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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the µmanagement¶ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn µsurplus¶ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of a
business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term ³management´. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley ± ³Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.´ In the words of George R. Terry ± ³Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.´ According to James L. Lundy ± ³Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.´ In the words of Henry Fayol ± ³To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.´ According to Peter F. Drucker ± ³Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work´. In the words of Koontz and O¶Donnel ± ³Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals´.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren ± ³The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.´ From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that ³management´ is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as ³management´. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a ³distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.´ From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as ³doing things right´. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization¶s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as ³doing the right things´. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of course, high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. And poor
It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. So it is treated as a science. Thus. directing and controlling. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. 4. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. All these resources are made available to those who manage. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals¶ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. 6. Managers apply knowledge. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. organizing. labour and capital. staffing. feeling of management is result-oriented. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. Thus. namely. 7. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. labour. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. informed employees.management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. capital and materials. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. principles and techniques which have wide applications. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. 3. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. principles and techniques requires specialized . The application of these concepts. 2. although they can¶t observe it during operation. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. 5. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. In essence. 1.
materials. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. labour and capital. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. According to Newman. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. how effectively and economically the five M¶s are combined together to produce desired results. 10. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. management is viewed as an art. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. the effective use of the five M¶s of management (money. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. According to Herbision and Myers.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. money and machines into a productive. useful. Basically. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. In other words. Anthropology. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy.knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. military.e. it refers to three distinct ideas. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. and (iii) a class or elite. government and hospital. In modern organizations. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. a hierarchy of command and control. 8. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. manpower. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. They transmit orders. 9. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. Generally. materials. (ii) a system of authority. Similarly. Sociology and Psychology. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. education. people are bound by authority relationships. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem . that is. 1. personnel manager etc. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. finance manager. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. For instance. ongoing concern.
the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system.. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. day-to-day matters.and suggestions upward. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. etc. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. technical facilities. viz. 1. Administrative management is concerned with ³thinking´ functions such as laying down policy. Purchase Manager. policies and plans for the enterprise.e. ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. but as head of wages and salary department. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. Foremen. As a separate group. The levels of management depend upon its size. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. Board of Directors. Operative management is concerned with the ³doing´ function such as implementation of policies. the lower level of management). It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating . and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. ranks. We generally come across two broad levels of management. Financial Controller.. or the Chief Executive. (i) administrative management (i. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as µManagement¶ which refers to the group. its Chairman.. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. Marketing Manager. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. planning and setting up of standards. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. etc. Managing Director. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success.e. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. or. For instance. But in actual practice. Supervisors. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. Production Manager. and the range of production.
2. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. machines and methods to put the plans into action. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. men. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. e) To assign activities. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. j) To report to top management. . b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. materials. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. d) To assemble the resources of money. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise.functions. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. Without them the top management¶s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized.
counseling and effective leadership. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. machines. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. 1. Management makes group effort more effective. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. supervisors. accounts officers and so on. Management is goal-oriented. Their authority and responsibility is limited. sales officers. In its absence. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. It consists of foreman. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. They allot various jobs to the workers. To this end. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. an organization is merely a collection of men. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. With a view to realize the . and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual¶s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. methods. They have to get the work done through the workers. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making.k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. procedures and reward systems. Without management. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. 3. money and material. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment.
and it is distinct. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. They try to put everything on the right tract. In the final analysis. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. the Indian Institute of Management. Thus unnecessary deviations. But unlike medicine or law. iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. Failure to take note of customer¶s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for µIdeal java¶ in the two-wheeler market in India. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency.predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. and specialized knowledge. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. identifiable discipline.. government policy. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. competition. techniques. Management . Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. Management as a profession By a professional manager. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. often threaten the survival of a firm. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. etc. According to McFarland. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. Organize the resources properly. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. skills.
Some individual business organizations. In fact. and short-duration activities. training.Development Institute. do not seem to adhere to the principle of ³service above self´. sabotaging trade unions. unpatterned. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. managers in general. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager¶s job. the All India Management Association. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the . he or she is acting in a figurehead role.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature ± interpersonal roles. All managers have a role as a leader. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. management is not as exact as natural sciences. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. This role includes hiring. However. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. bribing public officials to gain favours. etc. and decision-making. an art as well as a profession. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. the American Management Association in U. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. motivating. However. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. the transfer of information. however. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. 1.S. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied.. and disciplining employees. But in addition to these insights. As a social science. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. Furthermore.A. The term µmanagement roles¶ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. Half of these managers¶ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. For instance.
that involve outsiders. Typically.1: Mintzberg¶s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Liaison Symbolic head. network of outside contacts and doing external board work. Table 1. duties of a legal or social nature. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. what competitors may be planning. informers who provide favors performing other activities and information. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. making phone subordinates to members of the calls to relay information. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. and associated duties. manages also perform a spokesperson role. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. Informational Monitor Disseminator . and the like. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public¶s tastes. and may be inside or outside the organization. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. This is the disseminator role. Informational Roles: All managers. subordinates. understanding of organization and environment. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager¶s unit. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. to some degree. training. activities that involve responsible for staffing. signing perform a number of routine legal documents.liaison role. obliged to Greeting visitors.
some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. policies. outsiders on organization¶s giving information of the plans. As entrepreneurs. actions. serves as expert on organization¶s industry. etc. supervises design of certain projects as well. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important.. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Source: Henry Mintzberg. As disturbance handlers. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. physical and monetary resources. . performing all kinds ± in effect. negotiations. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. results. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the organizational decisions. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. Inc. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices.Spokesperson organization ± some information is factual. As resource allocators. Decisional Roles: Finally. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to develop and initiates ³improvement new programs. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. Last. Publishers. projects´ to bring about change. programming of subordinates work. 1973). managers are responsible for allocating human. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. media. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization¶s performance.
The evidence generally supports the idea that managers ± regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. the roles of disseminator. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. Technical Skills: First-line managers. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization¶s operations.An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg¶s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. and conceptual. Conversely. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. However. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. lead. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. Since managers deal directly with people. motivate. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager¶s level within the organization. as well as many middle managers. human. During the early 1970. such as engineering. finance. In fact. research by Robert L. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. and all managers are involved in making decisions. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization¶s speciality. liaison. They know how to communicate. For example. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. figurehead. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. a manager¶s job is varied and complex. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. . or manufacturing. negotiator. Specifically. computers. this skill is crucial.
Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon.1. According to them. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. It is concerned with the implementation of policies.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. on the other hand. Spriegel and Walter. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. administration is a higher level function. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. Scope . Meaning Administration Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives. It is a doing function. Spriegal and Lansburg. It is a thinking function. Table 1. Management relates to execution of decisions. Nature 3. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. Floerence and Tead. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. Management Management means getting the work done through and with others.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. etc. plans and policies of the organisation. Administration relates to the decision-making. Thus. 2. Thus. It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. Administration is a determinative function. This view is held by Tead. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. iii) There is no distinction between the terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ and they are used interchangeably. Administrators are basically concerned with planning and control. Administration is a higher level function: Administration refers to policy-making. Managers are concerned mainly with organisation and direction of human resources. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration.
Human skills are important at all managerial levels. 2. organisations. Self Assessment Questions 1.4. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. 6. ___________. operative workforce for the execution of plans. . Status Administration refers to Management is relevant at higher levels of management. 7. Usage of Term The term µadministration¶ is The term µmanagement¶ is often associated with widely used in business government offices. 8. 5. environmental forces. Explain its characteristics. objectives. administrative decisions. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. 1. _________. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance.9 Terminal Questions 1. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. There are three levels of management-top. 1. counseling and effective leadership. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill.e. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. i. Define management. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. Five M¶s of management (________.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people.. co-ordinating. DecisionMaking Administration determines Management decides who what is to be done and when it shall implement the is to be done. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. Still management is not completely a profession. __________is principally the task of planning. middle and lower. public organisations in the private sector and non-business sector. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. 3. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle level leading and motivation of executives. lower levels of management.
Management 2.1.3 2. 1. Money.4 Organizing . Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. Refer section 1.5 3. manpower 3. MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2.3 Planning 2. Refer section 1. Refer section 1. materials.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 2. teamwork Answers to TQs: 1. 188.8.131.52 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Discuss the importance of management.2 Process of Management 2.
1949): 1. · Explain different functions of management Process.8 Summary 2. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. you will be able to: · Define Management process. Organizing. Controlling However.6 Directing 2.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2.9 Terminal Questions 2. Staffing. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. in recent time. Motivating. Planning 2. · Explain Planning.2. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. Objectives: After this studying this unit.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2. One can also think of management functionally. Organizing 3. Coordinating 5.5 Staffing 2.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people´. Directing. Commanding 4. . Management functions are as follows (Fayol.
overall goals. general strategies. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. leadership is doing the right things³. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. However. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. In the football field. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. and allocating resources. Even so. Therefore. the decision to change the design of a product. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: ³Management is doing things right. and then set out the method for achieving it. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: . 2. Through leadership and management often overlap. There is a degree of overlap between the two. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization¶s mission. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. fuel and machine efficiency. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin.2. studies on passenger comfort. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. or where you want go to. Decision ± Making Taking decisions is a process. thus. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. cost structure and so on. policies are the means to achieve those ends. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. while a policy. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. driving comfort. say a passenger car. Objectives are the ends. the two are not quite the same.
Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization¶s potential. What is our market share? 5. professional. state. A mission statement should be short ± and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. What financing is available? 6. The mission statement is broad. Opportunities. summarizing what the organization does. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. How skilled is our workforce? 4. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: . planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. Are the facilities outdated? 3. customers (internal and external). and trade). Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. Thus. journals and reports (scientific. international). Is research and development adequate? 4. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. federal. Weaknesses. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. governments (local. suppliers.A mission is the purpose of the organization. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1.
Objectives are also called performance goals. return on investment. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. What are the emerging technologies? 6. earnings per share. Generally. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. What are the possible new markets? 3. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. What is the strength of the economy? 4. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. What substitute products exist? In general terms. etc. the best strategy is one that fits the organization¶s strengths to opportunities in the environment. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) . Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. Are our rivals weak? 5.1. Are there new competitors? 3. What are the new regulations? 6. effectiveness. as well as gap analysis. Are market tastes changing? 5. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2.
Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. structuring. procedures. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. and goals are clearly stated. Review plans 2. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. working toward common goals. operational plans are based on the organization¶s tactical plans. and relationships between departments. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. with ideas and resources. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done.4 Organizing It involves designing. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. and coordinated. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. and where decisions are to be made. how the tasks are to be grouped.5 Staffing . grouped. Assign work to individuals 6. who reports to whom. Strategic. who is to do. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. 2. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. In turn. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management.Tactical plans are based on the organization¶s strategic plan. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job 4. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. 2. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. lines of authority. tactical. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. Organizations are groups of people.
2. placement. development. recruitment. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. compensation and training of needed people´. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. training. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. Theo Haimann ± ³Concerned with the placement. 3. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick ± ³Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work´ Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. money. This task has been referred to as staffing. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. inventorying the people available. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. . 3. 2. promotion. selection. 5. Definition: 1. performance appraisal etc. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. 4. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. recruitment. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals´. O¶Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as ³filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. materials. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. selection. appraisal. Koontz. placement.It is not the machines.
7. Direction has dual objectives. resignation. directing is the ³interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals´. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. Direction function is performed at every level of management. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability.e. promotion. vacancies arise out of retirement. 2. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. selection.6. It is instructing people as to what to do. on the other. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. 8. motivate them. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through ± out the life of an organization. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. 5. Definition According to Koontz and O¶Donnel. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. It is an important managerial function. induction. identifying the manpower requirements. Direction is an important managerial function. Through direction. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. On the one hand. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. 2. It is a continuing function. recruitment. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. overseeing and leading people. management initiates actions in the organization. .6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. training development and maintenance of personnel. 3. 4. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. etc.
Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. shelter. belongingness. sex. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. will vary depending upon his level. guide. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. The further they progress up the hierarchy. and achievement. the more individuality. recognition. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. proposed by Maslow (1943). 4. satisfied needs cannot. and external esteem factors.Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. from the basic to the complex. 2. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. self-respect. humanness and psychological health a person will show. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished´. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. such as. Theories X and Y. status. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. autonomy. and the Two-Factor theory. teach. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. The needs are arranged in order of importance. As Theo Haimann puts it. coach and supervise his subordinates. such as.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. and attention . ³without the issuance of directives. acceptance. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. 3. 2. The manager never ceases to direct. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. thirst. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory.
company policy. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. and salary are hygiene factors. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. self-direction. working conditions. . advancement. includes growth. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager¶s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. whereas. Extrinsic factors. Motivators are intrinsic factors. if they can. It is also believed that. such as. From the above.· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. supervision. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. Theory Y ± In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. interpersonal relations. Theory X ± In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. esteem. Social. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. and achievement. such as. recognition. externally. anxious to accept greater responsibility. autonomy and empowerment. self-motivated. and exercise self-control. responsibility. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. achieving one¶s potential. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people¶s attitudes about work.
who reports to whom. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. performance appraisal etc. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. Planning involves the process of defining goals. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. To motivate people. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. Write a short not on directing. how the tasks are to be grouped. 2. structuring. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. recruitment. Organization involves designing. When hygiene factors are adequate. Hygiene factors on the other hand. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals.In summary. people will not be dissatisfied. have to do with a person¶s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: . 2. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. 3. Self Assessment Questions 1. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. 2. What is planning? 2. many related to the tasks being performed.9 Terminal Questions 1. Explain Staffing in detail 3. neither will they be satisfied. 2. who is to do. motivators describe a person¶s relationship with what she or he does.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. and where decisions are to be made.
SWOT 3.2 Definitions 3. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Reference 2.8 Problems in OD .5 Goals of OD 3. Reference 2.1 Introduction Objectives 3.1.6 OD and Management Development 3.3 2. Reference 2.4 Categories of OD 3.3 Characteristics of OD 3. Follett 2.7 Role of OD 3. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3.5 3.
OD focuses on issues related to the ³human side´ of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals. strategy. In summary.9 Summary 3. organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. culture. organization development is a process of teaching people how to solve problems. Early returns were encouraging. and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology. and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. A variety of solutions exists. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. fighting obsolescence of one¶s knowledge and skills. increased competition. Basically. survive. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today¶s world is a daunting task. strategy formulation and implementation. organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately. and the like. efficiency.Self Assessment Questions 3. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope. and changing customer demands. organization structure.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3. and processes. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today ± threats to effectiveness. old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. conflict resolution. maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals.10 Terminal Questions 3. the answer is ³yes´. Although new jobs are being created at record rates. and profitability. ³Knowledge´ work is replacing ³muscle´ work. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges ± finding satisfaction in and through work. take advantage of opportunities. and learn how to do that better and better over time. challenges from turbulent environments. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. adapt. teams. and the organization¶s human and social processes.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. And organization development (OD) is one of them. . and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks. Simple survival ± continuing to have an adequate job ± is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. Today.
A ³process for improving processes´ ± that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill. (Burke and Hornstein. 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure. strategy. 1969). markets. a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs. 1980). planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. self-analytic methods. (Bennis. · State the goals of OD. and challenges. 1989) .2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change. 1971) Organizational development is a process of planned change. Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives«. processes. and 3) Developing the organization¶s self-renewing capacity (Beer. · Explain the characteristics of OD. 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions.change of an organization¶s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making. attitudes. 3. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. (Schmuck and Miles. using reflexive. and culture. and the dizzying rate of change itself. you will be able to: · Define organization development.Objectives: After studying this unit. values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. people. OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement.
1992) ³OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies. these definitions overlap a great deal (that¶s encouraging). and processes for improving an organization¶s effectiveness. Collectively. it is more accurate to describe ³improvement´ as a never-ending journey of continuous change. values. we mean that organizational change and development takes time.³Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories.´ (Porras and Robertson.´ (Burke. and contain several unique insights (that¶s enlightening). One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. what practices should be included and excluded. 1994) As you can see. learning.´ (Cummings and Worley.´ This definition is lengthy. and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science.several years in most cases. to improve an organization¶s visioning. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. including action research. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving. and theory. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. led and supported by top management. that is. ³Organization development is a long-term effort. empowerment. All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. serious business. and problem-solving processes. Organizational change is hard. through the alteration of organizational members¶ on-the-job behaviours. research. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. strategies. through an ongoing. they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance. By long-term effort. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field. We do not propose it as the ³right´ definition. We will explain this definition in some detail. Top management must initiate the improvement . these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. Likewise. There is no ³quick fix´ when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. In fact. Now let¶s turn to our definition of organization development. structure. 1993) ³Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization¶s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies.
Michael Beer¶s definition called for ³developing new and creative organizational solutions´. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. and processes makes each important. By learning processes. so is managing the culture. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. developing the strategy for getting there. first. listening. For empowerment to become fact of life. The reciprocal influence among culture. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. and culture. learning. team. By including culture so prominently in our definition. we mean. vitality. By visioning processes. culture is of . and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. beliefs. in contrast to having only a select few involved. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. strategy. coherent. not just a small group. solve problems. sentiments. activities. or became distracted with other duties. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization¶s members. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. empowerment. opportunities. structure. and take actions on problems. assumptions. make decisions. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. and challenges in the organization¶s environment and its internal functioning. and common purposes of all members of the organization. and organizational learning.³journey´ and be committed to seeing it through. interactions. where collective aspiration is set free. commitment. and making it happen. norms. By empowerment processes. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. lost its commitment. one of widespread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization¶s purposes. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. Just as visioning. attitudes. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization¶s culture. expectations. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as ³« organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations.´ Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. we mean those interacting. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. and artifacts. structure. And second. We further believe that having compelling. has a stake in making the organization work. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. processes. Still. By empowerment. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. and each influences the others.
The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. He uses the terms µmultifunctional projectization¶ and µhorizontal systems¶ to describe these teams and their work. empowerment. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. and feel in relation to those problems. or developed by a given group. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. and using management information. and training. Today¶s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. maintaining quality control. think. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the ³right´ ways. the process ³threw the results over the wall´ to the next functional unit. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. values. . empowerment. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. But in many organizations today. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. individuals and the organization function well. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: ³Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. Further. and we highlight the importance of visioning. learning. and problem-solving processes. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. think.primary importance. hiring. So culture consists of basic assumptions. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. When teams function well. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be ³brain work´) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. This method resulted in loss of synergy. In Liberation Management. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. wasted time. Temporary. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. By intact work teams and other configurations. engineering. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. manufacturing. so they are the place OD programs often begin ± getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. members are trained in competencies such as planning. and procurement. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. Processes are relatively easy to change. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. firing. Over time. Processes are how things get done. much rework. discovered. When one function finished with its part of the project. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. such as design. (b) invented.
2. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. OD practitioners are facilitators. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. 7. 8. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today¶s fast-paced market place.3 Characteristics of OD 1. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. 6. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. OD focuses on culture and processes. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. 9. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. Attempting to create ³win-win´ solutions is standard practice in OD programs. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. 3. dynamic and adaptive system. Specifically. collaborators. To summarize. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. 2. OD . This µplanned¶ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open.multifunctional. according to Peters. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. and co-learners with the client system. 3. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. 5. rather than focusing attention on individuals. 4. so that change is easily observed. 10.
6. identity. participation. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. or catalyst. 3. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. Rather. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. It recognizes that organizational goals change. joint goals and means. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. 7. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. or isolated problems. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements . OD attempts to provide opportunities to be µhuman¶ and to increase awareness. 5.efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. collects relevant data. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that µnorms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones¶. he conducts surveys. and then. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. Action research is the basis for such intervention. Key areas are the normative type of model. and revitalization. They discourage µdo it yourself¶ approach. evaluates these data. and mutual influence. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. 3. and integrate individual and organizational goals. temporary. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. and cyclic processes. He shares a social philosophy about human values. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. problem-solving.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. third party change agent. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. The relationship involves mutual trust. takes actions for intervention. further more. they are ongoing. growth. At the individual level. 4. rather. Thus. rather. interactive.
(c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. practitioners and the client laymen. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. with the authority of knowledge and competence. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. This Organization Development progrmmes. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. problem solving climate throughout an organization. (g) To increase the sense of µownership¶ or organization¶s objectives throughout the work force. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. like other normative re-educative programmes. .of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. Two important elements of Organization Development are. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. second. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. the collaborative relationships between the scientists.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. 3. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. first. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization¶s goals (profit or service) and development of people.
according to him. management development has been defined as follows: ³Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. . and (iv) a sense of responsibility. According to him. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. more attention to peer-groups.´ Organization development differs from management development. (ii) competitiveness. The term µdevelopment¶ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager¶s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment.6 OD and Management Development At this stage. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. Before making a comparison between the two. less individual competitiveness. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. with their existing objectives and structure. and greater display of feelings and emotions.(h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one¶s area of responsibility. Based on this. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. (iii) assertiveness. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. However. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. 3. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority.
plays key role in organizational improvement. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. 3. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. No special requirement. however. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. 2. Educative and training Short-range. Trained specialists required. Focus on design. not on the managers. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. By 70s. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. Problem-solving approach. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. 7. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. horizontally. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. 5. Thus. however.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. 3. In early 60s. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. focus on achieving improvement in design. . and laterally. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. 6. 3.Focus Approach Time Specialist accomplishments. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. 4. Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing organization.
2. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. 4. it fails even as a long-term strategy. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. 3. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. Therefore. Research studies have also failed to conclude significant contributions of OD in all organizations. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. OD programmes are often quite costly. 3. In general. in order to make best use of OD efforts. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems.confrontation techniques. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. 5. Therefore. Self Assessment Questions . particularly in bottom-line ones. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. There should be proper use of OD interventions. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. For example. 2. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. it is useless to try OD. Hence. etc. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. If an organization is laden with these people. However. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. 4. some specific efforts are required. 5. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. Thus.
collaborative. 2. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. Peter Senge . Explain the various characteristics of OD. 3.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Top management 2. 5. 2. problem-focused µnature of OD¶ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. 3. State the various roles of OD. 4. Empowerment 4. Define OD. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. Distinguish between µorganizational development¶ and µmanagement development¶. Tom Peters 3. 3. _____________is a short-term strategy. Who is associated with the ³Learning Organizations´? 5. ±±±±±±±±± is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. 4. There is no µquick fix¶ to organizations¶ problems. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3.1. The participative. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. ±±±±±±± is associated with ³Liberation Management´. 3. OD focuses on culture and processes.10 Terminal Questions 1. Explain its salient features. Organization development should be led and supported by ±±±±±±±.
Refer section 3.7 5.Organization Development ± Interventions Structure: 4.2 2. Management development Answers to TQs: 1.6 Team-building . Refer section 3.4 Grid Training 4.3 3.2 Survey Feedback 4. Refer section 3.3 Process Consultation 4. Refer section 3. MU0002-Unit-04. Refer section 3.1 Introduction Objectives 4.6 4.Organization Development ± Interventions Unit-04.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .5 Leadership Development 4.5.
inter-group activities. management grid. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. Subsequently.4. Historically. they make things happen. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. other techniques like process . This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. However. process consultation. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the range of change that an organization requires.7 Inter Group Development 4. techno-structural activities. Further.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. Nevertheless. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others.11 Terminal Questions 4. interpersonal level. education and training. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. the classification of OD interventions shows variation. team-building. and organizational culture. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels. mediation and negotiation activities. Therefore. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development.8 Change Agents 4. group level. and survey feedback method.10 Summary 4. and organizational level. survey feedback.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: ³Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. People¶s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. inter-group level. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. grid training.´ There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. work group. Thus. For example.
consultation, team- building, and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives, have been added. Our further discussion follows this development. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. · Explain grid training. · Describe process consultation. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Role of change agents. 4.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid), the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier, Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan, USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 2. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection, feedback of information, developing action plans based on feedback, and follow up. 1. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership ± managerial support, managerial goal emphasis, managerial work facilitation, peer support, peer goal emphasis, peer work facilitation, and peer interaction facilitation, organizational climate-communication with the company, motivation, decision-making, control within the company, co-ordination between departments, and general management, and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company, satisfaction with the supervisor, satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with the pay, and satisfaction with the work group. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization¶s personnel.
After the questionnaires are completed, data are classified, tabulated, and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 2. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed, feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. In oral system of feedback, it is provided through group discussion or problemsolving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively, feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted, it should be constructive and suggestive, rather, threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case, follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building, by the consultant. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. In particular, survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. 2. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However, effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. First, questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. If it is biased, all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Second, even if valid and reliable information is collected, it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change; it provides base for action for change. 4.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Edgar Schein, the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows:
³The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client¶s environment.´ The basic objectives of P.C are as follows: 1. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership, communication, roles and functions of group members, group decision-making and problemsolving, group norms, and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD. 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 2. Define the Relationship: At this stage, client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees, and spelling out services, time, etc. At this stage, the client¶s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. 3. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. At this stage, the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 4. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 5. Intervene: At this stage, the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural change. 6. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.C is completed, the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes, he assists the
and alike. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. traditions. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant¶s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. However. 1. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. focuses on skills. P. and problemsolving are also developed. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. 3. knowledge. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. The skills relating to planning. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. and the organization as a whole. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. 4. . 3. objective-setting. The grid organization development consists of six phases. In the review of various P.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. inter-group. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. problem-solving. 2.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton.C programmes. and teamwork.C is also not free from criticisms. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. and total organizational levels. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. From this point of view.organizational members to incorporate those changes. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. 2. P. group. like other OD intervention techniques. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. Inter-group Development: At this phase. groups. However. communication skills.
the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. while at the same time . in spite of these criticisms. Systematic Critique: In this stage. 6. If you are to manage change effectively. the various programmes may be redesigned. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. During drastic change times. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. In this light. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. 4. 5. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. The strategy is then implemented. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. competence. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4.5 Leadership Development When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). employees will perceive leadership as supportive. therefore. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. is the ability of leadership to«well. Also during these times of change. lead. grid training is a non-rigorous method. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders.´ In a later work. and credibility of senior and middle management. Further. We will look more carefully at each of these. They have maintained that ³managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. complete communication that is timely. and regular. confident and effective decision-making.4. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. concerned and committed to their welfare. it discounts reality. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. and After Arrival. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". they maintained the same stand. Furthermore. Slogging Through The Swamp.
Leadership before. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as ³who will be members of the team?´ ³Who will perform what functions?´ ³Who will contribute what?´ ³What rules will be . teambuilding is the most important. which. but more importantly. The existence of this trust. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. In a climate of distrust. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. 4. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone¶s best interests. problems in team-work. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. storming. brings hope for better times in the future. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. it may be too late.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. Unfortunately. if allowed to go on for too long. how synergy is generated through team-work. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. therefore. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team¶s time together. These stages are: forming. As against these. employees expect nothing positive. if haven¶t established a track record of effective leadership. For example. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. 4. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. widely accepted. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. norming. performing. French and Bell have opined that ³probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp.´ A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness.recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. let us consider the life cycle of a team. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change.
4. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. The adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. each team has to be adjourned. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: ³Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. Sooner or later. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team¶s goals.followed?´ ³How can conflicts among members be resolved?´ and so on. committee. jockeying for relative control. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. At this stage. 5. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. 3. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. start to accept others. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. After the adjournment of the team. At this stage. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. team members start settling.´ . Norming: After storming stage. However. because of individual differences. etc. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. They share personal information. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. 2. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team.
Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. the team would be effective. group of eight. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. the individual average dropped down still lower-68. and so on. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group¶s meetings. They averaged 138. other factors remaining the same. From this statement. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. in one experiment. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. the complementarity among members is achieved. In fact. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. other factors remaining the same. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. In the above paragraph. To the extent. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. fail to perform their assigned tasks. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance.2 pounds. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. goals. it was found that individuals¶ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. 2. it appears that there are many . and attitudes. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge.Thus. that is. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. For example. group efforts tend to slacken. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. In such an assignment. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project.
While skills are relevant for job performance. have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. then. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group. 2. supportive environment. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. 2. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials. management consultants. unify efforts. Katzenbatch and Smith. complementary skills. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. These factors are skills and role clarity. . understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one¶s own role as well as roles of other members. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. These super-ordinate goals. goals. common purpose. and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. Rewards of both types. Further. they will put their maximum. organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success.financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. 4. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. Therefore. two things are required from its members. 3.factors in an effective team. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. serve to focus attention. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. Thus. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. 1. or propose discipline for team members. make recommendations regarding a new supervisor. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. 3. customer satisfaction. Even if one member lacks behind. and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. super-ordinate goals and team rewards.
4. and 5. 3. and rewards. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences.4. the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem. 2. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. recognition. Analyzing how team¶s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. 4. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. such as. Setting goals and priorities for the team.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action. . their value systems. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared. Analyzing how the work is performed. For achieving these. Providing positive feedback. the emphasis should be on consensus. Fig. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. and 5. At this stage. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. 2. they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. group problems to even personal problem. rather. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds. personality and attitudes. 1. Analyzing how the team is working. In problem identification. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are.
(iii) Negative: cooling. understanding. undermining morale. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours: Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing. seeking relevant information. 5. If this process is adopted several times. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility. encouraging others to participate. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. criticizing person. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. about the issue. members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings.3. 4. At the time of discussion of feedback. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time. people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. etc. Followup action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of team-building. who was talking more or who was talking less. ensuring. cynicism. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings. Often. At this stage. etc. Negative Behaviour (i) Over talk: interrupting. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team¶s responsibilities. also provides opportunity to understand themselves. . talking together with speaker. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. the way people talk about the issue. with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. feelings. (ii) Attacking: deriding. belittling. the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. the stying with the topic or going off on tangents. (iii) Clarifying: resting. there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. who was trying to resolve the differences. clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team. information.
Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the organization¶s outcomes. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage. 4. However. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. In spite of these problems. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. listening. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. one of the more .These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. team-building has a positive outlook. However. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. It seeks to change to attitudes. 2. In general. it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. and feedback skills). are not given adequate attention. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier. etc. communicating. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. 2. 3. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. it is not that effective in isolation. monitoring. As a result.. It improves the organization¶s problem-solving and decision-making ability. Therefore. stereotypes. and perceptions that groups have of each other. in different degrees. though. to encourage and sustain such feelings. However. management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. structure.
In this method. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. 4. Differences are clearly articulate. operating procedures. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization¶s history. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. and personnel.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . however.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. 4. the other group. but one thing he/she is not the driver´. as the accelerator to build up momentum. or outside consultants. In contrast. The groups then share their lists. the groups can move to the integration phase ± working to develop solutions that will improve relations. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. with members from each of the conflicting groups. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. after which similarities and differences are discussed. employees of the organization. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. as the break for too quick action. According to Curtis Mial: ³The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. Subgroups. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. Trainer . Outside consultants. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes ± which can be benefit or a disadvantage ± because they don¶t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. culture. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. For major change efforts.Popular methods emphasize problem solving.
presentations. inter-group and total organization levels. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. feedback of information. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies ± lectures. changing (intervening) and refreezing. attitudes and beliefs. Training is used both in µcontent orientation¶ and process orientation¶. group. diagnosis. role-plays and instruments. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. 2. Team-building is most important.A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses.11 Terminal Questions 1. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. Grid Training was developed by ±±±±±±±±±±±± 3.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? . cases and experiential learning etc. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. Training is required for enhancing knowledge. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. films. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. skills and change in behavior. Data collection. Self Assessment Questions 1. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. It focuses on skills. 4. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. In process consultation. group discussions.
6 4. 4. MU0002-Unit-05-Values. Refer section 4.4 2.2. and Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values. Assumptions.1 Introduction . Refer section 4. Refer section 4. 3. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? 3.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. Assumptions. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.2 3. Refer section 4. Data collection 2. Blake and Mouton. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4.
2 Definitions . Objectives: After studying this unit. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5. 5.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5.2 Definitions 5. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions. assumptions.5.1 Introduction A set of values. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves. · List the chronology of events of values. beliefs and assumptions. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field.7 Terminal Questions 5. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5.5.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5. beliefs and assumptions.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5.Objectives 5.5. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions.
and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. or spirit of the time. treat people with respect and dignity. assumptions. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. and assumptions being. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. Values. As these ingredients accumulated. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. values. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. optimistic.A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. the human relations movement. the laboratory training movement. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. Taylor s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. research on the effects of different leadership styles. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or µgood¶ (e. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. Thus. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. and that rationality. and democratic." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. strongly held. Simple.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought y Frederick Winslow Taylor s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. . assume that everyone has intrinsic worth.g. dishonesty). it is a cognitive fact for the person. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job." or slacking off. and the like.. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources ± the Hawthorne studies. OD values tend to be humanistic.. free speech) and what is undesirable or µbad¶ (e. with values being beliefs about good and bad. assumptions. 5. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person.g. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. reason. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job.
most efficient way to organize people. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. A strong hierarchy of authority. much of the research. Research by Lewin. Their simple. Mary Parker Follett (1926). y y y y y y y . Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. the work environment. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. greater attention to workers social needs. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. organizations were not machines. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people s beliefs about organizational behaviour. aggressiveness and poor performance. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. Lippitt (1939). People were not cogs. a management theorist and astute observer of labour-management relations. and the supervisor determined their performance. Group Dynamics (1940) The scientific study of groups using experimental research methodswas launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. In a sense. apathy. their feelings and attitudes about the work. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. The human relations movement advocated participative management. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors.y The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of bureaucracy as the best. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. theory. People came to work as whole people. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. impersonal rules. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. extensive division of labor. and a general humanizing of the workplace. These approaches possessed many desirable features. wrote an article on The Giving of Orders advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. The Functions of the Executive by Chester 1.
which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. resist change. lack ambition.y These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. In an environment of slow change. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). The theory postulated that when lower-level needs are satisfied. Lester Coch and John R. higherlevel needs become dominant. a direct precursor of OD. Rogers focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. healthy adults. indifferent to the organization s needs. This article introduced the concept of organizations as socio-technical systems. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. Overcoming Resistance to Change. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. P. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. this book popularized Maslow s motivation theory. French s (1948) article. to assume responsibility. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. and need to be led. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. and understand group dynamics. management practices. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. dislike responsibility. increase self-understanding. Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. pioneers in laboratory training. Chris Argyrif s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. are self-centered. The task of management is to change organizational structures. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. a mechanistic organization y y y y y y y y . Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. caring social climate.
To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company OD Six-Pack. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. an organic organization form is preferred. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. dysfunctions. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. compromise. practice. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. goal-oriented. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. and negative consequences. theory. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management.structure may be appropriate. Out of this zeitgeist. and organizations that is. open communications. and values of the field. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. Writing in 1969. . We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. optimistic. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. and greater individual autonomy. (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. y y This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. and shares decision-making with the work group. and democratic. and unprincipled power. Values have always been an integral part of OD." that is. · Development of more effective "team management. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. as we have said. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. in an environment of high change. y Rensis Likert s New Patterns of Management (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. bureaucracy. These six books presented the theory. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. one-on-one leadership style. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. humanistic. groups. The Social Psychology of Organizations by Daniel Katz and Robert L.
" Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. Organizations. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. 2. 5. "People support what they help create. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. . Stalker used the term ³mechanistic´ in contrast to ³mechanical. and confidence between and across levels. 1. 4." like pushing buttons. sub-units of organizations.´ For example. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication.· Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. 3." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. director of organization development. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. Robert Tannenbaum. They listed these ³values in transition´ as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. mutual trust. not the basis of managerial strategy. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. the basic units of change are groups." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. M. Therefore. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. 6. Here is his list. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. a professor and Sheldon Davis. Controls are interim measurements. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. not individuals. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are.
autocratic. appropriate uses of power. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. collaboration and co-operation. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. 5. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. authentic interpersonal relations. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. decentralized decision making. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. · Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. the legitimacy of feelings. participation and contribution by all organization members.· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. toward seeing them as being in process. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. open communication.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions . · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian.
set high standards.5. groups. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. Hence. challenge. and interpersonal communication. 5.Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. facilitation. and reward success. support. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. listen. support. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. not a one-on-one leadership style. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. give autonomy. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. and so on. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. permit failure. Also. To do this. and are capable of making. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. remove obstacles and barriers. the family. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group¶s effectiveness and development. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. First. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. give responsibility. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. Implications of these assumptions are several. invest training time and money to increase group members¶ skills. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. not individuals. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. personal growth.5. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. . invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. Third. Second. What occurs in the work group. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. conflict management. a church or club group. at both the formal and informal levels. encourage risk-taking. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. Most people want to develop their potential. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. and organizations? 5. This skill is a trainable one. such as a work group. including peers and boss. in addition. and co-operation within the group. and usually with more than one group. leaders need to give important work to teams. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. and job satisfaction.
Finally. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization¶s leaders. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. Therefore. an optimistic." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. By implication. 5. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. and so on-are obsolete. organizing structures. and E can support these changes. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. In addition. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. The rapid technological. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. Finally. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. societal. are dysfunctional over the long run and highlight the need for a ³win win´ attitude. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. and ways to optimize human potential. including how persons C. D. developmental. a growing awareness that ³win-lose´ organizational situations. formalized cross-functional communication. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. Still. Frequently the challenge is broader.5.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. they change over time. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where ³putting people first´ paid off handsomely in profits and performance. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. By implication. adherence to the chain of command. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. quality of output. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. and profitability. values are never static. in which one side wins and the other side loses. and empowering. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. The implication is that people are an organization¶s most important resource. grouping by specialized function. emphasis on topdown directives. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. Concluding Comment: . but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective.
3. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. beliefs and assumptions.7 Terminal Questions 1. __________ is associated with scientific management. Write a note about F. but are widely accepted today. Values. values.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. 2. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. OD values tend to be humanistic. Values. beliefs. Cognitive . 3. The concept of ±±±±±±±±±± was introduced by MaxWeber. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. Values are also beliefs. 4. Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 5. and assumptions are all ±±±±±±±±±± facts. The outcome of ±±±±±±±± was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. 2. 5. 5.The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. Values. Define concepts. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. 5. Taylor¶s principles of scientific management. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true.W. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. optimistic and democratic. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners.
F. Refer section 5.1 Introduction Objectives 6. Bureaucracy 4. Refer section 5. Refer section 5. Taylor 3.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 4.3 5.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6.2.2 2. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 5. Hawthorne experiments 5. W. Refer section 5.3 3.2. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6.2 Beyond the Quick Fix .2.
4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6.10 Summary 6.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6.2. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.2.3 Systems Theory 6.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.3.1 The Nature of Systems 6.5 Teams and Teamwork 6.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.3. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed. In this discussion.3.4 Participation and Empowerment 6. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6. you will be able to: .6.11 Terminal Questions 6. Objectives: After studying this unit.3.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6.
the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in . Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. in words or pictures. and specify the relationships among the variables. · Explain systems theory.2. · Describe the parallel learning structures. That is. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field. · Explain the terms µparticipation¶ and µempowerment¶. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. describe those features as variables. the important features of some phenomenon.· Explain various models and theories of planned change. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. Models and theories depict. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. 6. We will examine the following concepts: · Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD.
Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion.opposing directions. mentor. Identifying with a new role model. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. Likewise. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. b. Scanning the environment for new relevant information . judge things. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. Next. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. that is. moving to new level of behaviour. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. Finally. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. that is. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). Lewin¶s second idea was a model of the change process itself. etc. feel things. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. he must move. With a technique called the force-field analysis. For example. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. Lewin¶s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations.
The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system¶s problem. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person¶s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin¶s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. Phases 3. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. In stage 1. This motivating evidence is gained by. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. That is. change will not occur. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. unfreezing. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. That is. . In stage 2. for example. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. refreezing. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person¶s personality. Significant relationships. and attitudes. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. b. The total personality and self-concept. establishing goals and intentions of action. and fit with the individual¶s social surroundings. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. and 5 correspond ro Lewin¶s moving phase. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. terminating the client-consultant relationship. moving. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s refreezing phase. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. Jeanne Watson. The primary task in stage 3. which motivate the person to change. which cause guilt and anxiety. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals.Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. and Bruce Westley. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s unfreezing phase. that is. 4.
2 Beyond the ³Quick Fix´ A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. and 5) The reward system track. problem-solving sessions. and so forth. 4) The strategy-structure track. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? .2. when functioning properly. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. Change programs take from one to five years to complete. Kilmann¶s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. 2) The management skills track. 6. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. called "tracks. critique practices and procedures. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". cause the organization to be successful. Interventions include training programs. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. 3) The team-building track." that.This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. 2) Diagnosing the problems. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management.
communication. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same.2. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational.and second-order change. . In second-order change. The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. TRW. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. OD programs are directed toward both first. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T.The culture track enhances trust. revolutionary. incremental. work groups. Westinghouse. departments. 6. In first-order change. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit ± thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. beginning with the culture track. Eastman Kodak. adaptive. evolutionary. Ford General Electric. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. information sharing. the use of updated management skills. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered ± the organization is transformed. General Foods. or continuous change. and all resources with the new strategic direction. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. and Xerox with good results. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. and its holistic view of organization change and development. then moving to the management skills track. or discontinuous change. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call ³transactional change´ and ³transformational change´). jobs. radical. then moving to the team-building track. and so forth. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance.
These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. management practices." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. values. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. friendly or unfriendly. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees¶ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. We will do so in several steps. and beliefs that are enduring. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. and difficult to change. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. leadership. Changing structure. Fig." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. individual and organizational performance.Organizational climate is defined as people¶s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. management practices. in turn. and organization culture result in second-order change. On the other hand. interventions directed toward mission and strategy.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First ± Order Change . hard-working or easy-going. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. and so forth. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. 6. which change motivation and. often unconscious. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions.
One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization¶s culture. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. mission and strategy. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. These factors are able to change the climate.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second ± Order Change On the other hand. Interventions directed toward management practices. and organization culture. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. 6. .Fig. sudden "leaps" in behaviour.´ We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. structure. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). we must change mission and strategy. leadership styles. Burke says: ³Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. as shown in the above figure. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. To summarize. that is.
It is how OD works. For example.2. and technology. rewarded). OD interventions that focus on goals. . This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. management style. according to Porras and Robertson. Interventions that focus on culture. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. required. and interaction processes will affect social factors. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works.Fig. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. social factors. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. which influence on-the job behaviours. which determine organizational performance and individual development. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. strategies. physical setting. 6. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members¶ cognitions (they learn what is expected.
Fig. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. 6.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966. Fig. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory. This section explains systems theory. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. describes the characteristics of systems. 6. Systems .
system. Therefore." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. or subsystems. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. money. system denotes interdependency. and energy between system and environment.theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. when taking a systems approach. or transformation processes that change the inputs.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. resources. Open systems have purposes and goals." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy. Organizations are open systems. dynamics. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. interconnectedness. the organization¶s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. raw material and so on. For example. that is the system. 6. the reasons for their existence. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. information. The words µarrangement¶ and µinterrelated¶ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. They do something to the inputs via throughput." To summarize. and if the environment does not want these outputs.3. Here. people. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. components. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. the organization will cease to exist. in that they permit exchange of information. conversion. . Every system is delineated by a boundary. Thus. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. What is inside the boundary is the system.
Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. . Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems ³run down´ and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. however. negative and positive." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. Positive feedback comes from the environment. aerospace. that information is called positive feedback. By the same token. For example. say. eating fads. competitors. mining. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. and so on. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. and the system adjusts to a new goal.Fig. Systems require two kinds of feedback. while screening out other information. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. Say your company makes buggy whips. "return to earth. but most are not useful. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. For example. Information is important to systems in several ways. It is sometimes called deviationamplifying feed back. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. and makes a course correction. and the like. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. 6. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. If the mission (target) changes. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback.
and systems for performing the work. and technology. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state ± systems have multiple paths to goals. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. and the workforce¶s expectations. which includes the organization¶s culture informal rules and understandings. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. people. differentiated. .´ Also. this process is called differentiation. perceptions. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. systems tend to get more elaborated. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. knowledge. formal organization. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. With increased differentiation. work. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. unit/group level. The three major input factors are: 1) The environment. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. 6. and informal organization. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). and individual level. 2) Resources available to the organization. which includes formal structures. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. important events.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. processes. either internal or external. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. and complex over time. knowledge. As Katz and Kahn say: ³The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system.Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. specialized. such as capital. which includes skills. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. failures. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. Subsystems exist within larger systems. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality.3.
training group members in multiple skills. If the organization¶s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model¶s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. controlling variance at the source. performance will suffer. if people don¶t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. fit) must be present among the system¶s components¶ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. forming autonomous work groups. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. performance will suffer. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. that is. Fred Emery. especially autonomous work groups (selfregulated teams or self-direct teams)." and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. In a company that is performing poorly. Hanna writes: . two active segments of OD today. which components are "not functioning correctly. performance will suffer. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. . and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar." The premise is that alignment (harmony. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. multi-skilled teams.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. a social system and a technical system.Fig. organizations must optimize both systems.3. and that changes in one system affect the other system. 6. and information to the point of action. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. For example. 6. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. to the workers doing the job.
. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. building shared vision. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stakeholders. events. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. events and forces. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP).In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). from their activities. Second. Charles Krone. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. For example. and systems thinking. not single effects. issues.´ In conclusion. First. Without a systemic orientation. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. systems thinking. changing one part of a system influences other parts. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. Of all these disciplines. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. team learning. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. 6.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. according to Peter Senge. forces. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. the fifth discipline. therefore.KI Jayaram. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. but seen in relation to other issues. G.3. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. and 3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. mental models. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. because most phenomena have more than one cause. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. He says of systems thinking: ³It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. is the most important. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. Third.
one changes the system. to change a system. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. quality circles. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. not just its component parts. called "organic. One view. survey feedback. team building. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. which they call "mechanistic. growth. is the more useful perspective. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions." These authors believe the organic view." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. Participation enhances empowerment. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. and to be responsible. reduce stress levels. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. search conferences. They believed that it was about risk-taking." is bottom-up and less controlling. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). to contribute their ideas. and change. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. The other view. To empower is to give someone power. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. with its emphasis on risk-taking.Fourth. increase commitment to the organization. involvement and participation energize greater performance.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. personal initiative. quality of work life programs. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. For example. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. But . and give more power to more people. 6. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. produce better solutions to problems. autonomous work groups. and growth. to exert influence. And fifth. Further. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. The entire field of OD is about empowerment.
and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. confident about their abilities. HPOs (high-performance organizations). much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). people must work together to accomplish them. Second. While management can create a context that is more empowering. to name just a few. Third. systems. research. but rather a mindset that employees have about their roles in the organization. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. If the team. is not something that management does to employees. Teams and teamwork are "in. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: ³Empowerment. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. Team Taurus developed Ford¶s best-selling automobile. as a team. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. they must if personally connected to the organization. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777.both views contain valid ideas: for example. Theory. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. the noun team has become a verb. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. QCs (quality circles). STS (socio-technical systems). changes those norms and values. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction.´ 6. . Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. processes. employees must choose to be empowered. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. and relationships if they are to be effective. teams create synergy. that is. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today ± gurus extol the virtues of teams. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. then. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. teaming.
recognition. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. help each other. and respect-teams nurture human nature. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings.Fourth. and explore ways to realize that potential. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. and set ever-higher goals. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. role negotiation technique. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. and others. find innovative ways around barriers. Examples are team-building. socio-technical systems programs. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. that they achieve synergy. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. teams satisfy people¶s needs for social interaction. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. and responsibility charting. inter-group team-building. and the like. In this section. parallel learning structures. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. When any one feature is lost. quality circles. including collegiate football national champions. . the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. heart transplant surgical teams. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. status. process consultation. temporary teams. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. cross-functional teams. team performance declines.
Projects are the work of the future. Interestingly. talking. managers. constitute another important foundation of organization development. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. you don¶t have a parallel structure. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. flexible response.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing . The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures.´ The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. At Ford Motor Company. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. High responsibility. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. What¶s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as ³a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. Asea Brown Boveri. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. Titeflex. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization¶s methods of work and/or culture. and initiate needed changes. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. 6. 6. Union Pacific Railroad. If you don¶t implement different norms and procedures. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. projects will be performed by teams. and continuous learning. In essence. and employees. It isn¶t the supplemental structure that¶s important.´ Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. deciding. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). autonomous. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. and then leading the process. superior customer service.Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. clear objectives. Bushe and Shani say: ³The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking.
will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. information. values. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. and¶ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. that is. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. The first type is empirical rational strategies. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. doubts. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. Patterns of action and practice are supported ± by sociocultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. anxieties. and significant relationships. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. relationships and customary ways of doing things. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. according to this view." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-re-eductive and the empirical-rational strategies. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. skills. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. attitudes. not just changes in knowledge. rather than the OD practitioner. and together they define problems and seek solutions. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. will follow their rational self-interest. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. OD clearly falls within the normative-reeducative category. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. Evaluated against these three change strategies. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power.Organization development involves change. based on the assumptions that people are rational. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normativereductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. . Change in a pattern of practice or action.
This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical." applied science. applied science or practice. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. for example. pressing problems. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. . success corroborating the diagnosis. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. thereby solving the problem. Greenwood states: ³The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. on the basis of selected variables. not the individual. The practitioner examines the problem situation. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. by modifying a group norm or standards.´ Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. On this point. re-establishes the equilibrium. 6. Burke writes: ³If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. and (2) "technology. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. OD emphasizes the latter.e.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field.´ From this "practice theory. behavioural science knowledge. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. hopefully. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. practices. Thus. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. i. or practice. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice..
It is a type of action-research. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. and action planning based on the data. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. perhaps more accurately. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. the two top in puts. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. 6. practice research and practice theory. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. The two bottom inputs. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing ± learning about the dynamics of organizational change.Fig. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations.9 Action Research The action research model ± a data-based. represent contributions from pure or basic science. represent contributions from applied science. had this to say about it: ³The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. and research leading to social action« This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. Self Assessment Questions . Kurt Lewin. Taken separately. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. form of applied behavioural science. feedback of the data to the client system members.´ Concluding Comments: These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. Action research involves three processes: data collection. who developed the concept of action research. 6. Taken collectively. and doing or implementing change efforts.
³Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. 6. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. Explain Kurt Lewin¶s models and theories of planned organizational change. ±±±±±±±±±± means moving to new level of behaviour. 3. 2.11 Terminal Questions 1. First²order change is also called ___________. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. A _____________ is defined as ³a set of elements standing in interaction. 3. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. 6. ±±±±±±±±±± gave the model ³Beyond the Quick Fix´. Bring out the essence of ³managing beyond the quick fix´ model of organizational development. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change. 6.´ Comment on this statement. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 4. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change.1. 4. 2. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. Ralph Kilmann 3. Action research model combines learning and doing.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. Unfreezing 2. Transactional change .´ 5.
5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7. Refer section 6.3 Types of Organization Culture.2.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7. Refer section 6.4.3 5.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 6.2.1 Introduction Objectives 7. 7.Refer section 6. Refer section 6.1 2.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture 7.6 Summary . System 5.2.2 3.3 4. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1.
but also changing the corporate culture as well. do not do too little?´ .1 Introduction Basically. For example. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. Culture is one of those terms that¶s difficult to express distinctly. values. etc. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. ± similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone¶s personality. discovered. thinking. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. Norms. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. 2. organizational culture is the personality of the organization.7. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. terminology. Objectives: After studying this unit. including guidelines on how much work to do. despite the best-laid plans. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. · Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. Observed behavioral regularities. what members wear. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. the culture of a large. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. they use common language. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. When organizational participants interact with one another. but everyone knows it when they sense it. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein.7 Terminal Questions 7. what they brag about. Which in many organizations come down to ³Do not do too much. Practitioners are coming to realize that. 1986). Martin and Meyerson. Standards of behavior exist. 7.
It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. 7. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. shared goals. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. In an efficient market organization. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization¶s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. New-comers must learn those ³ropes´ in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. 4. processes and procedures. Market cultures are outward looking. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. . clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share.3. the way participants interact. In contrast to Hierarchies. They often have well-defined policies. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. outputs and outcomes. Transactions are exchanges of value. Typical examples are high product quality. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. Organizational climate: This is an overall ³feeling´ that is conveyed by the physical layout. but one where all transactions.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber¶s original view of bureaucracy. For many years. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. 5. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. Rather than strict rules and procedures. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. 6. people are driven through vision. internal and external are viewed in market terms.
and procedures. systems and subsystems. In biological terms. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. rules. culture is like the DNA of an organization. discovered. plaques. . do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. 1993). although not necessarily documented. invisible to the naked eye. thinking. 1986). and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. the way they dress etc. the jargon they use. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. supportive way and may take on a parental role. symbols. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. · Its rituals. big-bang projects and development. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. Rules. 7. but critical to shaping its behavior. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. etc. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). Clan leaders act in a facilitative. norms. Martin and Meyerson. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary.strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause.
various terms such as efficiency. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. also called as organizational success or growth.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization¶s social environment and evolve of behavior. there are numerous variables. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management.Values: These are the social principles. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. Thus. productivity. its core value are limited to a few in number. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. Though each individual¶s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management¶s policies. believing. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. For example. intervening and end result. individually and collectively. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. business and leadership strategies. from the basis of its policies and action. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. decisions. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. to denote organizational effectiveness. the personality of the organization). 1. Identifying. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. are often used interchangeably. and behaviour. Though an organization espouses a series of values. From this point of view. there is often contradiction in various approaches. communicating. . The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. organizational growth. goals. and what is right and what is wrong. or standards held by members of an organization. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. profitability. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. skills. and doing.
7. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: 1. However. incorporating. is worth running some risks for.. and decision-making. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. and energy that will be required. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of ±date. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. and is worth the investment of time. money. and so on. 3. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. the loyalties. performance goals. and a common history begins to be built. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. communication. and they tend to be longterm goals. That is. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. obtaining patents.2. and earnings. 4. and perceptual cluster.g. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. End ± result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. is workable. e. attitudes. scrap loss. 3. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. building. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. At this point. 2. motivational. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. costs. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. locating space. others are brought into the organization. According to Likert. For example. . motivations.
relationships. Structure. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. and whether products and/or services are involved. age. 3. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. the ³culture contract´ that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. 6. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. 2. 5. Make changes from the top down. habits. 1. roles. Staffs. Assess the current culture.Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. 7. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. Include employees in the culture change process. Politics. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. commitment. the geographic location. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. take these losses early. 4. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can¶t be done successfully?. 2. Emotions. 3. and patterns of daily behavior. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. The personal feelings. and history of two firms. powerful stakeholders such as unions. or even customers may support the existing culture. . management. if possible. especially when making changes in rules and processes. attitudes. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. In addition. These factors from the two cultures include the size.
Discuss the development and change of organizational development. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. 2. system-resource approach.8. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. and strategic constituencies approach.goal approach. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. 7. 7.7 Terminal Questions 1. Market 3. 2. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. Finally. Stay the course by being persistent.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. 3. 9. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. 3. 7. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive.6 Summary Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. Artifacts 2. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. ________cultures are outward looking. Causal variables Answers to TQs: . behavioural approach. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. Self Assessment Questions 1.
6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8.9 Summary 8.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 7.1 Introduction Objectives 8.Power. Refer section 7. Politics and Organization Development Unit-08.1.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8. MU0002-Unit-08.2 2.3 Two Faces of Power 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8. Refer section 7.10 Terminal Questions .Power. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8.3 3.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.
One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired." . The French word µpouvoir¶ stands for both the noun µpower¶ and the verb µto be able. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations.´ ³A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related. Potential power is the capacity to do so. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. Objectives: After this studying this unit.¶ To have power is to be able to get desired things done. 8. and behaviours of people.8. emotions. · Explain theories about the sources of power. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development. power must be exercised. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes. indisputable facts of organizational life. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change.1 Introduction Power and politics. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD.´ Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations. and for change to occur in an organization." ³Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. to effect outcomes. In this unit. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8.actions and the decisions that precede them. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid today.
" . It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. and organizational activities. or acquired? In this unit. influence. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. power being the predominant mode. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. hurting. bestowed. both positive and negative. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. financial. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. Crushing. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. According to him. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. 8. unsocialized need to dominate others. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. spiritual. or positive. 8. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. an authority or power dimension is required.Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one¶s way. and lead. with collective. influencing.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" ± positive and negative. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. Leading. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. the act or ability of influencing others. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one¶s way in a social situation. however. Power-in-action may take many forms. forcing. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. selling. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. not the possession of power as such. absolute power corrupts absolutely. confiscation. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. political. In fact. Without leadership (power) in medical." A moment¶s reflection. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. technological. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. for organizations to function. being exercised. and repression. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson¶s "Power-Dependence theory.
2. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. to give something negatively valued by the other. rejection. or bases. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. that person has power over us. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R." In other words. P. that is. blame.· French and Raven¶s "Bases of Social Power. hate. we will continue the exchange relationship. 4. Reward power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. 5. and so forth. and desired by the other. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A¶s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. The sociologist. 3. Expert power ± power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. respect." These authors suggested five sources. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. to give something valued by the other. when the net balance for us is negative. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. Coercive power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. attraction. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. influence. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. information. we will terminate or alter the relationship. that is. praise. Legitimate power ± power based on everyone¶s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. When the net balance for us is positive. power. rewards) that are controlled by one party." · Salancik and Pfeffer¶s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. goals." · Mintzberg¶s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. Viewed in this light. of social power as follows: 1. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. Referent power ± power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. . Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services.
In this theory, power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals, units, or departments) most important for solving the organization¶s most critical problems. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. This theory, like the ones discussed previously, supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by- others-in this case, the special expertise needed for the organization¶s survival-have power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits, indeed, used by all who have it, to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources, through the placement of allies in key positions, and through the definition of organizational problems and policies." These authors view organizational power as a good thing, for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. This theory, "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players, called influencers, seek to control the organization¶s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power, coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. According to Mintzberg, the five possible bases of power are, first, control of a resource; second, control of a technical skill; and, third, control of a body of knowledge. All of these must be critical to the organization. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. In addition to a base of power, the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. An organization has many potential influencers, such as the board of directors, the managers, the top executives, the employees, the unions, suppliers, customers, regulators, and so forth. The important aspects of Mintzberg¶s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others, that power-in-action requires will and skill, and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In summary, these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar ± power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. The resources may be ability to reward and
punish, being in control of critical skills, knowledge, or information, the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined ³politics simply as the study of who gets what, when, and how´. ³Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices´. ³Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups´. ³Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means´. Thus, we view politics as a subset of power, treating it as informal power, illegitimate in nature. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power, but in this sense, formal power, the power vested in office, the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. Both relate to getting one¶s way-effectance. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. For our purposes, organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations; it is engaging in activities to get one¶s way. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities; the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics, like power, has two faces. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest; unsocialized needs to dominate others; a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win, you must lose-rather than win-win terms; and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy, surprise, holding hidden agendas, withholding information, deceiving. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others; viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible; engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing; a relative absence of the tactics of fighting; and a socialized need to lead, initiate, and influence others. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making, resource allocation, and conflict resolution processes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose; they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. In fact, one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation, conflict resolution, and choosing among alternative means and goals.
8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. Virtually, all OD interventions promote problem-solving, not politics, as a preferred way to get things accomplished. OD interventions increase problem-solving, collaboration, co-operation, fact-finding, and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. For example, OD interventions typically generate valid, public data about the organization¶s culture, processes, strengths, and weaknesses. Valid, public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations; rather, they enhance the positive face of power, thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy, it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme power-oriented situations. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power, but not with the negative face of power. Values such as trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first, problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations; second, power equalization, being one aspect of the positive face of power, increases the amount of power available to organization members, and by so doing adds power to the organization. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator, catalyst, problem solver, and educator. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. According to Chris Argyris, the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information, (2) to promote free, informed choice, and (3) to promote the client¶s internal commitment to the choices made. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner, his or her program, and his or her values, methods, and expertise. The OD consultant, like all consultants, provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors, as we discussed earlier. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. In summary, organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. This major strength of OD derives from the strategy of change, the technology, the values, and the roles of OD practitioners.
These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. and ability to gain organizational support. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). Group support: If the OD group is strong internally.8. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). 2. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. preferably multiple sponsorship. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization¶s decision makers). Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. 3."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. experience. Skills such as listening. it will gain more power. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. coaching. . If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. problem solving. According to the framework of French and Raven. Success leads to credibility and stature. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. communicating. both as a person and as a professional. What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. 5. acceptability. it will be strong externally. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. in powerful places. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge)." 4. and expertise.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. 6. First.
OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. OD programs should be results-oriented. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization¶s powerholders. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one¶s own or in others¶ political struggles. the manager will vigorously defend it. The OD program belongs to the manager. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being managercentered. which is to be an expert on process. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. . Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. constructive social relationships. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. not content. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. not the OD consultant. those issues vital to the organization¶s success. Rule Five: Mind your own business. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. Rule Six: Mind your own business. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one¶s power base. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. A valuable byproduct of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. not by getting involved in the answers. usually managers. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues.counseling.
and educator. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. Table 8. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. We could propose more rules of thumb. and personality characteristics. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions. the strategy and tactics of influence. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. problem solver. 8. and using contacts for information. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. As shown in the figure." and "going around the formal system. yet legitimate means of acquiring power." which arouses defensive actions. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. Networking is recognized as a potent. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated.Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. viable. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others¶ legitimate "turf. others¶ support. not power activist or power broker. negotiations the nature of power and politics.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge · Expertise · Information · Tradition Others¶ Support y y Strategies for Success Playing It Straight · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Political access Staff support ." "using social networks. individual power derives from knowledge. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. catalyst." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power.
Indeed. Personal power. criticality-how important one¶s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks´.Personality y y y Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don¶t) use organization rules Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. effort. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. arises from expertise. Whetton and Cameron¶s model is shown in following figure. personal power and position power. and relevance-how important one¶s task is in relation to organizational priorities. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. visibility-how much one¶s work is seen by influential people. This practical. a person¶s power comes from two main sources. in turn. ³One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. . then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. personal attraction. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. In this model. and legitimacy. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what¶s expected of them. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. even those of little power.
Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. Power and politics are similar in nature. and are amenable to positive control. Concluding Comments: In this unit. Whetton and Cameron suggest several means of resisting others¶ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. power-in-use is called influence. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases." And. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. and (6) build on success. actually using it to get things done is another.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. 8. (2) provide a positive." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people¶s inappropriate influence attempts. arise from known conditions. Having power is one thing. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. reciprocity. Retribution refers to coercion and threats.Fig. Our suggestions for . Usually reason is the preferred strategy. collaborative work environment. and (3) empowering others. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. According to these authors. and retribution.
and are amenable to positive control. 3. and how. 2. ±±±±±± is the intentional influence over the beliefs.10 Terminal Questions 1.using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. ±±±±±±±± defined politics as the study of who gets what. Self Assessment Questions 1. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD.. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ±±±± ±±±±±±±. ±±±±±±±±±± is made up of Charisma. 2. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. Referent power 4. 8. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. McClelland 3. 3. Define organization politics. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. _____________ has identified two faces of power. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Power can be either positive or negative. Describe briefly various theories of power. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. Power and politics are similar in nature. 8. 8. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. emotions or behaviour of people. reputation and professional credibility. 5. 5. when. Power 2. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. 4. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. 4. arise from known conditions. Harold Lasswell . when and how.
1 Introduction Objectives 9.2 2. Refer section 8. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .4 Management By Objectives 9.6 Quality of Work Life Projects .5 Quality Circles 9.2 Meaning and Definitions 9. Refer section 8. Refer section 8.3 Socio Technical Systems 9. Personality Answers to TQs: 1.6 5.Refer section 8.4 3.5 4. Refer section 8.5.
An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.9. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis.8 Total Quality Management 9. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change.10 Summary 9. organizational problems may repeat. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization. In this dynamic and fluid environment. . · Explain Total Quality Management.11 Terminal Questions 9. · Explain Reengineering.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. Objectives: After studying this unit. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. actions.
Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. 1988): Determining the environmental demands Creating a vision statement Educating organizational members . 2. Pasmore. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. 9. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. The cost of structural change is generally ³front-end´ loaded.9. and more critically. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. In addition. Cummings. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. Downsizing associated with restructuring. Rapidity of change. It could involve the following steps (Foster. Greater Predictability. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. 3. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. Cost is Low. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. This normally is a reasonable. 1976. Structure changes are normally ³institutionalized´ and less subject to this problem.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. Succession Doesn¶t Destroy Change Effort. 5. 1967. organization theory. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. Basic reinforcement theories. From a benefit cost analysis. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. Organization Acceptance of Change. 4. It endeavors to re-design the organization¶s structure. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy.
MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. It is a particular way of thinking about management. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. 2. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. physical. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. its features can be identified as follows: 1. non-specialist. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. On the other hand. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. its definitional aspect.´ Based on the definition of MBO. As an approach to management. Certain degree of overlapping is there. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of . The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. Since then. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. Creating the change structure Conducting socio-technical analysis Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. therefore. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. In fact.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO).´ The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: ³MBO is a result-centered. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. with objective orientation as its essence.
delegation of authority. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. Questions. normally once a year. including the corporate level. all the units or departments and individual manager. 1. 4.. Therefore. the clarity and balance of objectives. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. Resource allocation. ³why does the organization exist?´. then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. It works as an integrating device. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization. etc. This. 6. enhancement of employee commitment and participation. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. Therefore. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. 3.management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. Similarly. are determined on the basis of objectives. superiors and subordinates. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. (ii) long-range . This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. The performance review is held regularly. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis. such as. What business are we in?´ and what should be our business?´ provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. 5. in interaction with external factors. and participation of the managers with accountability for results. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. Therefore. Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives. its subsystems and people. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing.
By relating these to objectives. (iv) productivity. Thereafter. what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. Therefore. (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives. 3. By relating these to objectives. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability. (vii) manager performance. with the experience gained over the period of time. The process of objective setting begins with superior¶s proposed recommendations for his subordinate¶s objectives. each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. (vi) financial and physical resources. a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. Sometimes. they also indicate the resource requirement. 5. In turn. In fact. there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate¶s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by setting easily achievable objectives. Therefore. Setting Subordinates¶ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. Therefore. 4. the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. there should be matching between objectives and resources. there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. (v) worker performance. 2. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. (iii) short-term organizational objectives. Even though KRAs are most durable. (iii) innovation. and (viii) public responsibility. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization¶s health and the top management perspective for the future. the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). However. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization. (v) individual manager¶s objectives. a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. . (ii) market standing.and strategic objectives. resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. If not.
this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. knowledge. and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts.6.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization. Therefore. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. what happens at each level may affect other levels also. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. . Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization¶s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases. but in its contemporary form. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London. · Make recommendations for improvement. 9. each having three to fifteen members. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power. QWL programs. appropriate feedback and employee discretion. it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. which consequently result into high level of task variety. 9. hierarchical structure. require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing. and rewards. information. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. in general.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. Quality circle program consists of several circles. on paper. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis. or in people¶s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. 9.
such as cost.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. It is also called continuous quality improvement. · Participative management. 9. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. · Competitive benchmarking. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. statistical process control. and speed. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. It is very popular in USA in 1990s.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization¶s activities around the concept of quality. statistical quality control. provides relevant information to all employees.9. self-managed teams and task forces. and extensive use of employee participation. quality. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. service.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. eliminating. including the use of quality circles. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches. Self Assessment Questions . Reengineering is a top-down process. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. contemporary measures of performance. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training.
11 Terminal Questions 1. 9. Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. 9. actions. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. Quality circle Answers to TQs: . From a benefit cost analysis. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. actions. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. 9.1. Intervention 2. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. It is also called continuous quality improvement. 2. 3. provides relevant information to all employees.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. Drucker 3.
3 Resistance to Change 10.7 Summary 10.4 Causes for Resistance to Change.5 4.2 Nature of Change 10. MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.3 2.2 3.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 9.Refer section 9.1.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change. Self Assessment Questions 10. Refer section 9.8 Terminal Questions 10. 10.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10. Refer section 9.1 Introduction Objectives 10.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs .
and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. job design and people. 10. some parts of organization may be affected more. less. Objectives: After studying this unit. 2.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. Hence. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. indirectly. organizational change may have the following features: 1. and others. which are major ones. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. or social. Any change may effect the whole organization. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled . Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. However. organizational problems may repeat. and others. others. Thus. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. structural arrangement.2 Nature of Change The term µchange¶ refers to an alteration in a system. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change.10. Thus. · Impact of change on future managers. Organizational change is a continuous process. may require special change efforts. In this dynamic and fluid environment. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium.whether physical. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. When change occurs in any part of the organization. some parts may be affected directly. biological. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. 3.
that is. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. commented. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization).´ Resistance as Benefit: . When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. Homeostasis implies selfcorrecting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. more serious upsets may occur. it becomes indented at the point of contact. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. there are two sides of resistance. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. but when a change is major or unusual. Thus. Madhur Bajaj. If people resist to change. We shall take new workers at the new place. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. Similarly. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. if we look minutely. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. On this phenomenon.balloon. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. adjustment is fairly routine. In fact. We wanted a new culture and new layout. In fact. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. ³The Pune plant is fully saturated. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. employees want to maintain a status quo. However. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. 10. In fact. because it produces identical symptoms. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. it has stretched slightly. However. so is the resistance to change. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past.as cost and as benefit. and its basic survival may be jeopardized.
On the one hand, resistance to change is costly affair, and on the other, it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. While on negative side, the reality lies in between. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Thus, resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: 1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Therefore, the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. These feelings, either real or emotional, may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic, psychological and social. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological, job security etc. precede over other needs. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques, technology, etc., whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them, they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India, it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely, reduce job options, and turn into technological unemployment. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match.
3. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes, bonus, etc. All these are well-established in the old system. Whenever there is change, people may feel that in the new system, they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Psychological Factors Psychological factors are based on people¶s emotions, sentiments and attitudes towards change. These are qualitative and, therefore, may be logical from people¶s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent¶s point of view. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness, status quo, lack of trust in change agent, low tolerance for change, and fear of unknown. 1. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego, people resist change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Thus, the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. 2. Status Quo: People want status quo. i.e. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore, everyone tries to avoid it. 3. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo, people may differ. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Therefore, these people resist any new idea. 4. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent, that is, the person who initiates change. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent, they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 5. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The change will bring results in future, which is always uncertain. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction, particularly social needs, through their mutual compatible interactions. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change, people resist it. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.
1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. When there is any change, their existing social interactions are likely to be changed, which people do not want. Therefore, they resist change. 2. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class, e.g., change initiated by managers affecting workers. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change, even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. For example, Sumantra Ghoshal, a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru, has commented as follows: ³Nothing fails like success; nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation, Caterpillar, Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles, all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called µThe Failure of Success¶. Strategies, values, resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés, dogmas, millstones and routines.´ This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought, these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes, stability of systems, resource limitations, sunk cost, and inter-organizational agreement. Some of these reasons are basic while others are byproducts of those. For example, first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. 1. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices, they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. 2. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. For example, a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules, prescribes rigid authority relationships, and institutes reward and punishment system. All these work in some circumstances. It a change is required in these aspects, the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system.
Thus. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. It depends more on the style of top management. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. broad environmental scanning. these can be used for specific period.defenders. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. building and training for its personnel. Once the assets are acquired. if the change is required. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. In this interaction process. forward-looking. innovative.3. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. intensive planning. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. In such a case. Resource Limitations: No doubt. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. 2. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. . it will require resources to procure machine. decentralized controls. For example. and has zeal for progress. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. 1. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. and commensurate expenses on other items also. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. centralized control. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves.´ This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. if any change is to be incorporated. and reactors. those who wonder what happened. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. 5. If it is risk-taking. if new technology is adopted. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. prospectors. those who watch things happen. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. Now. For example. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. This can be in the form of people also. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. Let us see what someone has said long back: ³There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. 4. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. 3. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. analyzers.
For instance. immediate. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. If for example.4. engaging in a work showdown. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. or the like. it means you¶re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. therefore. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. when you go to work or school. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one¶s income. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. they cannot survive. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you¶re like most people.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn¶t necessarily surface in standardized ways. Therefore. And people in general don¶t like the unknown. we all rely on habits. They may. we don¶t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. When we are confronted with change. taking a new set of streets to work. developing a new lunchtime routine. implicit. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. and so on. you find a single route and you use it regularly. Organizational resistance . Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won¶t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. or programmed responses. or deferred. Otherwise. As human beings. adjusting to the new office layout. some may fear they¶ll be unable to do so.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. Habit Every day. Let¶s look at the sources of resistance. To cope with this complexity. For analytical purpose. we¶ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. The same applies to employee. threatening to go on strike. 10. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. finding a new parking place. Resistance can be overt. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. Life is complex enough. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. we¶re creatures of habit. they have to behave in one of the above three ways.
Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems.Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. For example. They tend to be content with the way things are. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. Will the change. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. For example. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. the way in which companies are configured today is changing.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. An individual union member. and benefits administration ± has been resisted by many human resource departments. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. accountants work with marketers. The . Formalization provides job description. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. 10. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. for instance. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. You can¶t change one without affecting the others. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities ± such as training. group norms may act as a constraint. For example. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization¶s structure to match. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. development of pay plans. rules and procedures for employees to follow. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. That is. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. for instance. he¶s likely to resist.
Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. In addition. the following efforts can be taken: 1. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. 10. the problems can be solved at the same level. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. typically by way of computer network links. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture.´ The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. at the level of individual and at the level of group. Unless this problem is overcome properly. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. Locavini observes that ³the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. It implies explanation and then discussion of the proposed changes. Therefore. through group dynamics. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. However. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. Stephen Robbins suggests that ³«« managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people¶s resistance to change successfully. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. In many cases. this is not a one-time action. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change.´ Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels.ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. both at the formal and informal levels. For this purpose. People always have some . For example. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue ± not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. that is.
and indoctrinated in new relationships. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. . understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. its process and working. They must be taught new skills. education must be a part of the manager¶s everyday activity on the job. People should be educated to become familiar with change. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. 4. its basic nature. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. the group itself should be the point of contact. For this purpose. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. is an important trust-building task. helped to change attitudes. (ii) In group. more than one person is involved in the change. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. Getting opinions out in the open. Though each person interprets the change individually often. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. sometimes. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. Thus. 3. As this process goes. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. 2. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. It grows slowly along with relationship. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change.ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: 1. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. he expresses it through a group. The same is true of problem-solving. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. as discussed earlier. However. However. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. and conferences. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. so that they are looked at and evaluated. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. meetings. Thus. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. most of the times. to become effective. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. Usually.
immediate. 3. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. psychological factors. Research studies also support this aspect. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. many things about change can be made clear. mere participation may not help. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. 2.such aspects as the reasons for change. Economic factors. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. 3. For instance. Resistance can be overt. job design and people. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. Self Assessment Questions 1. 2. However. implicit. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached.7 Summary Change is inevitable. benefits of change. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing . Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. social factors. sentiments and attitudes towards change. or deferred. and how members contribute. group resistance and vested interests. structural arrangement. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. psychodrama.Through the group contact. Such training techniques include role playing. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. 10. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. __________ are based on people¶s emotions. and sensitivity or T-group training. It purports how the results are. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change.
management of Organization Change. Organization Development & Change. Principles and Practices. · J. that is. · Harigopal K. . Reference: · Wendell L. Refer section 10. Organizational change 2. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. French and Cecil H.6. P. Regal Publications New Delhi. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. 10. N. 10. New Delhi. at the level of individual and at the level of group. through group dynamics. Organization Theory and Design.Response Books. New Delhi. eighth edition. Explain the nature of change? 2. P. Organization Development.. Refer section 10. threatening to go on strike. Jr. engaging in a work showdown. or the like. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. Modern Organization Development and Change. Participation Answers to TQs: 1.4 3. Why do organizations resist change? 3.. Thomson South Western. Bell. Refer section 10. Jain. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1.8 Terminal Questions 1.2 2. Thomson · Daft Richard L. Psychological factors 3.complaints. · Cummings & Worley.Singh. both at the formal and informal levels.
Prentice-Hall of India. Robbins.html http://muse. · Stephen P. New Delhi.htm#TopOfPage http://www.org/docrep/w7503e/w7503e05.com/articles/leadchange. N.com/www. Organizational Development.pdf http://www.edu/groups/learning/wp8. Management. · Laxmi Devi.work911.com/opm/grtl/OLS/ols6. Prentice-Hall India. Chhabra. · L.wdi. Stoner and R.bus.jhu.fao. Pvt.umich.co.pdf www. Ltd.pdf http://webuser. Robbbins.cfm http://www. Educatiional Publishers.umd.umich. Ltd. M. Sultan Chand & Sons. New Delhi.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp598.oup. Organizational Behaviour.uk/pdf/bt/fincham/Chapter15. Management. Anmol Publications Pvt.org/org_chng/org_chng.managementhelp. Organizational Behaviour.uk/search/article/634958/the-ceos-role-managing-change/ http://www. Principles & Practice of Management. .kyoto-u.1lowry.oup.lib.managementtoday.co. 12th edition. Edward Freeman.ac. · T. E References y y y y y y y y y y y http://fds. Dhanpat Rai & Co. New Delhi.· James A.kurims. New Delhi.pdf http://www.humtech.pdf http://www.htm www.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v005/5. Prasad.jp/~kyodo/kokyuroku/contents/pdf/1461-15.edu/cameronk/CULTURE%20BOOK-CHAPTER%201. Prentice-Hall of India.htm#anchor73776 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . F. · Stephens P.