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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the µmanagement¶ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn µsurplus¶ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of a
business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term ³management´. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley ± ³Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.´ In the words of George R. Terry ± ³Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.´ According to James L. Lundy ± ³Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.´ In the words of Henry Fayol ± ³To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.´ According to Peter F. Drucker ± ³Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work´. In the words of Koontz and O¶Donnel ± ³Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals´.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren ± ³The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.´ From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that ³management´ is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as ³management´. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a ³distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.´ From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as ³doing things right´. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization¶s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as ³doing the right things´. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of course, high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. And poor
It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. 7. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. labour and capital. Thus. namely. Managers apply knowledge. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. directing and controlling. So it is treated as a science. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. Thus. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. although they can¶t observe it during operation. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. principles and techniques requires specialized . 2. All these resources are made available to those who manage. labour. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. In essence. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. principles and techniques which have wide applications. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. The application of these concepts. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. informed employees. feeling of management is result-oriented. 6. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness.management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. 3. organizing. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals¶ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. 4. 5.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. capital and materials. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. 1. staffing. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance.
manpower. ongoing concern. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem . labour and capital. Generally. Sociology and Psychology. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. 9. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. a hierarchy of command and control. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. Basically. In modern organizations.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. materials. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. In other words. Similarly. government and hospital. military. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. the effective use of the five M¶s of management (money. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. 8. useful. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. For instance. Anthropology. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. finance manager. personnel manager etc. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. 1. According to Newman. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. management is viewed as an art. According to Herbision and Myers. materials. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. people are bound by authority relationships. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers.knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. 10. education. it refers to three distinct ideas. They transmit orders. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. money and machines into a productive. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. that is.e. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. (ii) a system of authority. and (iii) a class or elite. how effectively and economically the five M¶s are combined together to produce desired results. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land.
Board of Directors. ranks. etc. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. its Chairman. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. Marketing Manager. viz. Managing Director. or. Production Manager. Administrative management is concerned with ³thinking´ functions such as laying down policy. 1. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders.. But in actual practice. planning and setting up of standards. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. Operative management is concerned with the ³doing´ function such as implementation of policies. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success.and suggestions upward. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. day-to-day matters. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. As a separate group. and the range of production. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating .e. policies and plans for the enterprise. technical facilities. or the Chief Executive. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. For instance. ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. but as head of wages and salary department. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as µManagement¶ which refers to the group.. Foremen. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. The levels of management depend upon its size. Supervisors. etc. We generally come across two broad levels of management. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility.. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. Purchase Manager. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads.e. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. the lower level of management). Financial Controller. (i) administrative management (i.
e) To exercise effective control of the operations. e) To assign activities. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. . b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. j) To report to top management. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. machines and methods to put the plans into action. 2.functions. Without them the top management¶s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. men. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. d) To assemble the resources of money. materials. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies.
To this end.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. Management makes group effort more effective. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. machines. 1. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules.k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. accounts officers and so on. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. counseling and effective leadership. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. In its absence. Management is goal-oriented. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. procedures and reward systems. They have to get the work done through the workers. They allot various jobs to the workers. It consists of foreman. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. supervisors. sales officers. 3. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. an organization is merely a collection of men. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual¶s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. Without management. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. With a view to realize the . money and material. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. Their authority and responsibility is limited. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. methods.
techniques. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions.predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. Management . government policy. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. skills. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. According to McFarland. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. etc. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. often threaten the survival of a firm. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. competition. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. and it is distinct. But unlike medicine or law. They try to put everything on the right tract. Management as a profession By a professional manager. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. and specialized knowledge. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. identifiable discipline. Thus unnecessary deviations. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. In the final analysis. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. Failure to take note of customer¶s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for µIdeal java¶ in the two-wheeler market in India. the Indian Institute of Management. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. Organize the resources properly.. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided.
the All India Management Association. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. For instance. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India.. However. All managers have a role as a leader. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. The term µmanagement roles¶ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. management is not as exact as natural sciences. But in addition to these insights. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant.S. sabotaging trade unions. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. 1. Half of these managers¶ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. bribing public officials to gain favours. managers in general. However. In fact.A. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. do not seem to adhere to the principle of ³service above self´. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the . and disciplining employees. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. unpatterned. however. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers.Development Institute. and short-duration activities. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager¶s job. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature ± interpersonal roles. As a social science. and decision-making.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. This role includes hiring. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. Furthermore. the American Management Association in U. motivating. the transfer of information. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. etc. training. an art as well as a profession. Some individual business organizations.
fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. duties of a legal or social nature. When they represent the organisation to outsiders.liaison role. manages also perform a spokesperson role. activities that involve responsible for staffing. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. Typically. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public¶s tastes.1: Mintzberg¶s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Liaison Symbolic head. subordinates. and may be inside or outside the organization. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. training. to some degree. This is the disseminator role. Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. obliged to Greeting visitors. that involve outsiders. what competitors may be planning. and associated duties. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. and the like. informers who provide favors performing other activities and information. making phone subordinates to members of the calls to relay information. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager¶s unit. understanding of organization and environment. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. Informational Monitor Disseminator . network of outside contacts and doing external board work. Informational Roles: All managers. Table 1.
requesting of organizational resources of authorization. outsiders on organization¶s giving information of the plans. serves as expert on organization¶s industry. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. programming of subordinates work. As entrepreneurs. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization¶s performance. Publishers. As resource allocators. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. Last. policies. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. As disturbance handlers. Decisional Roles: Finally. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to develop and initiates ³improvement new programs. 1973).. Inc. results. negotiations. etc. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. physical and monetary resources. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the organizational decisions. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. supervises design of certain projects as well. managers are responsible for allocating human. Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Source: Henry Mintzberg. media. actions. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers.Spokesperson organization ± some information is factual. performing all kinds ± in effect. projects´ to bring about change. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. .
motivate. In fact. the roles of disseminator. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. They know how to communicate. research by Robert L. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization¶s speciality. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. Since managers deal directly with people. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. Technical Skills: First-line managers. and all managers are involved in making decisions. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization¶s operations. Conversely. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager¶s level within the organization.An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg¶s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. For example. the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. finance. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. liaison. human. However. Specifically. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. a manager¶s job is varied and complex. and conceptual. computers. or manufacturing. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers ± regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. lead. During the early 1970. . These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. negotiator. figurehead. such as engineering. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. as well as many middle managers. this skill is crucial.
7 Administration and Management The use of two terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. plans and policies of the organisation. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies. Meaning Administration Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives. Thus. Floerence and Tead. Spriegel and Walter. Nature 3. iii) There is no distinction between the terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ and they are used interchangeably. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. Administrators are basically concerned with planning and control. etc. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. Administration relates to the decision-making. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. It is concerned with the implementation of policies. Administration is a higher level function: Administration refers to policy-making. It is a thinking function. Table 1. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. Spriegal and Lansburg. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. Managers are concerned mainly with organisation and direction of human resources. on the other hand. administration is a higher level function. Administration is a determinative function. 2. This view is held by Tead. It is a doing function. According to them. Management relates to execution of decisions. Management Management means getting the work done through and with others. Scope . management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. Thus. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies.1.
operative workforce for the execution of plans. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. __________is principally the task of planning.. Still management is not completely a profession. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. Self Assessment Questions 1.4.9 Terminal Questions 1. objectives. There are three levels of management-top. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. 8. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle level leading and motivation of executives. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. ___________.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. public organisations in the private sector and non-business sector. 1. i. 7. _________. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. 3. 2.e. Define management. co-ordinating. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. middle and lower. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. Five M¶s of management (________. administrative decisions. DecisionMaking Administration determines Management decides who what is to be done and when it shall implement the is to be done. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. . It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. lower levels of management. environmental forces. counseling and effective leadership. organisations. Usage of Term The term µadministration¶ is The term µmanagement¶ is often associated with widely used in business government offices. Explain its characteristics. 1. 6. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant at higher levels of management. 5.
3 Planning 2.2 Process of Management 2. manpower 3.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Management 2.3 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Discuss the importance of management. Refer section 1.5 3. Money. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. materials.4 Organizing . MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2. teamwork Answers to TQs: 1.2.1. 1. Refer section 1. Refer section 1.2. 3.
Objectives: After this studying this unit.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2. · Explain Planning. Organizing.2. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan.9 Terminal Questions 2.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people´. . you will be able to: · Define Management process. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. Directing.8 Summary 2.6 Directing 2. One can also think of management functionally. Staffing. Commanding 4. in recent time. Management functions are as follows (Fayol. Controlling However. Coordinating 5.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2. Planning 2. · Explain different functions of management Process. Organizing 3. Motivating.5 Staffing 2. 1949): 1.
driving comfort. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: . 2. However. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. studies on passenger comfort. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. policies are the means to achieve those ends. leadership is doing the right things³. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. the two are not quite the same. Therefore. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. In the football field. say a passenger car. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. and then set out the method for achieving it. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. fuel and machine efficiency. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. cost structure and so on. overall goals. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. Even so. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. or where you want go to. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. Through leadership and management often overlap. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization¶s mission. the decision to change the design of a product. Objectives are the ends. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. general strategies. while a policy. There is a degree of overlap between the two. it is not a decision in which any process is involved.2. thus.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. and allocating resources.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: ³Management is doing things right. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. Decision ± Making Taking decisions is a process. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization.
What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. professional. journals and reports (scientific. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. federal. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: . Weaknesses. summarizing what the organization does. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. suppliers. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. Opportunities. Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. customers (internal and external). The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. Are the facilities outdated? 3. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization¶s potential. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). A mission statement should be short ± and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. How skilled is our workforce? 4. Thus. The mission statement is broad. state. What is our market share? 5. What financing is available? 6. and trade).A mission is the purpose of the organization. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. governments (local. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. international). Is research and development adequate? 4. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3.
the best strategy is one that fits the organization¶s strengths to opportunities in the environment. Objectives are also called performance goals. What are the possible new markets? 3. What are the new regulations? 6. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) . Is there a shortage of resources? 4. Are market tastes changing? 5.1. Are our rivals weak? 5. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. What is the strength of the economy? 4. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. What substitute products exist? In general terms. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. Generally. earnings per share. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. Are there new competitors? 3. etc. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. return on investment. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. effectiveness. What are the emerging technologies? 6. as well as gap analysis.
Assign work to individuals 6. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job 4. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. Strategic. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. tactical. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. who is to do. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. and goals are clearly stated. working toward common goals. how the tasks are to be grouped. who reports to whom. In turn. Organizations are groups of people. 2. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. procedures. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. and where decisions are to be made.4 Organizing It involves designing. operational plans are based on the organization¶s tactical plans. 2.Tactical plans are based on the organization¶s strategic plan. grouped. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. Review plans 2. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. lines of authority. with ideas and resources. and coordinated. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market.5 Staffing . structuring. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. and relationships between departments.
It is not the machines. 3. . Koontz. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals´. 2. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. Theo Haimann ± ³Concerned with the placement. O¶Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as ³filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. Definition: 1. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. inventorying the people available. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. 5. development. recruitment. promotion. selection. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. This task has been referred to as staffing. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick ± ³Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work´ Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. selection. appraisal. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. money. placement. training. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. recruitment. materials. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. 3. performance appraisal etc. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. compensation and training of needed people´. 2. placement. 4.
Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. 7. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. identifying the manpower requirements. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. Direction has dual objectives. . to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. training development and maintenance of personnel.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. vacancies arise out of retirement. 2. Definition According to Koontz and O¶Donnel. On the one hand. Through direction. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. It is a continuing function. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. recruitment. 4. 3. resignation. selection. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1.6. motivate them. Direction is an important managerial function. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. directing is the ³interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals´. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through ± out the life of an organization. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. 5. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. induction. Direction function is performed at every level of management. etc. overseeing and leading people. It is instructing people as to what to do. It is an important managerial function. 2.e. 8. on the other. promotion. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. management initiates actions in the organization.
It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. satisfied needs cannot. humanness and psychological health a person will show. from the basic to the complex. The further they progress up the hierarchy. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. The needs are arranged in order of importance. guide. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors.Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. and achievement. The manager never ceases to direct. 2. 2. ³without the issuance of directives. and the Two-Factor theory. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. will vary depending upon his level. such as. belongingness. self-respect. and attention . nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished´. 3. As Theo Haimann puts it. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. Theories X and Y. and external esteem factors. coach and supervise his subordinates. sex. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. thirst. recognition. autonomy. the more individuality. 4. teach. such as. acceptance. status. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. shelter.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. proposed by Maslow (1943).
and exercise self-control. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager¶s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. supervision. responsibility. anxious to accept greater responsibility. . Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people¶s attitudes about work. interpersonal relations. such as. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. self-direction. and salary are hygiene factors. Extrinsic factors. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. esteem. working conditions. Social. achieving one¶s potential.· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. Motivators are intrinsic factors. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. such as. and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. autonomy and empowerment. includes growth. Theory Y ± In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. and achievement. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. recognition. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. externally. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. It is also believed that. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. advancement. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. whereas. self-motivated. From the above. if they can. Theory X ± In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. company policy. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction.
who is to do. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. Explain Staffing in detail 3. how the tasks are to be grouped. who reports to whom. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise.In summary. Hygiene factors on the other hand. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. Planning involves the process of defining goals. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. people will not be dissatisfied. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. Organization involves designing. When hygiene factors are adequate. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. Write a short not on directing. 2. recruitment. Self Assessment Questions 1. neither will they be satisfied. performance appraisal etc. What is planning? 2.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors.9 Terminal Questions 1. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. To motivate people. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. motivators describe a person¶s relationship with what she or he does. and where decisions are to be made. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. many related to the tasks being performed. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. 2. 3. 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: . have to do with a person¶s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. structuring. 2.
Reference 2. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3.2 Definitions 3.4 Categories of OD 3.1 Introduction Objectives 3. Reference 2. Follett 2.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1.5 3. SWOT 3.3 2. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1.6 OD and Management Development 3.8 Problems in OD . Reference 2.3 Characteristics of OD 3.7 Role of OD 3.5 Goals of OD 3.
Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately. increased competition. and profitability. And organization development (OD) is one of them.9 Summary 3. and learn how to do that better and better over time.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3. culture. organization structure.Self Assessment Questions 3. Simple survival ± continuing to have an adequate job ± is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals. organization development is a process of teaching people how to solve problems.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change.10 Terminal Questions 3. OD focuses on issues related to the ³human side´ of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals. survive. old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. . and processes. Basically. fighting obsolescence of one¶s knowledge and skills. ³Knowledge´ work is replacing ³muscle´ work. and the organization¶s human and social processes. A variety of solutions exists. adapt. Although new jobs are being created at record rates. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today ± threats to effectiveness. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today¶s world is a daunting task. the answer is ³yes´. and changing customer demands. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges ± finding satisfaction in and through work. and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks. efficiency. conflict resolution. teams. strategy formulation and implementation. strategy. and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology. organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. and the like. Early returns were encouraging. organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. In summary. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. take advantage of opportunities. Today. challenges from turbulent environments.
· Discuss the categories of OD programme. and 3) Developing the organization¶s self-renewing capacity (Beer. 1980). (Schmuck and Miles. markets. · Explain the characteristics of OD. 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure. A ³process for improving processes´ ± that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill. 1969). Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives«. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. and culture. and challenges. 1989) . self-analytic methods. and the dizzying rate of change itself. 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions. planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination.change of an organization¶s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change. you will be able to: · Define organization development. values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies. · State the goals of OD. OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement. (Burke and Hornstein. attitudes. people. 3. processes. (Bennis. using reflexive.Objectives: After studying this unit. 1971) Organizational development is a process of planned change. strategy. a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs.
it is more accurate to describe ³improvement´ as a never-ending journey of continuous change.³Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. empowerment. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. strategies. structure. led and supported by top management. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. By long-term effort. We will explain this definition in some detail. and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions. In fact. and contain several unique insights (that¶s enlightening). then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. Likewise.´ (Porras and Robertson. learning.´ (Cummings and Worley. Now let¶s turn to our definition of organization development. We do not propose it as the ³right´ definition. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field. including action research. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance. Top management must initiate the improvement . and theory. to improve an organization¶s visioning. 1992) ³OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies. values. ³Organization development is a long-term effort. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. what practices should be included and excluded.several years in most cases. 1994) As you can see. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving. they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. 1993) ³Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization¶s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies. and processes for improving an organization¶s effectiveness. through the alteration of organizational members¶ on-the-job behaviours.´ This definition is lengthy. Collectively. these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. that is.´ (Burke. research. these definitions overlap a great deal (that¶s encouraging). and problem-solving processes. serious business. through an ongoing. All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. Organizational change is hard. There is no ³quick fix´ when it comes to lasting organizational improvement.
By visioning processes. expectations. or became distracted with other duties. sentiments. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. activities. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow.´ Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. in contrast to having only a select few involved. strategy. developing the strategy for getting there. and processes makes each important. Just as visioning. coherent. and artifacts. We further believe that having compelling. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. By including culture so prominently in our definition. first. For empowerment to become fact of life. make decisions. opportunities. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization¶s culture. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. listening. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. structure. vitality. and each influences the others. and organizational learning. learning. and making it happen. attitudes. and culture. and take actions on problems. where collective aspiration is set free. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. processes. By empowerment. structure. solve problems. so is managing the culture. Michael Beer¶s definition called for ³developing new and creative organizational solutions´. and challenges in the organization¶s environment and its internal functioning. and common purposes of all members of the organization. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. has a stake in making the organization work. not just a small group. commitment. By empowerment processes. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization¶s members. And second. we mean those interacting. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. beliefs. norms. one of widespread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization¶s purposes. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. Still. assumptions. team. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. lost its commitment. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. we mean. The reciprocal influence among culture. empowerment. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. culture is of . Peter Senge describes learning organizations as ³« organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. interactions. By learning processes.³journey´ and be committed to seeing it through.
we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. think. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. values. and problem-solving processes. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be ³brain work´) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. and procurement. (b) invented. Over time. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. hiring. wasted time. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. This method resulted in loss of synergy. firing. Further. By intact work teams and other configurations. much rework. In Liberation Management. When teams function well. But in many organizations today. and feel in relation to those problems. individuals and the organization function well. or developed by a given group. Temporary. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves.primary importance. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. empowerment. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. and using management information. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. Today¶s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. think. When one function finished with its part of the project. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: ³Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the ³right´ ways. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. the process ³threw the results over the wall´ to the next functional unit. He uses the terms µmultifunctional projectization¶ and µhorizontal systems¶ to describe these teams and their work. such as design. . engineering. and training. Processes are relatively easy to change. so they are the place OD programs often begin ± getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. So culture consists of basic assumptions. discovered. learning. Processes are how things get done. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. empowerment. manufacturing. maintaining quality control. and we highlight the importance of visioning. members are trained in competencies such as planning.
8. dynamic and adaptive system. OD . An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. 3. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement.multifunctional. 4. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. 10. and co-learners with the client system. Attempting to create ³win-win´ solutions is standard practice in OD programs. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today¶s fast-paced market place. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. 9. 2. OD practitioners are facilitators. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes.3 Characteristics of OD 1. rather than focusing attention on individuals. Specifically. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. 7. collaborators. 3. 6. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. so that change is easily observed. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. To summarize. 2. This µplanned¶ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. OD focuses on culture and processes. 5. according to Peters. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD.
and adaptability for the organization as a whole.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. temporary.efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. He shares a social philosophy about human values. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. or isolated problems. they are ongoing. Action research is the basis for such intervention. 3. third party change agent. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. It recognizes that organizational goals change. The relationship involves mutual trust. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be µhuman¶ and to increase awareness. 5. and cyclic processes. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. rather. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. growth. Thus. and revitalization. participation. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. They discourage µdo it yourself¶ approach. rather. problem-solving. joint goals and means. identity. Key areas are the normative type of model. further more. and then. At the individual level. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that µnorms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones¶. evaluates these data. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. and integrate individual and organizational goals. and mutual influence. Rather. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. takes actions for intervention. collects relevant data. 4. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. 7. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. 3. interactive. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements . he conducts surveys. or catalyst. 6.
Two important elements of Organization Development are. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. problem solving climate throughout an organization. practitioners and the client laymen. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. like other normative re-educative programmes. with the authority of knowledge and competence. the collaborative relationships between the scientists.of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. (c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. . (g) To increase the sense of µownership¶ or organization¶s objectives throughout the work force. 3. second. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. This Organization Development progrmmes.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. first. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization¶s goals (profit or service) and development of people. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology.
While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. The term µdevelopment¶ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. . and greater display of feelings and emotions. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. 3. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority.(h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one¶s area of responsibility. with their existing objectives and structure. according to him. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. (ii) competitiveness. more attention to peer-groups. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. management development has been defined as follows: ³Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled.´ Organization development differs from management development. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. Based on this. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager¶s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. Before making a comparison between the two. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. (iii) assertiveness. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes.6 OD and Management Development At this stage. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. According to him. less individual competitiveness. However. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization.
and laterally. Focus on design. By 70s. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. Educative and training Short-range.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. 3. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. 5. however. Trained specialists required.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. horizontally. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. Problem-solving approach. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. 3. 7. 2. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. Thus. focus on achieving improvement in design. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing organization. however. . To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. In early 60s. 6. plays key role in organizational improvement. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. 4.Focus Approach Time Specialist accomplishments. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. 3. No special requirement. not on the managers.
People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. Research studies have also failed to conclude significant contributions of OD in all organizations. There should be proper use of OD interventions. particularly in bottom-line ones. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. OD programmes are often quite costly. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. Therefore. 3. 2. in order to make best use of OD efforts. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. 5.confrontation techniques. 4. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. Therefore. 4. Self Assessment Questions . OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. Hence. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. If an organization is laden with these people. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. some specific efforts are required. 2. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. Thus. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. etc. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. 5. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. it is useless to try OD. In general. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. For example. However. it fails even as a long-term strategy. 3. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience.
9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. The participative. Define OD.1. Who is associated with the ³Learning Organizations´? 5. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. 2. Explain its salient features. 2. 3. 3. ±±±±±±± is associated with ³Liberation Management´. 4. Top management 2.10 Terminal Questions 1. ±±±±±±±±± is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. There is no µquick fix¶ to organizations¶ problems.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Distinguish between µorganizational development¶ and µmanagement development¶. 3. 4. Empowerment 4. _____________is a short-term strategy. 3. 5. Peter Senge . Management development aims at developing the managers individually. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. State the various roles of OD. problem-focused µnature of OD¶ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. collaborative. OD focuses on culture and processes. Explain the various characteristics of OD. Tom Peters 3. Organization development should be led and supported by ±±±±±±±.
5 Leadership Development 4. Refer section 3.7 5.3 Process Consultation 4.6 Team-building .1 Introduction Objectives 4. MU0002-Unit-04.Organization Development ± Interventions Structure: 4.5. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.6 4.3 3.2 Survey Feedback 4.Organization Development ± Interventions Unit-04. Refer section 3.4 Grid Training 4.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Management development Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 3.2 2.
11 Terminal Questions 4. Therefore. grid training. and organizational level. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. For example.8 Change Agents 4. and organizational culture. process consultation. team-building. inter-group activities. the classification of OD interventions shows variation.10 Summary 4. However. interpersonal level. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions.´ There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: ³Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. inter-group level. management grid. education and training. Subsequently. survey feedback. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. Historically. techno-structural activities.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. mediation and negotiation activities. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. Thus. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the range of change that an organization requires. group level. other techniques like process . People¶s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. work group.7 Inter Group Development 4. Nevertheless. they make things happen. Further.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour.4. and survey feedback method.
consultation, team- building, and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives, have been added. Our further discussion follows this development. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. · Explain grid training. · Describe process consultation. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Role of change agents. 4.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid), the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier, Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan, USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 2. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection, feedback of information, developing action plans based on feedback, and follow up. 1. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership ± managerial support, managerial goal emphasis, managerial work facilitation, peer support, peer goal emphasis, peer work facilitation, and peer interaction facilitation, organizational climate-communication with the company, motivation, decision-making, control within the company, co-ordination between departments, and general management, and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company, satisfaction with the supervisor, satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with the pay, and satisfaction with the work group. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization¶s personnel.
After the questionnaires are completed, data are classified, tabulated, and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 2. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed, feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. In oral system of feedback, it is provided through group discussion or problemsolving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively, feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted, it should be constructive and suggestive, rather, threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case, follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building, by the consultant. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. In particular, survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. 2. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However, effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. First, questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. If it is biased, all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Second, even if valid and reliable information is collected, it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change; it provides base for action for change. 4.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Edgar Schein, the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows:
³The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client¶s environment.´ The basic objectives of P.C are as follows: 1. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership, communication, roles and functions of group members, group decision-making and problemsolving, group norms, and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD. 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 2. Define the Relationship: At this stage, client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees, and spelling out services, time, etc. At this stage, the client¶s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. 3. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. At this stage, the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 4. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 5. Intervene: At this stage, the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural change. 6. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.C is completed, the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes, he assists the
objective-setting. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. focuses on skills. and the organization as a whole. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. and alike. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. communication skills. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. and teamwork. 1. groups. . To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. P. like other OD intervention techniques.organizational members to incorporate those changes. traditions. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships.C is also not free from criticisms. 2. problem-solving. The skills relating to planning. From this point of view. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations.C programmes. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant¶s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. However. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. and total organizational levels. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. 3. P. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. 3. and problemsolving are also developed. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. knowledge. 4. The grid organization development consists of six phases. group. However. In the review of various P. inter-group. Inter-group Development: At this phase. 2. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments.
grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. lead. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. They have maintained that ³managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. 4. In this light. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". confident and effective decision-making. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. in spite of these criticisms. and regular. During drastic change times.5 Leadership Development When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). and After Arrival. they maintained the same stand. grid training is a non-rigorous method. is the ability of leadership to«well. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. competence. concerned and committed to their welfare. Furthermore. The strategy is then implemented. Slogging Through The Swamp. complete communication that is timely. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. therefore. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. 6. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. while at the same time . Further.4. it discounts reality. Systematic Critique: In this stage. We will look more carefully at each of these. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. 5. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. and credibility of senior and middle management. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. If you are to manage change effectively.´ In a later work. Also during these times of change. the various programmes may be redesigned.
by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. let us consider the life cycle of a team. Unfortunately. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone¶s best interests. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams.recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. 4. how synergy is generated through team-work. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. For example. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. French and Bell have opined that ³probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. These stages are: forming. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. In a climate of distrust. storming. widely accepted. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. but more importantly. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as ³who will be members of the team?´ ³Who will perform what functions?´ ³Who will contribute what?´ ³What rules will be .´ A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. if haven¶t established a track record of effective leadership. As against these. performing. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. norming. problems in team-work. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. therefore. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. teambuilding is the most important. if allowed to go on for too long. employees expect nothing positive. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. Leadership before. which. The existence of this trust. it may be too late. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team¶s time together. 4. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. brings hope for better times in the future.
concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. However. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed.followed?´ ³How can conflicts among members be resolved?´ and so on. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. because of individual differences. At this stage.´ . Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. 2. At this stage. jockeying for relative control. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team¶s goals. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. 5. 3. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. The adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. Sooner or later. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. etc. 4. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. committee. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. start to accept others. They share personal information. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. each team has to be adjourned. After the adjournment of the team. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: ³Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. team members start settling. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. Norming: After storming stage.
Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts.Thus. goals. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. the individual average dropped down still lower-68. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. it appears that there are many . In the above paragraph. To the extent. other factors remaining the same. group efforts tend to slacken. From this statement. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group¶s meetings. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. that is. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. They averaged 138. it was found that individuals¶ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. fail to perform their assigned tasks. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. in one experiment. group of eight. the complementarity among members is achieved.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. In fact. 2. For example.2 pounds. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. and attitudes. other factors remaining the same. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. the team would be effective. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. and so on. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. In such an assignment.
unify efforts. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. 4. goals. These super-ordinate goals. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. Rewards of both types. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. . then. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. Katzenbatch and Smith. 2. and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one¶s own role as well as roles of other members. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. serve to focus attention. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals. Therefore. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. Even if one member lacks behind. and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. complementary skills. and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. two things are required from its members. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials. 1. Thus. management consultants. customer satisfaction. 3. they will put their maximum. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. 3. make recommendations regarding a new supervisor. common purpose. or propose discipline for team members. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group.factors in an effective team. Further. While skills are relevant for job performance. supportive environment. These factors are skills and role clarity.financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size. 2. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality.
4. 2. Fig. Analyzing how the work is performed. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. and rewards. recognition. rather. 4. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. the emphasis should be on consensus. 3.4. and 5. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem. 1. Analyzing how team¶s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. Setting goals and priorities for the team. the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds. Providing positive feedback. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. At this stage. group problems to even personal problem. For achieving these. In problem identification. Analyzing how the team is working. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. such as. . their value systems. generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. personality and attitudes. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. 2. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. and 5.
members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. . about the issue. people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas.3. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team¶s responsibilities. the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. ensuring. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours: Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. also provides opportunity to understand themselves. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time. Followup action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of team-building. information. understanding. Negative Behaviour (i) Over talk: interrupting. belittling. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. the stying with the topic or going off on tangents. undermining morale. feelings. etc. with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. If this process is adopted several times. cynicism. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. criticizing person. who was trying to resolve the differences. 5. who was talking more or who was talking less. (iii) Clarifying: resting. etc. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. (ii) Attacking: deriding. the way people talk about the issue. At this stage. (iii) Negative: cooling. At the time of discussion of feedback. 4. Often. encouraging others to participate. talking together with speaker. and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings. seeking relevant information. there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours.
However. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. 2. communicating. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. one of the more . and perceptions that groups have of each other. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. 4. it is not that effective in isolation. It seeks to change to attitudes. in different degrees. As a result. 3. team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. In general. are not given adequate attention. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches.These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. However. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. Therefore. In spite of these problems. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. team-building has a positive outlook. monitoring. structure. However. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier. stereotypes. though. listening. It improves the organization¶s problem-solving and decision-making ability. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. etc. to encourage and sustain such feelings. 2. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. and feedback skills). Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the organization¶s outcomes.. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members.
the groups can move to the integration phase ± working to develop solutions that will improve relations. Trainer . and personnel. Subgroups. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. employees of the organization. In contrast. The groups then share their lists. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. or outside consultants. after which similarities and differences are discussed. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. culture. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. the other group. as the accelerator to build up momentum. Differences are clearly articulate. as the break for too quick action. Outside consultants. operating procedures.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. 4. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. 4. but one thing he/she is not the driver´. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes ± which can be benefit or a disadvantage ± because they don¶t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. In this method. According to Curtis Mial: ³The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. with members from each of the conflicting groups. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action.Popular methods emphasize problem solving. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization¶s history. however. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. For major change efforts.
Grid Training was developed by ±±±±±±±±±±±± 3. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. Data collection.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. In process consultation. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. Self Assessment Questions 1. role-plays and instruments. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. attitudes and beliefs. 4. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? . Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. films. group. feedback of information. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. Training is used both in µcontent orientation¶ and process orientation¶. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. cases and experiential learning etc. inter-group and total organization levels. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. 2. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. skills and change in behavior. Training is required for enhancing knowledge. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. presentations.11 Terminal Questions 1. changing (intervening) and refreezing. Team-building is most important. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. It focuses on skills. diagnosis. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies ± lectures. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. group discussions.A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process.
Assumptions. Data collection 2. Refer section 4.2. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. Blake and Mouton.4 2.1 Introduction . 4. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? 3.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 4. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5. Refer section 4. MU0002-Unit-05-Values. Assumptions. and Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values. Refer section 4.2 3.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 3.6 4.
5.5.2 Definitions 5. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves.Objectives 5.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5. assumptions.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5. beliefs and assumptions. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.2 Definitions .5. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions. beliefs and assumptions. Objectives: After studying this unit.1 Introduction A set of values. 5.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5. · List the chronology of events of values.7 Terminal Questions 5.
view all people as having the potential for growth and development. and that rationality. strongly held.g.A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. reason. Simple. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering.g. optimistic. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. As these ingredients accumulated. the laboratory training movement. Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or µgood¶ (e. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. . research on the effects of different leadership styles. assumptions. free speech) and what is undesirable or µbad¶ (e." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. 5. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. Values. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. it is a cognitive fact for the person." or slacking off. assumptions. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. and assumptions being. OD values tend to be humanistic. dishonesty). values. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly. the human relations movement. with values being beliefs about good and bad. and the like. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. Taylor s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual.. and democratic. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. Thus. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. or spirit of the time. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. treat people with respect and dignity. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources ± the Hawthorne studies. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought y Frederick Winslow Taylor s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. and goodwill are the tools for making progress.. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth.
and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. These approaches possessed many desirable features. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. greater attention to workers social needs. most efficient way to organize people. People were not cogs. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. and the supervisor determined their performance.y The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of bureaucracy as the best. their feelings and attitudes about the work. y y y y y y y . Their simple. In a sense. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. the work environment. aggressiveness and poor performance. wrote an article on The Giving of Orders advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. Group Dynamics (1940) The scientific study of groups using experimental research methodswas launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. The Functions of the Executive by Chester 1. Mary Parker Follett (1926). His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. People came to work as whole people. A strong hierarchy of authority. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. Lippitt (1939). extensive division of labor. organizations were not machines. and a general humanizing of the workplace. theory. a management theorist and astute observer of labour-management relations. much of the research. The human relations movement advocated participative management. apathy. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people s beliefs about organizational behaviour. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. Research by Lewin. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. impersonal rules. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s.
pioneers in laboratory training. Lester Coch and John R. In an environment of slow change. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. healthy adults. Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. increase self-understanding. are self-centered. management practices. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. higherlevel needs become dominant. The task of management is to change organizational structures. reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. and understand group dynamics. P. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. Overcoming Resistance to Change. Chris Argyrif s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. lack ambition. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. dislike responsibility. caring social climate. a direct precursor of OD. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. and need to be led. a mechanistic organization y y y y y y y y . Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. indifferent to the organization s needs.y These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. to assume responsibility. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. The theory postulated that when lower-level needs are satisfied. resist change. this book popularized Maslow s motivation theory. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. French s (1948) article. Rogers focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. This article introduced the concept of organizations as socio-technical systems.
We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. compromise. dysfunctions. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. and unprincipled power. (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. theory. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. open communications. and observations utilized by OD practitioners." that is. goal-oriented. Values have always been an integral part of OD. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. y Rensis Likert s New Patterns of Management (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. in an environment of high change. and shares decision-making with the work group. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. bureaucracy.structure may be appropriate. optimistic. and democratic. y y This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. practice. groups. humanistic. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. an organic organization form is preferred. and greater individual autonomy. as we have said. . Writing in 1969. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company OD Six-Pack. These six books presented the theory. one-on-one leadership style. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. Out of this zeitgeist. and organizations that is. The Social Psychology of Organizations by Daniel Katz and Robert L. · Development of more effective "team management. and negative consequences. and values of the field. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations.
and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. sub-units of organizations." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. Here is his list. 2. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. not individuals. Stalker used the term ³mechanistic´ in contrast to ³mechanical." like pushing buttons. 6.´ For example. director of organization development. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. 4. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. Robert Tannenbaum. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. not the basis of managerial strategy." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. 5. 1. and confidence between and across levels. M. the basic units of change are groups. Controls are interim measurements. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. "People support what they help create. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. a professor and Sheldon Davis. mutual trust. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. 3." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. .· Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. Therefore. Organizations. They listed these ³values in transition´ as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition.
appropriate uses of power. toward seeing them as being in process. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. collaboration and co-operation. open communication. 5. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. decentralized decision making. participation and contribution by all organization members. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. authentic interpersonal relations. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. · Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. the legitimacy of feelings. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. autocratic. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions . Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them.· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings.
The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. a church or club group. and so on. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. conflict management. the family. leaders need to give important work to teams. This skill is a trainable one. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. and reward success. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work.5. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. at both the formal and informal levels. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group¶s effectiveness and development. Second. and interpersonal communication.5. and job satisfaction. Third. not a one-on-one leadership style. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. challenge. not individuals. give responsibility. and co-operation within the group. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. What occurs in the work group. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style.Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. First. including peers and boss. and organizations? 5. and are capable of making. . invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. in addition. Implications of these assumptions are several. such as a work group. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. Most people want to develop their potential. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. facilitation. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. encourage risk-taking. remove obstacles and barriers. set high standards. personal growth. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. permit failure. Also. 5. give autonomy. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. groups. support. listen. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. and usually with more than one group. To do this. Hence. support. invest training time and money to increase group members¶ skills.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture.
Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where ³putting people first´ paid off handsomely in profits and performance. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization¶s leaders. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. D. By implication. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. quality of output. values are never static. 5. a growing awareness that ³win-lose´ organizational situations. Concluding Comment: .Finally. in which one side wins and the other side loses. Still. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. and ways to optimize human potential. and profitability. Therefore. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. Finally. In addition. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. organizing structures. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. and empowering. formalized cross-functional communication.5. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. are dysfunctional over the long run and highlight the need for a ³win win´ attitude. societal. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. they change over time. and so on-are obsolete. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. The implication is that people are an organization¶s most important resource. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. emphasis on topdown directives. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. and E can support these changes. adherence to the chain of command. By implication. including how persons C. Frequently the challenge is broader. developmental. The rapid technological. an optimistic." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. grouping by specialized function.
Define concepts. 3. 2. 5. values. Cognitive . beliefs and assumptions. Values. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. The outcome of ±±±±±±±± was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. 3. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4.7 Terminal Questions 1.W.The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. 2. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. beliefs. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. 5. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. Self Assessment Questions 1. and assumptions are all ±±±±±±±±±± facts. The concept of ±±±±±±±±±± was introduced by MaxWeber. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. Taylor¶s principles of scientific management. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. 5. Values. 4. Values. Write a note about F. OD values tend to be humanistic. 5. Values are also beliefs. optimistic and democratic. __________ is associated with scientific management.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. but are widely accepted today. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s.
F. Refer section 5.3 5. W.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6. Refer section 5.2 Beyond the Quick Fix . Hawthorne experiments 5.2 2. Refer section 5.2. Bureaucracy 4.1 Introduction Objectives 6.2.3 3. Refer section 5.3 4.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2. Taylor 3.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6. Refer section 5. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6.
3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.6.11 Terminal Questions 6. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning. Objectives: After studying this unit.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing 126.96.36.199 Teams and Teamwork 6.4 Participation and Empowerment 6.2. In this discussion.1 The Nature of Systems 6. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.3.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6.3 Systems Theory 6. you will be able to: .1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.2.10 Summary 6.3.
Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. 6. · Explain systems theory. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. in words or pictures. the important features of some phenomenon. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. and specify the relationships among the variables. Models and theories depict. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in . · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. · Explain the terms µparticipation¶ and µempowerment¶.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. We will examine the following concepts: · Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. describe those features as variables. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables.2. · Describe the parallel learning structures.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context.· Explain various models and theories of planned change. That is.
Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. mentor. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. that is.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. Finally. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. he must move. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. Lewin¶s second idea was a model of the change process itself. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. For example. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. Identifying with a new role model. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. feel things. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. Likewise. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. that is. b. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. judge things. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. With a technique called the force-field analysis. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things.opposing directions. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. Lewin¶s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. Next. moving to new level of behaviour. etc. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. Scanning the environment for new relevant information . believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a.
That is. and Bruce Westley. and fit with the individual¶s social surroundings. 4. moving. and 5 correspond ro Lewin¶s moving phase. terminating the client-consultant relationship. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. that is. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s unfreezing phase. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. In stage 1. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. unfreezing. which motivate the person to change. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. refreezing. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. . Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. change will not occur. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. Phases 3. That is. and attitudes. In stage 2. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person¶s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin¶s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. establishing goals and intentions of action. Jeanne Watson. The primary task in stage 3. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. Significant relationships. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. which cause guilt and anxiety. for example. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. The total personality and self-concept. This motivating evidence is gained by. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person¶s personality. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s refreezing phase. b. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system¶s problem.Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a.
Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points.This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting." that. called "tracks. problem-solving sessions. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. and so forth. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? . 2) The management skills track.2. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". 6. cause the organization to be successful. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. Kilmann¶s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. critique practices and procedures. 4) The strategy-structure track. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. 2) Diagnosing the problems. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. 3) The team-building track.2 Beyond the ³Quick Fix´ A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. Interventions include training programs. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. Change programs take from one to five years to complete. and 5) The reward system track. when functioning properly.
TRW. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. OD programs are directed toward both first.and second-order change.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. or continuous change. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. departments. and all resources with the new strategic direction. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. radical. In second-order change. incremental. evolutionary. and so forth. revolutionary.The culture track enhances trust. General Foods. and Xerox with good results. . then moving to the team-building track. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered ± the organization is transformed. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. In first-order change. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit ± thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. Ford General Electric. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. Eastman Kodak. beginning with the culture track. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call ³transactional change´ and ³transformational change´). then moving to the management skills track. 6. Westinghouse. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. information sharing. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. adaptive. communication. the use of updated management skills.2. or discontinuous change. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. jobs. work groups. and its holistic view of organization change and development.
On the other hand. often unconscious. and so forth." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. management practices. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. values. and organization culture result in second-order change. individual and organizational performance. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First ± Order Change . and beliefs that are enduring. hard-working or easy-going. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. We will do so in several steps. leadership. which change motivation and. and difficult to change. 6. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. Changing structure." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. Fig. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate.Organizational climate is defined as people¶s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. management practices. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. in turn. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. friendly or unfriendly. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees¶ reactions to current managerial and organization practices.
that is.Fig. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. 6. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. . The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. These factors are able to change the climate. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. and organization culture.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second ± Order Change On the other hand. as shown in the above figure. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. Interventions directed toward management practices. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. mission and strategy. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. To summarize. leadership styles. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization¶s culture. we must change mission and strategy. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture.´ We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. Burke says: ³Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. structure. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership.
Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. strategies. . It is how OD works. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. according to Porras and Robertson. rewarded). 6. OD interventions that focus on goals. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. required. social factors. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6.2. which determine organizational performance and individual development. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. For example. physical setting. Interventions that focus on culture. and technology.Fig. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. management style. which influence on-the job behaviours. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members¶ cognitions (they learn what is expected. and interaction processes will affect social factors.
Fig. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. describes the characteristics of systems. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. 6. Fig.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966. This section explains systems theory.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6. 6. Systems .
interconnectedness." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment.theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. resources. when taking a systems approach. and if the environment does not want these outputs. Organizations are open systems.3. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. or transformation processes that change the inputs. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. people. or subsystems. What is inside the boundary is the system. They do something to the inputs via throughput. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. For example. . Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. components. the reasons for their existence. Every system is delineated by a boundary. dynamics. the organization will cease to exist. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. 6. that is the system.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. Therefore. the organization¶s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. conversion. and energy between system and environment. The words µarrangement¶ and µinterrelated¶ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. information. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts." To summarize. raw material and so on.system. Open systems have purposes and goals. in that they permit exchange of information. system denotes interdependency. Here. Thus. money.
Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. that information is called positive feedback. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. negative and positive. It is sometimes called deviationamplifying feed back. For example. Systems require two kinds of feedback. but most are not useful. "return to earth.Fig. and the like. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. say. competitors. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. Say your company makes buggy whips. eating fads. and makes a course correction. 6. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. aerospace. By the same token. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. and the system adjusts to a new goal." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. and so on. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. . while screening out other information. Positive feedback comes from the environment. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. For example. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems ³run down´ and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. If the mission (target) changes. however. Information is important to systems in several ways. mining.
and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. specialized. processes. unit/group level. . and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). Outputs are performance at the total organization level. and technology. either internal or external. which includes formal structures. such as capital. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. As Katz and Kahn say: ³The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. differentiated. this process is called differentiation. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. and informal organization. and systems for performing the work. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy.3. and individual level. people. formal organization. knowledge. which includes skills. 2) Resources available to the organization. important events. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. With increased differentiation. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. 6.´ Also. failures.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. which includes the organization¶s culture informal rules and understandings. work. and complex over time. knowledge. systems tend to get more elaborated. perceptions. The three major input factors are: 1) The environment. and the workforce¶s expectations.Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state ± systems have multiple paths to goals. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. Subsystems exist within larger systems.
and that changes in one system affect the other system. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. organizations must optimize both systems. . two active segments of OD today. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. which components are "not functioning correctly. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. performance will suffer. For example. If the organization¶s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model¶s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency.Fig. 6. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. especially autonomous work groups (selfregulated teams or self-direct teams). Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. training group members in multiple skills. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. 6.3. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. to the workers doing the job. a social system and a technical system. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. Hanna writes: ." and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. if people don¶t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. that is. and information to the point of action." The premise is that alignment (harmony. multi-skilled teams. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. controlling variance at the source. Fred Emery. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. fit) must be present among the system¶s components¶ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. forming autonomous work groups. In a company that is performing poorly. performance will suffer. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. performance will suffer.
and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. Second. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. and systems thinking. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). forces. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. events and forces. events. and 3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. from their activities. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. Charles Krone. mental models. building shared vision. because most phenomena have more than one cause. 6. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. systems thinking. is the most important. By enhancing each of the other disciplines.KI Jayaram. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. First. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. but seen in relation to other issues. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen).4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations.In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. For example.´ In conclusion.3. He says of systems thinking: ³It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. not single effects. G. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. . from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. issues. Without a systemic orientation. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. Third. changing one part of a system influences other parts. team learning. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stakeholders. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. according to Peter Senge. Of all these disciplines. therefore. the fifth discipline. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena.
is the more useful perspective. and change. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. which they call "mechanistic. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. to contribute their ideas. 6. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. And fifth. involvement and participation energize greater performance. and to be responsible. to change a system. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. Further. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. growth. quality circles. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. reduce stress levels. quality of work life programs. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. personal initiative. to exert influence. Participation enhances empowerment. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. not just its component parts. with its emphasis on risk-taking. and give more power to more people. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. For example. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. But . Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. autonomous work groups. called "organic. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. team building." These authors believe the organic view. produce better solutions to problems. One view. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. They believed that it was about risk-taking. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. survey feedback. one changes the system." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces.Fourth." is bottom-up and less controlling. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). search conferences. increase commitment to the organization. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. To empower is to give someone power. The other view. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. and growth.
The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. research. Second. teaming. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. changes those norms and values. then. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). employees must choose to be empowered. . but rather a mindset that employees have about their roles in the organization. teams create synergy. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. and relationships if they are to be effective. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: ³Empowerment. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. the noun team has become a verb. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. confident about their abilities. people must work together to accomplish them.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. they must if personally connected to the organization. STS (socio-technical systems). that is. Theory. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). Team Taurus developed Ford¶s best-selling automobile. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. While management can create a context that is more empowering. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. Third.´ 6. HPOs (high-performance organizations). QCs (quality circles). Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. systems. Teams and teamwork are "in. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. If the team. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today ± gurus extol the virtues of teams. as a team. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. is not something that management does to employees. to name just a few. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team.both views contain valid ideas: for example. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. processes.
Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. temporary teams. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. including collegiate football national champions. and the like. In this section. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. quality circles. recognition. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. status. and set ever-higher goals. socio-technical systems programs. . we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. team performance declines. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. and others. help each other. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. heart transplant surgical teams. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. and respect-teams nurture human nature. inter-group team-building. teams satisfy people¶s needs for social interaction. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. cross-functional teams. and explore ways to realize that potential. that they achieve synergy. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. find innovative ways around barriers. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. and responsibility charting. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. When any one feature is lost. Examples are team-building. process consultation.Fourth. role negotiation technique. parallel learning structures.
Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. and continuous learning. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. talking. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. In essence. 6. If you don¶t implement different norms and procedures. Bushe and Shani say: ³The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. clear objectives. High responsibility. and initiate needed changes. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. flexible response. At Ford Motor Company. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. Asea Brown Boveri. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs.´ Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). Interestingly. projects will be performed by teams. Projects are the work of the future. It isn¶t the supplemental structure that¶s important. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. and then leading the process. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. Union Pacific Railroad. What¶s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization¶s methods of work and/or culture. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders.´ The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. and employees. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team.Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. superior customer service. managers. autonomous. deciding. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as ³a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. you don¶t have a parallel structure. 6.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing . engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. Titeflex. constitute another important foundation of organization development.
The first type is empirical rational strategies. will follow their rational self-interest. anxieties. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-re-eductive and the empirical-rational strategies. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. relationships and customary ways of doing things. rather than the OD practitioner. according to this view. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. OD clearly falls within the normative-reeducative category." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. values. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. attitudes. Patterns of action and practice are supported ± by sociocultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. information. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. Evaluated against these three change strategies. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. . Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normativereductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones.Organization development involves change. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. doubts. that is. skills. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. and¶ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. and together they define problems and seek solutions. based on the assumptions that people are rational. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. not just changes in knowledge. and significant relationships. Change in a pattern of practice or action. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes.
8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. hopefully. The practitioner examines the problem situation. behavioural science knowledge. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. or practice. success corroborating the diagnosis." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. pressing problems. for example. and (2) "technology. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. not the individual.e. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. On this point. Greenwood states: ³The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. i. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. thereby solving the problem. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge." applied science. placing it in a classification scheme or typology.´ Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD.. Thus. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. . Burke writes: ³If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. applied science or practice. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. 6.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. practices. re-establishes the equilibrium. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. OD emphasizes the latter. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. on the basis of selected variables. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. by modifying a group norm or standards.´ From this "practice theory. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory.
6. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. represent contributions from applied science. 6. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. had this to say about it: ³The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. It is a type of action-research. feedback of the data to the client system members.´ Concluding Comments: These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. and research leading to social action« This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. the two top in puts. Taken separately. Action research involves three processes: data collection.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. Kurt Lewin. Self Assessment Questions . problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. The two bottom inputs. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing ± learning about the dynamics of organizational change. who developed the concept of action research. represent contributions from pure or basic science. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. practice research and practice theory. form of applied behavioural science. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory.9 Action Research The action research model ± a data-based. and action planning based on the data. Taken collectively.Fig. perhaps more accurately. and doing or implementing change efforts.
´ Comment on this statement. 2. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations.1. Explain Kurt Lewin¶s models and theories of planned organizational change.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. 6. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. Ralph Kilmann 3.11 Terminal Questions 1. 4. 2. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. ±±±±±±±±±± gave the model ³Beyond the Quick Fix´. Unfreezing 2. A _____________ is defined as ³a set of elements standing in interaction. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. 3. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. ±±±±±±±±±± means moving to new level of behaviour. 3.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Action research model combines learning and doing. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. 6. ³Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. 6. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. Transactional change . Bring out the essence of ³managing beyond the quick fix´ model of organizational development. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change. First²order change is also called ___________. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. 4.´ 5.
1 Introduction Objectives 7.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 5. 7.2.4. System 5. Refer section 6. Refer section 6. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.2.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7.6 Summary . Refer section 6. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1.2.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7.Refer section 6. Refer section 6.3 4.2 3.3 Types of Organization Culture.1 2.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture 7.
Martin and Meyerson. Standards of behavior exist. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. values. Culture is one of those terms that¶s difficult to express distinctly. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. · Discuss about developing and changing organization culture.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. terminology. discovered. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. 2. etc. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. 7. but also changing the corporate culture as well.7 Terminal Questions 7.1 Introduction Basically. they use common language. Objectives: After studying this unit. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. but everyone knows it when they sense it. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. despite the best-laid plans. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. 1986). Practitioners are coming to realize that. thinking. When organizational participants interact with one another. For example. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. what they brag about. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. the culture of a large. do not do too little?´ . Norms. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. Observed behavioral regularities. ± similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone¶s personality.7. what members wear. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. Which in many organizations come down to ³Do not do too much. including guidelines on how much work to do.
7. In an efficient market organization. Rather than strict rules and procedures. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. . Market cultures are outward looking. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. the way participants interact. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. 5. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. but one where all transactions. They often have well-defined policies. outputs and outcomes.3. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. In contrast to Hierarchies. Organizational climate: This is an overall ³feeling´ that is conveyed by the physical layout. For many years. internal and external are viewed in market terms. shared goals.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber¶s original view of bureaucracy. Transactions are exchanges of value. people are driven through vision. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. 6. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization¶s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. 4. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. Typical examples are high product quality. processes and procedures. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. New-comers must learn those ³ropes´ in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods.
7. Martin and Meyerson. 1986). Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. Rules. symbols. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. In biological terms. invisible to the naked eye. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. discovered. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. and procedures. · Its rituals. etc. rules. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. supportive way and may take on a parental role. but critical to shaping its behavior. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk.strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. 1993). although not necessarily documented. the way they dress etc. thinking. . the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. big-bang projects and development. systems and subsystems. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. plaques. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). culture is like the DNA of an organization. the jargon they use. norms.
From this point of view. the personality of the organization). there is often contradiction in various approaches. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization¶s social environment and evolve of behavior. productivity. believing. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. . These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. various terms such as efficiency. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. Thus. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. Though an organization espouses a series of values. communicating. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. business and leadership strategies. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes.Values: These are the social principles. organizational growth. from the basis of its policies and action. also called as organizational success or growth. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. to denote organizational effectiveness. there are numerous variables. and behaviour. goals. Identifying. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. or standards held by members of an organization. skills. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. are often used interchangeably. individually and collectively. decisions. Though each individual¶s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. profitability. 1. intervening and end result. and what is right and what is wrong. is defined and conceptualized in different ways.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management¶s policies. its core value are limited to a few in number. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. For example. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. and doing.
e. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. obtaining patents. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. According to Likert. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: 1. That is. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. At this point. 2. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. attitudes. However. performance goals. locating space. 7. For example. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. 3. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. money. building. 3. motivational. and perceptual cluster. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. and is worth the investment of time. others are brought into the organization. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed.. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. is worth running some risks for. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. and energy that will be required. if the appropriate organization culture is in place.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. . the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. is workable. incorporating. and decision-making. motivations. communication. and a common history begins to be built. and earnings. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. the loyalties. End ± result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. scrap loss. 4. costs. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of ±date. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. and so on. and they tend to be longterm goals.g. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal.2. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise.
if possible. 2. and history of two firms. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. attitudes. Politics. powerful stakeholders such as unions. 1. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. commitment. In addition. age. 7. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. Staffs. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. take these losses early.Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. 3. Assess the current culture. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. Make changes from the top down. and whether products and/or services are involved. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. management. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. 6. the geographic location. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. Include employees in the culture change process. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. Emotions. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. especially when making changes in rules and processes. . and patterns of daily behavior. roles. relationships. 4. 3. or even customers may support the existing culture. habits. Structure. the ³culture contract´ that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. The personal feelings. 2. These factors from the two cultures include the size. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. 5. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can¶t be done successfully?. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside.
Self Assessment Questions 1. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. 7. Stay the course by being persistent. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture.7 Terminal Questions 1. and strategic constituencies approach. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. 7. system-resource approach. 2.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 9. Causal variables Answers to TQs: .6 Summary Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. Artifacts 2. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. Market 3. ________cultures are outward looking. 3.goal approach. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. 2. Finally. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach.8. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. behavioural approach. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. 3. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. 7.
8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8. Politics and Organization Development Unit-08.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8.3 Two Faces of Power 8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8. MU0002-Unit-08.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.1. Refer section 7. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8. Refer section 7.2 2.10 Terminal Questions .Power.9 Summary 8.3 3.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.1 Introduction Objectives 8. Refer section 7.Power.
The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes. In this unit. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired.1 Introduction Power and politics. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations.´ ³A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. emotions. to effect outcomes. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8." ³Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire." .¶ To have power is to be able to get desired things done. and for change to occur in an organization.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs.´ Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations. 8. and behaviours of people. Objectives: After this studying this unit. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting.8. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid today. indisputable facts of organizational life. The French word µpouvoir¶ stands for both the noun µpower¶ and the verb µto be able. Potential power is the capacity to do so. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related.actions and the decisions that precede them. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. power must be exercised. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations. · Explain theories about the sources of power.
Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. In fact. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. power being the predominant mode. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. selling.Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one¶s way. Power-in-action may take many forms. technological.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. 8. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. absolute power corrupts absolutely. an authority or power dimension is required. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. or acquired? In this unit. both positive and negative. unsocialized need to dominate others. forcing. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. influencing.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" ± positive and negative. bestowed. and repression. According to him. for organizations to function. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. being exercised. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. hurting. Without leadership (power) in medical. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. with collective. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. confiscation. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. Crushing." A moment¶s reflection. political. the act or ability of influencing others. and lead. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one¶s way in a social situation." . however. or positive. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. and organizational activities. not the possession of power as such. Leading. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson¶s "Power-Dependence theory. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. influence. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. 8. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. spiritual. financial.
or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. to give something valued by the other. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation.· French and Raven¶s "Bases of Social Power. information. Reward power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another." · Mintzberg¶s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. . goals. Viewed in this light. Legitimate power ± power based on everyone¶s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A¶s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. that is. of social power as follows: 1. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. power. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. influence. that is. 3. attraction. Coercive power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. and desired by the other. to give something negatively valued by the other. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. respect. Referent power ± power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. rewards) that are controlled by one party. and so forth. 5. When the net balance for us is positive. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. 4. blame. or bases." In other words. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. we will continue the exchange relationship. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others." These authors suggested five sources. 2. when the net balance for us is negative." · Salancik and Pfeffer¶s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. praise. P. Expert power ± power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. that person has power over us. hate. The sociologist. rejection. we will terminate or alter the relationship.
In this theory, power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals, units, or departments) most important for solving the organization¶s most critical problems. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. This theory, like the ones discussed previously, supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by- others-in this case, the special expertise needed for the organization¶s survival-have power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits, indeed, used by all who have it, to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources, through the placement of allies in key positions, and through the definition of organizational problems and policies." These authors view organizational power as a good thing, for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. This theory, "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players, called influencers, seek to control the organization¶s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power, coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. According to Mintzberg, the five possible bases of power are, first, control of a resource; second, control of a technical skill; and, third, control of a body of knowledge. All of these must be critical to the organization. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. In addition to a base of power, the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. An organization has many potential influencers, such as the board of directors, the managers, the top executives, the employees, the unions, suppliers, customers, regulators, and so forth. The important aspects of Mintzberg¶s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others, that power-in-action requires will and skill, and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In summary, these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar ± power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. The resources may be ability to reward and
punish, being in control of critical skills, knowledge, or information, the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined ³politics simply as the study of who gets what, when, and how´. ³Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices´. ³Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups´. ³Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means´. Thus, we view politics as a subset of power, treating it as informal power, illegitimate in nature. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power, but in this sense, formal power, the power vested in office, the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. Both relate to getting one¶s way-effectance. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. For our purposes, organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations; it is engaging in activities to get one¶s way. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities; the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics, like power, has two faces. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest; unsocialized needs to dominate others; a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win, you must lose-rather than win-win terms; and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy, surprise, holding hidden agendas, withholding information, deceiving. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others; viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible; engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing; a relative absence of the tactics of fighting; and a socialized need to lead, initiate, and influence others. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making, resource allocation, and conflict resolution processes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose; they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. In fact, one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation, conflict resolution, and choosing among alternative means and goals.
8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. Virtually, all OD interventions promote problem-solving, not politics, as a preferred way to get things accomplished. OD interventions increase problem-solving, collaboration, co-operation, fact-finding, and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. For example, OD interventions typically generate valid, public data about the organization¶s culture, processes, strengths, and weaknesses. Valid, public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations; rather, they enhance the positive face of power, thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy, it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme power-oriented situations. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power, but not with the negative face of power. Values such as trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first, problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations; second, power equalization, being one aspect of the positive face of power, increases the amount of power available to organization members, and by so doing adds power to the organization. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator, catalyst, problem solver, and educator. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. According to Chris Argyris, the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information, (2) to promote free, informed choice, and (3) to promote the client¶s internal commitment to the choices made. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner, his or her program, and his or her values, methods, and expertise. The OD consultant, like all consultants, provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors, as we discussed earlier. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. In summary, organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. This major strength of OD derives from the strategy of change, the technology, the values, and the roles of OD practitioners.
expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). acceptability. coaching. communicating. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. and expertise." 4.8. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. it will be strong externally. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. 5. . Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. 6. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. 3. problem solving. 2. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. preferably multiple sponsorship. First. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. it will gain more power. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization¶s decision makers). organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). both as a person and as a professional. According to the framework of French and Raven. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. in powerful places. experience. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. Skills such as listening."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. and ability to gain organizational support. Success leads to credibility and stature.
Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. . The OD program belongs to the manager. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. Rule Five: Mind your own business. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization¶s powerholders. usually managers. not the OD consultant. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being managercentered. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. not content. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one¶s own or in others¶ political struggles. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. not by getting involved in the answers. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one¶s power base. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. OD programs should be results-oriented. the manager will vigorously defend it. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. Rule Six: Mind your own business. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. which is to be an expert on process. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. A valuable byproduct of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. those issues vital to the organization¶s success. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request.counseling. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. constructive social relationships.
problem solver. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. Networking is recognized as a potent. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others¶ legitimate "turf. others¶ support. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. and using contacts for information.Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. 8." which arouses defensive actions." "using social networks. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. the strategy and tactics of influence.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. Table 8. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. individual power derives from knowledge. viable. As shown in the figure. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge · Expertise · Information · Tradition Others¶ Support y y Strategies for Success Playing It Straight · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Political access Staff support . Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. catalyst. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. yet legitimate means of acquiring power. not power activist or power broker. negotiations the nature of power and politics." and "going around the formal system. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. We could propose more rules of thumb. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. and educator. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. and personality characteristics.
This practical. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. personal power and position power. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. ³One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. arises from expertise. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. criticality-how important one¶s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. . and relevance-how important one¶s task is in relation to organizational priorities. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. Whetton and Cameron¶s model is shown in following figure. in turn. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. Personal power. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying.Personality y y y Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don¶t) use organization rules Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what¶s expected of them.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. a person¶s power comes from two main sources. and legitimacy. effort. In this model. even those of little power. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks´. Indeed. visibility-how much one¶s work is seen by influential people. personal attraction.
Retribution refers to coercion and threats. Power and politics are similar in nature. and (3) empowering others." And. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. (2) provide a positive. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. Having power is one thing.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. 8. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. collaborative work environment. reciprocity. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. and are amenable to positive control. arise from known conditions." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people¶s inappropriate influence attempts. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. Our suggestions for . They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. Usually reason is the preferred strategy. Whetton and Cameron suggest several means of resisting others¶ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. According to these authors.Fig. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. and retribution. power-in-use is called influence. and (6) build on success. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. Concluding Comments: In this unit. actually using it to get things done is another. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails.
10 Terminal Questions 1.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. ±±±±±± is the intentional influence over the beliefs. ±±±±±±±± defined politics as the study of who gets what. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. 8. McClelland 3. Self Assessment Questions 1. 3. 8. and how. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. Harold Lasswell . Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ±±±± ±±±±±±±. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. Power can be either positive or negative. 5. when and how. Referent power 4. 2. 4. arise from known conditions. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. Power and politics are similar in nature. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems.using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. Power 2. 4. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. Describe briefly various theories of power. emotions or behaviour of people.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. and are amenable to positive control. when. 5. 2. Define organization politics.. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. reputation and professional credibility. _____________ has identified two faces of power. 3. ±±±±±±±±±± is made up of Charisma. 8.
Personality Answers to TQs: 1.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 Socio Technical Systems 9. Refer section 8.2 2.5 4. Refer section 8.5.6 Quality of Work Life Projects .1 Introduction Objectives 9. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9.Refer section 8.2 Meaning and Definitions 9.4 Management By Objectives 9.4 3.5 Quality Circles 9. Refer section 8.6 5. Refer section 8.
7 Parallel Learning Structures 9. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.11 Terminal Questions 9. In this dynamic and fluid environment. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. · Explain Total Quality Management. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program. · Explain Reengineering.9. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.8 Total Quality Management 9.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9.10 Summary 9. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development. . · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design. actions. organizational problems may repeat. Objectives: After studying this unit.
1967. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. Greater Predictability. 3. Rapidity of change. organization theory. 9. Cummings. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. 4. The cost of structural change is generally ³front-end´ loaded.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. 2. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. It could involve the following steps (Foster. It endeavors to re-design the organization¶s structure. Organization Acceptance of Change. This normally is a reasonable. Basic reinforcement theories. From a benefit cost analysis. 5. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. Cost is Low. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. Structure changes are normally ³institutionalized´ and less subject to this problem. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. Downsizing associated with restructuring. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. 1976. Succession Doesn¶t Destroy Change Effort. and more critically. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. 1988): Determining the environmental demands Creating a vision statement Educating organizational members . and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program.9. Pasmore. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. In addition. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs.
Since then. its definitional aspect. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. Certain degree of overlapping is there. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of .´ The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: ³MBO is a result-centered. On the other hand. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. 2.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO).´ Based on the definition of MBO. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. As an approach to management. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. Creating the change structure Conducting socio-technical analysis Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. physical. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. non-specialist. In fact. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. its features can be identified as follows: 1. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. therefore. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. It is a particular way of thinking about management. with objective orientation as its essence. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far.
(ii) long-range . ³why does the organization exist?´. 1. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization. 6. Therefore. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. all the units or departments and individual manager. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. Resource allocation. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. 3. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. It works as an integrating device.management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. the clarity and balance of objectives. delegation of authority. Therefore. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. This. enhancement of employee commitment and participation. its subsystems and people. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. including the corporate level. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives. superiors and subordinates. 5. normally once a year. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment.. are determined on the basis of objectives. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. and participation of the managers with accountability for results. Questions. its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. Similarly. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. in interaction with external factors. (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. such as. etc. 4. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities. The performance review is held regularly. Therefore. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. What business are we in?´ and what should be our business?´ provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives.
Even though KRAs are most durable. (vi) financial and physical resources. Therefore. 3. (ii) market standing. they also indicate the resource requirement. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization¶s health and the top management perspective for the future. In fact. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability. In turn. this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. and (viii) public responsibility. a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. By relating these to objectives. there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate¶s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by setting easily achievable objectives. (iii) short-term organizational objectives. (v) individual manager¶s objectives. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization. with the experience gained over the period of time. the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. (vii) manager performance. the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. 5. resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. However. By relating these to objectives. Therefore. It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. Sometimes. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives. (v) worker performance. 2. If not. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully. (iv) productivity. the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. 4. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. Thereafter.and strategic objectives. Setting Subordinates¶ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. . there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. there should be matching between objectives and resources. Therefore. The process of objective setting begins with superior¶s proposed recommendations for his subordinate¶s objectives. (iii) innovation.
Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. information. 9. require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing. Therefore.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. and rewards.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. hierarchical structure. but in its contemporary form. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Quality circle program consists of several circles. · Make recommendations for improvement. what happens at each level may affect other levels also. this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis. on paper. 9. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up.6. knowledge. which consequently result into high level of task variety. appropriate feedback and employee discretion. . The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. in general. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal. or in people¶s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power. each having three to fifteen members. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization¶s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases. QWL programs. quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. 9. it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization.
Reengineering is a top-down process. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. · Competitive benchmarking. including the use of quality circles. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. Self Assessment Questions .9. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. eliminating. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. 9. provides relevant information to all employees. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. statistical process control. self-managed teams and task forces.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. · Participative management.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. service. It is also called continuous quality improvement. and speed. statistical quality control. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches. quality. It is very popular in USA in 1990s. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. contemporary measures of performance. such as cost. and extensive use of employee participation.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization¶s activities around the concept of quality. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers.
There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. Quality circle Answers to TQs: . events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness.11 Terminal Questions 1. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems.1. 2. It is also called continuous quality improvement. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. 9. 3. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. From a benefit cost analysis. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. provides relevant information to all employees. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. actions. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. 9. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. actions. 9. Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. Drucker 3. Intervention 2.
Refer section 9.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10.5 4. Refer section 9. MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.4 Causes for Resistance to Change.3 Resistance to Change 10. Refer section 9.8 Terminal Questions 10.2 Nature of Change 10.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .7 Summary 10.2 3. 10.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs .1. Refer section 9.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change. Self Assessment Questions 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10.3 2.
and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. job design and people. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. less. others. some parts may be affected directly. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. or social. and others. organizational change may have the following features: 1. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. Organizational change is a continuous process. 3. · Impact of change on future managers. organizational problems may repeat. However.2 Nature of Change The term µchange¶ refers to an alteration in a system. some parts of organization may be affected more.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. structural arrangement. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. and others. which are major ones. biological. indirectly. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled . Objectives: After studying this unit. In this dynamic and fluid environment. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance.10. Thus. may require special change efforts. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. Hence. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.whether physical. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. When change occurs in any part of the organization. Thus. 10. Any change may effect the whole organization. 2.
and its basic survival may be jeopardized. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. In fact. if we look minutely. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. adjustment is fairly routine. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. so is the resistance to change. employees want to maintain a status quo. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. because it produces identical symptoms. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. In fact. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. commented. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. In fact. but when a change is major or unusual. However. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers.as cost and as benefit. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. We wanted a new culture and new layout.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. If people resist to change. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost.balloon. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. On this phenomenon. that is. more serious upsets may occur. Homeostasis implies selfcorrecting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. However. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. it becomes indented at the point of contact. it has stretched slightly. Similarly. Madhur Bajaj. We shall take new workers at the new place. ³The Pune plant is fully saturated. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. 10. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required.´ Resistance as Benefit: . When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. Thus. there are two sides of resistance. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations.
On the one hand, resistance to change is costly affair, and on the other, it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. While on negative side, the reality lies in between. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Thus, resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: 1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Therefore, the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. These feelings, either real or emotional, may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic, psychological and social. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological, job security etc. precede over other needs. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques, technology, etc., whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them, they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India, it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely, reduce job options, and turn into technological unemployment. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match.
3. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes, bonus, etc. All these are well-established in the old system. Whenever there is change, people may feel that in the new system, they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Psychological Factors Psychological factors are based on people¶s emotions, sentiments and attitudes towards change. These are qualitative and, therefore, may be logical from people¶s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent¶s point of view. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness, status quo, lack of trust in change agent, low tolerance for change, and fear of unknown. 1. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego, people resist change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Thus, the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. 2. Status Quo: People want status quo. i.e. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore, everyone tries to avoid it. 3. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo, people may differ. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Therefore, these people resist any new idea. 4. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent, that is, the person who initiates change. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent, they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 5. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The change will bring results in future, which is always uncertain. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction, particularly social needs, through their mutual compatible interactions. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change, people resist it. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.
1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. When there is any change, their existing social interactions are likely to be changed, which people do not want. Therefore, they resist change. 2. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class, e.g., change initiated by managers affecting workers. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change, even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. For example, Sumantra Ghoshal, a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru, has commented as follows: ³Nothing fails like success; nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation, Caterpillar, Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles, all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called µThe Failure of Success¶. Strategies, values, resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés, dogmas, millstones and routines.´ This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought, these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes, stability of systems, resource limitations, sunk cost, and inter-organizational agreement. Some of these reasons are basic while others are byproducts of those. For example, first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. 1. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices, they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. 2. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. For example, a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules, prescribes rigid authority relationships, and institutes reward and punishment system. All these work in some circumstances. It a change is required in these aspects, the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system.
what will happen to these assets? Naturally. forward-looking. building and training for its personnel. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. those who wonder what happened. and reactors. these can be used for specific period. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. . 2. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. It depends more on the style of top management. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. if any change is to be incorporated. Let us see what someone has said long back: ³There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. Thus.´ This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. those who watch things happen. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. Now. analyzers. 5. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. centralized control. decentralized controls. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. 3. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. Resource Limitations: No doubt. In such a case. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. 1. Once the assets are acquired. If it is risk-taking. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. For example. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. prospectors. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. In this interaction process. if new technology is adopted.defenders. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors.3. intensive planning. 4. For example. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. This can be in the form of people also. if the change is required. it will require resources to procure machine. innovative. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. and commensurate expenses on other items also. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. broad environmental scanning. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. and has zeal for progress.
it means you¶re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. or deferred. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you¶re like most people. taking a new set of streets to work. Resistance can be overt. They may.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. For instance. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. threatening to go on strike. engaging in a work showdown. And people in general don¶t like the unknown. we¶re creatures of habit. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. you find a single route and you use it regularly.4. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. If for example. Habit Every day. finding a new parking place. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won¶t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. therefore. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. For analytical purpose. we don¶t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. or the like. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. or programmed responses. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. some may fear they¶ll be unable to do so. When we are confronted with change. immediate. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. implicit. Otherwise. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one¶s income. As human beings. developing a new lunchtime routine.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn¶t necessarily surface in standardized ways. Let¶s look at the sources of resistance. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. To cope with this complexity. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. they cannot survive. Life is complex enough. and so on. adjusting to the new office layout. when you go to work or school. Organizational resistance . 10. we¶ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. The same applies to employee. Therefore. we all rely on habits. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known.
One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. That is. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. for instance. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. Formalization provides job description.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. For example. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. For example. for instance. For example. An individual union member. accountants work with marketers. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. rules and procedures for employees to follow. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. and benefits administration ± has been resisted by many human resource departments. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities ± such as training. Will the change. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. he¶s likely to resist. You can¶t change one without affecting the others.Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization¶s structure to match. The . development of pay plans. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. 10. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. group norms may act as a constraint. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. They tend to be content with the way things are. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems.
It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. at the level of individual and at the level of group.´ Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. In many cases. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people¶s resistance to change successfully. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. Stephen Robbins suggests that ³«« managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. For example. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels.´ The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. It implies explanation and then discussion of the proposed changes. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue ± not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. the problems can be solved at the same level. For this purpose. the following efforts can be taken: 1. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected.ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. 10. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. People always have some . However. through group dynamics. that is. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. this is not a one-time action. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. Therefore. typically by way of computer network links. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. In addition. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. Unless this problem is overcome properly. both at the formal and informal levels. Locavini observes that ³the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change.
For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. It grows slowly along with relationship. education must be a part of the manager¶s everyday activity on the job. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: 1. its process and working. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. its basic nature. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. as discussed earlier. helped to change attitudes. most of the times. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. The same is true of problem-solving. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. Thus. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. sometimes. and conferences. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. and indoctrinated in new relationships. . The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups.ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. to become effective. meetings. the group itself should be the point of contact. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. so that they are looked at and evaluated. he expresses it through a group. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. is an important trust-building task. Usually. more than one person is involved in the change. 3. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. Thus. Getting opinions out in the open. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. As this process goes. For this purpose. However. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. People should be educated to become familiar with change. They must be taught new skills. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. However. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. 2. (ii) In group. Though each person interprets the change individually often. 4. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization.
immediate. For instance. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. many things about change can be made clear. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. benefits of change. Such training techniques include role playing. Self Assessment Questions 1. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. Research studies also support this aspect. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. __________ are based on people¶s emotions. 3. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. group resistance and vested interests. sentiments and attitudes towards change. or deferred. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. psychodrama. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. Resistance can be overt. mere participation may not help.such aspects as the reasons for change. and how members contribute. 3. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. implicit. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. job design and people. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. psychological factors. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change.7 Summary Change is inevitable. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. social factors. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. and sensitivity or T-group training. Economic factors. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. structural arrangement. However. 2. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. 2.Through the group contact. It purports how the results are. 10. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing .
Organization Development.Singh. eighth edition.. P. New Delhi.4 3. Jain.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. Regal Publications New Delhi. Thomson South Western.complaints. · J. or the like. Reference: · Wendell L. Why do organizations resist change? 3. that is.management of Organization Change. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. French and Cecil H. engaging in a work showdown. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels.2 2. Modern Organization Development and Change. Organization Theory and Design. Refer section 10. 10. · Harigopal K.6. . 10. Organizational change 2. · Cummings & Worley.8 Terminal Questions 1. Jr. New Delhi. at the level of individual and at the level of group. Refer section 10. both at the formal and informal levels. N. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. P. Psychological factors 3. Principles and Practices. Explain the nature of change? 2. threatening to go on strike. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. Bell. Organization Development & Change.. Thomson · Daft Richard L. through group dynamics. Refer section 10.Response Books.
org/docrep/w7503e/w7503e05.umd.managementtoday. Robbins.oup. E References y y y y y y y y y y y http://fds. Prasad.work911.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v005/5. N.edu/groups/learning/wp8.jp/~kyodo/kokyuroku/contents/pdf/1461-15. New Delhi. · L. Pvt.com/www. · Stephens P. Anmol Publications Pvt. Organizational Behaviour. Dhanpat Rai & Co. New Delhi. Organizational Development.· James A.fao.jhu. Ltd.ac.humtech. .1lowry.kurims.pdf http://www.co.com/opm/grtl/OLS/ols6.bus.uk/pdf/bt/fincham/Chapter15. · Stephen P.pdf http://www. Chhabra.pdf http://www. Prentice-Hall India.html http://muse.htm www. M.pdf http://webuser.edu/cameronk/CULTURE%20BOOK-CHAPTER%201. Robbbins.umich.cfm http://www.managementhelp.umich. New Delhi.htm#anchor73776 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .com/articles/leadchange.kyoto-u. New Delhi. · Laxmi Devi. Management.pdf www.wdi. Educatiional Publishers.org/org_chng/org_chng.lib. Prentice-Hall of India. Edward Freeman. Management.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp598. Ltd. Sultan Chand & Sons. · T.htm#TopOfPage http://www.oup. Principles & Practice of Management. 12th edition. Prentice-Hall of India.uk/search/article/634958/the-ceos-role-managing-change/ http://www. Organizational Behaviour. Stoner and R. F.co.
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