± ±±±±±±±. reputation and professional credibility. 3.
6 Quality of Work Life Projects . Refer section 8.1 Introduction Objectives 9.2 2.6 5. Refer section 8. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9.4 Management By Objectives 9. Refer section 8.5 4.5.4 3.Refer section 8. Refer section 8. Personality Answers to TQs: 1.5 Quality Circles 9.2 Meaning and Definitions 9.3 Socio Technical Systems 9.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .
Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization. In this dynamic and fluid environment.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9. . but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. actions.9. · Explain Reengineering. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis. Objectives: After studying this unit. organizational problems may repeat. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program.8 Total Quality Management 9.11 Terminal Questions 9.10 Summary 9. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9. · Explain Total Quality Management. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness.
Cummings.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. The cost of structural change is generally ³front-end´ loaded. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. organization theory. 4. Greater Predictability. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. This normally is a reasonable. 5. Rapidity of change. 1976. 9. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. It could involve the following steps (Foster. Cost is Low. From a benefit cost analysis. In addition. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. Structure changes are normally ³institutionalized´ and less subject to this problem. and more critically. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. Basic reinforcement theories.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. 1967. Pasmore. 2. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. Downsizing associated with restructuring. 3. 1988): Determining the environmental demands Creating a vision statement Educating organizational members . Organization Acceptance of Change. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic.9. Succession Doesn¶t Destroy Change Effort. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. It endeavors to re-design the organization¶s structure. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management.
Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). On the other hand. Certain degree of overlapping is there. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. its definitional aspect. It is a particular way of thinking about management. As an approach to management. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment.´ The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: ³MBO is a result-centered. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. with objective orientation as its essence. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of . it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. Creating the change structure Conducting socio-technical analysis Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. its features can be identified as follows: 1. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. therefore. 2.´ Based on the definition of MBO. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. non-specialist. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. Since then. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. In fact. physical.
The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives. What business are we in?´ and what should be our business?´ provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. and participation of the managers with accountability for results. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. in interaction with external factors. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. etc. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. enhancement of employee commitment and participation. such as. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. This. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. 4. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. normally once a year. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. The performance review is held regularly. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. superiors and subordinates. then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities. ³why does the organization exist?´. its subsystems and people. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. 1.. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. 5. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. Therefore. Resource allocation. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. 6. the clarity and balance of objectives. including the corporate level. delegation of authority. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. Questions. 3. (ii) long-range . Therefore. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. Therefore. are determined on the basis of objectives.management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. Similarly. all the units or departments and individual manager. It works as an integrating device. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization.
Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability. this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. 5. (v) individual manager¶s objectives. By relating these to objectives. Sometimes. (vii) manager performance. (iv) productivity. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization¶s health and the top management perspective for the future. 3. (ii) market standing. a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. 4. If not. Setting Subordinates¶ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. (iii) innovation. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. there should be matching between objectives and resources. the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. (iii) short-term organizational objectives. In turn. there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. Therefore. However. there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate¶s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by setting easily achievable objectives. 2. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. with the experience gained over the period of time. (v) worker performance. (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. In fact. Therefore. (vi) financial and physical resources. . The process of objective setting begins with superior¶s proposed recommendations for his subordinate¶s objectives.and strategic objectives. the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. Therefore. and (viii) public responsibility. Thereafter. each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. they also indicate the resource requirement. By relating these to objectives. Even though KRAs are most durable. the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully.
or in people¶s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. · Make recommendations for improvement. which consequently result into high level of task variety. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. .5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power. 9. 9. each having three to fifteen members. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization¶s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases. it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis. but in its contemporary form. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. appropriate feedback and employee discretion. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization. information.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. and rewards. Quality circle program consists of several circles. on paper. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. what happens at each level may affect other levels also.6. Therefore. and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. in general. QWL programs. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal. hierarchical structure.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. 9. knowledge. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing.
It is also called continuous quality improvement. Reengineering is a top-down process. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. It is very popular in USA in 1990s.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization¶s activities around the concept of quality. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization.9. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. · Participative management. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. statistical quality control. eliminating. Self Assessment Questions . including the use of quality circles. and speed.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. provides relevant information to all employees. contemporary measures of performance. 9. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. statistical process control. service. such as cost. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. · Competitive benchmarking. and extensive use of employee participation. self-managed teams and task forces. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. quality. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork.
events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. Quality circle Answers to TQs: . It is also called continuous quality improvement. From a benefit cost analysis. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. actions. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. Intervention 2. 9. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. 3.11 Terminal Questions 1. 2. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. provides relevant information to all employees. Drucker 3. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. 9. 9. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness.1. actions. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. Explain Management By Objectives? 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities.
3 Resistance to Change 10.Refer section 9.1.2 3.8 Terminal Questions 10. Refer section 9.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .5 4. Refer section 9.7 Summary 10.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10. Self Assessment Questions 10.3 2.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change. 10. Refer section 9. MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs .1 Introduction Objectives 10.2 Nature of Change 10.4 Causes for Resistance to Change.
2. organizational change may have the following features: 1. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. may require special change efforts. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. 10. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. · Impact of change on future managers. organizational problems may repeat. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. Any change may effect the whole organization. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). However. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.whether physical. and others. some parts of organization may be affected more. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization.2 Nature of Change The term µchange¶ refers to an alteration in a system. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled . 3. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. Hence. Thus. In this dynamic and fluid environment. job design and people. and others. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. or social. structural arrangement. less. indirectly. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium.10. Organizational change is a continuous process. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. others. which are major ones. Thus. biological. some parts may be affected directly. Objectives: After studying this unit. When change occurs in any part of the organization.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.
it has stretched slightly.balloon. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. However. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. adjustment is fairly routine. Thus. employees want to maintain a status quo. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. if we look minutely. 10. commented. Madhur Bajaj. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. We shall take new workers at the new place. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto.as cost and as benefit. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. there are two sides of resistance. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. If people resist to change. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. In fact. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. that is. Homeostasis implies selfcorrecting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. so is the resistance to change. We wanted a new culture and new layout. but when a change is major or unusual. In fact. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. it becomes indented at the point of contact. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. In fact. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. ³The Pune plant is fully saturated. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. However. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. more serious upsets may occur. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here.´ Resistance as Benefit: . Similarly. On this phenomenon. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. because it produces identical symptoms.
On the one hand, resistance to change is costly affair, and on the other, it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. While on negative side, the reality lies in between. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Thus, resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: 1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Therefore, the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. These feelings, either real or emotional, may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic, psychological and social. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological, job security etc. precede over other needs. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques, technology, etc., whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them, they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India, it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely, reduce job options, and turn into technological unemployment. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match.
3. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes, bonus, etc. All these are well-established in the old system. Whenever there is change, people may feel that in the new system, they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Psychological Factors Psychological factors are based on people¶s emotions, sentiments and attitudes towards change. These are qualitative and, therefore, may be logical from people¶s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent¶s point of view. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness, status quo, lack of trust in change agent, low tolerance for change, and fear of unknown. 1. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego, people resist change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Thus, the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. 2. Status Quo: People want status quo. i.e. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore, everyone tries to avoid it. 3. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo, people may differ. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Therefore, these people resist any new idea. 4. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent, that is, the person who initiates change. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent, they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 5. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The change will bring results in future, which is always uncertain. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction, particularly social needs, through their mutual compatible interactions. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change, people resist it. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.
1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. When there is any change, their existing social interactions are likely to be changed, which people do not want. Therefore, they resist change. 2. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class, e.g., change initiated by managers affecting workers. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change, even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. For example, Sumantra Ghoshal, a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru, has commented as follows: ³Nothing fails like success; nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation, Caterpillar, Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles, all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called µThe Failure of Success¶. Strategies, values, resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés, dogmas, millstones and routines.´ This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought, these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes, stability of systems, resource limitations, sunk cost, and inter-organizational agreement. Some of these reasons are basic while others are byproducts of those. For example, first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. 1. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices, they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. 2. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. For example, a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules, prescribes rigid authority relationships, and institutes reward and punishment system. All these work in some circumstances. It a change is required in these aspects, the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system.
the organization may take change programmes much more frequently.´ This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. 4. intensive planning. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. . organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. these can be used for specific period. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. 1. if the change is required. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. Let us see what someone has said long back: ³There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. if new technology is adopted. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. Now. It depends more on the style of top management. and has zeal for progress. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. forward-looking. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. For example. if any change is to be incorporated. analyzers. Once the assets are acquired. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. In such a case. it will require resources to procure machine. 3. This can be in the form of people also. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. Thus. those who watch things happen. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. building and training for its personnel. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. and commensurate expenses on other items also. 2. centralized control. If it is risk-taking. In this interaction process. prospectors. Resource Limitations: No doubt. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. For example.3. decentralized controls. innovative. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. broad environmental scanning. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. 5. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. and reactors.defenders. those who wonder what happened.
when you go to work or school. engaging in a work showdown. or the like.4. it means you¶re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. we¶re creatures of habit. or deferred. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. If for example. implicit. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. some may fear they¶ll be unable to do so. Life is complex enough. taking a new set of streets to work. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won¶t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. therefore. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. developing a new lunchtime routine. immediate. For analytical purpose. or programmed responses. Otherwise. 10. And people in general don¶t like the unknown. finding a new parking place. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. they cannot survive. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. To cope with this complexity. Resistance can be overt. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. Organizational resistance . you find a single route and you use it regularly. When we are confronted with change. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you¶re like most people. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. The same applies to employee. Let¶s look at the sources of resistance. For instance. and so on.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn¶t necessarily surface in standardized ways. we all rely on habits. threatening to go on strike. Habit Every day. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one¶s income. we don¶t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. They may. we¶ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. Therefore. As human beings. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. adjusting to the new office layout.
the way in which companies are configured today is changing. You can¶t change one without affecting the others. 10. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. For example. group norms may act as a constraint. development of pay plans. The . for instance. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. Formalization provides job description. and benefits administration ± has been resisted by many human resource departments. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. rules and procedures for employees to follow. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities ± such as training. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. for instance. accountants work with marketers. For example. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. Will the change. That is. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization¶s structure to match.Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. An individual union member. he¶s likely to resist. For example. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. They tend to be content with the way things are. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers.
Stephen Robbins suggests that ³«« managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations.ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. It implies explanation and then discussion of the proposed changes. the problems can be solved at the same level. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. both at the formal and informal levels. that is. Unless this problem is overcome properly. this is not a one-time action. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. In addition. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. Therefore. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation.´ The newer organizational structures use term problem solving.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people¶s resistance to change successfully. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. In many cases. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. typically by way of computer network links. People always have some . However. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue ± not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. at the level of individual and at the level of group. Locavini observes that ³the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. through group dynamics. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. For example. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture.´ Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. 10. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. For this purpose. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. the following efforts can be taken: 1.
and conferences. 2. most of the times. education must be a part of the manager¶s everyday activity on the job. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: 1. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. the group itself should be the point of contact. its process and working. They must be taught new skills. 4. helped to change attitudes. to become effective.ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. People should be educated to become familiar with change. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. It grows slowly along with relationship. (ii) In group. and indoctrinated in new relationships. more than one person is involved in the change. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. is an important trust-building task. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. Getting opinions out in the open. . as discussed earlier. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. so that they are looked at and evaluated. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. However. its basic nature. Though each person interprets the change individually often. As this process goes. 3. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. For this purpose. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. Thus. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. meetings. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. However. he expresses it through a group. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. The same is true of problem-solving. Thus. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. sometimes. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. Usually.
It purports how the results are. or deferred.such aspects as the reasons for change. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. However. structural arrangement. psychological factors. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. sentiments and attitudes towards change. and sensitivity or T-group training. 3. Self Assessment Questions 1. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing . It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. 3. 10. many things about change can be made clear. __________ are based on people¶s emotions.Through the group contact. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. implicit. immediate. psychodrama. 2. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. Resistance can be overt. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. For instance. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. job design and people. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. group resistance and vested interests. Such training techniques include role playing. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. Research studies also support this aspect. benefits of change. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. and how members contribute. social factors. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. Economic factors.7 Summary Change is inevitable. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. 2. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. mere participation may not help.
9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. · Cummings & Worley. Psychological factors 3. Explain the nature of change? 2. Refer section 10. Refer section 10.complaints.management of Organization Change. Modern Organization Development and Change. Organization Development. threatening to go on strike. Organization Theory and Design. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. New Delhi. P. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. P. · J. Jain. New Delhi.Response Books. Why do organizations resist change? 3. Organization Development & Change. Thomson South Western. Reference: · Wendell L. N.Singh. engaging in a work showdown. Regal Publications New Delhi.2 2. at the level of individual and at the level of group.8 Terminal Questions 1. Jr. French and Cecil H. Refer section 10. eighth edition. through group dynamics.. Thomson · Daft Richard L. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. · Harigopal K.4 3. or the like.. Organizational change 2. Bell. 10. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. both at the formal and informal levels. that is. 10. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. Principles and Practices. .6.
com/articles/leadchange.pdf http://www. · Laxmi Devi.wdi. Sultan Chand & Sons.pdf www.work911. N.cfm http://www. New Delhi.lib. Prentice-Hall of India. Principles & Practice of Management. Management. Management. Robbbins.org/docrep/w7503e/w7503e05. M.oup. Prentice-Hall India.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp598. Organizational Behaviour. Anmol Publications Pvt.org/org_chng/org_chng.umd. · T.pdf http://webuser. Dhanpat Rai & Co.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v005/5. Prentice-Hall of India.bus.jp/~kyodo/kokyuroku/contents/pdf/1461-15. 12th edition. Prasad. · L.edu/groups/learning/wp8.htm#TopOfPage http://www.kyoto-u.pdf http://www. Organizational Development. Stoner and R.humtech.kurims.jhu.co.ac. New Delhi. · Stephens P.html http://muse.htm www.1lowry.uk/search/article/634958/the-ceos-role-managing-change/ http://www. Ltd.com/opm/grtl/OLS/ols6. F.co. Ltd. New Delhi. E References y y y y y y y y y y y http://fds.oup. New Delhi. Robbins.umich. Educatiional Publishers. Edward Freeman.edu/cameronk/CULTURE%20BOOK-CHAPTER%201. .fao.htm#anchor73776 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . · Stephen P. Pvt. Chhabra.pdf http://www. Organizational Behaviour.managementhelp.uk/pdf/bt/fincham/Chapter15.com/www.umich.managementtoday.· James A.
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