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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the µmanagement¶ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn µsurplus¶ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of a
business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term ³management´. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley ± ³Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.´ In the words of George R. Terry ± ³Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.´ According to James L. Lundy ± ³Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.´ In the words of Henry Fayol ± ³To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.´ According to Peter F. Drucker ± ³Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work´. In the words of Koontz and O¶Donnel ± ³Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals´.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren ± ³The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.´ From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that ³management´ is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as ³management´. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a ³distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.´ From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as ³doing things right´. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization¶s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as ³doing the right things´. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of course, high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. And poor
These factors do not by themselves ensure production. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. although they can¶t observe it during operation. So it is treated as a science. All these resources are made available to those who manage. capital and materials. 7. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. labour. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. staffing. labour and capital. directing and controlling. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. Thus. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals¶ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. organizing. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. 5. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. principles and techniques which have wide applications. Managers apply knowledge. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. 1. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. feeling of management is result-oriented. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. 4. namely. In essence. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. The application of these concepts. 6. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. 3. 2. informed employees. principles and techniques requires specialized . Thus. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force.management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1.
They transmit orders. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. Similarly. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. materials. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. military. that is. useful. materials. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. In other words. Generally. money and machines into a productive. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. Basically.e. government and hospital.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. ongoing concern. 10. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. people are bound by authority relationships. Sociology and Psychology. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. In modern organizations. personnel manager etc. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. manpower. education. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. management is viewed as an art. Anthropology. (ii) a system of authority. labour and capital. finance manager. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. 1. it refers to three distinct ideas. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource.knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. 9. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem . a hierarchy of command and control. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. According to Herbision and Myers. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. and (iii) a class or elite. According to Newman. the effective use of the five M¶s of management (money. 8. how effectively and economically the five M¶s are combined together to produce desired results.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. For instance.
For instance. and the range of production. We generally come across two broad levels of management. But in actual practice. Managing Director. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. viz.e. policies and plans for the enterprise. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating . one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. or the Chief Executive..and suggestions upward. ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. The levels of management depend upon its size. Marketing Manager. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. etc. or. ranks. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. etc. Foremen. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. Financial Controller. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals.. Supervisors. planning and setting up of standards.. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. (i) administrative management (i.e. Purchase Manager. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. Production Manager. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. but as head of wages and salary department. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. Board of Directors. the lower level of management). Administrative management is concerned with ³thinking´ functions such as laying down policy. day-to-day matters. Operative management is concerned with the ³doing´ function such as implementation of policies. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. 1. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as µManagement¶ which refers to the group. As a separate group. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. technical facilities. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. its Chairman.
e) To exercise effective control of the operations. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. Without them the top management¶s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. . duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. j) To report to top management. e) To assign activities. 2. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. materials. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. d) To assemble the resources of money. men. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans.functions. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. machines and methods to put the plans into action.
evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. machines. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. an organization is merely a collection of men. 3. methods. sales officers. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. They allot various jobs to the workers. It consists of foreman. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. counseling and effective leadership. They have to get the work done through the workers. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. Without management. procedures and reward systems. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual¶s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. money and material. accounts officers and so on. Management makes group effort more effective.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. In its absence. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization.k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. 1. With a view to realize the . They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. supervisors. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. Their authority and responsibility is limited. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. To this end. Management is goal-oriented.
predetermined goals-managers plan carefully.. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. competition. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. Management as a profession By a professional manager. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. and specialized knowledge. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. techniques. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. often threaten the survival of a firm. But unlike medicine or law. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. and it is distinct. Thus unnecessary deviations. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. Failure to take note of customer¶s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for µIdeal java¶ in the two-wheeler market in India. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. Organize the resources properly. In the final analysis. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. etc. They try to put everything on the right tract. government policy. the Indian Institute of Management. skills. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. Management . identifiable discipline. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. According to McFarland. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly.
This role includes hiring. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. Furthermore. training. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. do not seem to adhere to the principle of ³service above self´. unpatterned. and short-duration activities. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. etc. However. bribing public officials to gain favours.Development Institute. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. however. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. For instance. But in addition to these insights. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. managers in general. the transfer of information. and decision-making. As a social science. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions. and disciplining employees. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India.S. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. an art as well as a profession. motivating. management is not as exact as natural sciences. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature ± interpersonal roles. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. 1. All managers have a role as a leader.A. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. The term µmanagement roles¶ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. the All India Management Association. Half of these managers¶ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. However. Some individual business organizations. sabotaging trade unions.. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager¶s job. In fact. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. the American Management Association in U. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the .
Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. duties of a legal or social nature. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. making phone subordinates to members of the calls to relay information. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. training. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. network of outside contacts and doing external board work. understanding of organization and environment. informers who provide favors performing other activities and information. and the like. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. Informational Roles: All managers. and may be inside or outside the organization. Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. subordinates. what competitors may be planning. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager¶s unit. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. activities that involve responsible for staffing. that involve outsiders. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. Typically. This is the disseminator role. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. to some degree. Table 1. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. and associated duties. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. manages also perform a spokesperson role.liaison role. Informational Monitor Disseminator .1: Mintzberg¶s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Liaison Symbolic head. obliged to Greeting visitors. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public¶s tastes. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts.
. media. As disturbance handlers. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. As entrepreneurs. Publishers. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. actions. Last. Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Source: Henry Mintzberg. policies. etc. supervises design of certain projects as well. Decisional Roles: Finally. As resource allocators. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the organizational decisions. outsiders on organization¶s giving information of the plans. managers are responsible for allocating human. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. performing all kinds ± in effect. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. negotiations. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to develop and initiates ³improvement new programs. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization¶s performance. Inc. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. 1973). Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. programming of subordinates work. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. serves as expert on organization¶s industry. projects´ to bring about change. physical and monetary resources. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers.Spokesperson organization ± some information is factual. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. results.. requesting of organizational resources of authorization.
The evidence generally supports the idea that managers ± regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. research by Robert L. lead.An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg¶s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. a manager¶s job is varied and complex. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. as well as many middle managers. the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. and conceptual. human. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. During the early 1970. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. computers. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. this skill is crucial. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization¶s operations. Specifically. However. For example. finance. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. the roles of disseminator. They know how to communicate. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. Conversely. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. such as engineering. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. Since managers deal directly with people. negotiator. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. figurehead. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization¶s speciality. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager¶s level within the organization. and all managers are involved in making decisions. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. motivate. or manufacturing. liaison. Technical Skills: First-line managers. . In fact.
1. administration is a higher level function. Thus. It is concerned with the implementation of policies. etc. Table 1. plans and policies of the organisation. This view is held by Tead. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. Spriegel and Walter. Nature 3. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. on the other hand. It is a thinking function. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. Administrators are basically concerned with planning and control. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. It is a doing function. Management relates to execution of decisions. Floerence and Tead. Management Management means getting the work done through and with others. It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies. Managers are concerned mainly with organisation and direction of human resources. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. Spriegal and Lansburg. 2. Administration relates to the decision-making. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. According to them.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. Meaning Administration Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. Administration is a determinative function. iii) There is no distinction between the terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ and they are used interchangeably. Scope . This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. Thus. Administration is a higher level function: Administration refers to policy-making.
___________. co-ordinating. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. public organisations in the private sector and non-business sector. Usage of Term The term µadministration¶ is The term µmanagement¶ is often associated with widely used in business government offices. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. administrative decisions. 6.4. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. There are three levels of management-top. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. Self Assessment Questions 1. operative workforce for the execution of plans. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. Still management is not completely a profession. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. DecisionMaking Administration determines Management decides who what is to be done and when it shall implement the is to be done. objectives. environmental forces. organisations. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle level leading and motivation of executives. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. Five M¶s of management (________. middle and lower. Explain its characteristics. 5. Define management. __________is principally the task of planning. _________. lower levels of management.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. 3. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance.9 Terminal Questions 1. 2. 1.e. . 1. 7.. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant at higher levels of management. counseling and effective leadership. 8. i.
Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. manpower 3.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .4 Organizing .1 Introduction Objectives 2.2. 1.2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 3.3 Planning 2.3 2. Discuss the importance of management. MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2. Management 2. teamwork Answers to TQs: 1.5 3. Refer section 1.2 Process of Management 2. Refer section 1. materials. Refer section 1. Money.1.
8 Summary 2.9 Terminal Questions 2. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. · Explain Planning. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. Motivating. in recent time. One can also think of management functionally. Planning 2.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2. Commanding 4. Organizing.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2. 1949): 1. Staffing. Controlling However. Directing. Organizing 3.5 Staffing 2.6 Directing 2.2. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. Management functions are as follows (Fayol. · Explain different functions of management Process. Objectives: After this studying this unit. Coordinating 5. . you will be able to: · Define Management process.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people´.
Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. cost structure and so on. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. However. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization¶s mission. overall goals. There is a degree of overlap between the two. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. policies are the means to achieve those ends. leadership is doing the right things³. 2. studies on passenger comfort. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. Through leadership and management often overlap. and then set out the method for achieving it. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: ³Management is doing things right. Even so. while a policy. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. and allocating resources. or where you want go to. Decision ± Making Taking decisions is a process. say a passenger car. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork.2. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. the two are not quite the same. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: . general strategies. driving comfort. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. Therefore. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. the decision to change the design of a product. fuel and machine efficiency. thus. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. In the football field. Objectives are the ends. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal.
summarizing what the organization does. and trade). international). Thus. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. A mission statement should be short ± and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. customers (internal and external). What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). The mission statement is broad. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization¶s potential. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: . How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. Is research and development adequate? 4. federal. Are the facilities outdated? 3. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. What is our market share? 5. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. Weaknesses. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. journals and reports (scientific. governments (local. suppliers. state. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. Opportunities. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. How skilled is our workforce? 4.A mission is the purpose of the organization. What financing is available? 6. professional. What makes the organization distinctive? 2.
as well as gap analysis. earnings per share. What is the strength of the economy? 4. Are market tastes changing? 5. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. the best strategy is one that fits the organization¶s strengths to opportunities in the environment. Generally. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. Are there new competitors? 3. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) . What are the emerging technologies? 6. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. return on investment. What substitute products exist? In general terms.1. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. etc. Are our rivals weak? 5. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. effectiveness. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. What are the possible new markets? 3. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. What are the new regulations? 6. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. Objectives are also called performance goals.
procedures. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market.Tactical plans are based on the organization¶s strategic plan. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. working toward common goals. Strategic. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. lines of authority.4 Organizing It involves designing. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. tactical. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. grouped. who reports to whom. and relationships between departments. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job 4. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. Organizations are groups of people. In turn. who is to do. how the tasks are to be grouped. operational plans are based on the organization¶s tactical plans. Review plans 2. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. 2. 2. Assign work to individuals 6. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. with ideas and resources. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. and coordinated. and where decisions are to be made. structuring. and goals are clearly stated.5 Staffing .
Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. O¶Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as ³filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. training. materials. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. recruitment. 3. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. recruitment. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. money. promotion. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. Koontz. 2. appraisal. placement. 2. 4. Theo Haimann ± ³Concerned with the placement. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. performance appraisal etc. 3. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick ± ³Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work´ Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. Definition: 1. inventorying the people available. selection. development. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning.It is not the machines. This task has been referred to as staffing. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals´. . Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. selection. compensation and training of needed people´. 5. placement.
It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. identifying the manpower requirements. 7. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. 5. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through ± out the life of an organization. resignation. On the one hand. 3. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. overseeing and leading people. 8. directing is the ³interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals´.e. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. management initiates actions in the organization. Direction has dual objectives. promotion. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. 2. recruitment. . It is an important managerial function. induction. Definition According to Koontz and O¶Donnel.6. It is a continuing function.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. on the other. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. training development and maintenance of personnel. Direction function is performed at every level of management. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. motivate them. etc. vacancies arise out of retirement. 4. Direction is an important managerial function. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. selection. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. Through direction. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. It is instructing people as to what to do. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. 2. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis.
3. recognition. The further they progress up the hierarchy. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished´. and attention . proposed by Maslow (1943). the more individuality. humanness and psychological health a person will show. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. Theories X and Y. thirst. from the basic to the complex. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. The needs are arranged in order of importance. sex. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. belongingness. self-respect.Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. ³without the issuance of directives. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. As Theo Haimann puts it. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. and the Two-Factor theory. satisfied needs cannot. 4. 2. guide. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. autonomy. will vary depending upon his level. and achievement. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. such as. The manager never ceases to direct. coach and supervise his subordinates. teach. acceptance. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. shelter. such as. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. and external esteem factors. 2. status. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other.
if they can. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. such as. and achievement. self-direction. includes growth. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. anxious to accept greater responsibility. Motivators are intrinsic factors. Theory X ± In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. company policy. achieving one¶s potential. . advancement. working conditions. From the above. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager¶s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. such as. externally. autonomy and empowerment. and salary are hygiene factors. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. Extrinsic factors. Theory Y ± In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. self-motivated. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. It is also believed that. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. responsibility. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. and exercise self-control. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. supervision. whereas. and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people¶s attitudes about work. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory.· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. recognition. esteem. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. interpersonal relations. Social.
have to do with a person¶s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. who reports to whom. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. performance appraisal etc. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. 2. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. Self Assessment Questions 1. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. 2. structuring. people will not be dissatisfied. how the tasks are to be grouped. Write a short not on directing. 3. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. Hygiene factors on the other hand.9 Terminal Questions 1. motivators describe a person¶s relationship with what she or he does. Explain Staffing in detail 3. neither will they be satisfied.In summary. many related to the tasks being performed. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. To motivate people. When hygiene factors are adequate. Planning involves the process of defining goals. 2. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: . and where decisions are to be made. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. recruitment. Organization involves designing. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. who is to do. 2. What is planning? 2.
Reference 2. Reference 2. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 3.8 Problems in OD . Reference 2.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .6 OD and Management Development 3. Follett 2.3 Characteristics of OD 3.3 2.4 Categories of OD 3.7 Role of OD 3. SWOT 3.5 3. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3.5 Goals of OD 3.2 Definitions 3.1.
maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. strategy. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. and learn how to do that better and better over time. conflict resolution. and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. survive.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks.9 Summary 3. and profitability. old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. And organization development (OD) is one of them. A variety of solutions exists. . In summary.Self Assessment Questions 3. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope. Basically. ³Knowledge´ work is replacing ³muscle´ work.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3. and processes. adapt. fighting obsolescence of one¶s knowledge and skills. strategy formulation and implementation. organization development is a process of teaching people how to solve problems.10 Terminal Questions 3. organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. efficiency. teams. culture. and the like. Early returns were encouraging. and the organization¶s human and social processes. and changing customer demands. OD focuses on issues related to the ³human side´ of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today ± threats to effectiveness. Simple survival ± continuing to have an adequate job ± is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. Today. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges ± finding satisfaction in and through work. Although new jobs are being created at record rates. and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately. increased competition. the answer is ³yes´. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today¶s world is a daunting task. organization structure. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology. challenges from turbulent environments. take advantage of opportunities.
(Schmuck and Miles. and challenges. 1980). processes. and culture. and the dizzying rate of change itself. people. values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies. and 3) Developing the organization¶s self-renewing capacity (Beer. Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives«. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. (Burke and Hornstein. planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. 3. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. · State the goals of OD. A ³process for improving processes´ ± that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill. a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs.Objectives: After studying this unit. (Bennis.change of an organization¶s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making. OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement. · Explain the characteristics of OD. strategy. markets. 1989) . you will be able to: · Define organization development.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change. 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure. self-analytic methods. 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions. using reflexive. 1969). attitudes. 1971) Organizational development is a process of planned change.
they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions. led and supported by top management.³Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories. There is no ³quick fix´ when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. what practices should be included and excluded. Now let¶s turn to our definition of organization development. strategies. 1994) As you can see. Top management must initiate the improvement . They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD.´ (Burke. 1993) ³Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization¶s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies. including action research. and theory.´ (Porras and Robertson. and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance. and contain several unique insights (that¶s enlightening).´ This definition is lengthy. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. it is more accurate to describe ³improvement´ as a never-ending journey of continuous change. ³Organization development is a long-term effort. empowerment. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. values. We do not propose it as the ³right´ definition. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field. through an ongoing. We will explain this definition in some detail. serious business. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. 1992) ³OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies. to improve an organization¶s visioning. these definitions overlap a great deal (that¶s encouraging). and processes for improving an organization¶s effectiveness. learning. Organizational change is hard. that is. structure. By long-term effort. and problem-solving processes. these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. through the alteration of organizational members¶ on-the-job behaviours. Collectively.´ (Cummings and Worley. research.several years in most cases. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. In fact. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. Likewise. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. we mean that organizational change and development takes time.
We further believe that having compelling. By empowerment processes. attitudes. has a stake in making the organization work. coherent. Still. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. and culture. The reciprocal influence among culture. where collective aspiration is set free. By empowerment. strategy. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. and common purposes of all members of the organization. and organizational learning. make decisions. and making it happen. or became distracted with other duties. Just as visioning. processes. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization¶s culture. one of widespread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization¶s purposes. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as ³« organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. By visioning processes. structure. so is managing the culture. commitment. and where people are continually learning how to learn together.´ Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. And second. and artifacts. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization¶s members. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. not just a small group. we mean. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. norms. structure. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. listening. and processes makes each important. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. lost its commitment. and take actions on problems. By learning processes. vitality.³journey´ and be committed to seeing it through. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. and challenges in the organization¶s environment and its internal functioning. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. first. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. empowerment. team. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. interactions. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. For empowerment to become fact of life. in contrast to having only a select few involved. activities. developing the strategy for getting there. opportunities. assumptions. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. culture is of . Michael Beer¶s definition called for ³developing new and creative organizational solutions´. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. and each influences the others. learning. we mean those interacting. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. beliefs. sentiments. By including culture so prominently in our definition. expectations. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. solve problems.
. In Liberation Management. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. and we highlight the importance of visioning. Further. Processes are relatively easy to change. By intact work teams and other configurations. So culture consists of basic assumptions. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. maintaining quality control. Today¶s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be ³brain work´) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. think. so they are the place OD programs often begin ± getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: ³Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. Processes are how things get done. and feel in relation to those problems. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. members are trained in competencies such as planning. When one function finished with its part of the project. manufacturing. individuals and the organization function well. discovered. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. the process ³threw the results over the wall´ to the next functional unit. firing. hiring. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. (b) invented. and procurement. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. and using management information. values. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. think. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. He uses the terms µmultifunctional projectization¶ and µhorizontal systems¶ to describe these teams and their work. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. When teams function well. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. and training. Over time. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. learning. This method resulted in loss of synergy. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the ³right´ ways. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. empowerment. such as design. Temporary. and problem-solving processes. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. engineering. wasted time. much rework.primary importance. empowerment. or developed by a given group. But in many organizations today. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive.
OD focuses on culture and processes. 7. 4. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. 2. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. collaborators. 10. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. Attempting to create ³win-win´ solutions is standard practice in OD programs. 9. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. 2. 5. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today¶s fast-paced market place. Specifically.multifunctional. according to Peters.3 Characteristics of OD 1. 3. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. 8. rather than focusing attention on individuals. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. This µplanned¶ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. To summarize. so that change is easily observed. and co-learners with the client system. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. OD practitioners are facilitators. 3. 6. dynamic and adaptive system. OD .
He shares a social philosophy about human values. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. Action research is the basis for such intervention. or isolated problems. Key areas are the normative type of model. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. further more. 5. They discourage µdo it yourself¶ approach. third party change agent. rather. joint goals and means. It recognizes that organizational goals change. evaluates these data. or catalyst. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. rather. 7. Rather. At the individual level. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. 3. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be µhuman¶ and to increase awareness. and then. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. and mutual influence. and revitalization. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action.efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. they are ongoing. 4. temporary. The relationship involves mutual trust. Thus. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. growth. problem-solving. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. he conducts surveys. and integrate individual and organizational goals. interactive. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. 6. takes actions for intervention. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. identity. participation. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that µnorms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones¶.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. collects relevant data. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. 3. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements . and cyclic processes.
3. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. with the authority of knowledge and competence. second. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization¶s goals (profit or service) and development of people. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. . Two important elements of Organization Development are. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. (g) To increase the sense of µownership¶ or organization¶s objectives throughout the work force. This Organization Development progrmmes. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. (c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. problem solving climate throughout an organization. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development.of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. like other normative re-educative programmes. first. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. practitioners and the client laymen. Although Organization Development Programmes vary.
with their existing objectives and structure. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. more attention to peer-groups. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus.(h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one¶s area of responsibility. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. and greater display of feelings and emotions. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. Based on this. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. 3. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. However. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager¶s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. less individual competitiveness. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage.6 OD and Management Development At this stage. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. The term µdevelopment¶ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. . (iii) assertiveness. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. According to him. (ii) competitiveness. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. Before making a comparison between the two. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. according to him.´ Organization development differs from management development. management development has been defined as follows: ³Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled.
Educative and training Short-range. Thus. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed.Focus Approach Time Specialist accomplishments. 4. and laterally. Trained specialists required. not on the managers. focus on achieving improvement in design. By 70s. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. In early 60s. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. 3. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. No special requirement. 2. 7. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. Problem-solving approach. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. however. Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing organization. however. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. 3. horizontally. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. plays key role in organizational improvement. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. 5. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. 3. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. 6. Focus on design. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. .
Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. 3. some specific efforts are required. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. 5. in order to make best use of OD efforts. 2. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. 2. If an organization is laden with these people. it fails even as a long-term strategy. For example. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. particularly in bottom-line ones. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. Research studies have also failed to conclude significant contributions of OD in all organizations. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. OD programmes are often quite costly. Thus. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. 4. 3. Therefore.confrontation techniques. Self Assessment Questions . People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. However. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. it is useless to try OD. Therefore. Hence. 4. etc. 5. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. There should be proper use of OD interventions. In general.
9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. 3. Define OD. 4. Explain its salient features. _____________is a short-term strategy. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. Explain the various characteristics of OD. Empowerment 4. 3. There is no µquick fix¶ to organizations¶ problems. Who is associated with the ³Learning Organizations´? 5. 5.10 Terminal Questions 1.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 3. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. Top management 2. 2. OD focuses on culture and processes. 2. 4. problem-focused µnature of OD¶ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. ±±±±±±± is associated with ³Liberation Management´. Distinguish between µorganizational development¶ and µmanagement development¶.1. The participative. collaborative. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. State the various roles of OD. 3. ±±±±±±±±± is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. Organization development should be led and supported by ±±±±±±±. Tom Peters 3. Peter Senge . It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides.
6 4.3 Process Consultation 4.1 Introduction Objectives 4.Organization Development ± Interventions Unit-04.5.4 Grid Training 4.3 3.6 Team-building .8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2 Survey Feedback 4.Organization Development ± Interventions Structure: 4. Refer section 3. Refer section 3. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.2 2. Management development Answers to TQs: 1.7 5. Refer section 3. MU0002-Unit-04.5 Leadership Development 4.
Further. Nevertheless. management grid. People¶s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. they make things happen. inter-group level. the classification of OD interventions shows variation.10 Summary 4. survey feedback.4. For example. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. group level. Thus. grid training. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels. other techniques like process . various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the range of change that an organization requires. team-building. work group. mediation and negotiation activities. and organizational culture.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour.´ There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. and survey feedback method. process consultation. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. Historically. However. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. and organizational level. Therefore. inter-group activities.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4.8 Change Agents 4. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: ³Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. Subsequently. education and training.7 Inter Group Development 4. interpersonal level. techno-structural activities.11 Terminal Questions 4.
consultation, team- building, and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives, have been added. Our further discussion follows this development. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. · Explain grid training. · Describe process consultation. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Role of change agents. 4.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid), the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier, Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan, USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 2. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection, feedback of information, developing action plans based on feedback, and follow up. 1. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership ± managerial support, managerial goal emphasis, managerial work facilitation, peer support, peer goal emphasis, peer work facilitation, and peer interaction facilitation, organizational climate-communication with the company, motivation, decision-making, control within the company, co-ordination between departments, and general management, and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company, satisfaction with the supervisor, satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with the pay, and satisfaction with the work group. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization¶s personnel.
After the questionnaires are completed, data are classified, tabulated, and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 2. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed, feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. In oral system of feedback, it is provided through group discussion or problemsolving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively, feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted, it should be constructive and suggestive, rather, threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case, follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building, by the consultant. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. In particular, survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. 2. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However, effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. First, questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. If it is biased, all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Second, even if valid and reliable information is collected, it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change; it provides base for action for change. 4.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Edgar Schein, the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows:
³The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client¶s environment.´ The basic objectives of P.C are as follows: 1. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership, communication, roles and functions of group members, group decision-making and problemsolving, group norms, and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD. 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 2. Define the Relationship: At this stage, client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees, and spelling out services, time, etc. At this stage, the client¶s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. 3. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. At this stage, the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 4. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 5. Intervene: At this stage, the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural change. 6. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.C is completed, the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes, he assists the
and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture.C programmes. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. P. 2. 4. focuses on skills. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant¶s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. communication skills. and problemsolving are also developed. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. 3. 3.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. and the organization as a whole. In the review of various P. 2. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. Inter-group Development: At this phase. 1. traditions. . groups. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. However. and total organizational levels. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. inter-group. The skills relating to planning. and alike. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. problem-solving. like other OD intervention techniques. objective-setting.organizational members to incorporate those changes. However. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. From this point of view.C is also not free from criticisms. P. knowledge. and teamwork. group. The grid organization development consists of six phases.
Furthermore. and After Arrival. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. 5. Also during these times of change. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. competence. grid training is a non-rigorous method. concerned and committed to their welfare. while at the same time . complete communication that is timely. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. They have maintained that ³managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. in spite of these criticisms. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. is the ability of leadership to«well. Further.4. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. therefore. lead. We will look more carefully at each of these. In this light. the various programmes may be redesigned. Systematic Critique: In this stage. Slogging Through The Swamp. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. confident and effective decision-making. 6.5 Leadership Development When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios).´ In a later work. If you are to manage change effectively. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". 4. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. and regular. they maintained the same stand. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. it discounts reality. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. and credibility of senior and middle management. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. The strategy is then implemented. During drastic change times.
Leadership before. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. For example. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. employees expect nothing positive. but more importantly. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change.´ A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. widely accepted. As against these. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. problems in team-work.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone¶s best interests. 4. 4. Unfortunately. if haven¶t established a track record of effective leadership. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. it may be too late. French and Bell have opined that ³probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization.recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. which. The existence of this trust. In a climate of distrust. how synergy is generated through team-work.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. teambuilding is the most important. storming. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. These stages are: forming. let us consider the life cycle of a team. therefore. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. if allowed to go on for too long. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as ³who will be members of the team?´ ³Who will perform what functions?´ ³Who will contribute what?´ ³What rules will be . Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. performing. norming. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. brings hope for better times in the future. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team¶s time together.
These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. After the adjournment of the team. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status.followed?´ ³How can conflicts among members be resolved?´ and so on. each team has to be adjourned. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. jockeying for relative control. Sooner or later. At this stage. However. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. 3. The adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. 2. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. They share personal information. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. start to accept others.´ . etc. Norming: After storming stage. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. because of individual differences. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. 5. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team¶s goals. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: ³Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. team members start settling. At this stage. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. committee. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. 4.
Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. it appears that there are many . group of eight. the team would be effective. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. it was found that individuals¶ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. fail to perform their assigned tasks. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. other factors remaining the same. other factors remaining the same. They averaged 138. 2. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. In fact. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. goals. and so on. that is. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. and attitudes. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance.2 pounds. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. the individual average dropped down still lower-68. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group¶s meetings. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. the complementarity among members is achieved. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. In the above paragraph. In such an assignment. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. in one experiment. To the extent.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. From this statement. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. For example. group efforts tend to slacken.Thus. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent.
management consultants. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. . If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. 1.financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. they will put their maximum. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. While skills are relevant for job performance. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. Further. Rewards of both types. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality. complementary skills. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size. Thus. common purpose. and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. Even if one member lacks behind. supportive environment. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group. customer satisfaction. organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. Katzenbatch and Smith. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals. 3. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. two things are required from its members. and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. 4. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. 2. These factors are skills and role clarity. make recommendations regarding a new supervisor. or propose discipline for team members. These super-ordinate goals. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. then. and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule.factors in an effective team. 2. have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. serve to focus attention. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. 3. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one¶s own role as well as roles of other members. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials. goals. Therefore. unify efforts.
Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. personality and attitudes. their value systems. 3. Analyzing how team¶s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. For achieving these. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. Analyzing how the team is working. Fig. the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action. and rewards. recognition. At this stage. such as. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. and 5. 1. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. 4. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. 2. the emphasis should be on consensus. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. . Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared. 2. Analyzing how the work is performed. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem. 4. group problems to even personal problem. rather. Providing positive feedback.4. and 5. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. Setting goals and priorities for the team. In problem identification. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are.
Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time. Often. feelings. talking together with speaker. etc. about the issue. the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility. 5. At this stage. the way people talk about the issue.3. the stying with the topic or going off on tangents. with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. understanding. also provides opportunity to understand themselves. (ii) Attacking: deriding. . The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. If this process is adopted several times. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team¶s responsibilities. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. seeking relevant information. (iii) Negative: cooling. members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. cynicism. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours: Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. At the time of discussion of feedback. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. encouraging others to participate. who was talking more or who was talking less. etc. clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas. belittling. there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. who was trying to resolve the differences. Followup action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of team-building. criticizing person. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing. ensuring. undermining morale. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings. (iii) Clarifying: resting. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. Negative Behaviour (i) Over talk: interrupting. 4. information.
Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. However.. structure.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier. one of the more . Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the organization¶s outcomes. monitoring. Therefore. management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. etc. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage. team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. As a result. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. It seeks to change to attitudes. to encourage and sustain such feelings. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. it is not that effective in isolation. It improves the organization¶s problem-solving and decision-making ability. it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members.These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. listening. are not given adequate attention. though. and perceptions that groups have of each other. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. In spite of these problems. However. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. 3. However. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. and feedback skills). 2. team-building has a positive outlook. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. In general. 4. stereotypes. 2. communicating. in different degrees. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology.
and personnel. employees of the organization. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. but one thing he/she is not the driver´. Subgroups. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. as the accelerator to build up momentum. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. 4.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. In this method. Differences are clearly articulate. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. after which similarities and differences are discussed. as the break for too quick action. In contrast. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization¶s history. operating procedures. Outside consultants. culture. According to Curtis Mial: ³The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. and how it believes the other group perceivers it.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . the groups can move to the integration phase ± working to develop solutions that will improve relations. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes ± which can be benefit or a disadvantage ± because they don¶t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. with members from each of the conflicting groups. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. or outside consultants. For major change efforts.Popular methods emphasize problem solving. The groups then share their lists. the other group. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. however. Trainer . 4.
group discussions. diagnosis. 2. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies ± lectures.11 Terminal Questions 1. Training is required for enhancing knowledge.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. role-plays and instruments. Self Assessment Questions 1. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. cases and experiential learning etc. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. films. Data collection. attitudes and beliefs.A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Grid Training was developed by ±±±±±±±±±±±± 3. In process consultation. inter-group and total organization levels. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. Team-building is most important. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. group. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. feedback of information. changing (intervening) and refreezing. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. 4. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? . Training is used both in µcontent orientation¶ and process orientation¶. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. It focuses on skills. skills and change in behavior. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. presentations.
1 Introduction .2. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? 3.4 2. Refer section 4. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4.6 4.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5. 4. MU0002-Unit-05-Values.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Refer section 4. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. Assumptions. 3. Blake and Mouton. and Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values. Refer section 4. Refer section 4. Data collection 2.2 3. Assumptions.
2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5.5. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5.7 Terminal Questions 5.2 Definitions .1 Introduction A set of values. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions. Objectives: After studying this unit. beliefs and assumptions. beliefs and assumptions. · List the chronology of events of values. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5.5.2 Definitions 5.Objectives 5.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5. assumptions. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies.5. 5. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5.
repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. OD values tend to be humanistic." or slacking off. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. and democratic.A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. strongly held. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. assumptions. assumptions. and assumptions being. and the like.g. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them.. Simple. Thus. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or µgood¶ (e. and that rationality. reason. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources ± the Hawthorne studies. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. the laboratory training movement. Taylor s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. . the human relations movement.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought y Frederick Winslow Taylor s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. values. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. free speech) and what is undesirable or µbad¶ (e. Values. with values being beliefs about good and bad. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. 5. As these ingredients accumulated. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. optimistic. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. research on the effects of different leadership styles. or spirit of the time. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. it is a cognitive fact for the person. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. treat people with respect and dignity. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies.. dishonesty).g.
y y y y y y y . and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. greater attention to workers social needs. In a sense. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. extensive division of labor. The Functions of the Executive by Chester 1. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. theory. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. These approaches possessed many desirable features. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. a management theorist and astute observer of labour-management relations. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. Research by Lewin. organizations were not machines. and the supervisor determined their performance. aggressiveness and poor performance. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. impersonal rules. The human relations movement advocated participative management. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people s beliefs about organizational behaviour. Group Dynamics (1940) The scientific study of groups using experimental research methodswas launched by Kurt Lewin and his students.y The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of bureaucracy as the best. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. Lippitt (1939). their feelings and attitudes about the work. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. and a general humanizing of the workplace. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. most efficient way to organize people. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). Their simple. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. much of the research. People came to work as whole people. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. wrote an article on The Giving of Orders advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. apathy. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. A strong hierarchy of authority. Mary Parker Follett (1926). Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. People were not cogs. the work environment.
Overcoming Resistance to Change. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. caring social climate. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. In an environment of slow change. higherlevel needs become dominant. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. and need to be led. healthy adults. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. are self-centered. reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. this book popularized Maslow s motivation theory. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy.y These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). resist change. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. dislike responsibility. indifferent to the organization s needs. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. a direct precursor of OD. management practices. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. pioneers in laboratory training. P. Lester Coch and John R. Chris Argyrif s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. lack ambition. The task of management is to change organizational structures. French s (1948) article. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. and understand group dynamics. increase self-understanding. Rogers focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. The theory postulated that when lower-level needs are satisfied. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. a mechanistic organization y y y y y y y y . Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. to assume responsibility. This article introduced the concept of organizations as socio-technical systems.
The Social Psychology of Organizations by Daniel Katz and Robert L. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. and organizations that is. and greater individual autonomy. y y This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. dysfunctions. These six books presented the theory. theory. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. practice. humanistic. compromise. . He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. y Rensis Likert s New Patterns of Management (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. Out of this zeitgeist. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. Writing in 1969. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. optimistic. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. Values have always been an integral part of OD." that is. as we have said. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. and values of the field. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. bureaucracy. and negative consequences. (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. and shares decision-making with the work group. in an environment of high change. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period.structure may be appropriate. and unprincipled power. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company OD Six-Pack. one-on-one leadership style. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. · Development of more effective "team management. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. goal-oriented. open communications. groups. and democratic. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. an organic organization form is preferred.
3. Stalker used the term ³mechanistic´ in contrast to ³mechanical. "People support what they help create. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. not individuals. Robert Tannenbaum." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. mutual trust. not the basis of managerial strategy. 1. the basic units of change are groups. They listed these ³values in transition´ as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. 2.´ For example." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. 5. Here is his list. 4." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. Controls are interim measurements. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). Therefore. 6. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication.· Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. and confidence between and across levels. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems." like pushing buttons. . They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. sub-units of organizations. a professor and Sheldon Davis. Organizations. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. director of organization development. M. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people.
appropriate uses of power. the legitimacy of feelings. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. decentralized decision making. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. collaboration and co-operation. open communication. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. 5. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. participation and contribution by all organization members. authentic interpersonal relations.· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions . · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. · Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. toward seeing them as being in process. autocratic. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them.
Second. not individuals. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. and usually with more than one group. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. . First. and organizations? 5. and so on.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. such as a work group.Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. groups. facilitation. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. and interpersonal communication. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group¶s effectiveness and development.5. and co-operation within the group. To do this. and are capable of making. Also. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate.5. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. give autonomy. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. Third. 5. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. personal growth. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. This skill is a trainable one. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. at both the formal and informal levels. listen.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. invest training time and money to increase group members¶ skills. conflict management. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. Most people want to develop their potential. What occurs in the work group. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. in addition. challenge. and reward success. not a one-on-one leadership style. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. encourage risk-taking. and job satisfaction. the family. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. support. Hence. including peers and boss. Implications of these assumptions are several. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. a church or club group. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. permit failure. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. set high standards. give responsibility. support. remove obstacles and barriers. leaders need to give important work to teams.
Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization¶s leaders. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. By implication.5. a growing awareness that ³win-lose´ organizational situations. and E can support these changes. D.Finally. developmental. quality of output. an optimistic. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. Finally. organizing structures. Concluding Comment: . this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. The rapid technological. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where ³putting people first´ paid off handsomely in profits and performance. adherence to the chain of command. are dysfunctional over the long run and highlight the need for a ³win win´ attitude. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. Still. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. and so on-are obsolete. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. societal. By implication. and ways to optimize human potential. Frequently the challenge is broader. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. In addition. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. Therefore. including how persons C. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. they change over time. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. formalized cross-functional communication. 5.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. and empowering. The implication is that people are an organization¶s most important resource. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. values are never static. grouping by specialized function. in which one side wins and the other side loses. and profitability. emphasis on topdown directives.
Values.The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. Write a note about F. 5. 5. Values are also beliefs.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. Self Assessment Questions 1. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. The outcome of ±±±±±±±± was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. Taylor¶s principles of scientific management. __________ is associated with scientific management. 5. beliefs and assumptions. Cognitive . optimistic and democratic. 5. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y.W. but are widely accepted today. 2. 2. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. Values. 4. 3. Values. The concept of ±±±±±±±±±± was introduced by MaxWeber. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Define concepts. and assumptions are all ±±±±±±±±±± facts. beliefs. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. 3. values. OD values tend to be humanistic. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners.7 Terminal Questions 1.
2. Refer section 5. Hawthorne experiments 5.2 Beyond the Quick Fix .3 3. Refer section 5.1 Introduction Objectives 6. Refer section 5. Bureaucracy 4. W. F. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6.3 5.2 2.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6. Taylor 3.3 4. Refer section 5.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1.2. Refer section 5.2.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .
5 Teams and Teamwork 6.11 Terminal Questions 6.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.10 Summary 6.3 Systems Theory 6.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice.2.3.2. Objectives: After studying this unit.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.3.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6. you will be able to: .3. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs. In this discussion.1 The Nature of Systems 6. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed.4 Participation and Empowerment 6.6.3.
Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field. · Describe the parallel learning structures. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in . Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature.· Explain various models and theories of planned change.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. Models and theories depict. · Explain systems theory. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. 6. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. and specify the relationships among the variables. describe those features as variables. We will examine the following concepts: · Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. in words or pictures. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. the important features of some phenomenon.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context.2. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. That is. · Explain the terms µparticipation¶ and µempowerment¶. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables.
it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. that is. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. Likewise. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. moving to new level of behaviour. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. judge things. For example. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. etc. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. Scanning the environment for new relevant information . mentor. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. Finally. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion.opposing directions.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. Lewin¶s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. that is. he must move. Lewin¶s second idea was a model of the change process itself. feel things. b. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). Identifying with a new role model. With a technique called the force-field analysis. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. Next. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things.
The primary task in stage 3. which motivate the person to change. In stage 1. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. unfreezing. change will not occur. for example. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. and fit with the individual¶s social surroundings. Phases 3. The total personality and self-concept. which cause guilt and anxiety. That is. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person¶s personality.Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. refreezing. establishing goals and intentions of action. and attitudes. This motivating evidence is gained by. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s refreezing phase. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system¶s problem. and Bruce Westley. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. b. that is. and 5 correspond ro Lewin¶s moving phase. 4. That is. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person¶s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin¶s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s unfreezing phase. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. terminating the client-consultant relationship. In stage 2. moving. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. . Jeanne Watson. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. Significant relationships.
called "tracks. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. 4) The strategy-structure track. 6. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? . 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. Change programs take from one to five years to complete.2. cause the organization to be successful. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. Kilmann¶s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". when functioning properly. Interventions include training programs. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. 2) Diagnosing the problems. problem-solving sessions." that. and so forth.This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. and 5) The reward system track. 3) The team-building track. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. 2) The management skills track. critique practices and procedures.2 Beyond the ³Quick Fix´ A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program.
communication. departments.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. Ford General Electric. radical. General Foods. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit ± thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. work groups. evolutionary. and its holistic view of organization change and development. OD programs are directed toward both first. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call ³transactional change´ and ³transformational change´). . some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. then moving to the management skills track. jobs. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. then moving to the team-building track. and all resources with the new strategic direction. or continuous change. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. In first-order change.and second-order change. information sharing. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. adaptive. Eastman Kodak. Westinghouse. The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T.The culture track enhances trust. and Xerox with good results. 6. the use of updated management skills. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. or discontinuous change. beginning with the culture track. revolutionary. TRW. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. In second-order change. incremental. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered ± the organization is transformed.2. and so forth.
Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First ± Order Change . These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. leadership.Organizational climate is defined as people¶s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. On the other hand. and beliefs that are enduring. Changing structure. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees¶ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. which change motivation and. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. We will do so in several steps. hard-working or easy-going. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. management practices. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. values. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. and organization culture result in second-order change. management practices. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. in turn." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Fig. often unconscious. and so forth. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. friendly or unfriendly. and difficult to change. 6. individual and organizational performance. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model.
if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). structure. Burke says: ³Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. as shown in the above figure. Interventions directed toward management practices. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. mission and strategy. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. To summarize. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization¶s culture. . 6. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second ± Order Change On the other hand. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended.Fig. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. These factors are able to change the climate. we must change mission and strategy. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. leadership styles. and organization culture. that is. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation.´ We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate.
2. and technology. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. strategies. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. management style. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members¶ cognitions (they learn what is expected. social factors. . Interventions that focus on culture.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. OD interventions that focus on goals. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. It is how OD works.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. For example. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. rewarded). The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. and interaction processes will affect social factors.Fig. which influence on-the job behaviours. physical setting. according to Porras and Robertson. which determine organizational performance and individual development. required. 6.
which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. Systems .4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. 6.Fig. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory. describes the characteristics of systems. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. This section explains systems theory.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6. Fig. 6. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966.
. What is inside the boundary is the system. The words µarrangement¶ and µinterrelated¶ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy." To summarize. the organization¶s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. conversion. people. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. components. system denotes interdependency. Thus. the organization will cease to exist.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. or transformation processes that change the inputs. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. Therefore. Boundaries of open systems are permeable.3. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. For example. They do something to the inputs via throughput. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. information. Organizations are open systems." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. and energy between system and environment. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. 6. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. or subsystems. interconnectedness. and if the environment does not want these outputs. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. dynamics. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. Open systems have purposes and goals.theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. that is the system. the reasons for their existence. raw material and so on. resources. in that they permit exchange of information. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. money.system." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. Every system is delineated by a boundary. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. when taking a systems approach. Here.
If the mission (target) changes. Systems require two kinds of feedback. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback.Fig. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems ³run down´ and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. negative and positive. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. Positive feedback comes from the environment. and so on. say. "return to earth. and the like. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. mining. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. For example. and makes a course correction. that information is called positive feedback. and the system adjusts to a new goal. competitors. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. but most are not useful. aerospace. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. . if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. Say your company makes buggy whips. however. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. Information is important to systems in several ways. 6. By the same token. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. eating fads. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. while screening out other information. It is sometimes called deviationamplifying feed back. For example.
2) Resources available to the organization. and complex over time. work. important events. specialized. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. The three major input factors are: 1) The environment. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. such as capital. With increased differentiation. and informal organization. formal organization. knowledge. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. failures. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization).3. which includes the organization¶s culture informal rules and understandings. and technology. 6. unit/group level. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. As Katz and Kahn say: ³The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state ± systems have multiple paths to goals. differentiated.Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. either internal or external. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. . and the workforce¶s expectations. people. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important.´ Also. knowledge. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. perceptions. this process is called differentiation. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. Subsystems exist within larger systems. and individual level. processes. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. which includes formal structures. systems tend to get more elaborated. and systems for performing the work. which includes skills.
performance will suffer. fit) must be present among the system¶s components¶ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs." and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance.3. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work." The premise is that alignment (harmony. If the organization¶s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. 6. which components are "not functioning correctly. 6. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. training group members in multiple skills. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. and information to the point of action. two active segments of OD today. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. and that changes in one system affect the other system. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. In a company that is performing poorly. if people don¶t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. performance will suffer. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. that is. organizations must optimize both systems. especially autonomous work groups (selfregulated teams or self-direct teams). Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model¶s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. For example. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. controlling variance at the source. Hanna writes: . A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. performance will suffer. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. to the workers doing the job. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. a social system and a technical system.Fig. multi-skilled teams. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. Fred Emery. forming autonomous work groups. .
because most phenomena have more than one cause. G. therefore. building shared vision. events. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. systems thinking. Charles Krone. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. team learning. is the most important. according to Peter Senge. Second. Without a systemic orientation. and systems thinking. events and forces. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. changing one part of a system influences other parts.KI Jayaram. Third. First. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. not single effects. from their activities. He says of systems thinking: ³It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines.3. forces. mental models. but seen in relation to other issues. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations.´ In conclusion. the fifth discipline. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. issues. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stakeholders. 6. Of all these disciplines.In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. and 3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. . For example.
Fourth. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. and give more power to more people. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. quality circles. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. personal initiative." is bottom-up and less controlling. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. And fifth. and growth. not just its component parts. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. and change. They believed that it was about risk-taking. quality of work life programs. 6. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. one changes the system. produce better solutions to problems. The other view. Participation enhances empowerment. For example. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. survey feedback. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. growth.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. increase commitment to the organization. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. called "organic. with its emphasis on risk-taking. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. One view. But . Further. which they call "mechanistic. to contribute their ideas. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. To empower is to give someone power. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. to change a system. involvement and participation energize greater performance. and to be responsible. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. reduce stress levels. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. search conferences. team building." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control." These authors believe the organic view. to exert influence. is the more useful perspective. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. autonomous work groups.
the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. the noun team has become a verb. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. but rather a mindset that employees have about their roles in the organization. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. research. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. as a team. people must work together to accomplish them. and relationships if they are to be effective. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. HPOs (high-performance organizations). and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. they must if personally connected to the organization. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. QCs (quality circles). Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today ± gurus extol the virtues of teams. then. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: ³Empowerment. systems. confident about their abilities. teams create synergy. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. employees must choose to be empowered. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. to name just a few. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. Second. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. While management can create a context that is more empowering. processes. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important.both views contain valid ideas: for example. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. .´ 6. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. that is. Third. is not something that management does to employees. Teams and teamwork are "in. HPWSs (high-performance work systems).5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. If the team. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. changes those norms and values. Theory. teaming. Team Taurus developed Ford¶s best-selling automobile. STS (socio-technical systems).
status. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. When any one feature is lost. quality circles. In this section. parallel learning structures. and set ever-higher goals. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. socio-technical systems programs. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills.Fourth. temporary teams. including collegiate football national champions. team performance declines. cross-functional teams. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. . Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. find innovative ways around barriers. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. inter-group team-building. and responsibility charting. that they achieve synergy. and explore ways to realize that potential. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. Examples are team-building. and respect-teams nurture human nature. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. and others. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. heart transplant surgical teams. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. process consultation. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. help each other. role negotiation technique. teams satisfy people¶s needs for social interaction. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. recognition. and the like. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk.
a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. autonomous. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization¶s methods of work and/or culture. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. deciding. At Ford Motor Company. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. Bushe and Shani say: ³The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as ³a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. It isn¶t the supplemental structure that¶s important. managers. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. constitute another important foundation of organization development. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). In essence. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system.´ The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. Asea Brown Boveri. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. If you don¶t implement different norms and procedures. Union Pacific Railroad.´ Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. 6. 6. Projects are the work of the future. flexible response. and employees.Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. projects will be performed by teams. Interestingly. and continuous learning. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. clear objectives. you don¶t have a parallel structure. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. Titeflex. What¶s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. and initiate needed changes. High responsibility. and then leading the process. superior customer service. talking.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing . specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team.
The first type is empirical rational strategies. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones.Organization development involves change. will follow their rational self-interest. relationships and customary ways of doing things. values. information. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. doubts. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. attitudes. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. that is. based on the assumptions that people are rational. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. and together they define problems and seek solutions. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. according to this view. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. Patterns of action and practice are supported ± by sociocultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normativereductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-re-eductive and the empirical-rational strategies. OD clearly falls within the normative-reeducative category. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. and¶ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. . And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. rather than the OD practitioner. anxieties. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. and significant relationships. Change in a pattern of practice or action. Evaluated against these three change strategies. not just changes in knowledge. skills. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change.
thereby solving the problem. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory.. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. not the individual. On this point. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. i. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. Burke writes: ³If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. practices. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. on the basis of selected variables." applied science. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. hopefully. by modifying a group norm or standards. pressing problems. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice. for example. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. 6. or practice. success corroborating the diagnosis. OD emphasizes the latter.´ From this "practice theory. Thus. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. . and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation.´ Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. The practitioner examines the problem situation. and (2) "technology. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that.e. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. Greenwood states: ³The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. re-establishes the equilibrium. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. behavioural science knowledge. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. applied science or practice. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory.
and action planning based on the data. represent contributions from pure or basic science. Kurt Lewin. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. form of applied behavioural science. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. represent contributions from applied science.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. practice research and practice theory. Self Assessment Questions . 6.9 Action Research The action research model ± a data-based. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. It is a type of action-research.Fig. the two top in puts. feedback of the data to the client system members. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing ± learning about the dynamics of organizational change. 6. Taken collectively. Taken separately. The two bottom inputs. Action research involves three processes: data collection. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action.´ Concluding Comments: These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. perhaps more accurately. and research leading to social action« This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. who developed the concept of action research. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. had this to say about it: ³The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. and doing or implementing change efforts.
Ralph Kilmann 3. 3. First²order change is also called ___________. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members.´ Comment on this statement.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field.´ 5. 6. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. A _____________ is defined as ³a set of elements standing in interaction. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. 2. 4. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. 6.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change. Unfreezing 2.11 Terminal Questions 1. 4. 6. 2. ±±±±±±±±±± gave the model ³Beyond the Quick Fix´. ±±±±±±±±±± means moving to new level of behaviour. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. Bring out the essence of ³managing beyond the quick fix´ model of organizational development. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. Action research model combines learning and doing. Explain Kurt Lewin¶s models and theories of planned organizational change. ³Work teams are building blocks of organizational development.1. Transactional change . In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. 3.
MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.3 5.2.2 3.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7. Refer section 6. Refer section 6.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . System 5.3 4. Refer section 6.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7. 7.1 2.Refer section 6.1 Introduction Objectives 7.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture 7.4. Refer section 6.2.3 Types of Organization Culture.2.6 Summary . Synergy Answers to TQs: 1.
Martin and Meyerson. discovered. but also changing the corporate culture as well. ± similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone¶s personality. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. including guidelines on how much work to do.1 Introduction Basically. · Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. terminology. Which in many organizations come down to ³Do not do too much. thinking. 1986). Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. values. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. what they brag about. Culture is one of those terms that¶s difficult to express distinctly.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. etc. but everyone knows it when they sense it. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. Norms. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. do not do too little?´ . and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. When organizational participants interact with one another. 7. Standards of behavior exist. Observed behavioral regularities. despite the best-laid plans. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. Objectives: After studying this unit. they use common language. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. For example. the culture of a large. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. Practitioners are coming to realize that. what members wear. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. 2.7 Terminal Questions 7.7.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. organizational culture is the personality of the organization.
Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. Organizational climate: This is an overall ³feeling´ that is conveyed by the physical layout.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber¶s original view of bureaucracy. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. 6. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. shared goals. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. They often have well-defined policies. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. the way participants interact. 4. processes and procedures. Rather than strict rules and procedures. In contrast to Hierarchies. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. .3. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization¶s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. New-comers must learn those ³ropes´ in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. Typical examples are high product quality. 7. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. Transactions are exchanges of value. Market cultures are outward looking. 5. For many years. outputs and outcomes. people are driven through vision. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. In an efficient market organization. but one where all transactions. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. internal and external are viewed in market terms.
· Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. Martin and Meyerson. etc. invisible to the naked eye. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. big-bang projects and development. the way they dress etc. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. plaques. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. the jargon they use. · Its rituals. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. symbols. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. systems and subsystems. thinking. Rules. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. In biological terms. 1986). norms. culture is like the DNA of an organization. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. 1993). although not necessarily documented. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. . Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. discovered. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. 7. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan.strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. and procedures. supportive way and may take on a parental role. but critical to shaping its behavior. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. rules.
Identifying. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. its core value are limited to a few in number. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. . Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. From this point of view. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. intervening and end result. skills. 1. there are numerous variables. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management¶s policies. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. and what is right and what is wrong. Though an organization espouses a series of values. communicating. goals.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. to denote organizational effectiveness. Thus. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. profitability. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization¶s social environment and evolve of behavior. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. are often used interchangeably. and doing.Values: These are the social principles. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. Though each individual¶s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. various terms such as efficiency. productivity. individually and collectively. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. the personality of the organization). there is often contradiction in various approaches. organizational growth. business and leadership strategies. For example. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. believing. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. also called as organizational success or growth. from the basis of its policies and action.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. or standards held by members of an organization. and behaviour. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. decisions. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment.
building. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. e. and perceptual cluster. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. money. and they tend to be longterm goals. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. performance goals. motivational. and so on. and a common history begins to be built. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. and is worth the investment of time. scrap loss. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. However. motivations. 4. is workable. and decision-making. 3. 2. End ± result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. the loyalties. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster.2. 3. incorporating. others are brought into the organization. attitudes. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. That is. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: 1. and earnings. At this point. According to Likert. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of ±date. and energy that will be required. obtaining patents.. is worth running some risks for. . A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. communication. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance.g. For example. locating space. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. costs.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. 7.
the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. the geographic location.Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. and whether products and/or services are involved. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. roles. Politics. 5. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. the ³culture contract´ that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. The personal feelings. Emotions. powerful stakeholders such as unions. Structure. These factors from the two cultures include the size. Staffs. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. 2. 1. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. if possible. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. or even customers may support the existing culture. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. take these losses early. habits. management. relationships. 7. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can¶t be done successfully?. In addition. Make changes from the top down. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. and history of two firms. 6. 4. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. commitment. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. 3. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. and patterns of daily behavior. age. 2. especially when making changes in rules and processes. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. Include employees in the culture change process. Assess the current culture. attitudes. 3. .
are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. 3. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. Artifacts 2.6 Summary Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. Stay the course by being persistent.goal approach. Market 3. ________cultures are outward looking. behavioural approach. 7. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. 2. Causal variables Answers to TQs: . and strategic constituencies approach. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. 7.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Finally. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture.8. 3. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. system-resource approach. Self Assessment Questions 1.7 Terminal Questions 1. 2. 7. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. 9.
9 Summary 8.3 3.3 Two Faces of Power 8.2 2. Refer section 7.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8. Politics and Organization Development Unit-08.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8. Refer section 7. MU0002-Unit-08. Refer section 7.1.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .Power.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8.1 Introduction Objectives 8.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.Power.10 Terminal Questions .2 Power Defined and Explored 8.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8.
2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired. and behaviours of people. power must be exercised. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations. In this unit. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related.¶ To have power is to be able to get desired things done. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations." . The French word µpouvoir¶ stands for both the noun µpower¶ and the verb µto be able. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8.8." ³Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. to effect outcomes. · Explain theories about the sources of power. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid today.´ ³A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do.actions and the decisions that precede them. Potential power is the capacity to do so.´ Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations. indisputable facts of organizational life. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development. 8. Objectives: After this studying this unit. emotions." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes.1 Introduction Power and politics. and for change to occur in an organization.
suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. with collective.Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one¶s way." . persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. 8. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson¶s "Power-Dependence theory. an authority or power dimension is required. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. political. or acquired? In this unit.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. influence. and organizational activities. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. Without leadership (power) in medical. Leading. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. the act or ability of influencing others. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. power being the predominant mode. influencing. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. for organizations to function. and lead. Power-in-action may take many forms. both positive and negative. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one¶s way in a social situation. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. and repression. being exercised. In fact. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. bestowed. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. forcing. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. Crushing. hurting. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. selling. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. confiscation.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" ± positive and negative. technological. not the possession of power as such. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. 8. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. absolute power corrupts absolutely. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. According to him." A moment¶s reflection. unsocialized need to dominate others. financial. or positive. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. however. spiritual.
respect. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others." In other words. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A¶s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. Expert power ± power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. of social power as follows: 1. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. 2. When the net balance for us is positive. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. P. or bases. 5. we will terminate or alter the relationship. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. that is.· French and Raven¶s "Bases of Social Power. information. influence. 4. power. that is. when the net balance for us is negative. The sociologist. Coercive power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. we will continue the exchange relationship. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. goals. 3. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. hate. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. that person has power over us. to give something negatively valued by the other. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. rewards) that are controlled by one party. . if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. Reward power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another." · Mintzberg¶s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. blame. and desired by the other. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. praise. attraction. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. and so forth. Legitimate power ± power based on everyone¶s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. rejection." These authors suggested five sources. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. Viewed in this light. Referent power ± power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. to give something valued by the other." · Salancik and Pfeffer¶s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power.
In this theory, power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals, units, or departments) most important for solving the organization¶s most critical problems. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. This theory, like the ones discussed previously, supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by- others-in this case, the special expertise needed for the organization¶s survival-have power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits, indeed, used by all who have it, to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources, through the placement of allies in key positions, and through the definition of organizational problems and policies." These authors view organizational power as a good thing, for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. This theory, "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players, called influencers, seek to control the organization¶s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power, coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. According to Mintzberg, the five possible bases of power are, first, control of a resource; second, control of a technical skill; and, third, control of a body of knowledge. All of these must be critical to the organization. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. In addition to a base of power, the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. An organization has many potential influencers, such as the board of directors, the managers, the top executives, the employees, the unions, suppliers, customers, regulators, and so forth. The important aspects of Mintzberg¶s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others, that power-in-action requires will and skill, and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In summary, these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar ± power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. The resources may be ability to reward and
punish, being in control of critical skills, knowledge, or information, the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined ³politics simply as the study of who gets what, when, and how´. ³Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices´. ³Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups´. ³Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means´. Thus, we view politics as a subset of power, treating it as informal power, illegitimate in nature. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power, but in this sense, formal power, the power vested in office, the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. Both relate to getting one¶s way-effectance. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. For our purposes, organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations; it is engaging in activities to get one¶s way. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities; the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics, like power, has two faces. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest; unsocialized needs to dominate others; a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win, you must lose-rather than win-win terms; and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy, surprise, holding hidden agendas, withholding information, deceiving. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others; viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible; engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing; a relative absence of the tactics of fighting; and a socialized need to lead, initiate, and influence others. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making, resource allocation, and conflict resolution processes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose; they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. In fact, one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation, conflict resolution, and choosing among alternative means and goals.
8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. Virtually, all OD interventions promote problem-solving, not politics, as a preferred way to get things accomplished. OD interventions increase problem-solving, collaboration, co-operation, fact-finding, and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. For example, OD interventions typically generate valid, public data about the organization¶s culture, processes, strengths, and weaknesses. Valid, public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations; rather, they enhance the positive face of power, thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy, it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme power-oriented situations. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power, but not with the negative face of power. Values such as trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first, problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations; second, power equalization, being one aspect of the positive face of power, increases the amount of power available to organization members, and by so doing adds power to the organization. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator, catalyst, problem solver, and educator. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. According to Chris Argyris, the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information, (2) to promote free, informed choice, and (3) to promote the client¶s internal commitment to the choices made. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner, his or her program, and his or her values, methods, and expertise. The OD consultant, like all consultants, provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors, as we discussed earlier. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. In summary, organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. This major strength of OD derives from the strategy of change, the technology, the values, and the roles of OD practitioners.
preferably multiple sponsorship. experience. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization¶s decision makers). Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. 5. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. According to the framework of French and Raven. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). . the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. both as a person and as a professional. problem solving. First. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. in powerful places. communicating. What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. 6. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. it will gain more power. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. coaching. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. it will be strong externally. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. Skills such as listening.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. acceptability. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). and ability to gain organizational support." 4."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. and expertise. Success leads to credibility and stature. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. Rule One: Become a desired commodity.8. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. 2. 3.
Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one¶s own or in others¶ political struggles.counseling. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. A valuable byproduct of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. The OD program belongs to the manager. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. not content. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. OD programs should be results-oriented. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. usually managers. which is to be an expert on process. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. Rule Six: Mind your own business. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. Rule Five: Mind your own business. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization¶s powerholders. the manager will vigorously defend it. not the OD consultant. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. those issues vital to the organization¶s success. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being managercentered. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one¶s power base. . constructive social relationships. not by getting involved in the answers.
Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. problem solver. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. Networking is recognized as a potent. and using contacts for information. Table 8." and "going around the formal system. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. We could propose more rules of thumb. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. others¶ support." "using social networks. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. negotiations the nature of power and politics.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge · Expertise · Information · Tradition Others¶ Support y y Strategies for Success Playing It Straight · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Political access Staff support . and educator. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. the strategy and tactics of influence. As shown in the figure." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. not power activist or power broker. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. and personality characteristics. viable. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. 8. individual power derives from knowledge. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. catalyst. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others¶ legitimate "turf.Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. yet legitimate means of acquiring power." which arouses defensive actions. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation.
) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. Whetton and Cameron¶s model is shown in following figure. arises from expertise. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what¶s expected of them. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. . criticality-how important one¶s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. personal attraction. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. In this model. a person¶s power comes from two main sources. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks´. and legitimacy. in turn. ³One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. Indeed. and relevance-how important one¶s task is in relation to organizational priorities. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying.Personality y y y Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don¶t) use organization rules Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. even those of little power. Personal power. This practical. effort. personal power and position power. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. visibility-how much one¶s work is seen by influential people.
and (3) empowering others. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. (2) provide a positive. 8. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective.Fig. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. Whetton and Cameron suggest several means of resisting others¶ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. Concluding Comments: In this unit. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. arise from known conditions. actually using it to get things done is another. Having power is one thing. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. Retribution refers to coercion and threats. power-in-use is called influence." And. Our suggestions for . Power and politics are similar in nature. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. and are amenable to positive control." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people¶s inappropriate influence attempts. collaborative work environment. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. and retribution. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. According to these authors. Usually reason is the preferred strategy.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. reciprocity. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. and (6) build on success.
Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. 8. McClelland 3. Power 2. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. ±±±±±±±±±± is made up of Charisma. 3. _____________ has identified two faces of power. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. emotions or behaviour of people. and are amenable to positive control. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. 8. 4.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. Power can be either positive or negative. 5. ±±±±±± is the intentional influence over the beliefs. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. Referent power 4. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ±±±± ±±±±±±±. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. 8. Define organization politics. 4. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. when. Describe briefly various theories of power. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. 3.using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. 2.. Power and politics are similar in nature. Harold Lasswell . reputation and professional credibility. 5. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. 2. when and how. arise from known conditions.10 Terminal Questions 1. Self Assessment Questions 1. and how.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. ±±±±±±±± defined politics as the study of who gets what.
4 Management By Objectives 9. Personality Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 8.2 2.Refer section 8.5 Quality Circles 9.4 3. Refer section 8. Refer section 8.3 Socio Technical Systems 9.6 5.6 Quality of Work Life Projects .5.1 Introduction Objectives 9.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2 Meaning and Definitions 9.5 4. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9. Refer section 8.
An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9. In this dynamic and fluid environment. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change.8 Total Quality Management 9.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. · Explain Reengineering. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures.11 Terminal Questions 9. Objectives: After studying this unit. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.10 Summary 9. actions.9. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis. organizational problems may repeat. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program. . · Explain Total Quality Management.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9.
Downsizing associated with restructuring. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. From a benefit cost analysis. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. Greater Predictability.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. 1976. It could involve the following steps (Foster.9. Organization Acceptance of Change. Cummings. 2. This normally is a reasonable. The cost of structural change is generally ³front-end´ loaded. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. It endeavors to re-design the organization¶s structure. Structure changes are normally ³institutionalized´ and less subject to this problem. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. Basic reinforcement theories. 3.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. Pasmore. 4. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. 5. Rapidity of change. organization theory. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. Cost is Low. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. Succession Doesn¶t Destroy Change Effort. In addition. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. 1967. 9. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. and more critically. 1988): Determining the environmental demands Creating a vision statement Educating organizational members .
and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique.´ Based on the definition of MBO. with objective orientation as its essence. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. 2.´ The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: ³MBO is a result-centered. physical. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. Since then. its features can be identified as follows: 1. As an approach to management. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. non-specialist. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). In fact. Creating the change structure Conducting socio-technical analysis Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of . many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. On the other hand. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. therefore. It is a particular way of thinking about management. Certain degree of overlapping is there. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. its definitional aspect.
What business are we in?´ and what should be our business?´ provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. such as. normally once a year. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. (ii) long-range . the clarity and balance of objectives. 4. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. including the corporate level. 3. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. enhancement of employee commitment and participation. The performance review is held regularly. Questions. 1. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. etc. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. delegation of authority. are determined on the basis of objectives. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. 5.management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. 6. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. and participation of the managers with accountability for results. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment.. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. all the units or departments and individual manager. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization. Therefore. superiors and subordinates. its subsystems and people. then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. It works as an integrating device. Resource allocation. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. Therefore. its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. This. Similarly. Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. ³why does the organization exist?´. in interaction with external factors. Therefore.
Setting Subordinates¶ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. In turn. If not. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization¶s health and the top management perspective for the future. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization. Thereafter. (iii) short-term organizational objectives. . resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. 2. there should be matching between objectives and resources. (v) individual manager¶s objectives. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. (vi) financial and physical resources. each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability. Therefore. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). Therefore. (iv) productivity. (v) worker performance. (ii) market standing. 5. Therefore. and (viii) public responsibility. they also indicate the resource requirement. with the experience gained over the period of time. what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate¶s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by setting easily achievable objectives. Even though KRAs are most durable. a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. The process of objective setting begins with superior¶s proposed recommendations for his subordinate¶s objectives. a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. However. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. Sometimes. (iii) innovation. (vii) manager performance. the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. By relating these to objectives. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. 3. the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. In fact. By relating these to objectives.and strategic objectives. 4.
6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal. in general. . each having three to fifteen members.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s. on paper. Quality circle program consists of several circles. this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. appropriate feedback and employee discretion. information.6. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power. 9. knowledge. · Make recommendations for improvement. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. which consequently result into high level of task variety. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization¶s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases. Therefore. 9. what happens at each level may affect other levels also.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. hierarchical structure. but in its contemporary form. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. QWL programs. or in people¶s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. 9. and rewards.
Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. Reengineering is a top-down process. self-managed teams and task forces. Self Assessment Questions . such as cost. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. It is also called continuous quality improvement. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. eliminating. · A major emphasis on continuous learning.9. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. including the use of quality circles. and extensive use of employee participation. contemporary measures of performance. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. It is very popular in USA in 1990s. service. statistical process control. 9.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. quality. · Competitive benchmarking. provides relevant information to all employees.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization¶s activities around the concept of quality. · Participative management. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. statistical quality control. and speed. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers.
MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. From a benefit cost analysis. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. 9. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. 9. actions. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. 2. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. Drucker 3. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. Quality circle Answers to TQs: .10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities.1. Intervention 2.11 Terminal Questions 1. provides relevant information to all employees. 3. 9. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. It is also called continuous quality improvement. actions.
1. 10.2 Nature of Change 10.7 Summary 10. Refer section 9.3 2.2 3.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .5 4.3 Resistance to Change 10. Refer section 9. MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10. Self Assessment Questions 10.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs .5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10.4 Causes for Resistance to Change.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change.1 Introduction Objectives 10.Refer section 9.8 Terminal Questions 10. Refer section 9.
structural arrangement. and others. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. organizational problems may repeat.2 Nature of Change The term µchange¶ refers to an alteration in a system. · Impact of change on future managers. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. which are major ones. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. 3. may require special change efforts. Organizational change is a continuous process. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. In this dynamic and fluid environment. However. Hence. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. Any change may effect the whole organization. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. job design and people. indirectly. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). Thus. and others.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. When change occurs in any part of the organization. 2. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. some parts of organization may be affected more. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. organizational change may have the following features: 1.10. Thus. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. less. others. some parts may be affected directly. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.whether physical. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. or social. 10. Objectives: After studying this unit. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled . biological.
if we look minutely. but when a change is major or unusual. there are two sides of resistance.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. adjustment is fairly routine. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. In fact. We wanted a new culture and new layout. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. so is the resistance to change. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. In fact. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. 10. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. However. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. Homeostasis implies selfcorrecting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme.´ Resistance as Benefit: . Similarly. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. commented. because it produces identical symptoms. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. that is. On this phenomenon. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. the contour of the balloon visibly changes.as cost and as benefit. more serious upsets may occur. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. employees want to maintain a status quo. it becomes indented at the point of contact. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. it has stretched slightly. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. Madhur Bajaj. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. However. We shall take new workers at the new place. Thus.balloon. If people resist to change. ³The Pune plant is fully saturated. In fact. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required.
On the one hand, resistance to change is costly affair, and on the other, it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. While on negative side, the reality lies in between. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Thus, resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: 1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Therefore, the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. These feelings, either real or emotional, may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic, psychological and social. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological, job security etc. precede over other needs. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques, technology, etc., whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them, they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India, it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely, reduce job options, and turn into technological unemployment. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match.
3. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes, bonus, etc. All these are well-established in the old system. Whenever there is change, people may feel that in the new system, they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Psychological Factors Psychological factors are based on people¶s emotions, sentiments and attitudes towards change. These are qualitative and, therefore, may be logical from people¶s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent¶s point of view. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness, status quo, lack of trust in change agent, low tolerance for change, and fear of unknown. 1. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego, people resist change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Thus, the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. 2. Status Quo: People want status quo. i.e. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore, everyone tries to avoid it. 3. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo, people may differ. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Therefore, these people resist any new idea. 4. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent, that is, the person who initiates change. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent, they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 5. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The change will bring results in future, which is always uncertain. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction, particularly social needs, through their mutual compatible interactions. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change, people resist it. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.
1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. When there is any change, their existing social interactions are likely to be changed, which people do not want. Therefore, they resist change. 2. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class, e.g., change initiated by managers affecting workers. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change, even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. For example, Sumantra Ghoshal, a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru, has commented as follows: ³Nothing fails like success; nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation, Caterpillar, Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles, all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called µThe Failure of Success¶. Strategies, values, resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés, dogmas, millstones and routines.´ This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought, these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes, stability of systems, resource limitations, sunk cost, and inter-organizational agreement. Some of these reasons are basic while others are byproducts of those. For example, first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. 1. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices, they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. 2. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. For example, a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules, prescribes rigid authority relationships, and institutes reward and punishment system. All these work in some circumstances. It a change is required in these aspects, the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system.
and reactors. In such a case. 4. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. prospectors. if new technology is adopted. In this interaction process.3. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. these can be used for specific period. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. building and training for its personnel. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. Now. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. centralized control. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. Thus. If it is risk-taking. . 2. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. forward-looking.defenders. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. 3. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. and has zeal for progress. 5. if any change is to be incorporated. those who watch things happen. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. it will require resources to procure machine. Once the assets are acquired. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. analyzers. Let us see what someone has said long back: ³There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. Resource Limitations: No doubt. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. 1. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. innovative. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. if the change is required. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. those who wonder what happened. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. For example. For example. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors.´ This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. broad environmental scanning. and commensurate expenses on other items also. It depends more on the style of top management. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. This can be in the form of people also. intensive planning. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. decentralized controls. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working.
As human beings. immediate. For instance. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. engaging in a work showdown. adjusting to the new office layout. we all rely on habits.4. some may fear they¶ll be unable to do so. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. Otherwise. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one¶s income. To cope with this complexity. or deferred. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. we¶ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. They may. they cannot survive. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won¶t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. finding a new parking place. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. or the like. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. Therefore. If for example. The same applies to employee. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you¶re like most people. 10. Life is complex enough. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. developing a new lunchtime routine. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. When we are confronted with change. it means you¶re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. we¶re creatures of habit. therefore.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn¶t necessarily surface in standardized ways. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. threatening to go on strike. or programmed responses. and so on. And people in general don¶t like the unknown. implicit. we don¶t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. taking a new set of streets to work. Let¶s look at the sources of resistance. Organizational resistance . Resistance can be overt. For analytical purpose. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. you find a single route and you use it regularly. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. Habit Every day. when you go to work or school.
For example. Will the change. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. development of pay plans. For example. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization¶s structure to match. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. They tend to be content with the way things are. group norms may act as a constraint. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. You can¶t change one without affecting the others. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. for instance. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities ± such as training. rules and procedures for employees to follow. For example. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. That is. The . Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. 10. he¶s likely to resist. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers.Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. for instance.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. accountants work with marketers. Formalization provides job description. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. An individual union member. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. and benefits administration ± has been resisted by many human resource departments.
typically by way of computer network links. that is.´ Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. at the level of individual and at the level of group.ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. It implies explanation and then discussion of the proposed changes. through group dynamics. both at the formal and informal levels. Locavini observes that ³the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. People always have some . As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. the problems can be solved at the same level. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. For this purpose. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people¶s resistance to change successfully. In many cases. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. For example. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. Stephen Robbins suggests that ³«« managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue ± not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. However. 10.´ The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. this is not a one-time action. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. Unless this problem is overcome properly. In addition. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. the following efforts can be taken: 1. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. Therefore.
As this process goes. as discussed earlier. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: 1. However. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. It grows slowly along with relationship. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling.ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. 2. its basic nature. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. The same is true of problem-solving. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. and indoctrinated in new relationships. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. he expresses it through a group. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. helped to change attitudes. education must be a part of the manager¶s everyday activity on the job. 4. meetings. Thus. Getting opinions out in the open. sometimes. so that they are looked at and evaluated. People should be educated to become familiar with change. They must be taught new skills. is an important trust-building task. Usually. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. . getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. Thus. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. to become effective. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. (ii) In group. and conferences. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. its process and working. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. the group itself should be the point of contact. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. more than one person is involved in the change. For this purpose. However. Though each person interprets the change individually often. 3. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. most of the times.
The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. However. immediate. Research studies also support this aspect. or deferred. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing . group resistance and vested interests. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. and how members contribute. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. structural arrangement. job design and people. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. Such training techniques include role playing. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. For instance. implicit. 2.such aspects as the reasons for change. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. Self Assessment Questions 1. sentiments and attitudes towards change. It purports how the results are. Economic factors. 10. 3. __________ are based on people¶s emotions. 2. 3.Through the group contact. social factors. mere participation may not help. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. and sensitivity or T-group training. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. Resistance can be overt. psychological factors. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. many things about change can be made clear. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. benefits of change. psychodrama.7 Summary Change is inevitable. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour.
engaging in a work showdown. Bell. both at the formal and informal levels. or the like.Response Books.2 2. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups.management of Organization Change. Organization Development. Refer section 10.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. Jain.6. Participation Answers to TQs: 1.Singh. French and Cecil H. Refer section 10. 10. Reference: · Wendell L. Jr. Psychological factors 3. · Cummings & Worley. . Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited.8 Terminal Questions 1. at the level of individual and at the level of group. Explain the nature of change? 2. Refer section 10. Principles and Practices. 10. N. through group dynamics. threatening to go on strike. Organizational change 2.complaints. eighth edition.. that is. · J. Modern Organization Development and Change. Organization Development & Change. Thomson South Western. Thomson · Daft Richard L. P.. Regal Publications New Delhi. Organization Theory and Design. New Delhi. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. P. New Delhi. · Harigopal K. Why do organizations resist change? 3. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change.4 3.
Robbins. Management.ac.co. Organizational Behaviour. .1lowry.kyoto-u.html http://muse.fao.pdf www. M.uk/pdf/bt/fincham/Chapter15. Organizational Development. Educatiional Publishers. Sultan Chand & Sons. Stoner and R.oup. Management. Principles & Practice of Management. New Delhi. · Laxmi Devi.htm www.jhu.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp598.com/www.humtech.lib.jp/~kyodo/kokyuroku/contents/pdf/1461-15. Anmol Publications Pvt.org/docrep/w7503e/w7503e05.managementtoday. F.· James A. N.htm#anchor73776 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .umich.edu/cameronk/CULTURE%20BOOK-CHAPTER%201. Ltd. E References y y y y y y y y y y y http://fds.pdf http://webuser.co. New Delhi.umd. · Stephens P.umich. New Delhi. Dhanpat Rai & Co.org/org_chng/org_chng. Prentice-Hall India.pdf http://www.managementhelp.bus.com/opm/grtl/OLS/ols6. · L.uk/search/article/634958/the-ceos-role-managing-change/ http://www. Pvt.edu/groups/learning/wp8. Prentice-Hall of India. Prentice-Hall of India.cfm http://www.com/articles/leadchange. Edward Freeman. Chhabra.htm#TopOfPage http://www.kurims. Prasad.work911. 12th edition.pdf http://www.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v005/5. Robbbins. · T.pdf http://www. Ltd.wdi. New Delhi. Organizational Behaviour.oup. · Stephen P.
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