This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the µmanagement¶ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn µsurplus¶ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of a
business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term ³management´. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley ± ³Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.´ In the words of George R. Terry ± ³Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.´ According to James L. Lundy ± ³Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.´ In the words of Henry Fayol ± ³To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.´ According to Peter F. Drucker ± ³Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work´. In the words of Koontz and O¶Donnel ± ³Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals´.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren ± ³The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.´ From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that ³management´ is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as ³management´. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a ³distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.´ From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as ³doing things right´. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization¶s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as ³doing the right things´. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of course, high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. And poor
Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. organizing. 5. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. Thus. labour and capital. Thus. labour. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. principles and techniques requires specialized . It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. The application of these concepts. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. informed employees. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. although they can¶t observe it during operation. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. namely. 4. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. principles and techniques which have wide applications. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals¶ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. 3. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. In essence. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. directing and controlling. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. 7. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. staffing. 1. 2. 6. capital and materials.management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. feeling of management is result-oriented. All these resources are made available to those who manage. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. So it is treated as a science. Managers apply knowledge. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance.
a hierarchy of command and control. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. 9. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. In other words. For instance. According to Herbision and Myers. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. education. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. government and hospital. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. management is viewed as an art. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem . people are bound by authority relationships. 1. money and machines into a productive. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. finance manager. military.knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. Sociology and Psychology. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. Basically. the effective use of the five M¶s of management (money. Generally. materials.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. personnel manager etc. labour and capital.e. that is. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. 8. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. They transmit orders. 10. In modern organizations. Similarly. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. materials. ongoing concern. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. Anthropology. (ii) a system of authority. and (iii) a class or elite. According to Newman. how effectively and economically the five M¶s are combined together to produce desired results. useful. manpower. it refers to three distinct ideas.
ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. Managing Director. Administrative management is concerned with ³thinking´ functions such as laying down policy. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. the lower level of management). Supervisors. its Chairman. For instance. and the range of production. 1. or.e. We generally come across two broad levels of management. Operative management is concerned with the ³doing´ function such as implementation of policies. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. but as head of wages and salary department. The levels of management depend upon its size. viz. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. As a separate group. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. But in actual practice.e. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as µManagement¶ which refers to the group. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. Purchase Manager. day-to-day matters. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. Board of Directors. etc.. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. or the Chief Executive. technical facilities. planning and setting up of standards. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. etc. ranks. Production Manager. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating . Financial Controller.and suggestions upward.. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. policies and plans for the enterprise. Foremen. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents.. Marketing Manager. (i) administrative management (i. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals.
b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. 2. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. men. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. d) To assemble the resources of money. materials. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. e) To assign activities.functions. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. Without them the top management¶s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. machines and methods to put the plans into action. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. . duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. j) To report to top management. e) To exercise effective control of the operations.
Their authority and responsibility is limited. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. Management is goal-oriented. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. Management makes group effort more effective. sales officers. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. methods. money and material. supervisors. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. The importance of management can be understood from the following points.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. 1. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. counseling and effective leadership. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual¶s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. an organization is merely a collection of men. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. In its absence. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. Without management. It consists of foreman. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. accounts officers and so on. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers.k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. They have to get the work done through the workers. To this end. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. They allot various jobs to the workers. machines. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. With a view to realize the . 3. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. procedures and reward systems.
Management . Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. often threaten the survival of a firm. techniques. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. Thus unnecessary deviations. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. Organize the resources properly. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. government policy. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. In the final analysis. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. and it is distinct. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. Failure to take note of customer¶s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for µIdeal java¶ in the two-wheeler market in India. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. skills. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience.. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. identifiable discipline. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. Management as a profession By a professional manager. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. But unlike medicine or law. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. According to McFarland. and specialized knowledge. etc. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. the Indian Institute of Management. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. They try to put everything on the right tract. competition.predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions.
unpatterned.Development Institute. This role includes hiring. motivating. etc. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. and disciplining employees. Furthermore. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature ± interpersonal roles. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. and short-duration activities.A. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. Some individual business organizations. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager¶s job. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the .S. training. the All India Management Association. an art as well as a profession. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions. the American Management Association in U. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. Half of these managers¶ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. bribing public officials to gain favours. the transfer of information. however. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. However. management is not as exact as natural sciences. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. do not seem to adhere to the principle of ³service above self´. managers in general. In fact. The term µmanagement roles¶ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. 1. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. For instance. and decision-making.. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. But in addition to these insights. All managers have a role as a leader. As a social science. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. sabotaging trade unions. However.
When they represent the organisation to outsiders. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. network of outside contacts and doing external board work. what competitors may be planning. Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager¶s unit. Informational Roles: All managers. understanding of organization and environment. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association.liaison role. to some degree.1: Mintzberg¶s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Liaison Symbolic head. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. Table 1. subordinates. This is the disseminator role. activities that involve responsible for staffing. obliged to Greeting visitors. informers who provide favors performing other activities and information. and the like. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. training. that involve outsiders. duties of a legal or social nature. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public¶s tastes. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. manages also perform a spokesperson role. and associated duties. and may be inside or outside the organization. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. making phone subordinates to members of the calls to relay information. Informational Monitor Disseminator . Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. Typically. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship.
managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization¶s performance. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. physical and monetary resources. results. . Inc. projects´ to bring about change. performing all kinds ± in effect. media. managers are responsible for allocating human. As resource allocators. As disturbance handlers. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units.. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. programming of subordinates work. Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Source: Henry Mintzberg.Spokesperson organization ± some information is factual. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. Decisional Roles: Finally. Publishers. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to develop and initiates ³improvement new programs. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. serves as expert on organization¶s industry. supervises design of certain projects as well. Last. outsiders on organization¶s giving information of the plans. 1973). policies. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the organizational decisions. actions. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. etc. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. negotiations. As entrepreneurs. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. requesting of organizational resources of authorization.
and conceptual. the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. research by Robert L. human. lead. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. However. the roles of disseminator. Since managers deal directly with people. liaison. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. or manufacturing. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy.An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg¶s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. negotiator. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers ± regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. During the early 1970. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. Specifically. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. this skill is crucial. motivate. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager¶s level within the organization. . Conversely. and all managers are involved in making decisions. as well as many middle managers. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. a manager¶s job is varied and complex. finance. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. Technical Skills: First-line managers. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization¶s operations. such as engineering. figurehead. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization¶s speciality. For example. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. They know how to communicate. computers. In fact.
on the other hand. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. Administration is a determinative function. etc. It is a doing function. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. It is concerned with the implementation of policies. plans and policies of the organisation. Management relates to execution of decisions. iii) There is no distinction between the terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ and they are used interchangeably. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. Table 1. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration.1. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. Administrators are basically concerned with planning and control. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. This view is held by Tead. Administration is a higher level function: Administration refers to policy-making. Spriegel and Walter. It is a thinking function. administration is a higher level function. 2. Thus. Nature 3. Management Management means getting the work done through and with others. It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies. Meaning Administration Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives. Floerence and Tead. Spriegal and Lansburg. Scope . Managers are concerned mainly with organisation and direction of human resources. Administration relates to the decision-making. Thus. According to them. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration.
DecisionMaking Administration determines Management decides who what is to be done and when it shall implement the is to be done. middle and lower. 6. organisations. objectives. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities.. 8.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. Still management is not completely a profession. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. operative workforce for the execution of plans. Five M¶s of management (________. ___________. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant at higher levels of management. _________. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. 5. 1.e. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. Explain its characteristics. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. Self Assessment Questions 1. . environmental forces. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. 7. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle level leading and motivation of executives. i. There are three levels of management-top. 3.9 Terminal Questions 1. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. 1.4. Usage of Term The term µadministration¶ is The term µmanagement¶ is often associated with widely used in business government offices. __________is principally the task of planning. administrative decisions. counseling and effective leadership. Define management. co-ordinating. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. public organisations in the private sector and non-business sector. lower levels of management. 2. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.
7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Discuss the importance of management. MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2.2 Process of Management 2.2.2. teamwork Answers to TQs: 1. 3.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Management 2. Money. manpower 3. Refer section 1. 1. Refer section 1. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. materials.3 Planning 2. Refer section 1.1.5 3.1 Introduction Objectives 2.3 2.4 Organizing .
Organizing 3.9 Terminal Questions 2. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. Planning 2. Staffing.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2. One can also think of management functionally. Directing. Controlling However. Organizing.5 Staffing 2. · Explain different functions of management Process. Motivating. in recent time.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people´. you will be able to: · Define Management process. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. Objectives: After this studying this unit. . Coordinating 5. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. Commanding 4.2. · Explain Planning.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2. Management functions are as follows (Fayol.6 Directing 2. 1949): 1.8 Summary 2.
Therefore. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: . policies are the means to achieve those ends. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. thus. studies on passenger comfort. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. overall goals. cost structure and so on. and then set out the method for achieving it. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. fuel and machine efficiency. There is a degree of overlap between the two. it is not a decision in which any process is involved.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: ³Management is doing things right. or where you want go to. In the football field. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. the two are not quite the same. leadership is doing the right things³. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. Even so. and allocating resources. However. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. 2. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. general strategies. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization¶s mission.2. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. Through leadership and management often overlap. driving comfort. the decision to change the design of a product. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. Decision ± Making Taking decisions is a process. while a policy. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. say a passenger car. Objectives are the ends. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems.
How skilled is our workforce? 4. federal. state. Weaknesses. Is research and development adequate? 4. customers (internal and external). Are the facilities outdated? 3. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. international). suppliers. professional. Opportunities. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. and trade). professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. A mission statement should be short ± and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization¶s potential. What financing is available? 6. Thus. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments.A mission is the purpose of the organization. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: . The mission statement is broad. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. What is our market share? 5. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. governments (local. summarizing what the organization does. journals and reports (scientific.
What are the new regulations? 6. Are our rivals weak? 5. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. earnings per share. effectiveness. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. What substitute products exist? In general terms. What are the possible new markets? 3. etc. Are market tastes changing? 5. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. Objectives are also called performance goals.1. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. What are the emerging technologies? 6. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. return on investment. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. Are there new competitors? 3. as well as gap analysis. the best strategy is one that fits the organization¶s strengths to opportunities in the environment. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. What is the strength of the economy? 4. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) . It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. Generally.
Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided.Tactical plans are based on the organization¶s strategic plan. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job 4. who is to do. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. operational plans are based on the organization¶s tactical plans. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. In turn. with ideas and resources. and coordinated. structuring. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. and goals are clearly stated. and where decisions are to be made.4 Organizing It involves designing. procedures. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. Organizations are groups of people.5 Staffing . who reports to whom. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. Assign work to individuals 6. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. grouped. how the tasks are to be grouped. 2. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. tactical. 2. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. working toward common goals. and relationships between departments. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. Review plans 2. Strategic. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. lines of authority.
selection. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. Koontz. 2. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. Theo Haimann ± ³Concerned with the placement. recruitment. . materials. 2. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization.It is not the machines. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals´. inventorying the people available. placement. recruitment. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. promotion. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. compensation and training of needed people´. 5. 3. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. 4. performance appraisal etc. 3. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. appraisal. selection. money. Definition: 1. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. placement. O¶Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as ³filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. This task has been referred to as staffing. training. development. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick ± ³Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work´ Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1.
It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. . resignation. 3. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. promotion.e. on the other. induction. 2. Direction function is performed at every level of management. 2. management initiates actions in the organization. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. selection. identifying the manpower requirements. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. motivate them. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. recruitment. overseeing and leading people. etc. It is instructing people as to what to do. Direction is an important managerial function. directing is the ³interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals´. Direction has dual objectives. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. training development and maintenance of personnel. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. It is an important managerial function. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. 4. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through ± out the life of an organization. 7. It is a continuing function. On the one hand. Through direction. Definition According to Koontz and O¶Donnel.6. 5. vacancies arise out of retirement. 8. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate.
proposed by Maslow (1943). As Theo Haimann puts it. ³without the issuance of directives. recognition. the more individuality. acceptance. shelter. from the basic to the complex. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. satisfied needs cannot. Theories X and Y. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. The further they progress up the hierarchy. belongingness. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. and external esteem factors. will vary depending upon his level. status. thirst. autonomy. and attention . Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished´. such as. The needs are arranged in order of importance. and achievement. 3. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. such as. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. self-respect. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. and the Two-Factor theory. 2. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process.Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. sex. teach. humanness and psychological health a person will show. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. 2. The manager never ceases to direct. guide.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. coach and supervise his subordinates. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. 4.
· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. anxious to accept greater responsibility. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. supervision. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. responsibility. and salary are hygiene factors. externally. Social. such as. working conditions. recognition. self-direction. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. includes growth. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people¶s attitudes about work. and exercise self-control. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. . if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager¶s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. such as. whereas. Theory Y ± In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. interpersonal relations. and achievement. esteem. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. It is also believed that. advancement. self-motivated. company policy. autonomy and empowerment. achieving one¶s potential. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. Extrinsic factors. if they can. and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. Theory X ± In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. From the above. Motivators are intrinsic factors.
who is to do. many related to the tasks being performed. have to do with a person¶s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. neither will they be satisfied. motivators describe a person¶s relationship with what she or he does. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. people will not be dissatisfied. 2. 3. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. Write a short not on directing. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. performance appraisal etc. Self Assessment Questions 1. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. and where decisions are to be made. Hygiene factors on the other hand. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does.9 Terminal Questions 1. To motivate people. 2. how the tasks are to be grouped. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. When hygiene factors are adequate. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done.In summary.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: . Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. 2. Organization involves designing. Explain Staffing in detail 3. 2. recruitment. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. What is planning? 2. who reports to whom. structuring. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. Planning involves the process of defining goals.
2 Definitions 3.4 Categories of OD 3.6 OD and Management Development 3.5 Goals of OD 3.8 Problems in OD . Follett 2. Reference 2. SWOT 3. Reference 2.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .7 Role of OD 3.3 2.3 Characteristics of OD 3. Reference 2.5 3.1 Introduction Objectives 3.1. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3.
and the like. challenges from turbulent environments. strategy formulation and implementation. and learn how to do that better and better over time. conflict resolution. Basically. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks. take advantage of opportunities. and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology. and changing customer demands. organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. Today. fighting obsolescence of one¶s knowledge and skills. Simple survival ± continuing to have an adequate job ± is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. and processes. survive. the answer is ³yes´. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope. And organization development (OD) is one of them. Early returns were encouraging. ³Knowledge´ work is replacing ³muscle´ work. and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. efficiency. adapt. and profitability.9 Summary 3. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges ± finding satisfaction in and through work. strategy. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today ± threats to effectiveness. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today¶s world is a daunting task. teams.10 Terminal Questions 3. increased competition. In summary. organization development is a process of teaching people how to solve problems. organization structure. and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately. old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. A variety of solutions exists.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3. Although new jobs are being created at record rates. organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. and the organization¶s human and social processes. culture. maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals.Self Assessment Questions 3.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. . OD focuses on issues related to the ³human side´ of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals.
and challenges. A ³process for improving processes´ ± that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill. and culture. (Schmuck and Miles. 1989) . · Discuss the categories of OD programme. a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs. and 3) Developing the organization¶s self-renewing capacity (Beer. strategy.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change. 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure. people. values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. markets. 1980). attitudes. 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions. and the dizzying rate of change itself. (Burke and Hornstein.Objectives: After studying this unit. 1971) Organizational development is a process of planned change. · State the goals of OD. OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement. (Bennis.change of an organization¶s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making. · Explain the characteristics of OD. using reflexive. self-analytic methods. Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives«. 1969). planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. processes. 3. you will be able to: · Define organization development.
One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. and processes for improving an organization¶s effectiveness. and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. Now let¶s turn to our definition of organization development. and problem-solving processes. By long-term effort. All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. research. 1994) As you can see. Likewise. what practices should be included and excluded. values. ³Organization development is a long-term effort. these definitions overlap a great deal (that¶s encouraging). Organizational change is hard. We do not propose it as the ³right´ definition. serious business. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field. these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions. to improve an organization¶s visioning. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. In fact. Top management must initiate the improvement . that is. There is no ³quick fix´ when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. 1993) ³Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization¶s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving.´ (Burke. and theory. 1992) ³OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies.´ This definition is lengthy. including action research. they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. it is more accurate to describe ³improvement´ as a never-ending journey of continuous change. and contain several unique insights (that¶s enlightening). They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. structure. strategies. empowerment.³Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories. through the alteration of organizational members¶ on-the-job behaviours. through an ongoing. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. learning.several years in most cases.´ (Cummings and Worley. We will explain this definition in some detail. led and supported by top management.´ (Porras and Robertson. Collectively.
and culture.´ Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. empowerment. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. structure. developing the strategy for getting there. we mean those interacting. By visioning processes. first. structure. By empowerment. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. By learning processes. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. and artifacts. expectations. listening. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. one of widespread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization¶s purposes. strategy. lost its commitment. and common purposes of all members of the organization. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. interactions. The reciprocal influence among culture. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. culture is of . By ongoing collaborative management of the organization¶s culture. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization¶s members. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. beliefs. and processes makes each important. We further believe that having compelling. in contrast to having only a select few involved. make decisions. and each influences the others. we mean. attitudes. Just as visioning. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. commitment. not just a small group. and organizational learning. or became distracted with other duties. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations.³journey´ and be committed to seeing it through. coherent. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. team. sentiments. assumptions. and take actions on problems. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. solve problems. has a stake in making the organization work. By empowerment processes. activities. processes. learning. Still. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. vitality. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. opportunities. For empowerment to become fact of life. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. so is managing the culture. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. Michael Beer¶s definition called for ³developing new and creative organizational solutions´. norms. where collective aspiration is set free. And second. and making it happen. By including culture so prominently in our definition. and challenges in the organization¶s environment and its internal functioning. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as ³« organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. and where people are continually learning how to learn together.
wasted time. such as design. He uses the terms µmultifunctional projectization¶ and µhorizontal systems¶ to describe these teams and their work. In Liberation Management. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be ³brain work´) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: ³Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. When teams function well. firing. (b) invented. empowerment. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. hiring. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. and feel in relation to those problems. Temporary. manufacturing. individuals and the organization function well. Today¶s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. and using management information. think. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. . so they are the place OD programs often begin ± getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. values. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. much rework. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. Over time. and problem-solving processes. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. the process ³threw the results over the wall´ to the next functional unit. Further. or developed by a given group. So culture consists of basic assumptions. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform.primary importance. Processes are how things get done. This method resulted in loss of synergy. think. and procurement. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. When one function finished with its part of the project. empowerment. and we highlight the importance of visioning. But in many organizations today. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. learning. Processes are relatively easy to change. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. discovered. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. engineering. maintaining quality control. members are trained in competencies such as planning. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the ³right´ ways. and training. By intact work teams and other configurations.
dynamic and adaptive system. 3. This µplanned¶ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. 2. so that change is easily observed. rather than focusing attention on individuals. according to Peters. 8. and co-learners with the client system. collaborators. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. 9. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. 6. OD practitioners are facilitators. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. Attempting to create ³win-win´ solutions is standard practice in OD programs. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. OD focuses on culture and processes. To summarize. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today¶s fast-paced market place.multifunctional. OD .3 Characteristics of OD 1. 7. 2. 3. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. Specifically. 4. 5. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. 10.
third party change agent. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. takes actions for intervention. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that µnorms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones¶. and mutual influence. temporary. growth.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. 3. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. and cyclic processes. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. 3. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. They discourage µdo it yourself¶ approach. Thus. 7. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. he conducts surveys. He shares a social philosophy about human values. It recognizes that organizational goals change. 4. Rather. participation. and revitalization. rather. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be µhuman¶ and to increase awareness. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. or catalyst. 5. and integrate individual and organizational goals. identity. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. 6. joint goals and means. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. Key areas are the normative type of model. problem-solving. collects relevant data. evaluates these data. further more. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. At the individual level. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. Action research is the basis for such intervention. interactive. they are ongoing. and then. The relationship involves mutual trust.efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. or isolated problems. rather. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements . This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness.
of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. 3. problem solving climate throughout an organization. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization¶s goals (profit or service) and development of people. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. second. with the authority of knowledge and competence. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. This Organization Development progrmmes. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. (g) To increase the sense of µownership¶ or organization¶s objectives throughout the work force. Two important elements of Organization Development are. first.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. (c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. . practitioners and the client laymen. like other normative re-educative programmes.
The term µdevelopment¶ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization.´ Organization development differs from management development. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. Based on this. (iii) assertiveness. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager¶s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. Before making a comparison between the two. However. According to him. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. management development has been defined as follows: ³Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled.(h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one¶s area of responsibility. with their existing objectives and structure. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. according to him. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized.6 OD and Management Development At this stage. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. more attention to peer-groups. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. less individual competitiveness. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. . he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. 3. and greater display of feelings and emotions. (ii) competitiveness.
Thus. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization.Focus Approach Time Specialist accomplishments. . Problem-solving approach. By 70s. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. plays key role in organizational improvement. No special requirement. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. however.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. 3. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. and laterally. In early 60s. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. 5. 2. 6. Educative and training Short-range. Focus on design. not on the managers. Trained specialists required. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. focus on achieving improvement in design. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. 3. 3. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing organization. 7. 4. however. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. horizontally.
and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. etc. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. However. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. 5. Self Assessment Questions . Therefore. particularly in bottom-line ones. 2. 3. There should be proper use of OD interventions. 5. 3. Therefore. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. 2. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. it fails even as a long-term strategy.confrontation techniques. OD programmes are often quite costly. If an organization is laden with these people. For example. Research studies have also failed to conclude significant contributions of OD in all organizations. Hence. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. Thus. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. 4. some specific efforts are required. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. 4. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. in order to make best use of OD efforts. In general. it is useless to try OD. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome.
9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. OD focuses on culture and processes. Who is associated with the ³Learning Organizations´? 5. State the various roles of OD. 3. Distinguish between µorganizational development¶ and µmanagement development¶. 3. ±±±±±±±±± is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. problem-focused µnature of OD¶ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. There is no µquick fix¶ to organizations¶ problems. Tom Peters 3. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. Empowerment 4. Explain the various characteristics of OD. Peter Senge . It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides.1. Define OD. The participative. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. 4. collaborative. 5. 2.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. 3. Organization development should be led and supported by ±±±±±±±. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. _____________is a short-term strategy. 2. Explain its salient features.10 Terminal Questions 1. ±±±±±±± is associated with ³Liberation Management´. Top management 2. 3. 4.
Management development Answers to TQs: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 4.3 3. Refer section 3.5 Leadership Development 4.3 Process Consultation 4.5. Refer section 3.7 5.Organization Development ± Interventions Structure: 4.2 2. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.4 Grid Training 4.2 Survey Feedback 4. MU0002-Unit-04.6 4.Organization Development ± Interventions Unit-04. Refer section 3.6 Team-building .8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .
group level. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the range of change that an organization requires. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. techno-structural activities. interpersonal level. and organizational level. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels. mediation and negotiation activities. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic.11 Terminal Questions 4.4. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. Further. Thus.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. People¶s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. they make things happen. survey feedback. work group. However.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. and survey feedback method. other techniques like process . many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. team-building. education and training. For example. management grid. inter-group level.7 Inter Group Development 4. Therefore. Nevertheless. the classification of OD interventions shows variation.10 Summary 4. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: ³Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. grid training. and organizational culture. inter-group activities.8 Change Agents 4. Subsequently. Historically. process consultation.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development.´ There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways.
consultation, team- building, and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives, have been added. Our further discussion follows this development. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. · Explain grid training. · Describe process consultation. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Role of change agents. 4.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid), the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier, Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan, USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 2. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection, feedback of information, developing action plans based on feedback, and follow up. 1. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership ± managerial support, managerial goal emphasis, managerial work facilitation, peer support, peer goal emphasis, peer work facilitation, and peer interaction facilitation, organizational climate-communication with the company, motivation, decision-making, control within the company, co-ordination between departments, and general management, and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company, satisfaction with the supervisor, satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with the pay, and satisfaction with the work group. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization¶s personnel.
After the questionnaires are completed, data are classified, tabulated, and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 2. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed, feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. In oral system of feedback, it is provided through group discussion or problemsolving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively, feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted, it should be constructive and suggestive, rather, threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case, follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building, by the consultant. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. In particular, survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. 2. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However, effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. First, questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. If it is biased, all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Second, even if valid and reliable information is collected, it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change; it provides base for action for change. 4.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Edgar Schein, the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows:
³The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client¶s environment.´ The basic objectives of P.C are as follows: 1. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership, communication, roles and functions of group members, group decision-making and problemsolving, group norms, and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD. 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 2. Define the Relationship: At this stage, client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees, and spelling out services, time, etc. At this stage, the client¶s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. 3. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. At this stage, the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 4. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 5. Intervene: At this stage, the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural change. 6. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.C is completed, the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes, he assists the
enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1.C programmes. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. The grid organization development consists of six phases. 2. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. focuses on skills. groups. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. knowledge. and problemsolving are also developed. Inter-group Development: At this phase. P. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change.C is also not free from criticisms. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. However. inter-group. 4. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. . and teamwork. objective-setting. and alike.organizational members to incorporate those changes. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant¶s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. communication skills. like other OD intervention techniques. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. The skills relating to planning. and the organization as a whole.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. In the review of various P. 3. P. and total organizational levels. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. From this point of view. 1. traditions. problem-solving. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. 3. 2.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. However. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. group.
Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. lead. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. If you are to manage change effectively. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. concerned and committed to their welfare. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. confident and effective decision-making. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. complete communication that is timely. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. Also during these times of change. competence. 5. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. 6. In this light. the various programmes may be redesigned. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. they maintained the same stand. therefore. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. The strategy is then implemented. in spite of these criticisms. Slogging Through The Swamp. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton.´ In a later work. Systematic Critique: In this stage.5 Leadership Development When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). employees will perceive leadership as supportive. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. and credibility of senior and middle management. and regular. and After Arrival. is the ability of leadership to«well. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. Further. while at the same time . During drastic change times. 4. We will look more carefully at each of these. They have maintained that ³managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and.4. Furthermore. it discounts reality. grid training is a non-rigorous method.
and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. The existence of this trust. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. teambuilding is the most important. In a climate of distrust. widely accepted. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team¶s time together. storming. 4. it may be too late. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. For example. which. employees expect nothing positive. if allowed to go on for too long. 4. These stages are: forming. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. French and Bell have opined that ³probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. norming.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as ³who will be members of the team?´ ³Who will perform what functions?´ ³Who will contribute what?´ ³What rules will be . The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. Leadership before. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. therefore. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone¶s best interests. let us consider the life cycle of a team. brings hope for better times in the future. but more importantly.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and.recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. problems in team-work.´ A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. how synergy is generated through team-work. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. if haven¶t established a track record of effective leadership. performing. As against these. Unfortunately. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around.
intense social relationship among members comes to an end. start to accept others. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission.´ . different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team¶s goals. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. The adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. 5. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. 4. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. At this stage. At this stage. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. However. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: ³Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. committee.followed?´ ³How can conflicts among members be resolved?´ and so on. After the adjournment of the team. because of individual differences. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. team members start settling. Norming: After storming stage. jockeying for relative control. Sooner or later. etc. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. 3. 2. They share personal information. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. each team has to be adjourned.
how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. the individual average dropped down still lower-68. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. and so on. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. group of eight. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. the team would be effective. 2. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group¶s meetings. other factors remaining the same. that is.2 pounds. the complementarity among members is achieved. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. it was found that individuals¶ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. They averaged 138. goals.Thus. other factors remaining the same. group efforts tend to slacken. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. From this statement. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. In fact. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. and attitudes. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. For example. fail to perform their assigned tasks. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. In the above paragraph. To the extent. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. In such an assignment. in one experiment. it appears that there are many . a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone.
An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. serve to focus attention. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. customer satisfaction. While skills are relevant for job performance. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. unify efforts. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size. supportive environment. 2. Katzenbatch and Smith. two things are required from its members.factors in an effective team. or propose discipline for team members. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one¶s own role as well as roles of other members. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance. goals. Thus. common purpose. Further. Therefore. complementary skills. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality. Even if one member lacks behind. and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals. 2. 1. 3. management consultants. make recommendations regarding a new supervisor. and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. These super-ordinate goals. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials. and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. then. they will put their maximum. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. Rewards of both types. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. These factors are skills and role clarity. have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals.financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. 4. 3. .
the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure. 4. such as. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared. Fig. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. Analyzing how team¶s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. Providing positive feedback.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action. 2. 3. recognition. their value systems. Analyzing how the team is working. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. group problems to even personal problem. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. and rewards. In problem identification. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem. 1. For achieving these. the emphasis should be on consensus. Analyzing how the work is performed. they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. rather. personality and attitudes. 2.4. generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. and 5. At this stage. Setting goals and priorities for the team. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds. . Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. 4. and 5. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness.
talking together with speaker. etc. the way people talk about the issue. cynicism. undermining morale. 4. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. Followup action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of team-building. who was trying to resolve the differences. . the stying with the topic or going off on tangents. criticizing person. people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented.3. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. At the time of discussion of feedback. ensuring. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team¶s responsibilities. about the issue. Negative Behaviour (i) Over talk: interrupting. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours: Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. If this process is adopted several times. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. (iii) Clarifying: resting. information. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. etc. with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings. At this stage. who was talking more or who was talking less. Often. the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. (iii) Negative: cooling. understanding. members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. (ii) Attacking: deriding. there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility. feelings. clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team. belittling. also provides opportunity to understand themselves. 5. seeking relevant information. encouraging others to participate.
It seeks to change to attitudes. In general. monitoring. However. and feedback skills). It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. it is not that effective in isolation. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. 2. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the organization¶s outcomes. are not given adequate attention. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. in different degrees. communicating. and perceptions that groups have of each other. etc. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. 3. It improves the organization¶s problem-solving and decision-making ability.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups.These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. However. stereotypes. to encourage and sustain such feelings. team-building has a positive outlook. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. one of the more . When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage. As a result. Therefore. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. structure. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. listening. though.. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. 2. However. it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. In spite of these problems. 4.
after which similarities and differences are discussed. the other group. For major change efforts.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. but one thing he/she is not the driver´. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. In contrast. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. According to Curtis Mial: ³The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. 4. the groups can move to the integration phase ± working to develop solutions that will improve relations. or outside consultants. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. however. as the break for too quick action. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes ± which can be benefit or a disadvantage ± because they don¶t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. 4. Trainer . employees of the organization. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. Outside consultants. culture. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. and personnel. The groups then share their lists. Subgroups. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. as the accelerator to build up momentum. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization¶s history.Popular methods emphasize problem solving. operating procedures.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. with members from each of the conflicting groups. In this method.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. Differences are clearly articulate.
________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. group. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. Grid Training was developed by ±±±±±±±±±±±± 3.11 Terminal Questions 1.A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. group discussions. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. In process consultation. presentations. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies ± lectures. Training is required for enhancing knowledge. It focuses on skills. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. Data collection. films. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? . cases and experiential learning etc. Team-building is most important. Training is used both in µcontent orientation¶ and process orientation¶. feedback of information. attitudes and beliefs. 2. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. diagnosis. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. role-plays and instruments. skills and change in behavior. Self Assessment Questions 1. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. 4. inter-group and total organization levels. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. changing (intervening) and refreezing.
Assumptions. Assumptions. Refer section 4. Refer section 4. Data collection 2. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1. 4. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? 3. Refer section 4. MU0002-Unit-05-Values.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.2. 3.6 4.4 2.1 Introduction . and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5.2 3. Refer section 4. and Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values. Blake and Mouton.
3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development. beliefs and assumptions.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5. 5. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field.2 Definitions .7 Terminal Questions 5. · List the chronology of events of values.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5.Objectives 5. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5. beliefs and assumptions.1 Introduction A set of values. assumptions.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5.2 Definitions 5.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers. Objectives: After studying this unit.5. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions.5.5. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.
it is a cognitive fact for the person. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought y Frederick Winslow Taylor s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. assumptions. Simple. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. Thus. view all people as having the potential for growth and development.g. assumptions. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. As these ingredients accumulated. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. values. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. strongly held. 5. research on the effects of different leadership styles.. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. or spirit of the time. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. dishonesty). and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. free speech) and what is undesirable or µbad¶ (e." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned." or slacking off. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. and democratic. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. Taylor s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. . Values. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. the laboratory training movement. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources ± the Hawthorne studies. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. optimistic. reason. OD values tend to be humanistic. and the like. treat people with respect and dignity. and that rationality. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology.A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. the human relations movement. Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or µgood¶ (e. and assumptions being..g. with values being beliefs about good and bad. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist.
Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. extensive division of labor. greater attention to workers social needs. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. apathy. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. People were not cogs. theory. These approaches possessed many desirable features. Group Dynamics (1940) The scientific study of groups using experimental research methodswas launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. y y y y y y y . much of the research. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. aggressiveness and poor performance. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. most efficient way to organize people. impersonal rules. wrote an article on The Giving of Orders advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. The Functions of the Executive by Chester 1. In a sense. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. Mary Parker Follett (1926). Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. and a general humanizing of the workplace. Lippitt (1939). His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. organizations were not machines.y The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of bureaucracy as the best. their feelings and attitudes about the work. and the supervisor determined their performance. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. Research by Lewin. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. The human relations movement advocated participative management. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people s beliefs about organizational behaviour. the work environment. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. a management theorist and astute observer of labour-management relations. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. People came to work as whole people. A strong hierarchy of authority. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. Their simple.
and need to be led. this book popularized Maslow s motivation theory. Overcoming Resistance to Change. healthy adults. a mechanistic organization y y y y y y y y . a direct precursor of OD. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. higherlevel needs become dominant. lack ambition. increase self-understanding. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. French s (1948) article.y These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). Rogers focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. are self-centered. to assume responsibility. indifferent to the organization s needs. Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. dislike responsibility. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). Chris Argyrif s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. caring social climate. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. and understand group dynamics. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. management practices. The theory postulated that when lower-level needs are satisfied. This article introduced the concept of organizations as socio-technical systems. Lester Coch and John R. resist change. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. P. reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. The task of management is to change organizational structures. pioneers in laboratory training. In an environment of slow change. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations.
Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. and organizations that is. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. Writing in 1969. bureaucracy. goal-oriented. Values have always been an integral part of OD. and negative consequences. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. groups. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. y y This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research." that is. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. and shares decision-making with the work group. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. optimistic. dysfunctions. in an environment of high change. as we have said. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. The Social Psychology of Organizations by Daniel Katz and Robert L. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. These six books presented the theory. and greater individual autonomy. . This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. an organic organization form is preferred. one-on-one leadership style. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company OD Six-Pack. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. compromise. open communications.structure may be appropriate. and unprincipled power. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. theory. (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. and values of the field. and democratic. Out of this zeitgeist. y Rensis Likert s New Patterns of Management (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. humanistic. · Development of more effective "team management. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. practice.
M. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. 2. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. 5. 1.· Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. . The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. 6." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. Stalker used the term ³mechanistic´ in contrast to ³mechanical. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. the basic units of change are groups. Organizations. They listed these ³values in transition´ as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. 4. director of organization development. Controls are interim measurements. sub-units of organizations. Here is his list. a professor and Sheldon Davis.´ For example. "People support what they help create. Robert Tannenbaum. 3. not the basis of managerial strategy. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals." like pushing buttons. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. mutual trust. Therefore. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). not individuals. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. and confidence between and across levels. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication.
decentralized decision making. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. open communication. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. toward seeing them as being in process. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. participation and contribution by all organization members. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. the legitimacy of feelings. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. appropriate uses of power. collaboration and co-operation.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions . · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. authentic interpersonal relations. · Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. autocratic. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person.· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. 5. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them.
What occurs in the work group. in addition. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. challenge. Second. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. This skill is a trainable one. and co-operation within the group. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. facilitation. a church or club group. leaders need to give important work to teams. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. and organizations? 5. support.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. such as a work group. 5. encourage risk-taking.5. personal growth. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. First. and job satisfaction. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. the family. invest training time and money to increase group members¶ skills. Most people want to develop their potential. give responsibility. and so on. and are capable of making.Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. Third.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. conflict management. set high standards. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group¶s effectiveness and development. give autonomy.5. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. To do this. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. and reward success. groups. listen. Hence. not individuals. and interpersonal communication. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. Also. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. remove obstacles and barriers. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. permit failure. not a one-on-one leadership style. support. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. and usually with more than one group. including peers and boss. Implications of these assumptions are several. . at both the formal and informal levels. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence.
adherence to the chain of command. Still. The rapid technological.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. By implication. including how persons C. Concluding Comment: . they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. an optimistic. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. societal. organizing structures. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. are dysfunctional over the long run and highlight the need for a ³win win´ attitude. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where ³putting people first´ paid off handsomely in profits and performance. a growing awareness that ³win-lose´ organizational situations. formalized cross-functional communication. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. and profitability. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. The implication is that people are an organization¶s most important resource. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization¶s leaders. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. By implication. grouping by specialized function. emphasis on topdown directives. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace.5. and empowering. 5. and E can support these changes. Therefore.Finally. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. and ways to optimize human potential. and so on-are obsolete." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. in which one side wins and the other side loses. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. values are never static. they change over time. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. Frequently the challenge is broader. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. quality of output. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. In addition. D. Finally. developmental. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important.
6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. 2. Self Assessment Questions 1. __________ is associated with scientific management. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. 4. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. values. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. Values.W. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. and assumptions are all ±±±±±±±±±± facts. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. 5.The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. Values. Values.7 Terminal Questions 1. 5. The concept of ±±±±±±±±±± was introduced by MaxWeber. The outcome of ±±±±±±±± was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. Write a note about F.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Cognitive . 5. 5. 2. but are widely accepted today. OD values tend to be humanistic. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. Define concepts. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. 3. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. optimistic and democratic. Taylor¶s principles of scientific management. 3. Values are also beliefs. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. beliefs. beliefs and assumptions.
1 Introduction Objectives 6. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6. Bureaucracy 4.3 3.2 2. W.3 4. F.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 5. Hawthorne experiments 5.2 Beyond the Quick Fix . Refer section 5. Refer section 5. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1.2.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6.2. Taylor 3.3 5.2. Refer section 5. Refer section 5.
Objectives: After studying this unit. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.3 Systems Theory 6.3.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.5 Teams and Teamwork 6.4 Participation and Empowerment 6.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.3.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6.3.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning.2.1 The Nature of Systems 6.2.6. you will be able to: .11 Terminal Questions 6.10 Summary 6.3. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed. In this discussion.
the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in . · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork.· Explain various models and theories of planned change. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. · Explain systems theory. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. in words or pictures. 6.2. That is. the important features of some phenomenon. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. · Explain the terms µparticipation¶ and µempowerment¶. describe those features as variables. and specify the relationships among the variables.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. · Describe the parallel learning structures. Models and theories depict.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. We will examine the following concepts: · Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables.
change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. Likewise. etc. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. feel things. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. judge things. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. that is. Next. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. Lewin¶s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. b. he must move. mentor. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. moving to new level of behaviour. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. With a technique called the force-field analysis. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point.opposing directions. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. Lewin¶s second idea was a model of the change process itself. Identifying with a new role model. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. Finally. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. that is. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. Scanning the environment for new relevant information . Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. For example.
refreezing. Jeanne Watson. and 5 correspond ro Lewin¶s moving phase. In stage 1. . Phases 3. and fit with the individual¶s social surroundings. The total personality and self-concept. for example. This motivating evidence is gained by. unfreezing. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system¶s problem. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. and attitudes.Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. that is. The primary task in stage 3. terminating the client-consultant relationship. moving. In stage 2. and Bruce Westley. That is. That is. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. change will not occur. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s refreezing phase. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person¶s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin¶s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s unfreezing phase. which motivate the person to change. which cause guilt and anxiety. 4. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person¶s personality. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. establishing goals and intentions of action. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. b. Significant relationships.
2 Beyond the ³Quick Fix´ A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change." that. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization.This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. Kilmann¶s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. 6. 3) The team-building track. critique practices and procedures. when functioning properly. problem-solving sessions. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". called "tracks. and so forth. 2) The management skills track. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. 2) Diagnosing the problems. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? . Change programs take from one to five years to complete. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. 4) The strategy-structure track. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. Interventions include training programs. and 5) The reward system track.2. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. cause the organization to be successful.
or discontinuous change. evolutionary. revolutionary. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. then moving to the team-building track. TRW. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. In first-order change. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. and all resources with the new strategic direction. . or continuous change. and its holistic view of organization change and development.The culture track enhances trust. then moving to the management skills track. Westinghouse. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. and so forth.and second-order change. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered ± the organization is transformed. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. communication. radical. OD programs are directed toward both first. Eastman Kodak. General Foods. In second-order change. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call ³transactional change´ and ³transformational change´). 6. beginning with the culture track. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. the use of updated management skills. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit ± thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available.2. adaptive. information sharing. work groups. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. and Xerox with good results. Ford General Electric.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. departments. jobs. The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. incremental.
Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. which change motivation and. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees¶ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. Changing structure. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Fig. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. and beliefs that are enduring. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. and so forth. in turn. friendly or unfriendly. and difficult to change. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. and organization culture result in second-order change. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. management practices. management practices. hard-working or easy-going. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. On the other hand. individual and organizational performance. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. We will do so in several steps." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. values.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First ± Order Change . and systems cause changes in work unit climate. leadership. often unconscious. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change.Organizational climate is defined as people¶s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. 6.
´ We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. To summarize. structure. Burke says: ³Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. 6. that is. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). as shown in the above figure.Fig. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. Interventions directed toward management practices. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. we must change mission and strategy. . and organization culture. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. mission and strategy. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. leadership styles. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization¶s culture. These factors are able to change the climate.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second ± Order Change On the other hand. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization.
management style. according to Porras and Robertson. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. which influence on-the job behaviours.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. It is how OD works. 6. and interaction processes will affect social factors. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. Interventions that focus on culture.2. and technology. strategies. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members¶ cognitions (they learn what is expected. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. which determine organizational performance and individual development. required. For example. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. . it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions.Fig. social factors. rewarded). physical setting. OD interventions that focus on goals. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements.
Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. This section explains systems theory. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. Systems . and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. 6. describes the characteristics of systems.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6. 6. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory. Fig. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures.Fig.
and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. or transformation processes that change the inputs. information. Here.3. What is inside the boundary is the system. the reasons for their existence. when taking a systems approach." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. in that they permit exchange of information. components. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. conversion. money. and if the environment does not want these outputs. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive." To summarize. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. raw material and so on. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary.system.theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. The words µarrangement¶ and µinterrelated¶ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. Thus. or subsystems. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. the organization will cease to exist. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. Organizations are open systems. Therefore. system denotes interdependency. that is the system. resources. the organization¶s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. and energy between system and environment. 6. For example. They do something to the inputs via throughput. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. interconnectedness. Every system is delineated by a boundary. Open systems have purposes and goals. . dynamics. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. people.
It is sometimes called deviationamplifying feed back. competitors.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems ³run down´ and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. For example. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. say. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. 6." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. Systems require two kinds of feedback. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. while screening out other information. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. aerospace. but most are not useful. and makes a course correction. "return to earth. and the like. that information is called positive feedback. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. eating fads. Information is important to systems in several ways. . Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. and the system adjusts to a new goal. and so on. By the same token. mining.Fig. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. however. negative and positive. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. For example. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. Positive feedback comes from the environment. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. If the mission (target) changes. Say your company makes buggy whips. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics.
and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. which includes the organization¶s culture informal rules and understandings. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state ± systems have multiple paths to goals. Subsystems exist within larger systems. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. this process is called differentiation. people. 2) Resources available to the organization. As Katz and Kahn say: ³The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. knowledge. With increased differentiation.3. The three major input factors are: 1) The environment. specialized. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. and complex over time. knowledge. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. either internal or external.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. 6. which includes skills. systems tend to get more elaborated. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. and the workforce¶s expectations. differentiated.´ Also. processes. and informal organization. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. perceptions. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). failures. and technology. and individual level. important events. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. formal organization. which includes formal structures. unit/group level.Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. work. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. . what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. and systems for performing the work. such as capital.
performance will suffer. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. For example. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. two active segments of OD today. which components are "not functioning correctly. Fred Emery. . Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development." and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. if people don¶t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. In a company that is performing poorly. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. performance will suffer. performance will suffer. 6. and information to the point of action. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. multi-skilled teams. that is. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. controlling variance at the source. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. forming autonomous work groups. and that changes in one system affect the other system. training group members in multiple skills. a social system and a technical system. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. especially autonomous work groups (selfregulated teams or self-direct teams). Hanna writes: .7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model¶s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements.3. organizations must optimize both systems. 6. If the organization¶s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. to the workers doing the job. fit) must be present among the system¶s components¶ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD.Fig. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool." The premise is that alignment (harmony.
G. Without a systemic orientation. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. By enhancing each of the other disciplines.3.In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. is the most important. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). Of all these disciplines.KI Jayaram. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands.´ In conclusion. and 3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. He says of systems thinking: ³It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. First. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. not single effects. events. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. 6. forces. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. mental models. events and forces. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. but seen in relation to other issues. because most phenomena have more than one cause. and systems thinking. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. issues. Charles Krone. from their activities. For example. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. the fifth discipline. Third. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. . Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. building shared vision. therefore. team learning. Second. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. systems thinking. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stakeholders. changing one part of a system influences other parts. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. according to Peter Senge.
Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. The other view." is bottom-up and less controlling. But . This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. autonomous work groups. with its emphasis on risk-taking.Fourth. personal initiative. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. to change a system. For example. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. One view. search conferences. Further. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. involvement and participation energize greater performance. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. quality of work life programs. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. and change. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. growth. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance." These authors believe the organic view. one changes the system. called "organic. and to be responsible." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. team building. not just its component parts.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. produce better solutions to problems. To empower is to give someone power. which they call "mechanistic. is the more useful perspective. to exert influence. And fifth. survey feedback. Participation enhances empowerment. and give more power to more people. increase commitment to the organization. and growth. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. They believed that it was about risk-taking." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. to contribute their ideas. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). reduce stress levels. quality circles. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. 6.
then. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. systems. Team Taurus developed Ford¶s best-selling automobile. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. processes. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). but rather a mindset that employees have about their roles in the organization. is not something that management does to employees. confident about their abilities.both views contain valid ideas: for example. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. Third. changes those norms and values. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. employees must choose to be empowered. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. and relationships if they are to be effective. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. they must if personally connected to the organization. that is.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. teams create synergy. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. as a team. Teams and teamwork are "in. to name just a few. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today ± gurus extol the virtues of teams. teaming. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. the noun team has become a verb. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. QCs (quality circles). Second.´ 6. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. research. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. If the team. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. people must work together to accomplish them. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: ³Empowerment. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. . STS (socio-technical systems). Theory. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. HPOs (high-performance organizations). While management can create a context that is more empowering.
socio-technical systems programs. status. teams satisfy people¶s needs for social interaction. find innovative ways around barriers. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. quality circles. Examples are team-building. and the like. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. . and responsibility charting. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. When any one feature is lost. cross-functional teams. temporary teams. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. inter-group team-building. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. role negotiation technique. and set ever-higher goals. parallel learning structures. including collegiate football national champions. that they achieve synergy. help each other. process consultation. and others.Fourth. and respect-teams nurture human nature. recognition. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. heart transplant surgical teams. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. In this section. and explore ways to realize that potential. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. team performance declines.
and then leading the process. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). superior customer service. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. In essence. and continuous learning. and acting differently than normally takes place at work.´ The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. clear objectives. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as ³a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. 6. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. Asea Brown Boveri. Titeflex.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures.´ Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. Union Pacific Railroad. Projects are the work of the future. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. and employees. you don¶t have a parallel structure. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. Bushe and Shani say: ³The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. 6. At Ford Motor Company. deciding. managers. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. constitute another important foundation of organization development. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing . especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization¶s methods of work and/or culture. talking. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. projects will be performed by teams. and initiate needed changes. Interestingly. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. flexible response. It isn¶t the supplemental structure that¶s important. What¶s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. autonomous.Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. High responsibility. If you don¶t implement different norms and procedures.
the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. attitudes. anxieties. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. and together they define problems and seek solutions. information. rather than the OD practitioner. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. will follow their rational self-interest. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-re-eductive and the empirical-rational strategies. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. . that is. values. The first type is empirical rational strategies. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normativereductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. skills. according to this view. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. Evaluated against these three change strategies. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. Patterns of action and practice are supported ± by sociocultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. Change in a pattern of practice or action. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation.Organization development involves change. relationships and customary ways of doing things. and¶ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. OD clearly falls within the normative-reeducative category. doubts. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. and significant relationships. based on the assumptions that people are rational. not just changes in knowledge.
. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. practices. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. by modifying a group norm or standards. thereby solving the problem. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. Greenwood states: ³The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. behavioural science knowledge. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. and (2) "technology.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that.´ Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. pressing problems. OD emphasizes the latter.. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake.´ From this "practice theory. Burke writes: ³If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. on the basis of selected variables. 6. success corroborating the diagnosis. re-establishes the equilibrium. Thus. hopefully. not the individual. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined.e. or practice. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. for example. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. applied science or practice." applied science. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. On this point. The practitioner examines the problem situation. i. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members.
Kurt Lewin. Action research involves three processes: data collection. 6. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. the two top in puts. The two bottom inputs. Taken separately. form of applied behavioural science. and action planning based on the data. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. It is a type of action-research. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. practice research and practice theory. had this to say about it: ³The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. and doing or implementing change efforts. Self Assessment Questions . 6. perhaps more accurately. Taken collectively. who developed the concept of action research. feedback of the data to the client system members.9 Action Research The action research model ± a data-based. represent contributions from applied science. and research leading to social action« This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events.Fig. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing ± learning about the dynamics of organizational change.´ Concluding Comments: These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. represent contributions from pure or basic science.
6. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. 2. ±±±±±±±±±± gave the model ³Beyond the Quick Fix´. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. Ralph Kilmann 3.11 Terminal Questions 1. Explain Kurt Lewin¶s models and theories of planned organizational change. 6. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. ±±±±±±±±±± means moving to new level of behaviour. 3.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. Transactional change . _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. 4.´ Comment on this statement. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change. Action research model combines learning and doing.1. Bring out the essence of ³managing beyond the quick fix´ model of organizational development. ³Work teams are building blocks of organizational development.´ 5. Unfreezing 2. 4. First²order change is also called ___________. 2. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. 6. 3. A _____________ is defined as ³a set of elements standing in interaction.
7.2.3 4. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1.3 5.2. System 5.2 3.1 Introduction Objectives 7.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.3 Types of Organization Culture. Refer section 6.4. Refer section 6.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture 7.6 Summary . Refer section 6.1 2.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7. Refer section 6.2.Refer section 6.
1986). You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. they use common language. discovered. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. ± similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone¶s personality. do not do too little?´ . Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. etc. 7. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. When organizational participants interact with one another. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. and rituals related to deference and demeanor.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. what members wear. Which in many organizations come down to ³Do not do too much. Observed behavioral regularities. but also changing the corporate culture as well.7 Terminal Questions 7.7. what they brag about. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. Practitioners are coming to realize that. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. terminology. Objectives: After studying this unit.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. thinking. Culture is one of those terms that¶s difficult to express distinctly. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. Standards of behavior exist. For example.1 Introduction Basically. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. Martin and Meyerson. despite the best-laid plans. the culture of a large. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. including guidelines on how much work to do. · Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. Norms. but everyone knows it when they sense it. 2. values.
Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. Organizational climate: This is an overall ³feeling´ that is conveyed by the physical layout. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber¶s original view of bureaucracy. Market cultures are outward looking. Rather than strict rules and procedures. For many years. the way participants interact. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. . 5. They often have well-defined policies. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. internal and external are viewed in market terms. In contrast to Hierarchies. processes and procedures. shared goals. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. New-comers must learn those ³ropes´ in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. Transactions are exchanges of value. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. Typical examples are high product quality. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. In an efficient market organization. 6. 4. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. but one where all transactions. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization¶s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. outputs and outcomes. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. 7.3. people are driven through vision. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening.
and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein.strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. plaques.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. rules. In biological terms. · Its rituals. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. 7. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. symbols. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. although not necessarily documented. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). etc. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. Rules. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. discovered. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. the jargon they use. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. but critical to shaping its behavior. Martin and Meyerson. and procedures. culture is like the DNA of an organization. the way they dress etc. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. norms. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. 1986). 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. invisible to the naked eye. thinking. 1993). . big-bang projects and development. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. systems and subsystems. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. supportive way and may take on a parental role.
organizational growth. from the basis of its policies and action. to denote organizational effectiveness. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. various terms such as efficiency. From this point of view. also called as organizational success or growth.Values: These are the social principles. the personality of the organization). and behaviour. decisions. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. and doing. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. Though an organization espouses a series of values. business and leadership strategies. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. there is often contradiction in various approaches. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. 1. profitability. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. skills.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. goals. individually and collectively. there are numerous variables. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management¶s policies. Thus. . its core value are limited to a few in number. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. or standards held by members of an organization. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization¶s social environment and evolve of behavior. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. are often used interchangeably. intervening and end result. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. communicating. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. For example. believing. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. productivity. Identifying. and what is right and what is wrong. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. Though each individual¶s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization.
if the appropriate organization culture is in place. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. attitudes. According to Likert. . and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. others are brought into the organization. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. That is.2. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. money. 2.. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. obtaining patents. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. and earnings. However. building.g. For example. scrap loss. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. costs. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. At this point. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. and a common history begins to be built. the loyalties. e. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. motivations. incorporating. 3. and decision-making. and they tend to be longterm goals. and perceptual cluster. 3. and is worth the investment of time. 7. locating space. communication. performance goals. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of ±date. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. is workable. 4. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. and so on. motivational. and energy that will be required. End ± result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: 1. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. is worth running some risks for. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization.
attitudes. the geographic location. Staffs. habits. especially when making changes in rules and processes. . Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. 5. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. if possible. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. In addition. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. management. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. 7. and whether products and/or services are involved. or even customers may support the existing culture. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. Include employees in the culture change process. 3. Make changes from the top down. commitment. the ³culture contract´ that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. Assess the current culture. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. 1. These factors from the two cultures include the size. and history of two firms. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. roles. relationships. 3. take these losses early. Politics. age. 2. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. powerful stakeholders such as unions. 6.Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. Emotions. 4. Structure. and patterns of daily behavior. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. 2. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. The personal feelings. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can¶t be done successfully?.
goal approach. 3. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. Market 3. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. Self Assessment Questions 1. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. 7. system-resource approach.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 2. and strategic constituencies approach. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. Artifacts 2. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. 9. Discuss the development and change of organizational development.7 Terminal Questions 1. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization.8. Causal variables Answers to TQs: . are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. 2. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. Finally. 7. behavioural approach.6 Summary Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. 3. ________cultures are outward looking. 7. Stay the course by being persistent.
Power.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.2 2.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.3 Two Faces of Power 8.1 Introduction Objectives 8. Refer section 7.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8.Power.9 Summary 8. Politics and Organization Development Unit-08. MU0002-Unit-08.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8. Refer section 7. Refer section 7.1.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8.3 3.10 Terminal Questions .8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8.
Potential power is the capacity to do so. The French word µpouvoir¶ stands for both the noun µpower¶ and the verb µto be able." . As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations. emotions. to effect outcomes. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid today. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired. Objectives: After this studying this unit. power must be exercised.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8. In this unit. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related.´ ³A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do.8. 8.1 Introduction Power and politics." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations. · Explain theories about the sources of power. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. and behaviours of people. but kinetic power is the act of doing so." ³Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. indisputable facts of organizational life.´ Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations. and for change to occur in an organization. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations.actions and the decisions that precede them.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs.¶ To have power is to be able to get desired things done.
4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. bestowed. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. not the possession of power as such. an authority or power dimension is required. Without leadership (power) in medical. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. spiritual. selling. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. financial. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one¶s way in a social situation." A moment¶s reflection. Power-in-action may take many forms. Leading. for organizations to function." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. technological. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson¶s "Power-Dependence theory. confiscation. 8. or acquired? In this unit. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. and organizational activities. unsocialized need to dominate others.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" ± positive and negative. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. however. forcing. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. both positive and negative. influencing. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others.Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one¶s way. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. or positive. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. influence. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. According to him. In fact. and repression. Crushing. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. power being the predominant mode. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous." . being exercised. and lead. political. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. the act or ability of influencing others. with collective. absolute power corrupts absolutely. 8. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. hurting. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive.
attraction." · Salancik and Pfeffer¶s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. that is. When the net balance for us is positive. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another." · Mintzberg¶s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place." In other words. P. Reward power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. . praise. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others.· French and Raven¶s "Bases of Social Power. information. power. that person has power over us. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. of social power as follows: 1. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. to give something negatively valued by the other. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. goals. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. rejection. 2. and desired by the other. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. blame. respect. we will continue the exchange relationship. or bases. The sociologist. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A¶s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B." These authors suggested five sources. Coercive power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. when the net balance for us is negative. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. 4. Legitimate power ± power based on everyone¶s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. and so forth. rewards) that are controlled by one party. hate. influence. we will terminate or alter the relationship. 3. Referent power ± power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. Viewed in this light. 5. Expert power ± power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. that is. to give something valued by the other.
In this theory, power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals, units, or departments) most important for solving the organization¶s most critical problems. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. This theory, like the ones discussed previously, supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by- others-in this case, the special expertise needed for the organization¶s survival-have power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits, indeed, used by all who have it, to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources, through the placement of allies in key positions, and through the definition of organizational problems and policies." These authors view organizational power as a good thing, for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. This theory, "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players, called influencers, seek to control the organization¶s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power, coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. According to Mintzberg, the five possible bases of power are, first, control of a resource; second, control of a technical skill; and, third, control of a body of knowledge. All of these must be critical to the organization. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. In addition to a base of power, the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. An organization has many potential influencers, such as the board of directors, the managers, the top executives, the employees, the unions, suppliers, customers, regulators, and so forth. The important aspects of Mintzberg¶s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others, that power-in-action requires will and skill, and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In summary, these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar ± power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. The resources may be ability to reward and
punish, being in control of critical skills, knowledge, or information, the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined ³politics simply as the study of who gets what, when, and how´. ³Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices´. ³Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups´. ³Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means´. Thus, we view politics as a subset of power, treating it as informal power, illegitimate in nature. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power, but in this sense, formal power, the power vested in office, the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. Both relate to getting one¶s way-effectance. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. For our purposes, organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations; it is engaging in activities to get one¶s way. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities; the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics, like power, has two faces. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest; unsocialized needs to dominate others; a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win, you must lose-rather than win-win terms; and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy, surprise, holding hidden agendas, withholding information, deceiving. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others; viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible; engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing; a relative absence of the tactics of fighting; and a socialized need to lead, initiate, and influence others. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making, resource allocation, and conflict resolution processes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose; they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. In fact, one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation, conflict resolution, and choosing among alternative means and goals.
8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. Virtually, all OD interventions promote problem-solving, not politics, as a preferred way to get things accomplished. OD interventions increase problem-solving, collaboration, co-operation, fact-finding, and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. For example, OD interventions typically generate valid, public data about the organization¶s culture, processes, strengths, and weaknesses. Valid, public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations; rather, they enhance the positive face of power, thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy, it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme power-oriented situations. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power, but not with the negative face of power. Values such as trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first, problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations; second, power equalization, being one aspect of the positive face of power, increases the amount of power available to organization members, and by so doing adds power to the organization. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator, catalyst, problem solver, and educator. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. According to Chris Argyris, the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information, (2) to promote free, informed choice, and (3) to promote the client¶s internal commitment to the choices made. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner, his or her program, and his or her values, methods, and expertise. The OD consultant, like all consultants, provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors, as we discussed earlier. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. In summary, organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. This major strength of OD derives from the strategy of change, the technology, the values, and the roles of OD practitioners.
communicating. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. coaching. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). it will gain more power. problem solving. experience.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. First. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). and expertise. acceptability. in powerful places. . 2. According to the framework of French and Raven.8. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. both as a person and as a professional. 3. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. Skills such as listening. 5. Success leads to credibility and stature."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization¶s decision makers). Rule One: Become a desired commodity. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. it will be strong externally. and ability to gain organizational support. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities." 4. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. preferably multiple sponsorship. 6.
Rule Six: Mind your own business. . The OD program belongs to the manager. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. those issues vital to the organization¶s success. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. the manager will vigorously defend it. A valuable byproduct of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization¶s powerholders. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being managercentered. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. OD programs should be results-oriented. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. constructive social relationships. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. not the OD consultant. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one¶s power base. usually managers. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. not content. Rule Five: Mind your own business. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. not by getting involved in the answers. which is to be an expert on process. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one¶s own or in others¶ political struggles.counseling. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable.
Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires." and "going around the formal system. negotiations the nature of power and politics. the strategy and tactics of influence." which arouses defensive actions. and personality characteristics. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker." "using social networks. problem solver. and educator.Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. viable. As shown in the figure. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others¶ legitimate "turf. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge · Expertise · Information · Tradition Others¶ Support y y Strategies for Success Playing It Straight · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Political access Staff support . not power activist or power broker. Networking is recognized as a potent. individual power derives from knowledge. We could propose more rules of thumb. and using contacts for information. yet legitimate means of acquiring power. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. 8. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions. others¶ support. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. catalyst." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. Table 8.
Personal power. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. personal attraction.Personality y y y Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don¶t) use organization rules Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. even those of little power. effort. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. personal power and position power. Indeed. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. criticality-how important one¶s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. This practical. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. a person¶s power comes from two main sources. in turn. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks´. ³One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. and legitimacy. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. . and relevance-how important one¶s task is in relation to organizational priorities. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what¶s expected of them. In this model. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. arises from expertise. visibility-how much one¶s work is seen by influential people.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. Whetton and Cameron¶s model is shown in following figure. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned.
(3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. and (3) empowering others. collaborative work environment. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy.Fig. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. 8. Power and politics are similar in nature. (2) provide a positive. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. Usually reason is the preferred strategy. reciprocity. and (6) build on success. actually using it to get things done is another. power-in-use is called influence. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. Whetton and Cameron suggest several means of resisting others¶ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. According to these authors. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people¶s inappropriate influence attempts. Our suggestions for . Concluding Comments: In this unit. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. and retribution. Retribution refers to coercion and threats. arise from known conditions." And. Having power is one thing. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. and are amenable to positive control.
3. 2. Power and politics are similar in nature. _____________ has identified two faces of power. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. reputation and professional credibility. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. Power can be either positive or negative. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ±±±± ±±±±±±±. and how. Define organization politics. 8. 4. 4. when and how. 5. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. Referent power 4. Power 2. ±±±±±± is the intentional influence over the beliefs. and are amenable to positive control. Describe briefly various theories of power.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. ±±±±±±±±±± is made up of Charisma. arise from known conditions. 5. McClelland 3. 2. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. emotions or behaviour of people. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. 3. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics.using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change.. Self Assessment Questions 1. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. ±±±±±±±± defined politics as the study of who gets what. 8. Harold Lasswell . Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. when.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. 8.10 Terminal Questions 1.
4 3.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2 Meaning and Definitions 9. Refer section 8.Refer section 8.6 Quality of Work Life Projects .4 Management By Objectives 9. Personality Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 8.3 Socio Technical Systems 9. Refer section 8.5 4.5 Quality Circles 9.6 5.1 Introduction Objectives 9. Refer section 8.5. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9.2 2.
An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. organizational problems may repeat. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program.10 Summary 9. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design. · Explain Reengineering. · Explain Total Quality Management.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis.11 Terminal Questions 9. Objectives: After studying this unit. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. actions. . events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. In this dynamic and fluid environment.8 Total Quality Management 9. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change.9. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.
Weeks and months of group effort are saved. It endeavors to re-design the organization¶s structure. Basic reinforcement theories. 9. 1967. Pasmore. and more critically.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. 5. Greater Predictability. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. The cost of structural change is generally ³front-end´ loaded. Structure changes are normally ³institutionalized´ and less subject to this problem. This normally is a reasonable. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. It could involve the following steps (Foster. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. Downsizing associated with restructuring. Succession Doesn¶t Destroy Change Effort. Cummings. organization theory. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. 2. 4. 3. Cost is Low.9. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. 1976. From a benefit cost analysis. In addition. Rapidity of change. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. 1988): Determining the environmental demands Creating a vision statement Educating organizational members . Organization Acceptance of Change. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention.
´ The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: ³MBO is a result-centered. therefore. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. 2. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. its definitional aspect. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. Creating the change structure Conducting socio-technical analysis Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. Certain degree of overlapping is there. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of . with objective orientation as its essence. It is a particular way of thinking about management. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other.´ Based on the definition of MBO. On the other hand. physical. As an approach to management. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. In fact. Since then. non-specialist. its features can be identified as follows: 1.
normally once a year. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. 5. are determined on the basis of objectives. then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures.management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. including the corporate level. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. etc. delegation of authority. Therefore. Therefore. Resource allocation.. in interaction with external factors. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization. What business are we in?´ and what should be our business?´ provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. ³why does the organization exist?´. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. enhancement of employee commitment and participation. 1. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. 3. Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. Questions. all the units or departments and individual manager. the clarity and balance of objectives. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. The performance review is held regularly. superiors and subordinates. Therefore. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. It works as an integrating device. This. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. its subsystems and people. (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. Similarly. such as. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. (ii) long-range . 4. 6. and participation of the managers with accountability for results. its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis.
each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. (iv) productivity. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. Therefore. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. Setting Subordinates¶ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives. The process of objective setting begins with superior¶s proposed recommendations for his subordinate¶s objectives. . Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs).and strategic objectives. Sometimes. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate¶s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by setting easily achievable objectives. there should be matching between objectives and resources. they also indicate the resource requirement. Therefore. 2. However. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization¶s health and the top management perspective for the future. the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. 4. (vii) manager performance. By relating these to objectives. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization. the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. (vi) financial and physical resources. Even though KRAs are most durable. By relating these to objectives. (v) individual manager¶s objectives. (iii) innovation. In fact. Therefore. 3. (ii) market standing. In turn. If not. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability. resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. (v) worker performance. with the experience gained over the period of time. Thereafter. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully. (iii) short-term organizational objectives. and (viii) public responsibility. this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. 5. the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities.
Quality circle program consists of several circles. QWL programs.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal. what happens at each level may affect other levels also. or in people¶s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. but in its contemporary form. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. on paper. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization. require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing. in general. appropriate feedback and employee discretion. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London. knowledge. it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. 9. . Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process.6. information. hierarchical structure.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. which consequently result into high level of task variety. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. · Make recommendations for improvement. 9. quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. each having three to fifteen members. this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. 9. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power. and rewards. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization¶s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases. Therefore.
self-managed teams and task forces. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. including the use of quality circles. provides relevant information to all employees.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization¶s activities around the concept of quality. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. Self Assessment Questions . eliminating. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. and extensive use of employee participation. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. statistical process control. contemporary measures of performance. statistical quality control.9. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. Reengineering is a top-down process. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. service. quality. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. 9.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. · Competitive benchmarking. It is also called continuous quality improvement. such as cost. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. It is very popular in USA in 1990s. and speed. · Participative management. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training.
2. 9. From a benefit cost analysis. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. Drucker 3. Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement.1. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. Intervention 2.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. 3. actions. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. Quality circle Answers to TQs: . __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities.11 Terminal Questions 1. 9. provides relevant information to all employees. 9. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. actions. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. It is also called continuous quality improvement.
1.2 Nature of Change 10.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change.5 4.4 Causes for Resistance to Change. 10.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .8 Terminal Questions 10.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10.7 Summary 10. Refer section 9. Self Assessment Questions 10. MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.3 2.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs .3 Resistance to Change 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10. Refer section 9.Refer section 9.2 3. Refer section 9.
2 Nature of Change The term µchange¶ refers to an alteration in a system. 10. or social. Any change may effect the whole organization. indirectly. and others. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled . some parts may be affected directly.whether physical. job design and people. 3. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. structural arrangement. Thus. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. Hence. 2. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. organizational change may have the following features: 1. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. and others. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. · Impact of change on future managers. When change occurs in any part of the organization. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. which are major ones. Objectives: After studying this unit. In this dynamic and fluid environment. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. organizational problems may repeat. However. may require special change efforts. some parts of organization may be affected more.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. Organizational change is a continuous process. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. biological. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. others. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. less. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium.10. Thus. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change.
people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. employees want to maintain a status quo. In fact. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. but when a change is major or unusual. We shall take new workers at the new place. However. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. if we look minutely. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be.balloon.as cost and as benefit. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. 10. On this phenomenon. adjustment is fairly routine. there are two sides of resistance. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. Madhur Bajaj. We wanted a new culture and new layout. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. Homeostasis implies selfcorrecting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. commented. ³The Pune plant is fully saturated. it has stretched slightly. In fact. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. it becomes indented at the point of contact. that is. Similarly. so is the resistance to change. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. Thus. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. because it produces identical symptoms. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. more serious upsets may occur. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization).3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. However. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. If people resist to change. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. In fact.´ Resistance as Benefit: .
On the one hand, resistance to change is costly affair, and on the other, it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. While on negative side, the reality lies in between. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Thus, resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: 1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Therefore, the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. These feelings, either real or emotional, may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic, psychological and social. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological, job security etc. precede over other needs. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques, technology, etc., whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them, they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India, it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely, reduce job options, and turn into technological unemployment. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match.
3. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes, bonus, etc. All these are well-established in the old system. Whenever there is change, people may feel that in the new system, they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Psychological Factors Psychological factors are based on people¶s emotions, sentiments and attitudes towards change. These are qualitative and, therefore, may be logical from people¶s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent¶s point of view. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness, status quo, lack of trust in change agent, low tolerance for change, and fear of unknown. 1. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego, people resist change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Thus, the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. 2. Status Quo: People want status quo. i.e. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore, everyone tries to avoid it. 3. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo, people may differ. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Therefore, these people resist any new idea. 4. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent, that is, the person who initiates change. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent, they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 5. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The change will bring results in future, which is always uncertain. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction, particularly social needs, through their mutual compatible interactions. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change, people resist it. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.
1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. When there is any change, their existing social interactions are likely to be changed, which people do not want. Therefore, they resist change. 2. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class, e.g., change initiated by managers affecting workers. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change, even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. For example, Sumantra Ghoshal, a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru, has commented as follows: ³Nothing fails like success; nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation, Caterpillar, Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles, all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called µThe Failure of Success¶. Strategies, values, resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés, dogmas, millstones and routines.´ This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought, these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes, stability of systems, resource limitations, sunk cost, and inter-organizational agreement. Some of these reasons are basic while others are byproducts of those. For example, first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. 1. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices, they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. 2. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. For example, a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules, prescribes rigid authority relationships, and institutes reward and punishment system. All these work in some circumstances. It a change is required in these aspects, the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system.
. forward-looking. centralized control. 4. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful.3. prospectors. 1. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. Now. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. those who watch things happen. if new technology is adopted. these can be used for specific period. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. decentralized controls.´ This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. In such a case. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. it will require resources to procure machine. building and training for its personnel. For example. if the change is required. For example. if any change is to be incorporated. broad environmental scanning. 5. If it is risk-taking. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. those who wonder what happened. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. In this interaction process. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. Resource Limitations: No doubt. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. 2. Let us see what someone has said long back: ³There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. intensive planning.defenders. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. analyzers. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. and reactors. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. and has zeal for progress. and commensurate expenses on other items also. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. It depends more on the style of top management. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. This can be in the form of people also. innovative. 3. Thus. Once the assets are acquired. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too.
And people in general don¶t like the unknown. Organizational resistance . As human beings. 10. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you¶re like most people. or deferred. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. or programmed responses. taking a new set of streets to work. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. we all rely on habits. developing a new lunchtime routine. they cannot survive. If for example. The same applies to employee. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. finding a new parking place. To cope with this complexity. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. we¶ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. implicit. therefore. or the like.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. we don¶t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. and so on. when you go to work or school. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one¶s income. Resistance can be overt. threatening to go on strike. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won¶t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. you find a single route and you use it regularly. Therefore. immediate. we¶re creatures of habit. For analytical purpose. Let¶s look at the sources of resistance. it means you¶re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. some may fear they¶ll be unable to do so. Otherwise. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. They may. When we are confronted with change. engaging in a work showdown. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. Habit Every day.4.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn¶t necessarily surface in standardized ways. adjusting to the new office layout. Life is complex enough. For instance. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints.
The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. for instance. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization¶s structure to match. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. group norms may act as a constraint. for instance. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities ± such as training.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. The . Will the change. he¶s likely to resist. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. and benefits administration ± has been resisted by many human resource departments. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. For example. development of pay plans. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. 10. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. rules and procedures for employees to follow. accountants work with marketers. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. An individual union member. That is. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. Formalization provides job description. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. For example. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. You can¶t change one without affecting the others. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. They tend to be content with the way things are. For example. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments.Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability.
When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. For example. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. 10. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. People always have some . It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. Therefore.´ The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people¶s resistance to change successfully. through group dynamics. In addition. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. Unless this problem is overcome properly. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. this is not a one-time action. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. It implies explanation and then discussion of the proposed changes. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. that is. However. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. at the level of individual and at the level of group. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. Locavini observes that ³the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. the following efforts can be taken: 1. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups.´ Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. For this purpose. In many cases. Stephen Robbins suggests that ³«« managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. typically by way of computer network links.ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue ± not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. both at the formal and informal levels. the problems can be solved at the same level.
either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. (ii) In group. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. education must be a part of the manager¶s everyday activity on the job. sometimes. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. its process and working. as discussed earlier. its basic nature. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. he expresses it through a group. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. and conferences. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. to become effective. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. However. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. 2. 4. Though each person interprets the change individually often. As this process goes. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. and indoctrinated in new relationships. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization.ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. It grows slowly along with relationship. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. People should be educated to become familiar with change. is an important trust-building task. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. 3. more than one person is involved in the change. the group itself should be the point of contact. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. Getting opinions out in the open. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. They must be taught new skills. Thus. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. so that they are looked at and evaluated. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. Usually. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. The same is true of problem-solving. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. For this purpose. However. meetings. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. . the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: 1. Thus. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. helped to change attitudes. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. most of the times. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process.
However. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. sentiments and attitudes towards change. psychological factors. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. implicit. group resistance and vested interests. Economic factors. structural arrangement. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. job design and people. Research studies also support this aspect. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. 2. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. Such training techniques include role playing. immediate. 3. 10.such aspects as the reasons for change. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. For instance. Resistance can be overt. mere participation may not help. 3. many things about change can be made clear. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. Self Assessment Questions 1. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing . benefits of change. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. or deferred. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. It purports how the results are. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. __________ are based on people¶s emotions. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. 2. and sensitivity or T-group training. social factors.Through the group contact. psychodrama.7 Summary Change is inevitable. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. and how members contribute.
Refer section 10. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups.Singh. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. eighth edition. Why do organizations resist change? 3. Jain.2 2.. French and Cecil H. P. 10.6.4 3. Organizational change 2. threatening to go on strike. Explain the nature of change? 2. Participation Answers to TQs: 1.complaints. Thomson South Western. through group dynamics. N. Organization Development.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1.8 Terminal Questions 1. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. Bell. Psychological factors 3. Reference: · Wendell L.Response Books. both at the formal and informal levels. Refer section 10. Refer section 10. 10. Modern Organization Development and Change. . Regal Publications New Delhi. or the like. that is. · Harigopal K. Organization Theory and Design. · Cummings & Worley. Principles and Practices. at the level of individual and at the level of group. P. engaging in a work showdown. Organization Development & Change. Jr. · J..management of Organization Change. New Delhi. Thomson · Daft Richard L. New Delhi.
org/org_chng/org_chng.lib.work911. · Stephens P. Ltd. Ltd. 12th edition.fao.htm#TopOfPage http://www.1lowry.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp598. Pvt.kyoto-u. E References y y y y y y y y y y y http://fds. Management. Chhabra.pdf http://www. Organizational Development. · L.pdf http://www.jp/~kyodo/kokyuroku/contents/pdf/1461-15.htm www. Prentice-Hall of India.com/www.htm#anchor73776 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .· James A.co. New Delhi. Sultan Chand & Sons.uk/pdf/bt/fincham/Chapter15. · T.pdf www.bus. · Laxmi Devi. N.html http://muse.pdf http://www. M. Prentice-Hall of India.edu/groups/learning/wp8. F. Prentice-Hall India.umich.kurims. Principles & Practice of Management.managementtoday. Robbins.com/opm/grtl/OLS/ols6. New Delhi.umd.humtech. Educatiional Publishers. Organizational Behaviour.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v005/5. Edward Freeman.edu/cameronk/CULTURE%20BOOK-CHAPTER%201.pdf http://webuser.oup. · Stephen P. New Delhi. New Delhi.uk/search/article/634958/the-ceos-role-managing-change/ http://www. Prasad. Management. Organizational Behaviour.wdi.managementhelp.ac. Robbbins. .cfm http://www. Dhanpat Rai & Co. Anmol Publications Pvt. Stoner and R.umich.com/articles/leadchange.co.org/docrep/w7503e/w7503e05.jhu.oup.