MU0002-Unit-01-Introduction to Management
Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the µmanagement¶ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn µsurplus¶ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of a
business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term ³management´. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley ± ³Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.´ In the words of George R. Terry ± ³Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.´ According to James L. Lundy ± ³Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.´ In the words of Henry Fayol ± ³To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.´ According to Peter F. Drucker ± ³Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work´. In the words of Koontz and O¶Donnel ± ³Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals´.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren ± ³The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.´ From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that ³management´ is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as ³management´. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a ³distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.´ From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as ³doing things right´. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization¶s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as ³doing the right things´. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of course, high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. And poor
Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. namely. 6. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. informed employees. 5. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance.management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. Thus. principles and techniques requires specialized
. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. All these resources are made available to those who manage. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals¶ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. The application of these concepts. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. 1. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. principles and techniques which have wide applications. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. Managers apply knowledge.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. 7. 2. although they can¶t observe it during operation. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. staffing. Thus. organizing. So it is treated as a science. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. capital and materials. labour. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. In essence. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. feeling of management is result-oriented. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. labour and capital. directing and controlling. 4. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. 3. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity.
Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem
.knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. materials. Similarly. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. labour and capital. 1.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. ongoing concern. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. 9. people are bound by authority relationships. Anthropology. manpower. finance manager. For instance. They transmit orders. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. 10. management is viewed as an art. it refers to three distinct ideas. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. that is. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. In modern organizations. military. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated.e. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. Sociology and Psychology. (ii) a system of authority. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. personnel manager etc. useful. 8. According to Newman. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. a hierarchy of command and control. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. Generally. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. Basically. materials. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. money and machines into a productive. According to Herbision and Myers. how effectively and economically the five M¶s are combined together to produce desired results. and (iii) a class or elite. education. government and hospital. the effective use of the five M¶s of management (money. In other words. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates.
Marketing Manager. etc. planning and setting up of standards. Purchase Manager. the lower level of management). his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success.e. its Chairman. Financial Controller. Board of Directors. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise.. policies and plans for the enterprise. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. But in actual practice. Production Manager.e. For instance. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. technical facilities. 1.. The levels of management depend upon its size. ranks. Foremen. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as µManagement¶ which refers to the group. viz. or the Chief Executive. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. Operative management is concerned with the ³doing´ function such as implementation of policies. As a separate group. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i.. Administrative management is concerned with ³thinking´ functions such as laying down policy. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. etc. ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. Supervisors. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. We generally come across two broad levels of management. and the range of production. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. day-to-day matters. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating
. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. (i) administrative management (i. but as head of wages and salary department. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine.and suggestions upward. or. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. Managing Director.
g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. 2. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management.functions. Without them the top management¶s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans.
. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. j) To report to top management. men. e) To assign activities. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. machines and methods to put the plans into action. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. materials. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. d) To assemble the resources of money. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management.
It consists of foreman. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. accounts officers and so on. 1. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. machines. Their authority and responsibility is limited. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. procedures and reward systems. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. With a view to realize the
. money and material. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. sales officers. To this end. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. Management makes group effort more effective. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization.k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. In its absence. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. counseling and effective leadership. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. 3. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. methods. They have to get the work done through the workers. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. They allot various jobs to the workers. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual¶s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. an organization is merely a collection of men. Management is goal-oriented. Without management. supervisors. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making.
In the final analysis. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. Thus unnecessary deviations. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. But unlike medicine or law. government policy.predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology.. techniques. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. often threaten the survival of a firm. identifiable discipline. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. They try to put everything on the right tract. iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. Management as a profession By a professional manager. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. the Indian Institute of Management. competition. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. and specialized knowledge. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. skills. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. etc. According to McFarland. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. and it is distinct. Failure to take note of customer¶s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for µIdeal java¶ in the two-wheeler market in India. Management
. Organize the resources properly.
Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature ± interpersonal roles. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions. training. an art as well as a profession. the transfer of information. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. 1. do not seem to adhere to the principle of ³service above self´.A. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. the All India Management Association. however. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work.Development Institute. But in addition to these insights. unpatterned. This role includes hiring. The term µmanagement roles¶ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. However. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the
. bribing public officials to gain favours. sabotaging trade unions. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager¶s job. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. motivating. Furthermore. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. the American Management Association in U.. managers in general. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. However. and disciplining employees. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. and decision-making. Half of these managers¶ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. management is not as exact as natural sciences. For instance. and short-duration activities. All managers have a role as a leader. As a social science. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. etc. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. Some individual business organizations.S. In fact. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers.
The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. This is the disseminator role. network of outside contacts and doing external board work. Typically.1: Mintzberg¶s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities
Symbolic head. that involve outsiders. and may be inside or outside the organization. Informational Roles: All managers. to some degree.
. duties of a legal or social nature.liaison role. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public¶s tastes. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. what competitors may be planning. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. obliged to Greeting visitors. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. understanding of organization and environment. and the like. activities that involve responsible for staffing. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. subordinates. making phone subordinates to members of the calls to relay information. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. and associated duties. Table 1. manages also perform a spokesperson role. training. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. informers who provide favors performing other activities and information. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager¶s unit. Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail.
managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization¶s performance. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. outsiders on organization¶s giving information of the plans. actions. projects´ to bring about change. performing all kinds ± in effect. media. policies. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. supervises design of certain projects as well. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important.Spokesperson
organization ± some information is factual. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices.. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. 1973). pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg.
Disturbance handler Resource allocator
Source: Henry Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. Publishers. As entrepreneurs. managers are responsible for allocating human. Inc. As resource allocators. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the organizational decisions. Decisional Roles: Finally. Last. serves as expert on organization¶s industry. results. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. programming of subordinates work. negotiations. physical and monetary resources. etc. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to develop and initiates ³improvement new programs.
. As disturbance handlers.
finance. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. In fact. Conversely. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager¶s level within the organization. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. human. lead. such as engineering. Technical Skills: First-line managers. They know how to communicate. However. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers ± regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. negotiator. Since managers deal directly with people. motivate. Specifically. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. as well as many middle managers. liaison. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. computers. and all managers are involved in making decisions. For example. research by Robert L. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. and conceptual. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter.An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg¶s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. the roles of disseminator. a manager¶s job is varied and complex. figurehead. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization¶s operations. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization¶s speciality. or manufacturing. this skill is crucial. the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. During the early 1970.
Spriegel and Walter. Managers are concerned mainly with organisation and direction of human resources. This view is held by Tead. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration.1. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. It is a doing function. Administration relates to the decision-making. iii) There is no distinction between the terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ and they are used interchangeably. Management Management means getting the work done through and with others. It is a thinking function. It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies. Scope
. Management relates to execution of decisions. administration is a higher level function. Administration is a higher level function: Administration refers to policy-making. etc. Thus. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. Administrators are basically concerned with planning and control. Nature 3. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. According to them. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. Administration is a determinative function. Table 1.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. Spriegal and Lansburg. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. on the other hand. Meaning Administration Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives. Thus. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. It is concerned with the implementation of policies.
2. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. Floerence and Tead. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. plans and policies of the organisation.
Status Administration refers to Management is relevant at higher levels of management. 5. operative workforce for the execution of plans. There are three levels of management-top. co-ordinating. administrative decisions. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. __________is principally the task of planning.9 Terminal Questions 1. _________. environmental forces. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. 6. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. 7. 3.4. organisations. 1. Still management is not completely a profession. 8. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. Five M¶s of management (________.
. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle level leading and motivation of executives. middle and lower. Usage of Term The term µadministration¶ is The term µmanagement¶ is often associated with widely used in business government offices. 1. Explain its characteristics. Self Assessment Questions 1. public organisations in the private sector and non-business sector.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. objectives. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. i. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. counseling and effective leadership. 2. lower levels of management. ___________. DecisionMaking
Administration determines Management decides who what is to be done and when it shall implement the is to be done.. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces.e. Define management.
3 2. materials.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 1. Refer section 1. Management 2.
Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2.2.2 Process of Management 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2.3 Planning 2. Refer section 1. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management.1.5 3.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
. manpower 3. teamwork Answers to TQs: 1. Discuss the importance of management. Money. Refer section 1.4 Organizing
in recent time. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. Motivating. Coordinating 5.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people´.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2. Commanding 4. Organizing 3. · Explain Planning.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2. you will be able to: · Define Management process. 1949): 1. · Explain different functions of management Process.6 Directing 2. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. Staffing. Controlling However.8 Summary 2. Management functions are as follows (Fayol.
.5 Staffing 2.9 Terminal Questions 2. Organizing. Directing. One can also think of management functionally. Objectives: After this studying this unit.2. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. Planning 2.
cost structure and so on. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. Objectives are the ends. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. In the football field. leadership is doing the right things³. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. the two are not quite the same. Therefore. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. and allocating resources. Through leadership and management often overlap. driving comfort. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. overall goals. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission:
. There is a degree of overlap between the two. general strategies. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization¶s mission.2. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. fuel and machine efficiency. However. the decision to change the design of a product. policies are the means to achieve those ends. while a policy.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: ³Management is doing things right. Even so. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. Decision ± Making Taking decisions is a process. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. or where you want go to. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. studies on passenger comfort. say a passenger car. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. and then set out the method for achieving it. 2. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. thus.
Sources of information may include stakeholders like. suppliers. customers (internal and external). The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. state. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths.A mission is the purpose of the organization. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. federal. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. A mission statement should be short ± and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. Are the facilities outdated? 3. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. summarizing what the organization does. Is research and development adequate? 4. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. What is our market share? 5. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. professional. What financing is available? 6. The mission statement is broad. Opportunities. Weaknesses. Thus. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at:
. international). Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. How skilled is our workforce? 4. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization¶s potential. and trade). What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. governments (local. journals and reports (scientific. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management.
The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. etc. What are the new regulations? 6.1. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational)
. Are our rivals weak? 5. Are there new competitors? 3. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. Objectives are also called performance goals. Generally. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. return on investment. earnings per share. What is the strength of the economy? 4. effectiveness. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. What are the possible new markets? 3. the best strategy is one that fits the organization¶s strengths to opportunities in the environment. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. What substitute products exist? In general terms. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. What are the emerging technologies? 6. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. Are market tastes changing? 5. as well as gap analysis. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2.
Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. 2. Assign work to individuals 6. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. and where decisions are to be made. In turn. who is to do. tactical. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. 2. with ideas and resources. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. who reports to whom. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. working toward common goals. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5.5 Staffing
. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. and goals are clearly stated. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible.Tactical plans are based on the organization¶s strategic plan. procedures. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. structuring. grouped. and relationships between departments. Strategic.4 Organizing It involves designing. Organizations are groups of people. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. operational plans are based on the organization¶s tactical plans. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job 4. lines of authority. and coordinated. how the tasks are to be grouped. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. Review plans 2.
2. O¶Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as ³filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. Theo Haimann ± ³Concerned with the placement. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. materials. promotion. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. recruitment. 3. training. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick ± ³Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work´ Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. placement. 4. money. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. Definition: 1. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. 2. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals´. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. compensation and training of needed people´. Koontz. This task has been referred to as staffing. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. recruitment. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. performance appraisal etc. inventorying the people available.
. placement. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives.It is not the machines. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. 3. development. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. appraisal. selection. selection. 5. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise.
Definition According to Koontz and O¶Donnel. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. overseeing and leading people. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. selection. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and.
. 2. On the one hand. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. resignation. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. It is instructing people as to what to do. promotion. It is a continuing function. motivate them. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. Direction has dual objectives. recruitment. management initiates actions in the organization. 5. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. training development and maintenance of personnel.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management.6.e. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through ± out the life of an organization. 7. 4. identifying the manpower requirements. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. It is an important managerial function. induction. etc. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. on the other. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. 8. Direction function is performed at every level of management. vacancies arise out of retirement. directing is the ³interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals´. Direction is an important managerial function. 2. Through direction. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. 3. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates.
guide. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. self-respect. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. sex. autonomy. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. 2. status. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. thirst. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. The further they progress up the hierarchy. and external esteem factors. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. The needs are arranged in order of importance. acceptance. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. from the basic to the complex. and the Two-Factor theory. teach. The manager never ceases to direct. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. As Theo Haimann puts it. shelter. such as. recognition.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. satisfied needs cannot. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. proposed by Maslow (1943). such as. 3. humanness and psychological health a person will show. Theories X and Y. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. 4. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. and attention
.Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. will vary depending upon his level. coach and supervise his subordinates. belongingness. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. ³without the issuance of directives. 2. and achievement. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. the more individuality. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished´.
. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. Extrinsic factors. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. autonomy and empowerment. whereas. self-direction. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. responsibility. anxious to accept greater responsibility. achieving one¶s potential. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. Social. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. recognition. supervision. Motivators are intrinsic factors. Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people¶s attitudes about work. if they can. such as.· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. and exercise self-control. includes growth. advancement. self-motivated. and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. esteem. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. It is also believed that. and salary are hygiene factors. Theory X ± In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. working conditions. such as. and achievement. From the above. company policy. Theory Y ± In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. externally. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. interpersonal relations. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager¶s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions.
have to do with a person¶s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. neither will they be satisfied. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. Planning involves the process of defining goals. structuring. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. people will not be dissatisfied. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. and where decisions are to be made. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. recruitment. 3.9 Terminal Questions 1. performance appraisal etc. 2. When hygiene factors are adequate. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. Explain Staffing in detail 3. Hygiene factors on the other hand. 2. 2. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. Self Assessment Questions 1. who is to do. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. who reports to whom. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. many related to the tasks being performed. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities.In summary.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. Write a short not on directing. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. Organization involves designing.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs:
. What is planning? 2. motivators describe a person¶s relationship with what she or he does. 2. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. how the tasks are to be grouped. To motivate people.
Reference 2.8 Problems in OD
.5 3. Reference 2.2 Definitions 3.1.
MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need
Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3. Reference 2.7 Role of OD 3. SWOT 3. Follett 2. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 3.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
.5 Goals of OD 3.3 2.3 Characteristics of OD 3.4 Categories of OD 3.6 OD and Management Development 3.
the answer is ³yes´. efficiency. and profitability. Today. adapt. ³Knowledge´ work is replacing ³muscle´ work. Although new jobs are being created at record rates. organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. strategy formulation and implementation. and processes.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. and changing customer demands. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges ± finding satisfaction in and through work. And organization development (OD) is one of them. strategy. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today¶s world is a daunting task. maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals. take advantage of opportunities. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. Basically. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. In summary. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today ± threats to effectiveness. old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology. and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks. fighting obsolescence of one¶s knowledge and skills. and the organization¶s human and social processes. and learn how to do that better and better over time. OD focuses on issues related to the ³human side´ of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals. organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. Simple survival ± continuing to have an adequate job ± is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks.10 Terminal Questions 3. survive. conflict resolution.
. and the like.9 Summary 3. teams. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. organization structure. culture. Early returns were encouraging. challenges from turbulent environments.Self Assessment Questions 3. increased competition. A variety of solutions exists. and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately. and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3. organization development is a process of teaching people how to solve problems.
markets. (Burke and Hornstein. you will be able to: · Define organization development. and culture. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD.Objectives: After studying this unit. 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions. A ³process for improving processes´ ± that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill. · Explain the characteristics of OD. planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. using reflexive. · State the goals of OD. 1971) Organizational development is a process of planned change. 1989)
. self-analytic methods. Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives«. 3. (Bennis. processes.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. 1969). and 3) Developing the organization¶s self-renewing capacity (Beer. 1980). people. and the dizzying rate of change itself. (Schmuck and Miles. values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies. and challenges. 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure.change of an organization¶s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making. strategy. OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement. attitudes. a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs.
values. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. to improve an organization¶s visioning. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. Organizational change is hard. through an ongoing. and processes for improving an organization¶s effectiveness. 1994) As you can see. including action research. these definitions overlap a great deal (that¶s encouraging). Now let¶s turn to our definition of organization development. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field. led and supported by top management.³Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories. Likewise. serious business. All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. and theory. research. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions. In fact. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science.´ (Cummings and Worley. structure. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. what practices should be included and excluded. and problem-solving processes. they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. empowerment. 1993) ³Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization¶s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. We will explain this definition in some detail. Collectively. learning. through the alteration of organizational members¶ on-the-job behaviours.´ (Porras and Robertson. There is no ³quick fix´ when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. ³Organization development is a long-term effort. We do not propose it as the ³right´ definition. strategies.´ This definition is lengthy.several years in most cases.´ (Burke. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. 1992) ³OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies. By long-term effort. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving. that is. Top management must initiate the improvement
. it is more accurate to describe ³improvement´ as a never-ending journey of continuous change. and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance. and contain several unique insights (that¶s enlightening).
make decisions. one of widespread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization¶s purposes. By including culture so prominently in our definition. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. empowerment. For empowerment to become fact of life. and artifacts. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. first. developing the strategy for getting there. Still. The reciprocal influence among culture. sentiments. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. opportunities. And second. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. and challenges in the organization¶s environment and its internal functioning. commitment. listening. not just a small group. and take actions on problems. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. structure. and processes makes each important. coherent. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. or became distracted with other duties. attitudes. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. culture is of
. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. processes. norms. Just as visioning. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization¶s members. expectations. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. By learning processes. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. we mean. By empowerment. We further believe that having compelling. activities. and making it happen. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. where collective aspiration is set free. so is managing the culture. in contrast to having only a select few involved. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. beliefs. strategy. and culture. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization¶s culture. By visioning processes. interactions.³journey´ and be committed to seeing it through. and organizational learning. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. team. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. structure. vitality. By empowerment processes. lost its commitment. learning. Michael Beer¶s definition called for ³developing new and creative organizational solutions´. has a stake in making the organization work. we mean those interacting. solve problems. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. assumptions. and each influences the others. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as ³« organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. and common purposes of all members of the organization. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality.´ Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations.
therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. engineering. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness.
. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. think. discovered. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. such as design. members are trained in competencies such as planning. learning. By intact work teams and other configurations. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. Processes are relatively easy to change. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. Today¶s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. This method resulted in loss of synergy. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. Temporary.primary importance. and training. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. and problem-solving processes. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. maintaining quality control. and procurement. empowerment. the process ³threw the results over the wall´ to the next functional unit. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. (b) invented. much rework. Over time. or developed by a given group. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. But in many organizations today. so they are the place OD programs often begin ± getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. individuals and the organization function well. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. In Liberation Management. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. manufacturing. and using management information. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. think. hiring. values. Processes are how things get done. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the ³right´ ways. wasted time. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be ³brain work´) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. Further. and we highlight the importance of visioning. So culture consists of basic assumptions. When one function finished with its part of the project. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. He uses the terms µmultifunctional projectization¶ and µhorizontal systems¶ to describe these teams and their work. empowerment. firing. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: ³Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. When teams function well. and feel in relation to those problems.
multifunctional. dynamic and adaptive system. To summarize. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. rather than focusing attention on individuals. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. OD focuses on culture and processes. 3. collaborators. and co-learners with the client system. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. 4. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. OD
. OD practitioners are facilitators. Attempting to create ³win-win´ solutions is standard practice in OD programs. 6. 9. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. Specifically. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. 10. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes.3 Characteristics of OD 1. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. 3. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. so that change is easily observed. 2. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today¶s fast-paced market place. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. 7. 8. 2. according to Peters. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. This µplanned¶ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. 5. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done.
(b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. and then. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that µnorms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones¶. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. he conducts surveys. Thus.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. At the individual level. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. Rather. they are ongoing. evaluates these data. further more. It recognizes that organizational goals change. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. temporary. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be µhuman¶ and to increase awareness. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. rather. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. They discourage µdo it yourself¶ approach. 5. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements
. or isolated problems. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. The relationship involves mutual trust. third party change agent. and revitalization. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. and cyclic processes. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. participation. Key areas are the normative type of model. and integrate individual and organizational goals. problem-solving. 6. collects relevant data. He shares a social philosophy about human values. growth. 3. identity. 7. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. takes actions for intervention. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. interactive. 3. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. Action research is the basis for such intervention. joint goals and means. 4. and mutual influence. rather.efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. or catalyst. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside.
first. second. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. (g) To increase the sense of µownership¶ or organization¶s objectives throughout the work force. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status.
. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. problem solving climate throughout an organization. (c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. practitioners and the client laymen.of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. with the authority of knowledge and competence. This Organization Development progrmmes. Two important elements of Organization Development are. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. 3.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. like other normative re-educative programmes. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization¶s goals (profit or service) and development of people.
Miner has drawn difference between two processes. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. more attention to peer-groups. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. (ii) competitiveness. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD.
. with their existing objectives and structure. 3. According to him. However.6 OD and Management Development At this stage. and greater display of feelings and emotions. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager¶s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. less individual competitiveness. The term µdevelopment¶ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. and (iv) a sense of responsibility.(h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one¶s area of responsibility. (iii) assertiveness. according to him.´ Organization development differs from management development. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. Before making a comparison between the two. Based on this. management development has been defined as follows: ³Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled.
To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. and laterally. plays key role in organizational improvement. not on the managers. Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing organization. however. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. 7. 3. 6. 4. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. focus on achieving improvement in design. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. Trained specialists required.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training.Focus
Approach Time Specialist
accomplishments. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. Problem-solving approach.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal.
3. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales.
Focus on design. By 70s. Educative and training Short-range. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. horizontally.
. No special requirement. 3. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. In early 60s. Thus. 2. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. however. 5.
OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. Therefore. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. etc. 3. 3. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. Hence. Research studies have also failed to conclude significant contributions of OD in all organizations. it is useless to try OD. 2. in order to make best use of OD efforts. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. If an organization is laden with these people. There should be proper use of OD interventions. Thus. 4. particularly in bottom-line ones. some specific efforts are required. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents.confrontation techniques. Therefore. In general. 2. Self Assessment Questions
. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. However. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. For example. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. OD programmes are often quite costly. 5. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. 5. 4. it fails even as a long-term strategy. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome.
1. ±±±±±±± is associated with ³Liberation Management´. 4. 3. 3. Define OD. 5. Empowerment 4. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. 3. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. Explain its salient features. Who is associated with the ³Learning Organizations´? 5.10 Terminal Questions 1. Peter Senge
. There is no µquick fix¶ to organizations¶ problems. _____________is a short-term strategy. Top management 2. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. problem-focused µnature of OD¶ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. Explain the various characteristics of OD. 2. Distinguish between µorganizational development¶ and µmanagement development¶.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. 4. The participative. Organization development should be led and supported by ±±±±±±±. 3. Tom Peters 3. State the various roles of OD. 2. ±±±±±±±±± is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. OD focuses on culture and processes.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. collaborative.
3 3. Refer section 3.
. Management development Answers to TQs: 1.7 5.2 2.6 4. Refer section 3.Organization Development ± Interventions Structure: 4.2 Survey Feedback 4.5. Refer section 3.3 Process Consultation 4. Refer section 3.5 Leadership Development 4.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
. Refer section 3.4 Grid Training 4.Organization Development ± Interventions
Unit-04.1 Introduction Objectives 4.
11 Terminal Questions 4. However. and organizational level. and organizational culture.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. team-building. process consultation. inter-group activities. work group.4. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. management grid. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the range of change that an organization requires. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: ³Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. group level.10 Summary 4. For example. they make things happen. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. other techniques like process
. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. mediation and negotiation activities.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. the classification of OD interventions shows variation. and survey feedback method.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. techno-structural activities.8 Change Agents 4. Thus. inter-group level. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. interpersonal level. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. Further.7 Inter Group Development 4.´ There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. education and training. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. Nevertheless. survey feedback. Historically. People¶s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. Therefore. grid training. Subsequently.
consultation, team- building, and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives, have been added. Our further discussion follows this development. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. · Explain grid training. · Describe process consultation. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Role of change agents. 4.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid), the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier, Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan, USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 2. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection, feedback of information, developing action plans based on feedback, and follow up. 1. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership ± managerial support, managerial goal emphasis, managerial work facilitation, peer support, peer goal emphasis, peer work facilitation, and peer interaction facilitation, organizational climate-communication with the company, motivation, decision-making, control within the company, co-ordination between departments, and general management, and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company, satisfaction with the supervisor, satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with the pay, and satisfaction with the work group. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization¶s personnel.
After the questionnaires are completed, data are classified, tabulated, and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 2. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed, feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. In oral system of feedback, it is provided through group discussion or problemsolving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively, feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted, it should be constructive and suggestive, rather, threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case, follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building, by the consultant. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. In particular, survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. 2. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However, effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. First, questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. If it is biased, all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Second, even if valid and reliable information is collected, it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change; it provides base for action for change. 4.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Edgar Schein, the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows:
³The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client¶s environment.´ The basic objectives of P.C are as follows: 1. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership, communication, roles and functions of group members, group decision-making and problemsolving, group norms, and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD. 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 2. Define the Relationship: At this stage, client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees, and spelling out services, time, etc. At this stage, the client¶s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. 3. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. At this stage, the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 4. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 5. Intervene: At this stage, the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural change. 6. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.C is completed, the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes, he assists the
C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. and problemsolving are also developed. and total organizational levels. problem-solving. P. inter-group. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. knowledge. 4. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. In the review of various P. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. groups.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. and teamwork. From this point of view. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. and the organization as a whole. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. However. 2. communication skills. The skills relating to planning. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant.
. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. The grid organization development consists of six phases. P. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant¶s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. 3. 3. However. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. 2. and alike. 1. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation.C is also not free from criticisms. objective-setting. traditions. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals.organizational members to incorporate those changes. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. like other OD intervention techniques. group. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. focuses on skills.C programmes. Inter-group Development: At this phase. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual.
6. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. The strategy is then implemented. and credibility of senior and middle management. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. they maintained the same stand. complete communication that is timely. In this light. and After Arrival. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. employees will perceive leadership as supportive.4. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. Furthermore. therefore. concerned and committed to their welfare. Slogging Through The Swamp. 4. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. confident and effective decision-making. Also during these times of change. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. in spite of these criticisms. Further. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made.5 Leadership Development When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). They have maintained that ³managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. it discounts reality. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. 5. lead. If you are to manage change effectively. and regular. while at the same time
. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. grid training is a non-rigorous method. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". Systematic Critique: In this stage. competence. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. is the ability of leadership to«well. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. We will look more carefully at each of these. the various programmes may be redesigned.´ In a later work. During drastic change times. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage.
Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams.recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. and adjourning as shown below:
Fig.´ A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as ³who will be members of the team?´ ³Who will perform what functions?´ ³Who will contribute what?´ ³What rules will be
. norming. it may be too late. In a climate of distrust. Leadership before. how synergy is generated through team-work. These stages are: forming. employees expect nothing positive. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team¶s time together.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. storming. 4. As against these. if haven¶t established a track record of effective leadership. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. Unfortunately. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. teambuilding is the most important. 4. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. French and Bell have opined that ³probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. but more importantly. if allowed to go on for too long. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. performing. For example. brings hope for better times in the future. therefore. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. let us consider the life cycle of a team. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone¶s best interests. problems in team-work. which. The existence of this trust. widely accepted.
and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status.´
. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. team members start settling. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: ³Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. 3. each team has to be adjourned. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. jockeying for relative control. However. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. committee. At this stage. The adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. At this stage. They share personal information.followed?´ ³How can conflicts among members be resolved?´ and so on. 2. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team¶s goals. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. start to accept others. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. Sooner or later. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. Norming: After storming stage. etc. 4. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. because of individual differences. After the adjournment of the team. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. 5.
group of eight. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. In fact. In the above paragraph. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. the individual average dropped down still lower-68. group efforts tend to slacken. 2. it appears that there are many
. They averaged 138. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. fail to perform their assigned tasks. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. that is. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. other factors remaining the same. For example. To the extent. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group¶s meetings. and attitudes. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. the complementarity among members is achieved. it was found that individuals¶ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. From this statement.Thus. In such an assignment. and so on. goals. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. the team would be effective. in one experiment. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. other factors remaining the same. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves.2 pounds. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three.
and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. 1. goals. Rewards of both types. 2. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. unify efforts.
. then. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size. Thus. management consultants. and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. These factors are skills and role clarity. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. make recommendations regarding a new supervisor. two things are required from its members. and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. customer satisfaction.financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. Therefore. While skills are relevant for job performance. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one¶s own role as well as roles of other members. 3. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance. common purpose. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. they will put their maximum. These super-ordinate goals. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. or propose discipline for team members. 3. complementary skills. Even if one member lacks behind. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. 4. 2. serve to focus attention. Katzenbatch and Smith. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals.factors in an effective team. Further. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. supportive environment. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals.
Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared. and 5. the emphasis should be on consensus. 1. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development.
.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action. In problem identification. At this stage. they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. 2. 2. such as. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members.
Fig. the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure. their value systems. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are.4. group problems to even personal problem. For achieving these. Providing positive feedback. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. and 5. personality and attitudes. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. 4. and rewards. 3. Analyzing how the team is working. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. rather. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. Analyzing how team¶s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem. recognition. Setting goals and priorities for the team. Analyzing how the work is performed. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds. 4.
etc. etc. 4. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours: Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time. understanding. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings. belittling. people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing. (ii) Attacking: deriding. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. criticizing person. clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team. talking together with speaker. feelings. seeking relevant information. with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. also provides opportunity to understand themselves. At the time of discussion of feedback. (iii) Clarifying: resting. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour.
. (iii) Negative: cooling. who was trying to resolve the differences. information. If this process is adopted several times. Often. the way people talk about the issue. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility. encouraging others to participate. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. about the issue. the stying with the topic or going off on tangents. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team¶s responsibilities. who was talking more or who was talking less.
(i) Over talk: interrupting. there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. 5. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented.3. members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. At this stage. ensuring. cynicism. Followup action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of team-building. undermining morale.
one of the more
. to encourage and sustain such feelings. team-building has a positive outlook. In spite of these problems. Therefore. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. it is not that effective in isolation. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. 4. However. though. It seeks to change to attitudes. However.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. and perceptions that groups have of each other. stereotypes.. communicating. and feedback skills). 3. are not given adequate attention. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. 2. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage. monitoring. listening. It improves the organization¶s problem-solving and decision-making ability. management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. 2. in different degrees. structure. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. etc. As a result. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. However. In general.These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the organization¶s outcomes.
The groups then share their lists. employees of the organization. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. operating procedures. In this method. According to Curtis Mial: ³The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. however. 4. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. Subgroups. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. the groups can move to the integration phase ± working to develop solutions that will improve relations. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. culture. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization¶s history. In contrast. or outside consultants. after which similarities and differences are discussed. For major change efforts. 4. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. Outside consultants. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. as the break for too quick action. with members from each of the conflicting groups. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes ± which can be benefit or a disadvantage ± because they don¶t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. as the accelerator to build up momentum.Popular methods emphasize problem solving. but one thing he/she is not the driver´. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. Trainer
. Differences are clearly articulate. and personnel.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. the other group.
films. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. role-plays and instruments. skills and change in behavior. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Self Assessment Questions 1. attitudes and beliefs. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. Grid Training was developed by ±±±±±±±±±±±± 3. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization?
. cases and experiential learning etc. diagnosis. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. group. feedback of information. Training is used both in µcontent orientation¶ and process orientation¶. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. group discussions. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. inter-group and total organization levels. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies ± lectures. Team-building is most important. In process consultation. Training is required for enhancing knowledge. Data collection.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. 4. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested.11 Terminal Questions 1. changing (intervening) and refreezing. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. 2. It focuses on skills. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. presentations.A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator.
Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. and Beliefs in Organization Development
Unit-05-Values. 4. Refer section 4. Refer section 4. Refer section 4. Assumptions. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5. Refer section 4. Blake and Mouton.1 Introduction
.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.2. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? 3.2 3.4 2. Assumptions. Data collection 2. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1. 3.
MU0002-Unit-05-Values.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5.5. · List the chronology of events of values. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5.7 Terminal Questions 5.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5. beliefs and assumptions.Objectives 5.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5. Objectives: After studying this unit. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.1 Introduction A set of values.5. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves. beliefs and assumptions.2 Definitions 5. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies. assumptions. 5.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5.5.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5.
5. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. strongly held. the laboratory training movement. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. dishonesty).g. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. and that rationality. it is a cognitive fact for the person.A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs.. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth. Taylor s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. Values. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. and assumptions being. values. Thus. As these ingredients accumulated. optimistic. Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or µgood¶ (e. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly.. assumptions. Simple. treat people with respect and dignity. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought
Frederick Winslow Taylor s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. with values being beliefs about good and bad. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. reason. or spirit of the time. assumptions. and democratic. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources ± the Hawthorne studies. free speech) and what is undesirable or µbad¶ (e. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II.
. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. and the like. OD values tend to be humanistic." or slacking off. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. research on the effects of different leadership styles." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. the human relations movement. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering.g.
Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. the work environment. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. and a general humanizing of the workplace. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. The human relations movement advocated participative management. People came to work as whole people. Mary Parker Follett (1926). People were not cogs. organizations were not machines. Research by Lewin. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives.
. aggressiveness and poor performance. their feelings and attitudes about the work.y
The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of bureaucracy as the best. apathy. greater attention to workers social needs. A strong hierarchy of authority. most efficient way to organize people. a management theorist and astute observer of labour-management relations. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people s beliefs about organizational behaviour. The Functions of the Executive by Chester 1. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. Group Dynamics (1940) The scientific study of groups using experimental research methodswas launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. wrote an article on The Giving of Orders advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. theory. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. Their simple. impersonal rules. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. These approaches possessed many desirable features. extensive division of labor. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. Lippitt (1939). authoritarian leadership caused dependency. and the supervisor determined their performance. In a sense. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. much of the research. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s.
and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. lack ambition. Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. to assume responsibility. higherlevel needs become dominant. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. indifferent to the organization s needs. reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. a direct precursor of OD. management practices. a mechanistic organization
. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. resist change. Lester Coch and John R. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. are self-centered. In an environment of slow change. healthy adults. Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. and understand group dynamics. P. dislike responsibility. this book popularized Maslow s motivation theory. The theory postulated that when lower-level needs are satisfied. pioneers in laboratory training. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. increase self-understanding. Overcoming Resistance to Change. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. The task of management is to change organizational structures. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop.y
These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). This article introduced the concept of organizations as socio-technical systems. Rogers focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). Chris Argyrif s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. French s (1948) article. caring social climate. and need to be led.
· A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people." that is. dysfunctions. Values have always been an integral part of OD. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. theory. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. practice. and unprincipled power. Out of this zeitgeist. bureaucracy.
Rensis Likert s New Patterns of Management (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. · Development of more effective "team management.structure may be appropriate. one-on-one leadership style. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. These six books presented the theory. an organic organization form is preferred. and values of the field. Writing in 1969.
This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. groups.
. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. as we have said. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. and organizations that is. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. optimistic. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. goal-oriented. humanistic. The Social Psychology of Organizations by Daniel Katz and Robert L. and greater individual autonomy. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. and shares decision-making with the work group. and negative consequences. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. and democratic. open communications. in an environment of high change. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company OD Six-Pack. compromise.
Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. mutual trust. and confidence between and across levels. 5. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. 2. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals.´ For example. Controls are interim measurements. 4.· Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. not the basis of managerial strategy. a professor and Sheldon Davis. sub-units of organizations. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. They listed these ³values in transition´ as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. not individuals. Here is his list. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. Therefore. Organizations. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility." like pushing buttons." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. M. director of organization development. Stalker used the term ³mechanistic´ in contrast to ³mechanical.
. 3. 6. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. the basic units of change are groups. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. 1. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. Robert Tannenbaum. "People support what they help create. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust.
· Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. appropriate uses of power. participation and contribution by all organization members. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. · Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. collaboration and co-operation. decentralized decision making. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies.· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. open communication. the legitimacy of feelings. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. autocratic. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. authentic interpersonal relations. 5.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions
. toward seeing them as being in process. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people.
invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. personal growth. challenge. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group¶s effectiveness and development. To do this. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. and usually with more than one group. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. groups. This skill is a trainable one. Third. Second. and interpersonal communication. not individuals. including peers and boss. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. remove obstacles and barriers. First. give autonomy. support. Most people want to develop their potential. Also. not a one-on-one leadership style. invest training time and money to increase group members¶ skills. and job satisfaction. at both the formal and informal levels. permit failure. and so on. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. and are capable of making. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making.
. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. and organizations? 5. 5. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. What occurs in the work group. conflict management. listen. set high standards. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. such as a work group. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. support. encourage risk-taking. a church or club group.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. give responsibility. Hence. the family. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. in addition.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture.5. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. leaders need to give important work to teams. facilitation.Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group.5. Implications of these assumptions are several. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. and reward success. and co-operation within the group.
adherence to the chain of command. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. 5. and empowering. a growing awareness that ³win-lose´ organizational situations. In addition.5. they change over time. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. including how persons C. formalized cross-functional communication.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. D. are dysfunctional over the long run and highlight the need for a ³win win´ attitude. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization¶s leaders. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. quality of output. and profitability. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. societal. developmental. and ways to optimize human potential." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. an optimistic. organizing structures. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. and so on-are obsolete.Finally. grouping by specialized function. emphasis on topdown directives. By implication. Therefore. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. Frequently the challenge is broader. values are never static. in which one side wins and the other side loses. Still. and E can support these changes. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where ³putting people first´ paid off handsomely in profits and performance. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. By implication. Finally. The implication is that people are an organization¶s most important resource. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. Concluding Comment:
. The rapid technological. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane.
_______________ gave theory X and theory Y.7 Terminal Questions 1. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. Values. Values are also beliefs. Cognitive
. Values. Define concepts. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. 2. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 3. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. The outcome of ±±±±±±±± was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. 5. Taylor¶s principles of scientific management.The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. 2. 5. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. Self Assessment Questions 1. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. 4.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. __________ is associated with scientific management. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. beliefs and assumptions. The concept of ±±±±±±±±±± was introduced by MaxWeber.W. 3. Write a note about F. 5. values. OD values tend to be humanistic. 5. and assumptions are all ±±±±±±±±±± facts. Values. optimistic and democratic. but are widely accepted today. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. beliefs.
1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6. Bureaucracy 4.3 3.2.2 Beyond the Quick Fix
. Refer section 5. Taylor 3. Refer section 5.1 Introduction Objectives 6. Refer section 5. Refer section 5.
MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development
Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6.2.3 4. Refer section 5. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1. Hawthorne experiments 5.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
.2.2 2. F. W.3 5.
3.3.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.11 Terminal Questions 6. Objectives: After studying this unit.3 Systems Theory 6.4 Participation and Empowerment 6.2.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.2.4 Open Systems Thinking 6. you will be able to:
.6.5 Teams and Teamwork 6.10 Summary 6.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.3. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.3.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6.1 The Nature of Systems 6.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed. In this discussion. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.
but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. Models and theories depict. We will examine the following concepts: · Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. · Explain systems theory. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. · Describe the parallel learning structures. in words or pictures.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. describe those features as variables. and specify the relationships among the variables. · Explain the terms µparticipation¶ and µempowerment¶. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in
.2. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field. the important features of some phenomenon. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. That is. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD.· Explain various models and theories of planned change. 6.
This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. Likewise. feel things. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. that is. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. judge things. Lewin¶s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. Identifying with a new role model. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. Next. Finally. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. moving to new level of behaviour. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. etc. Lewin¶s second idea was a model of the change process itself. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. mentor. he must move. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). Scanning the environment for new relevant information
. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. that is.opposing directions. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. b. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. With a technique called the force-field analysis. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. For example.
the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. that is. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. and Bruce Westley. which motivate the person to change. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. establishing goals and intentions of action. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. moving. The total personality and self-concept. and fit with the individual¶s social surroundings. refreezing. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person¶s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin¶s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. Significant relationships. That is. In stage 1. The primary task in stage 3. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s refreezing phase. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. for example. terminating the client-consultant relationship. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. 4. b. and attitudes. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change.Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking.
. That is. In stage 2. and 5 correspond ro Lewin¶s moving phase. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. Phases 3. which cause guilt and anxiety. This motivating evidence is gained by. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. unfreezing. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person¶s personality. Jeanne Watson. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s unfreezing phase. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system¶s problem. change will not occur.
and so forth. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. 2) Diagnosing the problems. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization.2 Beyond the ³Quick Fix´ A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization?
. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. Interventions include training programs." that. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". cause the organization to be successful.2. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. Change programs take from one to five years to complete. 4) The strategy-structure track. 6. when functioning properly. 3) The team-building track. called "tracks. and 5) The reward system track. Kilmann¶s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. critique practices and procedures. 2) The management skills track. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results.This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. problem-solving sessions.
TRW. OD programs are directed toward both first. communication. then moving to the team-building track.and second-order change. revolutionary. then moving to the management skills track. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. evolutionary. information sharing. work groups. and so forth. The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational.2. and Xerox with good results. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call ³transactional change´ and ³transformational change´).The culture track enhances trust. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. or continuous change. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. adaptive. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered ± the organization is transformed. jobs. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit ± thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. departments. and its holistic view of organization change and development. Ford General Electric. and all resources with the new strategic direction. beginning with the culture track. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. the use of updated management skills. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. 6.
. or discontinuous change. In second-order change. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. Westinghouse. In first-order change. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. Eastman Kodak. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. incremental.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. radical. General Foods.
These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees¶ reactions to current managerial and organization practices.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First ± Order Change
. management practices. individual and organizational performance.
Fig. which change motivation and. On the other hand. leadership. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles.Organizational climate is defined as people¶s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. in turn. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. We will do so in several steps. 6. and difficult to change." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. and beliefs that are enduring. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. hard-working or easy-going. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. management practices. friendly or unfriendly." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. Changing structure. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. often unconscious. values. and so forth. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. and organization culture result in second-order change.
Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. These factors are able to change the climate. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. 6. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation.
. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. and organization culture. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change.Fig. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization¶s culture. Interventions directed toward management practices. structure. as shown in the above figure.´ We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. To summarize. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. we must change mission and strategy. leadership styles. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. mission and strategy. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. that is. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second ± Order Change On the other hand. Burke says: ³Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics.
. physical setting. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. OD interventions that focus on goals. which influence on-the job behaviours. 6.Fig. required. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members¶ cognitions (they learn what is expected. and interaction processes will affect social factors. For example. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. management style.2. It is how OD works. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. strategies.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. Interventions that focus on culture. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. rewarded). which determine organizational performance and individual development. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. and technology. according to Porras and Robertson. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting.
5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory.
Fig. 6.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. describes the characteristics of systems. Systems
.Fig. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. 6. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966. This section explains systems theory. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment.
6. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. Therefore." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. the organization¶s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy. and if the environment does not want these outputs. that is the system. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. What is inside the boundary is the system. Boundaries of open systems are permeable." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts." To summarize. dynamics. the reasons for their existence. in that they permit exchange of information. system denotes interdependency. resources. They do something to the inputs via throughput. Thus. For example. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms.theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. people. the organization will cease to exist. and energy between system and environment. information. interconnectedness.
. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. Organizations are open systems. when taking a systems approach. money." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized. components. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. or subsystems. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. conversion.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. Every system is delineated by a boundary. raw material and so on.3. or transformation processes that change the inputs.system. Open systems have purposes and goals. Here. The words µarrangement¶ and µinterrelated¶ describe interdependent elements forming an entity.
and so on. negative and positive. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. Say your company makes buggy whips. while screening out other information. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. By the same token. For example. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. say. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. aerospace. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. however. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. If the mission (target) changes. and makes a course correction. eating fads. Information is important to systems in several ways.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems ³run down´ and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. 6. Positive feedback comes from the environment. that information is called positive feedback. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it.
. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. "return to earth. For example. It is sometimes called deviationamplifying feed back. Systems require two kinds of feedback. mining. and the like. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. and the system adjusts to a new goal. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. but most are not useful. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month.Fig. competitors.
the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state ± systems have multiple paths to goals. 6. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. knowledge. which includes the organization¶s culture informal rules and understandings. and complex over time. knowledge. which includes skills. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. systems tend to get more elaborated. unit/group level. such as capital.3. differentiated. and individual level. Subsystems exist within larger systems. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. this process is called differentiation. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. important events. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. failures.´ Also. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). specialized. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. either internal or external. work. people. and systems for performing the work. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. formal organization. The three major input factors are: 1) The environment.
. perceptions. which includes formal structures.Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. and technology. and informal organization. and the workforce¶s expectations.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. With increased differentiation. As Katz and Kahn say: ³The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. 2) Resources available to the organization. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. processes. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system.
For example. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. a social system and a technical system. multi-skilled teams. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. to the workers doing the job. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model¶s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. fit) must be present among the system¶s components¶ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. performance will suffer. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. training group members in multiple skills." and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. and that changes in one system affect the other system. In a company that is performing poorly. performance will suffer. 6. especially autonomous work groups (selfregulated teams or self-direct teams). If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. Fred Emery. organizations must optimize both systems. 6. If the organization¶s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. performance will suffer. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning.Fig. that is. and information to the point of action. which components are "not functioning correctly. controlling variance at the source. forming autonomous work groups.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. two active segments of OD today. ." The premise is that alignment (harmony. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work.3. Hanna writes:
. if people don¶t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work.
First. Charles Krone. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. not single effects. is the most important. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. events and forces. from their activities. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. the fifth discipline. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment.In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. and systems thinking. Third. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations.´ In conclusion. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. according to Peter Senge. For example. Second. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. forces. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. building shared vision. because most phenomena have more than one cause. and 3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. events. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stakeholders. He says of systems thinking: ³It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. Without a systemic orientation. 6. therefore. issues.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts.KI Jayaram. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. G.
. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. mental models.3. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. team learning. changing one part of a system influences other parts. systems thinking. Of all these disciplines. but seen in relation to other issues. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena.
" direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. and give more power to more people. survey feedback." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions.Fourth. one changes the system. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. involvement and participation energize greater performance. team building. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. Participation enhances empowerment. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. not just its component parts. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. to change a system. To empower is to give someone power. increase commitment to the organization. search conferences. growth. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. personal initiative. and change. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. quality circles. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. to exert influence. and to be responsible. reduce stress levels. The other view. autonomous work groups. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. And fifth. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. and growth. it is extended broadly throughout the organization." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. They believed that it was about risk-taking. Further. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice." These authors believe the organic view. For example. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. One view. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. quality of work life programs. called "organic. 6.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. with its emphasis on risk-taking." is bottom-up and less controlling. is the more useful perspective. But
. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. which they call "mechanistic. produce better solutions to problems. to contribute their ideas.
much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. If the team. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: ³Empowerment. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. QCs (quality circles). Second. teaming. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today ± gurus extol the virtues of teams. as a team. STS (socio-technical systems). employees must choose to be empowered. changes those norms and values. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. Team Taurus developed Ford¶s best-selling automobile. processes. systems. then. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. HPOs (high-performance organizations). "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. Teams and teamwork are "in. and relationships if they are to be effective. Third. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. is not something that management does to employees. to name just a few. teams create synergy. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. people must work together to accomplish them. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. the noun team has become a verb. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams).5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. but rather a mindset that employees have about their roles in the organization. that is. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. confident about their abilities. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. Theory. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries.´ 6. they must if personally connected to the organization. research.both views contain valid ideas: for example. While management can create a context that is more empowering.
. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded.
teams satisfy people¶s needs for social interaction. In this section. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. cross-functional teams. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. including collegiate football national champions. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. Examples are team-building. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. and respect-teams nurture human nature. role negotiation technique. find innovative ways around barriers. heart transplant surgical teams. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. team performance declines. recognition. status. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. and the like. socio-technical systems programs. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. and explore ways to realize that potential. parallel learning structures. process consultation. to determine the characteristics that make them successful.Fourth. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. temporary teams. quality circles. inter-group team-building. and others. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. that they achieve synergy. help each other. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. and set ever-higher goals.
. When any one feature is lost. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. and responsibility charting.
Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. and continuous learning. and initiate needed changes. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. flexible response. Union Pacific Railroad. superior customer service. At Ford Motor Company. High responsibility.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. Projects are the work of the future. Titeflex. In essence. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. What¶s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. you don¶t have a parallel structure. and employees. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. and acting differently than normally takes place at work.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing
. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. managers. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. clear objectives. Interestingly. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. deciding. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as ³a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). projects will be performed by teams. and then leading the process.Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional.´ Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. autonomous. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. If you don¶t implement different norms and procedures. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization¶s methods of work and/or culture. constitute another important foundation of organization development. Asea Brown Boveri. talking. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs.´ The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. It isn¶t the supplemental structure that¶s important. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. Bushe and Shani say: ³The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. 6. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. 6. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s.
The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. according to this view. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. anxieties. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. The first type is empirical rational strategies. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation.Organization development involves change. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-re-eductive and the empirical-rational strategies. Change in a pattern of practice or action. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. that is. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. skills. based on the assumptions that people are rational. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. and together they define problems and seek solutions. Evaluated against these three change strategies. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. and¶ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normativereductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. not just changes in knowledge. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. values. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. information. will follow their rational self-interest.
. relationships and customary ways of doing things. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. OD clearly falls within the normative-reeducative category. Patterns of action and practice are supported ± by sociocultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. doubts. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. attitudes. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. rather than the OD practitioner. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. and significant relationships.
Thus. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members." applied science. by modifying a group norm or standards. behavioural science knowledge. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. practices. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. i. thereby solving the problem. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. re-establishes the equilibrium. and (2) "technology. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. hopefully. not the individual. applied science or practice. or practice. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. on the basis of selected variables. Greenwood states: ³The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together.´ From this "practice theory.´ Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. The practitioner examines the problem situation. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments.
. On this point.e. for example.. 6. OD emphasizes the latter. Burke writes: ³If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. success corroborating the diagnosis. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. pressing problems. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge.
perhaps more accurately. Taken separately. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. Self Assessment Questions
. and action planning based on the data. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. the two top in puts. Action research involves three processes: data collection. The two bottom inputs. had this to say about it: ³The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. 6. who developed the concept of action research. practice research and practice theory.´ Concluding Comments: These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. represent contributions from applied science.Fig. and doing or implementing change efforts. feedback of the data to the client system members. Kurt Lewin. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing ± learning about the dynamics of organizational change.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. form of applied behavioural science.9 Action Research The action research model ± a data-based. and research leading to social action« This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. represent contributions from pure or basic science. 6. Taken collectively. It is a type of action-research.
12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Action research model combines learning and doing. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. Bring out the essence of ³managing beyond the quick fix´ model of organizational development. ±±±±±±±±±± gave the model ³Beyond the Quick Fix´. 6.1. 3. 2. 3. ³Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. A _____________ is defined as ³a set of elements standing in interaction. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. Transactional change
.11 Terminal Questions 1. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. Unfreezing 2.´ 5. ±±±±±±±±±± means moving to new level of behaviour. Ralph Kilmann 3. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain.´ Comment on this statement. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. 6.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. 4. 6. 2. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. First²order change is also called ___________. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. Explain Kurt Lewin¶s models and theories of planned organizational change. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. 4.
MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate
Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.1 2.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7.Refer section 6. System 5.4.1 Introduction Objectives 7. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 6.3 4.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture 7.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7. Refer section 6.6 Summary
.3 Types of Organization Culture.2 3.2.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
. 7.3 5.2. Refer section 6.2. Refer section 6.
Norms. the culture of a large. but also changing the corporate culture as well. ± similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone¶s personality. 2. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. For example. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. Culture is one of those terms that¶s difficult to express distinctly. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. values. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. do not do too little?´
. including guidelines on how much work to do. but everyone knows it when they sense it. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. Standards of behavior exist. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. · Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. Objectives: After studying this unit.7. Martin and Meyerson. 7. they use common language. 1986). When organizational participants interact with one another. Observed behavioral regularities. thinking. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented.7 Terminal Questions 7. what members wear.1 Introduction Basically. etc. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. Which in many organizations come down to ³Do not do too much. and rituals related to deference and demeanor.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. Practitioners are coming to realize that. despite the best-laid plans. what they brag about. terminology.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. discovered. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change.
value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay.3. They often have well-defined policies. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. 6. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. Rather than strict rules and procedures. Market cultures are outward looking. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. In contrast to Hierarchies. For many years. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. New-comers must learn those ³ropes´ in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. Typical examples are high product quality. outputs and outcomes. people are driven through vision. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. Organizational climate: This is an overall ³feeling´ that is conveyed by the physical layout.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber¶s original view of bureaucracy. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. 5. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization¶s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. Transactions are exchanges of value. processes and procedures. 7. internal and external are viewed in market terms. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. the way participants interact.
. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. In an efficient market organization. shared goals. but one where all transactions. 4. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl.
plaques. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. symbols. norms. invisible to the naked eye. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. big-bang projects and development. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. 1986). In biological terms. rules.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. the way they dress etc.
. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. and procedures. discovered. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. thinking. but critical to shaping its behavior. etc. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. Martin and Meyerson. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. 1993). culture is like the DNA of an organization. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. 7. the jargon they use.strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. Rules. · Its rituals. although not necessarily documented. systems and subsystems. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). supportive way and may take on a parental role. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially.
For example. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. also called as organizational success or growth. there are numerous variables. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. profitability. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. organizational growth. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. and what is right and what is wrong.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization¶s social environment and evolve of behavior. intervening and end result. Though each individual¶s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. the personality of the organization).Values: These are the social principles. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. individually and collectively. to denote organizational effectiveness.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. various terms such as efficiency. productivity. believing. and doing. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. and behaviour. are often used interchangeably. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. or standards held by members of an organization. its core value are limited to a few in number. Though an organization espouses a series of values. decisions. there is often contradiction in various approaches. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. skills. business and leadership strategies. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management¶s policies. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. from the basis of its policies and action. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. From this point of view. communicating. goals. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness.
. Identifying. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. Thus. 1.
A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. and perceptual cluster.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. However. e. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. is worth running some risks for. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. 3. and is worth the investment of time. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. the loyalties. attitudes. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. 4. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. and energy that will be required. According to Likert. That is. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. and they tend to be longterm goals.g. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. and so on. others are brought into the organization. money. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. 2. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. building. 3. obtaining patents. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. and earnings. performance goals. communication. For example. 7. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. motivational. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of ±date. costs. End ± result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. is workable. locating space. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance.. and a common history begins to be built. At this point. and decision-making.
. scrap loss.2. motivations. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: 1. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. incorporating.
and history of two firms. relationships. roles.Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. Structure. the geographic location. These factors from the two cultures include the size. Make changes from the top down. In addition. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. Include employees in the culture change process. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. take these losses early. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. attitudes. management. the ³culture contract´ that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. if possible. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. or even customers may support the existing culture. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. and patterns of daily behavior. Staffs. and whether products and/or services are involved. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. 2. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. 1. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. 2. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. 3. commitment. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. 5. Emotions.
. habits. Assess the current culture. 7. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can¶t be done successfully?. 3. powerful stakeholders such as unions. Politics. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. 4. The personal feelings. especially when making changes in rules and processes. age. 6.
Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture.7 Terminal Questions 1. 3. 2. Stay the course by being persistent. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. 9. ________cultures are outward looking. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach.6 Summary Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. system-resource approach. Causal variables Answers to TQs:
. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. Finally. 7. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. Artifacts 2. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. behavioural approach.goal approach. 2. 7. 7. Self Assessment Questions 1. Market 3. and strategic constituencies approach. 3.8.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization.
Power.10 Terminal Questions
.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.9 Summary 8. Refer section 7.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8.1. Refer section 7.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8.3 3.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
. Refer section 7.1 Introduction Objectives 8.Power.3 Two Faces of Power 8.
MU0002-Unit-08. Politics and Organization Development
we examine power and politics in relation to organization development." ³Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid today."
. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired. to effect outcomes. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. 8.´ ³A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related. emotions. Potential power is the capacity to do so. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations.´ Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations. and for change to occur in an organization.1 Introduction Power and politics. power must be exercised.actions and the decisions that precede them. · Explain theories about the sources of power.8. indisputable facts of organizational life. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes.¶ To have power is to be able to get desired things done. Objectives: After this studying this unit. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. In this unit.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8. The French word µpouvoir¶ stands for both the noun µpower¶ and the verb µto be able. and behaviours of people. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting.
unsocialized need to dominate others. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. however. Without leadership (power) in medical. and repression. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson¶s "Power-Dependence theory. both positive and negative. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others." A moment¶s reflection. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. an authority or power dimension is required. 8. bestowed. the act or ability of influencing others. and organizational activities. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. influence. forcing. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. confiscation. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. spiritual. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. Leading. political. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. hurting. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one¶s way in a social situation. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. absolute power corrupts absolutely. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. with collective. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" ± positive and negative. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. financial. technological. power being the predominant mode. being exercised. and lead.Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one¶s way. 8. not the possession of power as such. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. According to him. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. for organizations to function. In fact. influencing. or positive. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. or acquired? In this unit. and outcomes favoring one party over the other.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. Crushing. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. selling. Power-in-action may take many forms."
when the net balance for us is negative. Legitimate power ± power based on everyone¶s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. When the net balance for us is positive. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. that is. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. goals. Expert power ± power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. Referent power ± power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. and so forth. and desired by the other. rewards) that are controlled by one party. The sociologist. we will continue the exchange relationship.· French and Raven¶s "Bases of Social Power. Viewed in this light." · Mintzberg¶s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. blame. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. attraction." In other words. of social power as follows: 1. hate. information." These authors suggested five sources. 5. P. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A¶s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. we will terminate or alter the relationship. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. influence. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. 2. praise.
. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. rejection." · Salancik and Pfeffer¶s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. to give something negatively valued by the other. or bases. that is. 3. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. that person has power over us. Coercive power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. respect. power. to give something valued by the other. Reward power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. 4.
In this theory, power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals, units, or departments) most important for solving the organization¶s most critical problems. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. This theory, like the ones discussed previously, supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by- others-in this case, the special expertise needed for the organization¶s survival-have power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits, indeed, used by all who have it, to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources, through the placement of allies in key positions, and through the definition of organizational problems and policies." These authors view organizational power as a good thing, for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. This theory, "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players, called influencers, seek to control the organization¶s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power, coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. According to Mintzberg, the five possible bases of power are, first, control of a resource; second, control of a technical skill; and, third, control of a body of knowledge. All of these must be critical to the organization. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. In addition to a base of power, the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. An organization has many potential influencers, such as the board of directors, the managers, the top executives, the employees, the unions, suppliers, customers, regulators, and so forth. The important aspects of Mintzberg¶s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others, that power-in-action requires will and skill, and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In summary, these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar ± power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. The resources may be ability to reward and
punish, being in control of critical skills, knowledge, or information, the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined ³politics simply as the study of who gets what, when, and how´. ³Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices´. ³Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups´. ³Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means´. Thus, we view politics as a subset of power, treating it as informal power, illegitimate in nature. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power, but in this sense, formal power, the power vested in office, the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. Both relate to getting one¶s way-effectance. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. For our purposes, organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations; it is engaging in activities to get one¶s way. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities; the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics, like power, has two faces. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest; unsocialized needs to dominate others; a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win, you must lose-rather than win-win terms; and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy, surprise, holding hidden agendas, withholding information, deceiving. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others; viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible; engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing; a relative absence of the tactics of fighting; and a socialized need to lead, initiate, and influence others. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making, resource allocation, and conflict resolution processes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose; they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. In fact, one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation, conflict resolution, and choosing among alternative means and goals.
8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. Virtually, all OD interventions promote problem-solving, not politics, as a preferred way to get things accomplished. OD interventions increase problem-solving, collaboration, co-operation, fact-finding, and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. For example, OD interventions typically generate valid, public data about the organization¶s culture, processes, strengths, and weaknesses. Valid, public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations; rather, they enhance the positive face of power, thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy, it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme power-oriented situations. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power, but not with the negative face of power. Values such as trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first, problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations; second, power equalization, being one aspect of the positive face of power, increases the amount of power available to organization members, and by so doing adds power to the organization. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator, catalyst, problem solver, and educator. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. According to Chris Argyris, the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information, (2) to promote free, informed choice, and (3) to promote the client¶s internal commitment to the choices made. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner, his or her program, and his or her values, methods, and expertise. The OD consultant, like all consultants, provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors, as we discussed earlier. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. In summary, organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. This major strength of OD derives from the strategy of change, the technology, the values, and the roles of OD practitioners.
Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. and ability to gain organizational support. acceptability. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. Success leads to credibility and stature. experience. What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. First. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. 2. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. in powerful places. and expertise. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization¶s decision makers). coaching. it will be strong externally. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. it will gain more power. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage." 4. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. According to the framework of French and Raven. Skills such as listening. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). preferably multiple sponsorship."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. problem solving.
. 5. 6. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs.8. both as a person and as a professional. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. 3. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. communicating.
OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. OD programs should be results-oriented. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. not content. A valuable byproduct of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization¶s powerholders. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one¶s own or in others¶ political struggles. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. not by getting involved in the answers. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being managercentered. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request.counseling. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one¶s power base. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. which is to be an expert on process. not the OD consultant. Rule Six: Mind your own business. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. Rule Five: Mind your own business. The OD program belongs to the manager. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. usually managers. those issues vital to the organization¶s success. the manager will vigorously defend it. constructive social relationships. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity.
. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities.
The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. yet legitimate means of acquiring power.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge · Expertise · Information · Tradition Others¶ Support
Strategies for Success Playing It Straight · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information
Political access Staff support
. not power activist or power broker. Networking is recognized as a potent. 8. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena.Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. problem solver. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions. viable." which arouses defensive actions. We could propose more rules of thumb. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program." "using social networks.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. and personality characteristics. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. others¶ support." and "going around the formal system. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others¶ legitimate "turf. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. individual power derives from knowledge. and using contacts for information. and educator." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. the strategy and tactics of influence. catalyst. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. As shown in the figure. Table 8. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. negotiations the nature of power and politics. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation.
. This practical. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. visibility-how much one¶s work is seen by influential people. and legitimacy. Indeed. Whetton and Cameron¶s model is shown in following figure. personal attraction. and relevance-how important one¶s task is in relation to organizational priorities. arises from expertise. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. ³One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. criticality-how important one¶s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. even those of little power.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what¶s expected of them. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. a person¶s power comes from two main sources. In this model. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. Personal power.Personality
y y y
Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don¶t) use organization rules
Charisma Reputation Professional credibility
Finally. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks´. in turn. personal power and position power. effort.
They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. and are amenable to positive control. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. According to these authors. and (6) build on success. and (3) empowering others. Our suggestions for
. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. Whetton and Cameron suggest several means of resisting others¶ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. Concluding Comments: In this unit. Retribution refers to coercion and threats. actually using it to get things done is another." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people¶s inappropriate influence attempts.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. (2) provide a positive. collaborative work environment. Having power is one thing. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. reciprocity. arise from known conditions. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy." And. and retribution. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails.Fig. Power and politics are similar in nature. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. Usually reason is the preferred strategy. 8. power-in-use is called influence. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners.
2. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. Harold Lasswell
. ±±±±±±±± defined politics as the study of who gets what. ±±±±±±±±±± is made up of Charisma. when and how. 8. emotions or behaviour of people. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. reputation and professional credibility. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. and are amenable to positive control. _____________ has identified two faces of power. 3. 8. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. 2. 8. 5. McClelland 3. arise from known conditions. 5.using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. Power 2. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. and how. when.. Describe briefly various theories of power. 4. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 3. Self Assessment Questions 1. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ±±±± ±±±±±±±. Power can be either positive or negative.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. ±±±±±± is the intentional influence over the beliefs. 4. Define organization politics.10 Terminal Questions 1. Referent power 4. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. Power and politics are similar in nature.
6 Quality of Work Life Projects
.4 Management By Objectives 9. Refer section 8.6 5.2 Meaning and Definitions 9.3 Socio Technical Systems 9.4 3. Personality Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 8.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
.1 Introduction Objectives 9.5.
MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development
Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9. Refer section 8.2 2. Refer section 8.5 Quality Circles 9.5 4.Refer section 8.
10 Summary 9. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. · Explain Total Quality Management.11 Terminal Questions 9.8 Total Quality Management 9. organizational problems may repeat.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. In this dynamic and fluid environment. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization.
. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9. Objectives: After studying this unit. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. actions. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change.9. · Explain Reengineering. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program.
Organization Acceptance of Change. Structure changes are normally ³institutionalized´ and less subject to this problem. 1988): Determining the environmental demands Creating a vision statement Educating organizational members
. 4. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. Cost is Low.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another.9. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. 3. Rapidity of change. From a benefit cost analysis. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. 1967. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. Pasmore. 1976. 5. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. This normally is a reasonable. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. Downsizing associated with restructuring. In addition. It endeavors to re-design the organization¶s structure. The cost of structural change is generally ³front-end´ loaded. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. and more critically. Basic reinforcement theories. 9. organization theory. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. It could involve the following steps (Foster. Greater Predictability. 2. Cummings. Succession Doesn¶t Destroy Change Effort.
It is a particular way of thinking about management. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. On the other hand. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of
. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. Since then.´ Based on the definition of MBO. Creating the change structure Conducting socio-technical analysis Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. therefore. non-specialist. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. 2. its features can be identified as follows: 1. its definitional aspect.´ The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: ³MBO is a result-centered. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. In fact. As an approach to management. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. physical. Certain degree of overlapping is there. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. with objective orientation as its essence.
5. The performance review is held regularly. 6. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. 3. the clarity and balance of objectives. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. delegation of authority. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. are determined on the basis of objectives. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. 4.. (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. 1. Therefore. This. etc. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. normally once a year. Resource allocation. including the corporate level. then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities. What business are we in?´ and what should be our business?´ provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. Therefore.management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. It works as an integrating device. Similarly. Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives. and participation of the managers with accountability for results. its subsystems and people. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. ³why does the organization exist?´. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. Therefore. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. superiors and subordinates. (ii) long-range
. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis. all the units or departments and individual manager. Questions. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. such as. in interaction with external factors. enhancement of employee commitment and participation.
resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. Therefore. each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). there should be matching between objectives and resources. In fact. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization. there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate¶s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by setting easily achievable objectives. The process of objective setting begins with superior¶s proposed recommendations for his subordinate¶s objectives. Setting Subordinates¶ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability. (iv) productivity. (vi) financial and physical resources. (ii) market standing. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. 3. the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. Even though KRAs are most durable.and strategic objectives. the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. (iii) innovation. a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. However. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. If not. what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. Therefore. By relating these to objectives. By relating these to objectives. (vii) manager performance. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives. (iii) short-term organizational objectives. with the experience gained over the period of time. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully. Therefore. this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. 2. (v) individual manager¶s objectives. they also indicate the resource requirement. In turn.
. a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. and (viii) public responsibility. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization¶s health and the top management perspective for the future. there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. Sometimes. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. 5. (v) worker performance. 4. Thereafter. the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate.
which consequently result into high level of task variety.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis. require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. 9. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. but in its contemporary form. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process. or in people¶s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. appropriate feedback and employee discretion. and rewards. information.6. this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate.
. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s. Therefore. 9. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power. quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization¶s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases. 9. Quality circle program consists of several circles. · Make recommendations for improvement. each having three to fifteen members. it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. knowledge. hierarchical structure. on paper. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal. what happens at each level may affect other levels also. in general. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. QWL programs.
It is also called continuous quality improvement. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. · Competitive benchmarking. statistical quality control. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization.9. self-managed teams and task forces.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. 9. It is very popular in USA in 1990s. provides relevant information to all employees. · Participative management. Self Assessment Questions
. quality.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization¶s activities around the concept of quality. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. eliminating. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. such as cost. contemporary measures of performance. Reengineering is a top-down process. statistical process control. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. and speed. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. including the use of quality circles. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. service. and extensive use of employee participation.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization.
What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. It is also called continuous quality improvement.1. 9.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. From a benefit cost analysis. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. 9. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. Drucker 3. provides relevant information to all employees. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. 3. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. actions. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner.11 Terminal Questions 1. actions. Quality circle Answers to TQs:
. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. 2. Intervention 2. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. 9. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization.
1 Introduction Objectives 10.3 Resistance to Change 10.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change.
MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development
Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.Refer section 9.2 Nature of Change 10. 10.7 Summary 10.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10.8 Terminal Questions 10.2 3.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs
.1.5 4.4 Causes for Resistance to Change.3 2. Self Assessment Questions 10. Refer section 9. Refer section 9. Refer section 9.
cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. Any change may effect the whole organization. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. · Impact of change on future managers. 2. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium.whether physical. some parts of organization may be affected more. or social. indirectly. structural arrangement. organizational problems may repeat. organizational change may have the following features: 1.10. 10. others. Objectives: After studying this unit. 3. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. However. job design and people.2 Nature of Change The term µchange¶ refers to an alteration in a system. Organizational change is a continuous process. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled
. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. may require special change efforts. which are major ones. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. In this dynamic and fluid environment. and others. When change occurs in any part of the organization. and others. Hence. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. biological. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. some parts may be affected directly. Thus. Thus. less. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change.
that is. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. adjustment is fairly routine.´ Resistance as Benefit:
. there are two sides of resistance. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. If people resist to change. We wanted a new culture and new layout. but when a change is major or unusual. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. In fact. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. commented. the managers face the problem of resistance to change.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. On this phenomenon. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. In fact. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. employees want to maintain a status quo. We shall take new workers at the new place. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. Madhur Bajaj. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. so is the resistance to change. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. In fact.balloon. it becomes indented at the point of contact. it has stretched slightly. Thus. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past.as cost and as benefit. because it produces identical symptoms. more serious upsets may occur. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. 10. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. ³The Pune plant is fully saturated. if we look minutely. However. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. However. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. Similarly. Homeostasis implies selfcorrecting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost.
On the one hand, resistance to change is costly affair, and on the other, it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. While on negative side, the reality lies in between. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Thus, resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: 1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Therefore, the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. These feelings, either real or emotional, may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic, psychological and social. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological, job security etc. precede over other needs. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques, technology, etc., whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them, they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India, it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely, reduce job options, and turn into technological unemployment. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match.
3. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes, bonus, etc. All these are well-established in the old system. Whenever there is change, people may feel that in the new system, they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Psychological Factors Psychological factors are based on people¶s emotions, sentiments and attitudes towards change. These are qualitative and, therefore, may be logical from people¶s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent¶s point of view. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness, status quo, lack of trust in change agent, low tolerance for change, and fear of unknown. 1. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego, people resist change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Thus, the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. 2. Status Quo: People want status quo. i.e. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore, everyone tries to avoid it. 3. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo, people may differ. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Therefore, these people resist any new idea. 4. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent, that is, the person who initiates change. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent, they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 5. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The change will bring results in future, which is always uncertain. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction, particularly social needs, through their mutual compatible interactions. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change, people resist it. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.
1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. When there is any change, their existing social interactions are likely to be changed, which people do not want. Therefore, they resist change. 2. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class, e.g., change initiated by managers affecting workers. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change, even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. For example, Sumantra Ghoshal, a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru, has commented as follows: ³Nothing fails like success; nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation, Caterpillar, Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles, all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called µThe Failure of Success¶. Strategies, values, resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés, dogmas, millstones and routines.´ This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought, these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes, stability of systems, resource limitations, sunk cost, and inter-organizational agreement. Some of these reasons are basic while others are byproducts of those. For example, first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. 1. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices, they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. 2. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. For example, a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules, prescribes rigid authority relationships, and institutes reward and punishment system. All these work in some circumstances. It a change is required in these aspects, the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system.
the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. 1. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. it will require resources to procure machine. For example.
. broad environmental scanning. centralized control. Once the assets are acquired. intensive planning. innovative.3. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. if any change is to be incorporated. if the change is required. In this interaction process. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. This can be in the form of people also. those who watch things happen. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. if new technology is adopted. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. forward-looking. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. Resource Limitations: No doubt. For example. prospectors.´ This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. these can be used for specific period. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. those who wonder what happened. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. In such a case. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. decentralized controls. 2. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. Let us see what someone has said long back: ³There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. 5. and reactors. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. It depends more on the style of top management. building and training for its personnel. Thus. and commensurate expenses on other items also. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. analyzers. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. Now. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. 4. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. and has zeal for progress.defenders. If it is risk-taking. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. 3.
and so on. or the like. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one¶s income.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn¶t necessarily surface in standardized ways.4. 10. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. Therefore. If for example. The same applies to employee. To cope with this complexity.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. we don¶t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. engaging in a work showdown. immediate. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. you find a single route and you use it regularly. Otherwise. Habit Every day. And people in general don¶t like the unknown. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. we all rely on habits. they cannot survive. For instance. taking a new set of streets to work. finding a new parking place. or programmed responses. As human beings. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. They may. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. When we are confronted with change. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. Resistance can be overt. Let¶s look at the sources of resistance. Life is complex enough. therefore. we¶re creatures of habit. threatening to go on strike. Organizational resistance
. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. when you go to work or school. adjusting to the new office layout. it means you¶re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. some may fear they¶ll be unable to do so. developing a new lunchtime routine. For analytical purpose. or deferred. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. implicit. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won¶t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. we¶ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you¶re like most people.
group norms may act as a constraint. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. The
. for instance. for instance. You can¶t change one without affecting the others. 10. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. development of pay plans. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. rules and procedures for employees to follow.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. An individual union member. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. Formalization provides job description.Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. he¶s likely to resist. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization¶s structure to match. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. For example. For example. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. They tend to be content with the way things are. accountants work with marketers. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. and benefits administration ± has been resisted by many human resource departments. For example. That is. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. Will the change. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities ± such as training. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees.
rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time.ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue ± not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. For this purpose. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. 10. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. Therefore. typically by way of computer network links.´ The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. People always have some
. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people¶s resistance to change successfully. both at the formal and informal levels. For example. through group dynamics. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. Unless this problem is overcome properly. this is not a one-time action. that is. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. In addition. In many cases. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. However.´ Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. Locavini observes that ³the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. Stephen Robbins suggests that ³«« managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. at the level of individual and at the level of group. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. the following efforts can be taken: 1. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. the problems can be solved at the same level. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. It implies explanation and then discussion of the proposed changes.
its basic nature. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. However. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. As this process goes. Thus. to become effective. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. For this purpose. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. education must be a part of the manager¶s everyday activity on the job. Getting opinions out in the open.
. Though each person interprets the change individually often. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. meetings. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. helped to change attitudes. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. 3. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers.ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. (ii) In group. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. and conferences. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. more than one person is involved in the change. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. sometimes. its process and working. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. 4. as discussed earlier. The same is true of problem-solving. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. It grows slowly along with relationship. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. They must be taught new skills. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. People should be educated to become familiar with change. he expresses it through a group. the group itself should be the point of contact. Usually. is an important trust-building task. most of the times. and indoctrinated in new relationships. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. 2. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: 1. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. Thus. However. so that they are looked at and evaluated.
or deferred. benefits of change. psychodrama. Such training techniques include role playing. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. It purports how the results are. __________ are based on people¶s emotions. Economic factors. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. many things about change can be made clear. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing
. Research studies also support this aspect. implicit. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. For instance. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. group resistance and vested interests. Resistance can be overt. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. and how members contribute. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. 3. However.7 Summary Change is inevitable. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. immediate.such aspects as the reasons for change. 2. Self Assessment Questions 1. 2. mere participation may not help. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. 10. and sensitivity or T-group training. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. psychological factors. structural arrangement. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization.Through the group contact. social factors. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. 3. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. job design and people. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. sentiments and attitudes towards change.
Thomson South Western. · J.6. Jain. New Delhi. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. at the level of individual and at the level of group.. eighth edition. 10. Explain the nature of change? 2.Singh. 10. N. Organization Development. Refer section 10. · Harigopal K. Bell. Jr.8 Terminal Questions 1. Principles and Practices. Why do organizations resist change? 3. P. engaging in a work showdown. Refer section 10. Regal Publications New Delhi. threatening to go on strike. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. Reference: · Wendell L. French and Cecil H. Psychological factors 3. Organization Development & Change.. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. Participation Answers to TQs: 1.2 2. Modern Organization Development and Change.complaints. Refer section 10.4 3. through group dynamics. New Delhi. both at the formal and informal levels. Organization Theory and Design.Response Books. P.management of Organization Change. or the like. Organizational change 2.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. Thomson · Daft Richard L. that is. · Cummings & Worley.
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