MU0002-Unit-01-Introduction to Management
Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the µmanagement¶ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn µsurplus¶ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of a
business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term ³management´. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley ± ³Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.´ In the words of George R. Terry ± ³Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.´ According to James L. Lundy ± ³Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.´ In the words of Henry Fayol ± ³To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.´ According to Peter F. Drucker ± ³Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work´. In the words of Koontz and O¶Donnel ± ³Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals´.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren ± ³The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.´ From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that ³management´ is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as ³management´. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a ³distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.´ From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as ³doing things right´. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization¶s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as ³doing the right things´. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of course, high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. And poor
organizing. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. 5. 6. Managers apply knowledge. informed employees. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. Thus. namely. 1. All these resources are made available to those who manage. 2. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. directing and controlling. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. In essence. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. although they can¶t observe it during operation. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. The application of these concepts.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals¶ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land.management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. feeling of management is result-oriented. 3. Thus. principles and techniques which have wide applications. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. So it is treated as a science. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. principles and techniques requires specialized
. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. capital and materials. labour and capital. 7. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. staffing. 4. labour.
management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. In modern organizations. the effective use of the five M¶s of management (money. According to Newman. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. that is. useful. how effectively and economically the five M¶s are combined together to produce desired results. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. For instance. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. Sociology and Psychology.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. Anthropology.knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Generally. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. ongoing concern. 1. (ii) a system of authority. manpower. military. They transmit orders. a hierarchy of command and control. education. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. management is viewed as an art. materials. According to Herbision and Myers. money and machines into a productive. it refers to three distinct ideas. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. and (iii) a class or elite.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. labour and capital. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body.e. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. 9. personnel manager etc. materials. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. people are bound by authority relationships. In other words. Similarly. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. Basically. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem
. government and hospital. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. 10. 8. finance manager. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively.
the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. Operative management is concerned with the ³doing´ function such as implementation of policies.e. Supervisors. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. Purchase Manager. the lower level of management). viz. Administrative management is concerned with ³thinking´ functions such as laying down policy. day-to-day matters. The levels of management depend upon its size. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. but as head of wages and salary department. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. (i) administrative management (i. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. 1. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. planning and setting up of standards. We generally come across two broad levels of management. policies and plans for the enterprise.. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. its Chairman. Production Manager. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating
. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. ranks. or. Board of Directors. etc. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as µManagement¶ which refers to the group. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors... Marketing Manager. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. technical facilities. As a separate group. But in actual practice. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented.and suggestions upward. and the range of production. For instance. or the Chief Executive.e. ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. Managing Director. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. Foremen. Financial Controller. etc.
It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. d) To assemble the resources of money. materials. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans.
. f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. Without them the top management¶s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management.functions. j) To report to top management. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. e) To assign activities. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. machines and methods to put the plans into action. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. men. 2. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans.
Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. 3. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. With a view to realize the
. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. money and material. procedures and reward systems. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. counseling and effective leadership. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. Without management. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. 1. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. In its absence. an organization is merely a collection of men. They have to get the work done through the workers. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. Management makes group effort more effective. Management is goal-oriented. It consists of foreman. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. supervisors. machines. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual¶s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization.k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. Their authority and responsibility is limited. It is the activating force that gets things done through people.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. accounts officers and so on. sales officers. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. To this end. They allot various jobs to the workers. methods.
hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. identifiable discipline. Organize the resources properly. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. But unlike medicine or law. Thus unnecessary deviations. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. skills. They try to put everything on the right tract. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. the Indian Institute of Management. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions.predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. government policy. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. and it is distinct. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. Management as a profession By a professional manager. often threaten the survival of a firm. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. etc. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. Failure to take note of customer¶s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for µIdeal java¶ in the two-wheeler market in India. Management
. According to McFarland.. and specialized knowledge. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. techniques. competition. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. In the final analysis.
S. bribing public officials to gain favours.. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. 1. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. sabotaging trade unions. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature ± interpersonal roles. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. Furthermore. managers in general. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. motivating. and decision-making. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. Some individual business organizations. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. however. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. This role includes hiring. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. training. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the
. However. All managers have a role as a leader. unpatterned. The term µmanagement roles¶ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. an art as well as a profession. But in addition to these insights. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. management is not as exact as natural sciences. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. do not seem to adhere to the principle of ³service above self´. Half of these managers¶ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions.A. etc.Development Institute. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. For instance. In fact.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. As a social science. the American Management Association in U. and short-duration activities. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. and disciplining employees. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager¶s job. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. the All India Management Association. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions. However. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. the transfer of information.
duties of a legal or social nature. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager¶s unit. This is the disseminator role. manages also perform a spokesperson role. that involve outsiders. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. subordinates. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. and the like. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. activities that involve responsible for staffing. and associated duties. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. Typically. Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. what competitors may be planning. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. to some degree. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association.liaison role.
. obliged to Greeting visitors. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. making phone subordinates to members of the calls to relay information. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. and may be inside or outside the organization.1: Mintzberg¶s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities
Symbolic head. network of outside contacts and doing external board work. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public¶s tastes. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. understanding of organization and environment. training. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. Informational Roles: All managers. Table 1. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. informers who provide favors performing other activities and information. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information.
programming of subordinates work. physical and monetary resources. 1973). policies. Decisional Roles: Finally. negotiations. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the organizational decisions. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. As resource allocators. etc.. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to develop and initiates ³improvement new programs. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. performing all kinds ± in effect. outsiders on organization¶s giving information of the plans.
Disturbance handler Resource allocator
Source: Henry Mintzberg. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. actions. Last. Inc. serves as expert on organization¶s industry. managers are responsible for allocating human. media. As entrepreneurs.
organization ± some information is factual. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization¶s performance. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. Publishers. supervises design of certain projects as well. As disturbance handlers. projects´ to bring about change. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. results.
However. the roles of disseminator. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. They know how to communicate.
. a manager¶s job is varied and complex. lead. Conversely. and all managers are involved in making decisions. this skill is crucial. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. figurehead. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. human. and conceptual. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels.An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg¶s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager¶s level within the organization. negotiator. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. or manufacturing. For example. Specifically. research by Robert L. computers. such as engineering. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. In fact. Since managers deal directly with people. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers ± regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. finance. During the early 1970. Technical Skills: First-line managers. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization¶s speciality. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization¶s operations. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. motivate. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. as well as many middle managers. liaison.
Administration is a higher level function: Administration refers to policy-making. It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies. Floerence and Tead. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. Administration relates to the decision-making. Management relates to execution of decisions. Managers are concerned mainly with organisation and direction of human resources. Administrators are basically concerned with planning and control.1. According to them. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. plans and policies of the organisation. Nature 3. Spriegel and Walter. Thus. It is concerned with the implementation of policies. Administration is a determinative function. Management Management means getting the work done through and with others. etc. Thus.
2. It is a doing function. Meaning Administration Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. It is a thinking function. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. Spriegal and Lansburg. This view is held by Tead. iii) There is no distinction between the terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ and they are used interchangeably. Scope
. on the other hand. Table 1.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. administration is a higher level function.
counseling and effective leadership. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant at higher levels of management. middle and lower. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle level leading and motivation of executives. lower levels of management. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. 2. i. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces.
. 1. 6. ___________. Self Assessment Questions 1. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. 8. Still management is not completely a profession.9 Terminal Questions 1. There are three levels of management-top. Usage of Term The term µadministration¶ is The term µmanagement¶ is often associated with widely used in business government offices. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill.4. 7. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. _________.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. __________is principally the task of planning. Explain its characteristics. 3. operative workforce for the execution of plans. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. organisations. DecisionMaking
Administration determines Management decides who what is to be done and when it shall implement the is to be done. 5. objectives. Define management. public organisations in the private sector and non-business sector.. Five M¶s of management (________. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. environmental forces. 1. co-ordinating. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities.e. administrative decisions.
Refer section 1. Management 2.2. 3. Money.1. Discuss the importance of management.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.
Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2. manpower 3.3 Planning 2.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
.1 Introduction Objectives 2. Refer section 1.4 Organizing
.3 2. 1.2. Refer section 1. teamwork Answers to TQs: 1. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management.2 Process of Management 2.5 3. materials.
6 Directing 2. Organizing 3. Coordinating 5. Objectives: After this studying this unit. Management functions are as follows (Fayol.9 Terminal Questions 2. Commanding 4. Staffing. · Explain Planning.5 Staffing 2.2.8 Summary 2. you will be able to: · Define Management process. in recent time. Directing. · Explain different functions of management Process.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2. Controlling However. Organizing. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. Planning 2. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people´.
. 1949): 1. One can also think of management functionally. Motivating.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2.
while a policy. policies are the means to achieve those ends.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: ³Management is doing things right. overall goals. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. In the football field. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. Therefore. cost structure and so on. thus. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. general strategies. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. Decision ± Making Taking decisions is a process. fuel and machine efficiency. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. Objectives are the ends. Even so.2. say a passenger car. studies on passenger comfort. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization¶s mission. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. the two are not quite the same. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. However. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. Through leadership and management often overlap. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission:
. driving comfort. There is a degree of overlap between the two. or where you want go to. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. and allocating resources. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. and then set out the method for achieving it. 2. leadership is doing the right things³. the decision to change the design of a product.
What makes the organization distinctive? 2. governments (local. What is our market share? 5. How skilled is our workforce? 4. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2.A mission is the purpose of the organization. The mission statement is broad. Are the facilities outdated? 3. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. international). An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization¶s potential. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. customers (internal and external). How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. state. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). Is research and development adequate? 4. summarizing what the organization does. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. Thus. What financing is available? 6. suppliers. journals and reports (scientific. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. A mission statement should be short ± and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. and trade). Weaknesses. Opportunities. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at:
. federal. professional.
Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. Are our rivals weak? 5. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. What are the possible new markets? 3. What are the emerging technologies? 6. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. Are there new competitors? 3. etc. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. Objectives are also called performance goals. effectiveness. return on investment. as well as gap analysis. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. What substitute products exist? In general terms.1. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. the best strategy is one that fits the organization¶s strengths to opportunities in the environment. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. What are the new regulations? 6. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. earnings per share. Generally. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. Are market tastes changing? 5. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational)
. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. What is the strength of the economy? 4.
. operational plans are based on the organization¶s tactical plans. who reports to whom.4 Organizing It involves designing. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job 4. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. and where decisions are to be made. with ideas and resources. Review plans 2. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. Organizations are groups of people. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. 2. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. Assign work to individuals 6. and coordinated. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. and goals are clearly stated. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. In turn. tactical. who is to do. structuring. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. grouped. Strategic. lines of authority. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. 2. procedures. and relationships between departments. working toward common goals. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. how the tasks are to be grouped.Tactical plans are based on the organization¶s strategic plan.
growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals´. Definition: 1. Theo Haimann ± ³Concerned with the placement. O¶Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as ³filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. This task has been referred to as staffing. promotion. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. appraisal. development. 2. 4. performance appraisal etc. placement. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. money. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements.
. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. recruitment. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. training. materials. compensation and training of needed people´.It is not the machines. placement. 2. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. 5. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. inventorying the people available. selection. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. 3. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. selection. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick ± ³Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work´ Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. 3. Koontz. recruitment.
. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. It is a continuing function. directing is the ³interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals´.e.6. Direction is an important managerial function. Definition According to Koontz and O¶Donnel. 2. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. 3. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. Direction function is performed at every level of management. vacancies arise out of retirement. 5. induction. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. overseeing and leading people. etc. 2. selection. identifying the manpower requirements. It is instructing people as to what to do. on the other. 8. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. It is an important managerial function. motivate them. promotion. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. recruitment. On the one hand. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. Through direction. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through ± out the life of an organization. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. management initiates actions in the organization. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. resignation. training development and maintenance of personnel. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. Direction has dual objectives. 7. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively.
organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. the more individuality.Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. The further they progress up the hierarchy. and achievement. As Theo Haimann puts it. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. will vary depending upon his level. shelter. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. belongingness. coach and supervise his subordinates. and external esteem factors. ³without the issuance of directives. 2.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. and attention
. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. The needs are arranged in order of importance. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. and the Two-Factor theory. from the basic to the complex. sex. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. guide. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. 3. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. humanness and psychological health a person will show. satisfied needs cannot. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. recognition. self-respect. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. thirst. proposed by Maslow (1943). status. teach. The manager never ceases to direct. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. acceptance. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished´. 4. such as. 2. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. such as. Theories X and Y. autonomy.
company policy. self-direction. and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. Theory X ± In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. Extrinsic factors. responsibility. self-motivated. Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people¶s attitudes about work. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. autonomy and empowerment. It is also believed that. From the above. anxious to accept greater responsibility. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager¶s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. if they can. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. interpersonal relations. achieving one¶s potential. supervision. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. Social. esteem. advancement. and salary are hygiene factors. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. and exercise self-control.
. externally. recognition. such as. Theory Y ± In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. Motivators are intrinsic factors. includes growth. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace.· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. such as. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. working conditions. and achievement. whereas. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory.
It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. 2.In summary. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. neither will they be satisfied. 2. Hygiene factors on the other hand. Write a short not on directing. 3. how the tasks are to be grouped. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. who is to do. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. To motivate people. many related to the tasks being performed. Planning involves the process of defining goals. have to do with a person¶s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. performance appraisal etc. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. people will not be dissatisfied. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. recruitment. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. 2. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. Self Assessment Questions 1. who reports to whom. structuring.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs:
. When hygiene factors are adequate. motivators describe a person¶s relationship with what she or he does. Organization involves designing. Explain Staffing in detail 3. and where decisions are to be made. 2. What is planning? 2.9 Terminal Questions 1.
2 Definitions 3.3 Characteristics of OD 3.1.4 Categories of OD 3.3 2.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1. Reference 2.5 3. Reference 2.5 Goals of OD 3.7 Role of OD 3. SWOT 3. Reference 2. Follett 2.1 Introduction Objectives 3.
MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need
Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3.6 OD and Management Development 3.8 Problems in OD
and the organization¶s human and social processes. Early returns were encouraging. organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. Although new jobs are being created at record rates. organization structure. A variety of solutions exists. strategy. take advantage of opportunities. OD focuses on issues related to the ³human side´ of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals. and learn how to do that better and better over time. adapt. conflict resolution. and processes. culture. and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges ± finding satisfaction in and through work.9 Summary 3. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today¶s world is a daunting task. Simple survival ± continuing to have an adequate job ± is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. fighting obsolescence of one¶s knowledge and skills. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. And organization development (OD) is one of them.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3. challenges from turbulent environments. survive. and the like. and profitability. In summary. teams. and changing customer demands. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology. efficiency.
. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today ± threats to effectiveness. increased competition. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. ³Knowledge´ work is replacing ³muscle´ work. the answer is ³yes´. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope. Basically.10 Terminal Questions 3. and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks. strategy formulation and implementation. Today. organization development is a process of teaching people how to solve problems. maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals.Self Assessment Questions 3. and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace.
and 3) Developing the organization¶s self-renewing capacity (Beer.Objectives: After studying this unit. self-analytic methods. Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives«. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. and the dizzying rate of change itself. 3. (Bennis. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. people. · State the goals of OD. (Burke and Hornstein.change of an organization¶s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making. 1989)
. OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement. and challenges. (Schmuck and Miles. values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies. 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure. A ³process for improving processes´ ± that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill. attitudes. 1969). markets.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change. 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions. a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs. processes. planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. · Explain the characteristics of OD. using reflexive. strategy. you will be able to: · Define organization development. 1980). and culture. 1971) Organizational development is a process of planned change.
The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. and theory. Collectively. We will explain this definition in some detail. 1992) ³OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies. All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. empowerment. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. through the alteration of organizational members¶ on-the-job behaviours.³Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories. and problem-solving processes. they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving.´ (Cummings and Worley. and contain several unique insights (that¶s enlightening). 1993) ³Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization¶s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies. In fact. through an ongoing. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. By long-term effort. these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. that is. serious business. ³Organization development is a long-term effort.´ (Porras and Robertson. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. We do not propose it as the ³right´ definition.´ This definition is lengthy.´ (Burke. what practices should be included and excluded. these definitions overlap a great deal (that¶s encouraging). and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance. structure. strategies. learning. Organizational change is hard. it is more accurate to describe ³improvement´ as a never-ending journey of continuous change. Top management must initiate the improvement
. research. and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions. led and supported by top management. Likewise. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. 1994) As you can see. There is no ³quick fix´ when it comes to lasting organizational improvement.several years in most cases. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. to improve an organization¶s visioning. including action research. Now let¶s turn to our definition of organization development. values. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. and processes for improving an organization¶s effectiveness.
coherent. and take actions on problems. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. first. By learning processes. lost its commitment. By including culture so prominently in our definition. culture is of
. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. and challenges in the organization¶s environment and its internal functioning. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. By empowerment. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization¶s culture. Michael Beer¶s definition called for ³developing new and creative organizational solutions´. in contrast to having only a select few involved. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. strategy. Just as visioning.³journey´ and be committed to seeing it through. beliefs. And second. learning. listening. has a stake in making the organization work. commitment. activities. one of widespread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization¶s purposes. expectations. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. and common purposes of all members of the organization. For empowerment to become fact of life. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. interactions. make decisions. and each influences the others.´ Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. and culture. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. or became distracted with other duties. we mean those interacting. attitudes. We further believe that having compelling. and making it happen. not just a small group. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. where collective aspiration is set free. and processes makes each important. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as ³« organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. opportunities. solve problems. Still. structure. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization¶s members. vitality. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. structure. and organizational learning. By visioning processes. we mean. empowerment. norms. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. and artifacts. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. The reciprocal influence among culture. processes. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. By empowerment processes. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. sentiments. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. team. so is managing the culture. developing the strategy for getting there. assumptions.
think. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. individuals and the organization function well. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. members are trained in competencies such as planning. This method resulted in loss of synergy. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: ³Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. much rework. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. Processes are relatively easy to change. Temporary. think. Today¶s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. He uses the terms µmultifunctional projectization¶ and µhorizontal systems¶ to describe these teams and their work. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. In Liberation Management. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. engineering. So culture consists of basic assumptions. Over time. When one function finished with its part of the project. the process ³threw the results over the wall´ to the next functional unit. (b) invented. manufacturing. and procurement. and training. values. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. Further. wasted time. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be ³brain work´) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. empowerment. learning. empowerment. maintaining quality control.primary importance. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. By intact work teams and other configurations. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. so they are the place OD programs often begin ± getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. such as design. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification.
. When teams function well. and using management information. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. and feel in relation to those problems. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. hiring. firing. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the ³right´ ways. Processes are how things get done. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. discovered. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. and problem-solving processes. or developed by a given group. But in many organizations today. and we highlight the importance of visioning. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams.
To summarize. 3. 4. 10.3 Characteristics of OD 1. rather than focusing attention on individuals. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. 8. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. OD focuses on culture and processes. Specifically. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. 7. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. 9. OD
. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides.multifunctional. Attempting to create ³win-win´ solutions is standard practice in OD programs. dynamic and adaptive system. 2. 5. according to Peters. and co-learners with the client system. so that change is easily observed. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. collaborators. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. 2. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today¶s fast-paced market place. OD practitioners are facilitators. 6. 3. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. This µplanned¶ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD.
Key areas are the normative type of model. and mutual influence. 3. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that µnorms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones¶. It recognizes that organizational goals change. Action research is the basis for such intervention. 7. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. temporary. joint goals and means.efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. rather. takes actions for intervention. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. The relationship involves mutual trust. and integrate individual and organizational goals. At the individual level. or isolated problems. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be µhuman¶ and to increase awareness. identity. They discourage µdo it yourself¶ approach. Rather. collects relevant data. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. and revitalization. 5. and then. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. evaluates these data. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. third party change agent. they are ongoing. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. interactive. Thus. participation. He shares a social philosophy about human values. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements
. and cyclic processes. further more. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. 4. he conducts surveys. 3. rather. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. problem-solving. 6. growth. or catalyst.
and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. Although Organization Development Programmes vary.
. This Organization Development progrmmes. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization¶s goals (profit or service) and development of people. practitioners and the client laymen. (c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. first. like other normative re-educative programmes. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization.of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. Two important elements of Organization Development are. problem solving climate throughout an organization. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. 3. second. with the authority of knowledge and competence. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. (g) To increase the sense of µownership¶ or organization¶s objectives throughout the work force. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development.
then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager¶s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. OD tries to fit the organization to the men.
. according to him. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. The term µdevelopment¶ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education.´ Organization development differs from management development. 3. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization.(h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one¶s area of responsibility. According to him. with their existing objectives and structure. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. Before making a comparison between the two. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. Based on this. and greater display of feelings and emotions.6 OD and Management Development At this stage. more attention to peer-groups. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. (iii) assertiveness. (ii) competitiveness. management development has been defined as follows: ³Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. less individual competitiveness. However. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table.
and laterally.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development.
. 3. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. No special requirement.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. plays key role in organizational improvement. Thus. 3. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization.Focus
Approach Time Specialist
accomplishments. Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing organization. horizontally. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. 5. however. focus on achieving improvement in design. 7. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. not on the managers. In early 60s. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. Educative and training Short-range. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. By 70s. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales.
3. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. 6. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. 4. however. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. 2. Problem-solving approach. Trained specialists required. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work.
Focus on design. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time.
Thus. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. For example. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. it is useless to try OD. particularly in bottom-line ones. There should be proper use of OD interventions. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. However. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real.confrontation techniques. in order to make best use of OD efforts. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. it fails even as a long-term strategy. OD programmes are often quite costly. etc. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. some specific efforts are required. Therefore. Research studies have also failed to conclude significant contributions of OD in all organizations. Self Assessment Questions
. If an organization is laden with these people. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. 2. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. Hence. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. Therefore. 5. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. 5. In general. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. 3. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. 4. 3. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. 4. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. 2.
But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. 5. Tom Peters 3. ±±±±±±±±± is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. 3. 2. problem-focused µnature of OD¶ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. collaborative. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. Explain the various characteristics of OD.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. 4.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Peter Senge
. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. State the various roles of OD. ±±±±±±± is associated with ³Liberation Management´. Empowerment 4. The participative. There is no µquick fix¶ to organizations¶ problems. Top management 2. 3. 4. _____________is a short-term strategy. Distinguish between µorganizational development¶ and µmanagement development¶.10 Terminal Questions 1. Explain its salient features. Who is associated with the ³Learning Organizations´? 5. 2. 3. 3. OD focuses on culture and processes. Organization development should be led and supported by ±±±±±±±. Define OD. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3.1.
Management development Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 3.2 Survey Feedback 4.7 5.6 4. Refer section 3.5 Leadership Development 4.5.6 Team-building
.3 Process Consultation 4.Organization Development ± Interventions Structure: 4.
MU0002-Unit-04. Refer section 3.Organization Development ± Interventions
Unit-04. Refer section 3.2 2.1 Introduction Objectives 4.4 Grid Training 4.3 3.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
. Refer section 3.
many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels.10 Summary 4. they make things happen. the classification of OD interventions shows variation.4. and survey feedback method. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: ³Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. team-building. mediation and negotiation activities. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. education and training.7 Inter Group Development 4. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. interpersonal level. and organizational culture. management grid. However.´ There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. Subsequently. inter-group level. Thus.11 Terminal Questions 4. survey feedback.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. and organizational level. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. Nevertheless. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. Historically. inter-group activities. process consultation. other techniques like process
.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. Therefore. grid training. People¶s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level.8 Change Agents 4.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. group level. techno-structural activities. work group. For example. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the range of change that an organization requires. Further. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach.
consultation, team- building, and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives, have been added. Our further discussion follows this development. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. · Explain grid training. · Describe process consultation. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Role of change agents. 4.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid), the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier, Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan, USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 2. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection, feedback of information, developing action plans based on feedback, and follow up. 1. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership ± managerial support, managerial goal emphasis, managerial work facilitation, peer support, peer goal emphasis, peer work facilitation, and peer interaction facilitation, organizational climate-communication with the company, motivation, decision-making, control within the company, co-ordination between departments, and general management, and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company, satisfaction with the supervisor, satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with the pay, and satisfaction with the work group. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization¶s personnel.
After the questionnaires are completed, data are classified, tabulated, and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 2. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed, feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. In oral system of feedback, it is provided through group discussion or problemsolving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively, feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted, it should be constructive and suggestive, rather, threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case, follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building, by the consultant. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. In particular, survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. 2. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However, effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. First, questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. If it is biased, all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Second, even if valid and reliable information is collected, it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change; it provides base for action for change. 4.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Edgar Schein, the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows:
³The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client¶s environment.´ The basic objectives of P.C are as follows: 1. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership, communication, roles and functions of group members, group decision-making and problemsolving, group norms, and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD. 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 2. Define the Relationship: At this stage, client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees, and spelling out services, time, etc. At this stage, the client¶s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. 3. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. At this stage, the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 4. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 5. Intervene: At this stage, the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural change. 6. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.C is completed, the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes, he assists the
2.C programmes. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant¶s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. focuses on skills. 3. objective-setting. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. groups. inter-group. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. traditions. In the review of various P. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. However. However. knowledge. The skills relating to planning. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change.
. and problemsolving are also developed. problem-solving. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. and alike. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. The grid organization development consists of six phases. and teamwork.organizational members to incorporate those changes. P. From this point of view. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change.C is also not free from criticisms. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. 2. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. P. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. Inter-group Development: At this phase. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. and the organization as a whole. like other OD intervention techniques. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. 3. 1. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. group. 4. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. communication skills. and total organizational levels.
In this light. Systematic Critique: In this stage. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. concerned and committed to their welfare. it discounts reality. they maintained the same stand. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. and credibility of senior and middle management. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4.4. Also during these times of change. confident and effective decision-making. They have maintained that ³managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. During drastic change times. in spite of these criticisms. grid training is a non-rigorous method. and After Arrival. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. 6. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. lead. Furthermore. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. and regular. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". while at the same time
. competence. We will look more carefully at each of these. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. Slogging Through The Swamp. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. therefore. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. Further. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. the various programmes may be redesigned.5 Leadership Development When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. The strategy is then implemented.´ In a later work. is the ability of leadership to«well. 5. complete communication that is timely. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. 4. If you are to manage change effectively. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. employees will perceive leadership as supportive.
Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. storming. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone¶s best interests. The existence of this trust. Leadership before. which. let us consider the life cycle of a team. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. problems in team-work. but more importantly. teambuilding is the most important. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as ³who will be members of the team?´ ³Who will perform what functions?´ ³Who will contribute what?´ ³What rules will be
. norming. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. As against these. Unfortunately. performing. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. if haven¶t established a track record of effective leadership. it may be too late. brings hope for better times in the future. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp.´ A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. 4. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. In a climate of distrust. employees expect nothing positive.recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. These stages are: forming. 4. therefore. and adjourning as shown below:
Fig.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. if allowed to go on for too long. how synergy is generated through team-work. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. French and Bell have opined that ³probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team¶s time together. widely accepted. For example. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement.
Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. committee. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. 3. At this stage. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. 5. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team¶s goals. After the adjournment of the team. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: ³Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. The adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. However. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks.´
. 2. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. etc. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. Norming: After storming stage. because of individual differences. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. At this stage. start to accept others. 4. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed.followed?´ ³How can conflicts among members be resolved?´ and so on. They share personal information. Sooner or later. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. team members start settling. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. jockeying for relative control. each team has to be adjourned. and tasks are accompanied efficiently.
individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. fail to perform their assigned tasks. For example. In such an assignment. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. the team would be effective. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. it was found that individuals¶ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. in one experiment. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine.Thus. and so on. They averaged 138.2 pounds. 2. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. group efforts tend to slacken. the complementarity among members is achieved. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. other factors remaining the same. In the above paragraph. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. From this statement. In fact.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. To the extent. goals. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group¶s meetings. it appears that there are many
. that is. other factors remaining the same. group of eight. and attitudes. the individual average dropped down still lower-68. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members.
If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials. While skills are relevant for job performance. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. Thus.financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. they will put their maximum. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. management consultants. 2. two things are required from its members. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. serve to focus attention. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. These factors are skills and role clarity. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. then.factors in an effective team. unify efforts. Rewards of both types. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. Further. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one¶s own role as well as roles of other members. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. complementary skills. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals. 3. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group. customer satisfaction. These super-ordinate goals.
. 3. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. 4. or propose discipline for team members. Therefore. organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. 1. Katzenbatch and Smith. have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. goals. and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality. and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. common purpose. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance. make recommendations regarding a new supervisor. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. supportive environment. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. 2. Even if one member lacks behind.
Analyzing how the team is working. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. such as. and 5. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1.
. and 5. 1. 2.4. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared. 4. Analyzing how the work is performed. the emphasis should be on consensus. they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. 4. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. personality and attitudes. 3. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure. and rewards. their value systems. rather. Providing positive feedback.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action. At this stage. Analyzing how team¶s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. Setting goals and priorities for the team. 2. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. In problem identification. For achieving these. group problems to even personal problem. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem.
Fig. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. recognition. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds.
Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours: Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. the stying with the topic or going off on tangents. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. 5. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time. At this stage. cynicism. undermining morale. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. (ii) Attacking: deriding. encouraging others to participate. Often. who was talking more or who was talking less. (iii) Clarifying: resting. 4. there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing. about the issue.
. belittling. understanding. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. seeking relevant information.
(i) Over talk: interrupting. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team¶s responsibilities. and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility. the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. (iii) Negative: cooling. people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. the way people talk about the issue. etc. also provides opportunity to understand themselves. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. etc. If this process is adopted several times. information. feelings. ensuring. talking together with speaker. who was trying to resolve the differences. clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork.3. Followup action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of team-building. criticizing person. At the time of discussion of feedback.
this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. stereotypes. it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. In general. one of the more
.These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. 2. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. and feedback skills). team-building has a positive outlook. It improves the organization¶s problem-solving and decision-making ability.. in different degrees. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. are not given adequate attention. However. It seeks to change to attitudes. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier. As a result. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. to encourage and sustain such feelings. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. However. though. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. Therefore. team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. etc.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. communicating. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. 3. structure. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. listening. 4. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage. and perceptions that groups have of each other. In spite of these problems. However. it is not that effective in isolation. monitoring. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. 2. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the organization¶s outcomes.
Outside consultants. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. operating procedures. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. The groups then share their lists. culture. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. Trainer
. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action.Popular methods emphasize problem solving. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. but one thing he/she is not the driver´. the other group. after which similarities and differences are discussed. 4. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization¶s history. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. In this method. Subgroups. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. the groups can move to the integration phase ± working to develop solutions that will improve relations. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. as the break for too quick action. or outside consultants. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. According to Curtis Mial: ³The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. as the accelerator to build up momentum. In contrast.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . Differences are clearly articulate. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. however. with members from each of the conflicting groups.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. 4. employees of the organization. For major change efforts. and personnel. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes ± which can be benefit or a disadvantage ± because they don¶t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented.
inter-group and total organization levels. skills and change in behavior. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization?
. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. In process consultation. It focuses on skills. role-plays and instruments. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. Training is required for enhancing knowledge. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies ± lectures. changing (intervening) and refreezing. group discussions. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. 2. feedback of information. Training is used both in µcontent orientation¶ and process orientation¶. 4. attitudes and beliefs. diagnosis. cases and experiential learning etc. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events.A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. group.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. Self Assessment Questions 1. films. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. Grid Training was developed by ±±±±±±±±±±±± 3. Data collection. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. Team-building is most important. presentations. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses.11 Terminal Questions 1. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing.
Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1.2 3. Data collection 2. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? 3. Refer section 4. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4. Refer section 4. 4.6 4. and Beliefs in Organization Development
Unit-05-Values. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5.2. Refer section 4.4 2. 3.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Refer section 4.1 Introduction
MU0002-Unit-05-Values. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. Assumptions. Blake and Mouton. Assumptions.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
.5. Objectives: After studying this unit.5. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.7 Terminal Questions 5.2 Definitions 5.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies. beliefs and assumptions. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves. 5.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5. assumptions. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5. · List the chronology of events of values. beliefs and assumptions.Objectives 5.1 Introduction A set of values.
treat people with respect and dignity." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. and assumptions being. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. 5. dishonesty). the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. optimistic. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. the human relations movement.. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. research on the effects of different leadership styles. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development.g.
.g. and that rationality. it is a cognitive fact for the person. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies.A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or µgood¶ (e. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly." or slacking off. and the like. Thus. assumptions. Values. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources ± the Hawthorne studies. OD values tend to be humanistic. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. with values being beliefs about good and bad. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power.. the laboratory training movement. Simple. values. Taylor s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. free speech) and what is undesirable or µbad¶ (e. and democratic. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. reason. As these ingredients accumulated. or spirit of the time.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought
Frederick Winslow Taylor s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. strongly held. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. assumptions.
and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. and the supervisor determined their performance. the work environment. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. A strong hierarchy of authority. extensive division of labor. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. a management theorist and astute observer of labour-management relations. apathy. organizations were not machines. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors.y
The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of bureaucracy as the best. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. impersonal rules. Mary Parker Follett (1926). and a general humanizing of the workplace. Research by Lewin. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. most efficient way to organize people. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people s beliefs about organizational behaviour. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. wrote an article on The Giving of Orders advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. These approaches possessed many desirable features. In a sense. The Functions of the Executive by Chester 1. People came to work as whole people. much of the research. Group Dynamics (1940) The scientific study of groups using experimental research methodswas launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. their feelings and attitudes about the work. The human relations movement advocated participative management. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company.
. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). Their simple. Lippitt (1939). theory. aggressiveness and poor performance. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. greater attention to workers social needs. People were not cogs. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences.
pioneers in laboratory training. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. lack ambition. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. increase self-understanding. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. are self-centered. In an environment of slow change. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. this book popularized Maslow s motivation theory. Lester Coch and John R. Rogers focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). Overcoming Resistance to Change. This article introduced the concept of organizations as socio-technical systems. caring social climate. and need to be led. dislike responsibility. The theory postulated that when lower-level needs are satisfied. P. resist change. management practices. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. a direct precursor of OD.y
These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). and understand group dynamics. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. The task of management is to change organizational structures. Chris Argyrif s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. healthy adults. indifferent to the organization s needs. Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. to assume responsibility. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. French s (1948) article. a mechanistic organization
. higherlevel needs become dominant.
open communications. goal-oriented. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company OD Six-Pack. and organizations that is. Writing in 1969. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. dysfunctions." that is. an organic organization form is preferred. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. and shares decision-making with the work group.
This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. in an environment of high change. groups. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. and unprincipled power. practice. one-on-one leadership style.
. bureaucracy.structure may be appropriate. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field.
Rensis Likert s New Patterns of Management (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. Values have always been an integral part of OD. The Social Psychology of Organizations by Daniel Katz and Robert L. and greater individual autonomy. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. humanistic. optimistic. and negative consequences. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. · Development of more effective "team management. (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. and democratic. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. and values of the field. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. as we have said. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. theory. compromise. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. These six books presented the theory. Out of this zeitgeist. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. and observations utilized by OD practitioners.
Controls are interim measurements. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. not individuals." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. sub-units of organizations." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. Robert Tannenbaum. and confidence between and across levels. M. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. 6." like pushing buttons. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. 1. They listed these ³values in transition´ as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. 4.´ For example. mutual trust. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. Stalker used the term ³mechanistic´ in contrast to ³mechanical.
. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. director of organization development. 5. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. a professor and Sheldon Davis. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. Here is his list. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners.· Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. 2. Therefore. not the basis of managerial strategy. 3. Organizations. the basic units of change are groups." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. "People support what they help create.
· Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian.· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions
. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. appropriate uses of power. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. decentralized decision making. open communication. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. collaboration and co-operation. · Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. autocratic. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. participation and contribution by all organization members. authentic interpersonal relations. the legitimacy of feelings. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. toward seeing them as being in process. 5. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration.
group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. remove obstacles and barriers.
. encourage risk-taking. not a one-on-one leadership style. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. and organizations? 5. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. leaders need to give important work to teams.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. and so on. challenge. What occurs in the work group.5. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. give responsibility. conflict management. including peers and boss. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. Implications of these assumptions are several. a church or club group. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. and interpersonal communication. This skill is a trainable one. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. set high standards. Third. give autonomy. groups. support. the family. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making.5. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. Second. such as a work group. not individuals. personal growth. permit failure. invest training time and money to increase group members¶ skills. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. Most people want to develop their potential. support. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. and usually with more than one group. 5. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. in addition. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. and reward success. To do this. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better.Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. Also.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. facilitation. and co-operation within the group. and are capable of making. First. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group¶s effectiveness and development. listen. and job satisfaction. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. Hence. at both the formal and informal levels.
and E can support these changes. in which one side wins and the other side loses. 5. Therefore.Finally. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. and empowering." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization¶s leaders. grouping by specialized function. and profitability. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. values are never static. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where ³putting people first´ paid off handsomely in profits and performance. Still. an optimistic. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. By implication. quality of output. The rapid technological. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. D. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. The implication is that people are an organization¶s most important resource. a growing awareness that ³win-lose´ organizational situations. formalized cross-functional communication. Concluding Comment:
. are dysfunctional over the long run and highlight the need for a ³win win´ attitude. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. including how persons C. In addition. Frequently the challenge is broader. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. adherence to the chain of command. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. and so on-are obsolete. developmental. organizing structures. societal. they change over time. and ways to optimize human potential. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. Finally. By implication. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. emphasis on topdown directives.5.
These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. 3. 2. Write a note about F. but are widely accepted today. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. __________ is associated with scientific management. Taylor¶s principles of scientific management.The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. beliefs and assumptions. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. OD values tend to be humanistic. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. Cognitive
.7 Terminal Questions 1. 5. 2. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. beliefs. 4. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. Self Assessment Questions 1. optimistic and democratic. 5. values. Values. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. Values are also beliefs. 5. The concept of ±±±±±±±±±± was introduced by MaxWeber. and assumptions are all ±±±±±±±±±± facts. The outcome of ±±±±±±±± was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. Values. Values. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. 3. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. 5.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations.W. Define concepts.
3 4. Refer section 5.2.3 5.2 2. W.2. Refer section 5. Refer section 5.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6.2.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
. Bureaucracy 4. Hawthorne experiments 5. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1.2 Beyond the Quick Fix
. Taylor 3. F.3 3. Refer section 5.
MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development
Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6. Refer section 5.1 Introduction Objectives 6.
3.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6.3.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.3.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6.3 Systems Theory 6.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.2.4 Participation and Empowerment 6.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice.2.11 Terminal Questions 6.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning. you will be able to:
.3.1 The Nature of Systems 6.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.10 Summary 6.5 Teams and Teamwork 6.6. In this discussion.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6. Objectives: After studying this unit.
2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. We will examine the following concepts: · Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables. describe those features as variables. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. Models and theories depict. the important features of some phenomenon.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in
. 6. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. · Explain systems theory.· Explain various models and theories of planned change. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. That is.2. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. · Describe the parallel learning structures. and specify the relationships among the variables. in words or pictures. · Explain the terms µparticipation¶ and µempowerment¶.
With a technique called the force-field analysis. that is. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion.opposing directions. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. judge things. etc. mentor. Lewin¶s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). Finally. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. Next. For example. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. he must move. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. Lewin¶s second idea was a model of the change process itself. Identifying with a new role model. moving to new level of behaviour. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. Likewise. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. feel things. Scanning the environment for new relevant information
. b. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. that is. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces.
the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. which motivate the person to change. refreezing. that is. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. and attitudes. change will not occur. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. Significant relationships. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s unfreezing phase. That is. terminating the client-consultant relationship. In stage 1. Jeanne Watson. moving. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. That is. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. Phases 3. b. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. and 5 correspond ro Lewin¶s moving phase. establishing goals and intentions of action. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person¶s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin¶s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. The primary task in stage 3. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts.
. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person¶s personality. 4. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. which cause guilt and anxiety. for example.Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. and Bruce Westley. The total personality and self-concept. unfreezing. This motivating evidence is gained by. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s refreezing phase. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system¶s problem. In stage 2. and fit with the individual¶s social surroundings.
" that. 6. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. 3) The team-building track. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization?
. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points.2 Beyond the ³Quick Fix´ A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. 4) The strategy-structure track. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". critique practices and procedures. 2) The management skills track. cause the organization to be successful. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. Change programs take from one to five years to complete. called "tracks.This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. Interventions include training programs. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. and so forth. Kilmann¶s five tracks are: 1) The culture track.2. problem-solving sessions. 2) Diagnosing the problems. when functioning properly. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. and 5) The reward system track.
and all resources with the new strategic direction. Eastman Kodak. and so forth. TRW. work groups. radical. General Foods. OD programs are directed toward both first. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same.and second-order change. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. or continuous change. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. Westinghouse. information sharing. communication. 6. departments. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. In second-order change. incremental. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call ³transactional change´ and ³transformational change´). revolutionary. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. adaptive. then moving to the management skills track.The culture track enhances trust. then moving to the team-building track. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. and its holistic view of organization change and development. In first-order change. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. the use of updated management skills.
. or discontinuous change. evolutionary. beginning with the culture track. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit ± thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered ± the organization is transformed.2. The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. and Xerox with good results. Ford General Electric. jobs. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T.
" Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees¶ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. and beliefs that are enduring. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. individual and organizational performance. management practices." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. management practices. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. often unconscious. friendly or unfriendly. which change motivation and. leadership. Changing structure. values. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.Organizational climate is defined as people¶s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. hard-working or easy-going. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. in turn.
Fig. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First ± Order Change
. and organization culture result in second-order change. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. 6. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. and difficult to change. and so forth. On the other hand. We will do so in several steps. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles.
Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. These factors are able to change the climate. that is.Fig.´ We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. Interventions directed toward management practices. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. To summarize. and organization culture. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. leadership styles. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. Burke says: ³Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. as shown in the above figure. structure. mission and strategy. we must change mission and strategy. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization¶s culture. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change.
. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second ± Order Change On the other hand. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. 6.
which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements.2. Interventions that focus on culture. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. and interaction processes will affect social factors. and technology. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. It is how OD works.
. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. OD interventions that focus on goals. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. social factors. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. which influence on-the job behaviours.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members¶ cognitions (they learn what is expected. which determine organizational performance and individual development.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. management style. 6. strategies. according to Porras and Robertson. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. rewarded). required. physical setting. For example.Fig.
describes the characteristics of systems. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. This section explains systems theory. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. 6.Fig.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures. 6.
.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966.
6. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. the organization¶s purposes will be reflected in its outputs.theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. system denotes interdependency." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts." To summarize. people." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized. Therefore. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. when taking a systems approach. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. They do something to the inputs via throughput. or subsystems. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. raw material and so on. the organization will cease to exist. information.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. Here. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy. For example. dynamics. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. What is inside the boundary is the system. resources.3. Thus. Every system is delineated by a boundary. and if the environment does not want these outputs. the reasons for their existence. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. components. The words µarrangement¶ and µinterrelated¶ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. that is the system. interconnectedness. conversion. money. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes.system. Organizations are open systems. Open systems have purposes and goals. or transformation processes that change the inputs. and energy between system and environment. in that they permit exchange of information. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs.
Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. and the like. 6. negative and positive. Positive feedback comes from the environment. Systems require two kinds of feedback.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems ³run down´ and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. that information is called positive feedback. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. aerospace." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. say. eating fads. competitors. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. For example. and makes a course correction. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. mining. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. "return to earth.Fig. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. Say your company makes buggy whips. For example. however. It is sometimes called deviationamplifying feed back. and the system adjusts to a new goal. By the same token. Information is important to systems in several ways.
. and so on. but most are not useful. while screening out other information. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. If the mission (target) changes.
Outputs are performance at the total organization level.
. formal organization. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. which includes skills. 2) Resources available to the organization. either internal or external. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. With increased differentiation. As Katz and Kahn say: ³The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. differentiated. 6. processes. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization).2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. The three major input factors are: 1) The environment. such as capital. and complex over time. and technology. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state ± systems have multiple paths to goals. important events. and informal organization. systems tend to get more elaborated. and individual level. failures. work. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. and systems for performing the work. which includes formal structures. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. people. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. this process is called differentiation. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. perceptions.´ Also. Subsystems exist within larger systems. knowledge. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do.Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. which includes the organization¶s culture informal rules and understandings. and the workforce¶s expectations. unit/group level. specialized. knowledge.3.
High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. forming autonomous work groups. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. fit) must be present among the system¶s components¶ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. 6. In a company that is performing poorly.Fig. training group members in multiple skills. For example. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. which components are "not functioning correctly." and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work." The premise is that alignment (harmony. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. multi-skilled teams. if people don¶t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. If the organization¶s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. a social system and a technical system. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. .3. Hanna writes:
. and information to the point of action. performance will suffer. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model¶s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. 6. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. two active segments of OD today. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. to the workers doing the job. performance will suffer. organizations must optimize both systems. and that changes in one system affect the other system. controlling variance at the source. especially autonomous work groups (selfregulated teams or self-direct teams). performance will suffer. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. Fred Emery. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. that is.
First. but seen in relation to other issues. and 3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. For example. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. Without a systemic orientation. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. mental models. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). systems thinking. events and forces. Second. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment.3. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. and systems thinking. according to Peter Senge. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. 6. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. forces. because most phenomena have more than one cause. issues. is the most important. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. events. Charles Krone. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. changing one part of a system influences other parts. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. not single effects.´ In conclusion.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. the fifth discipline. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. from their activities. He says of systems thinking: ³It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures.
.KI Jayaram. Third. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. Of all these disciplines.In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. team learning. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stakeholders. building shared vision. G. therefore.
. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. increase commitment to the organization. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. reduce stress levels." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. with its emphasis on risk-taking. team building." is bottom-up and less controlling. and change. to exert influence. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. One view. and to be responsible. personal initiative. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. produce better solutions to problems. search conferences. is the more useful perspective. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. survey feedback. The other view. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. called "organic. involvement and participation energize greater performance. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. They believed that it was about risk-taking. And fifth. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. and give more power to more people. growth. 6.Fourth. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. quality of work life programs." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. to change a system.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. not just its component parts. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. which they call "mechanistic. For example. autonomous work groups. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. The entire field of OD is about empowerment." These authors believe the organic view. Participation enhances empowerment. To empower is to give someone power. quality circles. and growth. one changes the system. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. to contribute their ideas. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people.
If the team. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: ³Empowerment. but rather a mindset that employees have about their roles in the organization. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. research. teams create synergy. QCs (quality circles). They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. that is. employees must choose to be empowered. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. then. confident about their abilities. STS (socio-technical systems). teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. as a team. they must if personally connected to the organization. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). and relationships if they are to be effective. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. Second. Team Taurus developed Ford¶s best-selling automobile. Teams and teamwork are "in. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. teaming.´ 6. people must work together to accomplish them. While management can create a context that is more empowering.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today ± gurus extol the virtues of teams. is not something that management does to employees. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development.
. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. Theory. processes. the noun team has become a verb. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. Third. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. to name just a few. HPOs (high-performance organizations). Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. systems. changes those norms and values. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones.both views contain valid ideas: for example. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777.
Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. role negotiation technique. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. When any one feature is lost. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. team performance declines. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. and respect-teams nurture human nature. process consultation. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. heart transplant surgical teams. cross-functional teams. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. status. and set ever-higher goals. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members.
. and responsibility charting. Examples are team-building. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. find innovative ways around barriers. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. help each other. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. temporary teams. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. parallel learning structures.Fourth. inter-group team-building. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. that they achieve synergy. and others. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. including collegiate football national champions. and the like. socio-technical systems programs. teams satisfy people¶s needs for social interaction. quality circles. In this section. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. recognition. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. and explore ways to realize that potential. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance.
and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. Asea Brown Boveri. Projects are the work of the future. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. Titeflex. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. and continuous learning. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. constitute another important foundation of organization development. managers. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. Union Pacific Railroad. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization¶s methods of work and/or culture. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. clear objectives. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. talking.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing
.´ Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. and then leading the process. Bushe and Shani say: ³The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as ³a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. Interestingly. projects will be performed by teams. and employees.´ The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. At Ford Motor Company. flexible response. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). It isn¶t the supplemental structure that¶s important. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. High responsibility. In essence. you don¶t have a parallel structure. and initiate needed changes. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. autonomous.Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. deciding. 6. 6. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. If you don¶t implement different norms and procedures. What¶s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. superior customer service.
The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. according to this view. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. Patterns of action and practice are supported ± by sociocultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. anxieties. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined.
. information. relationships and customary ways of doing things. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. values. doubts. skills. Evaluated against these three change strategies. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. rather than the OD practitioner. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. The first type is empirical rational strategies. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. attitudes. will follow their rational self-interest.Organization development involves change. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normativereductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. Change in a pattern of practice or action. that is. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-re-eductive and the empirical-rational strategies. based on the assumptions that people are rational. not just changes in knowledge. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. OD clearly falls within the normative-reeducative category. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. and significant relationships. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. and together they define problems and seek solutions. and¶ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through.
Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. pressing problems. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. On this point." applied science. i. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake.e. and (2) "technology. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. Thus. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. behavioural science knowledge. applied science or practice. 6. not the individual.. Burke writes: ³If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. OD emphasizes the latter.´ Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. Greenwood states: ³The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. re-establishes the equilibrium.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. for example. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. The practitioner examines the problem situation. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. success corroborating the diagnosis. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. thereby solving the problem. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. or practice. by modifying a group norm or standards. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis.´ From this "practice theory. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis.
. practices. hopefully. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. on the basis of selected variables.
feedback of the data to the client system members. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. Taken separately. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. practice research and practice theory. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. and research leading to social action« This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing ± learning about the dynamics of organizational change. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. 6. the two top in puts.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. Action research involves three processes: data collection. form of applied behavioural science.Fig. had this to say about it: ³The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. Kurt Lewin.9 Action Research The action research model ± a data-based. represent contributions from applied science. and action planning based on the data.´ Concluding Comments: These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. The two bottom inputs. 6. Taken collectively. who developed the concept of action research. perhaps more accurately. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. and doing or implementing change efforts. represent contributions from pure or basic science. It is a type of action-research. Self Assessment Questions
. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change.
Ralph Kilmann 3. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. ±±±±±±±±±± means moving to new level of behaviour.1. ³Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. Bring out the essence of ³managing beyond the quick fix´ model of organizational development. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. 6.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. 6. ±±±±±±±±±± gave the model ³Beyond the Quick Fix´. Action research model combines learning and doing. Transactional change
. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. Explain Kurt Lewin¶s models and theories of planned organizational change. 6. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. 2. 2.11 Terminal Questions 1. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. 3. A _____________ is defined as ³a set of elements standing in interaction. 4. 4. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change.´ Comment on this statement. Unfreezing 2. 3.´ 5. First²order change is also called ___________.
.2 3.1 Introduction Objectives 7.3 4.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7.
MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate
Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.2.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture 7.2.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 6.1 2.2.Refer section 6. Refer section 6. Refer section 6. 7.4. Refer section 6. System 5.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7.3 Types of Organization Culture.3 5.
Observed behavioral regularities. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. values. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. but everyone knows it when they sense it. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. 7. Culture is one of those terms that¶s difficult to express distinctly. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. terminology. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. 1986). discovered. Objectives: After studying this unit. despite the best-laid plans. 2. what they brag about. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving.7. When organizational participants interact with one another. thinking. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. what members wear. including guidelines on how much work to do. they use common language. the culture of a large. etc. ± similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone¶s personality. For example. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. Which in many organizations come down to ³Do not do too much. Norms. do not do too little?´
. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. Martin and Meyerson. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. Standards of behavior exist. but also changing the corporate culture as well. Practitioners are coming to realize that.7 Terminal Questions 7. · Discuss about developing and changing organization culture.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7.1 Introduction Basically.
Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. In contrast to Hierarchies. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. shared goals. For many years. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. Organizational climate: This is an overall ³feeling´ that is conveyed by the physical layout. 5. 4. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. 7. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization¶s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. the way participants interact. internal and external are viewed in market terms. 6. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay.3. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. Rather than strict rules and procedures. Typical examples are high product quality. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. but one where all transactions. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. In an efficient market organization.
. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. processes and procedures. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. Transactions are exchanges of value. Market cultures are outward looking. They often have well-defined policies. people are driven through vision. New-comers must learn those ³ropes´ in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. outputs and outcomes. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber¶s original view of bureaucracy.
etc. symbols. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. culture is like the DNA of an organization. the way they dress etc. big-bang projects and development. Martin and Meyerson. invisible to the naked eye.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. discovered. although not necessarily documented. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. but critical to shaping its behavior. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. plaques. thinking. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. systems and subsystems. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. 1993). It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways.strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. and procedures. 7. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. norms. supportive way and may take on a parental role. rules. Rules.
. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. In biological terms. 1986). · Its rituals. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. the jargon they use. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long.
believing. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. also called as organizational success or growth. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. or standards held by members of an organization. and what is right and what is wrong. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. Identifying. various terms such as efficiency. and behaviour.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. communicating. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. the personality of the organization).Values: These are the social principles. organizational growth. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. and doing. decisions. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. Though an organization espouses a series of values. Though each individual¶s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. intervening and end result. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. to denote organizational effectiveness. are often used interchangeably. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. skills. goals. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization¶s social environment and evolve of behavior. For example. from the basis of its policies and action. individually and collectively. there is often contradiction in various approaches. its core value are limited to a few in number. business and leadership strategies. productivity. Thus. From this point of view. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness.
. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. profitability. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. there are numerous variables. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. 1. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management¶s policies. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying.
the loyalties. costs. incorporating.2. is workable. and earnings. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. and perceptual cluster. According to Likert. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. That is.. is worth running some risks for. and they tend to be longterm goals. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: 1. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. motivational. 4. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of ±date. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. building. At this point. money. motivations. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. and energy that will be required. However.g. 7. End ± result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. if the appropriate organization culture is in place.
. performance goals. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. attitudes. e. and a common history begins to be built. For example. 3. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. and is worth the investment of time. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. scrap loss. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. communication. obtaining patents. locating space. 3. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. and so on. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. 2. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. others are brought into the organization. and decision-making.
. 2. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. 1. and patterns of daily behavior. Make changes from the top down.Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. and whether products and/or services are involved. habits. These factors from the two cultures include the size. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. the ³culture contract´ that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. and history of two firms. Assess the current culture. attitudes. powerful stakeholders such as unions. commitment. 7. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can¶t be done successfully?. Emotions. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. if possible. 2. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. In addition. 4. the geographic location. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. relationships. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. Staffs. management. age. especially when making changes in rules and processes. Include employees in the culture change process. Structure. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. roles. take these losses early. The personal feelings. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. 5. 3. or even customers may support the existing culture. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. Politics.
7. 7. 2. Self Assessment Questions 1. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables.8. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables.6 Summary Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. 2. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. behavioural approach. Causal variables Answers to TQs:
. 3. ________cultures are outward looking. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. 9. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. 7. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. 3. Market 3. and strategic constituencies approach.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Artifacts 2. Finally. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization.7 Terminal Questions 1. Discuss the development and change of organizational development.goal approach. system-resource approach. Stay the course by being persistent. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture.
5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8. Politics and Organization Development
Unit-08.1.Power.Power.2 2. Refer section 7.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8.9 Summary 8.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
. Refer section 7.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.1 Introduction Objectives 8.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8.
MU0002-Unit-08.3 Two Faces of Power 8.3 3.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8.10 Terminal Questions
. Refer section 7.
· Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations." ³Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. to effect outcomes. and behaviours of people. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid today." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes.´ Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations. · Explain theories about the sources of power.¶ To have power is to be able to get desired things done. Potential power is the capacity to do so. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related.´ ³A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. 8. emotions. indisputable facts of organizational life."
.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs.actions and the decisions that precede them. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. Objectives: After this studying this unit. and for change to occur in an organization.8.1 Introduction Power and politics. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change. The French word µpouvoir¶ stands for both the noun µpower¶ and the verb µto be able. power must be exercised. In this unit. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development.
for organizations to function.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. Without leadership (power) in medical. or positive. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous."
. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. or acquired? In this unit. and repression. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. absolute power corrupts absolutely. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. Leading. influence. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. Crushing. 8.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" ± positive and negative. power being the predominant mode. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. hurting. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. being exercised. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. forcing. According to him. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. confiscation.Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one¶s way. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson¶s "Power-Dependence theory." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. both positive and negative. and organizational activities. Power-in-action may take many forms. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. and lead. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. financial. not the possession of power as such. political. the act or ability of influencing others." A moment¶s reflection. In fact. an authority or power dimension is required. 8. however. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. spiritual. influencing. technological. bestowed. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one¶s way in a social situation. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. with collective. selling. unsocialized need to dominate others. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today.
2. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation." These authors suggested five sources. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. of social power as follows: 1. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. 4. Coercive power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. and desired by the other. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. rewards) that are controlled by one party. Referent power ± power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. hate. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. rejection. we will continue the exchange relationship. The sociologist. 5. that is. influence. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. or bases. Legitimate power ± power based on everyone¶s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. P. Expert power ± power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. goals.· French and Raven¶s "Bases of Social Power. power. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A¶s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. that is. we will terminate or alter the relationship. Viewed in this light. When the net balance for us is positive. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place.
. blame. attraction." In other words. 3. and so forth. praise. to give something negatively valued by the other." · Salancik and Pfeffer¶s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. that person has power over us. respect. information. to give something valued by the other. when the net balance for us is negative." · Mintzberg¶s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. Reward power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services.
In this theory, power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals, units, or departments) most important for solving the organization¶s most critical problems. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. This theory, like the ones discussed previously, supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by- others-in this case, the special expertise needed for the organization¶s survival-have power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits, indeed, used by all who have it, to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources, through the placement of allies in key positions, and through the definition of organizational problems and policies." These authors view organizational power as a good thing, for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. This theory, "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players, called influencers, seek to control the organization¶s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power, coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. According to Mintzberg, the five possible bases of power are, first, control of a resource; second, control of a technical skill; and, third, control of a body of knowledge. All of these must be critical to the organization. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. In addition to a base of power, the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. An organization has many potential influencers, such as the board of directors, the managers, the top executives, the employees, the unions, suppliers, customers, regulators, and so forth. The important aspects of Mintzberg¶s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others, that power-in-action requires will and skill, and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In summary, these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar ± power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. The resources may be ability to reward and
punish, being in control of critical skills, knowledge, or information, the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined ³politics simply as the study of who gets what, when, and how´. ³Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices´. ³Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups´. ³Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means´. Thus, we view politics as a subset of power, treating it as informal power, illegitimate in nature. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power, but in this sense, formal power, the power vested in office, the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. Both relate to getting one¶s way-effectance. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. For our purposes, organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations; it is engaging in activities to get one¶s way. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities; the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics, like power, has two faces. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest; unsocialized needs to dominate others; a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win, you must lose-rather than win-win terms; and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy, surprise, holding hidden agendas, withholding information, deceiving. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others; viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible; engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing; a relative absence of the tactics of fighting; and a socialized need to lead, initiate, and influence others. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making, resource allocation, and conflict resolution processes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose; they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. In fact, one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation, conflict resolution, and choosing among alternative means and goals.
8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. Virtually, all OD interventions promote problem-solving, not politics, as a preferred way to get things accomplished. OD interventions increase problem-solving, collaboration, co-operation, fact-finding, and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. For example, OD interventions typically generate valid, public data about the organization¶s culture, processes, strengths, and weaknesses. Valid, public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations; rather, they enhance the positive face of power, thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy, it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme power-oriented situations. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power, but not with the negative face of power. Values such as trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first, problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations; second, power equalization, being one aspect of the positive face of power, increases the amount of power available to organization members, and by so doing adds power to the organization. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator, catalyst, problem solver, and educator. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. According to Chris Argyris, the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information, (2) to promote free, informed choice, and (3) to promote the client¶s internal commitment to the choices made. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner, his or her program, and his or her values, methods, and expertise. The OD consultant, like all consultants, provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors, as we discussed earlier. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. In summary, organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. This major strength of OD derives from the strategy of change, the technology, the values, and the roles of OD practitioners.
and ability to gain organizational support. 3. 5.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention." 4. preferably multiple sponsorship. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. both as a person and as a professional.8. 6. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. it will be strong externally. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. According to the framework of French and Raven. coaching. and expertise."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. experience. Skills such as listening. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case.
. acceptability. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. 2. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization¶s decision makers). organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. communicating. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). First. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. in powerful places. Success leads to credibility and stature. it will gain more power. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). problem solving.
OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. A valuable byproduct of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. The OD program belongs to the manager. not by getting involved in the answers. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being managercentered. Rule Five: Mind your own business. constructive social relationships. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. OD programs should be results-oriented. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. usually managers. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one¶s own or in others¶ political struggles. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. not the OD consultant. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities.
. not content. Rule Six: Mind your own business. which is to be an expert on process. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence.counseling. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one¶s power base. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. those issues vital to the organization¶s success. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization¶s powerholders. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. the manager will vigorously defend it.
8. individual power derives from knowledge. Networking is recognized as a potent.Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. others¶ support." "using social networks. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge · Expertise · Information · Tradition Others¶ Support
Strategies for Success Playing It Straight · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information
Political access Staff support
. Table 8." which arouses defensive actions. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. not power activist or power broker. negotiations the nature of power and politics. catalyst. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. and educator. and using contacts for information. We could propose more rules of thumb. viable. and personality characteristics. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions. problem solver.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others¶ legitimate "turf. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. yet legitimate means of acquiring power. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. As shown in the figure. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. the strategy and tactics of influence." and "going around the formal system.
Whetton and Cameron¶s model is shown in following figure. ³One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. personal power and position power. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what¶s expected of them. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. a person¶s power comes from two main sources. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. arises from expertise. even those of little power. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks´. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. effort.
. This practical. visibility-how much one¶s work is seen by influential people. criticality-how important one¶s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. personal attraction. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. and relevance-how important one¶s task is in relation to organizational priorities.Personality
y y y
Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don¶t) use organization rules
Charisma Reputation Professional credibility
Finally. and legitimacy. in turn. In this model. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. Personal power. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. Indeed.
(2) provide a positive. According to these authors. Retribution refers to coercion and threats. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder.Fig. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. Whetton and Cameron suggest several means of resisting others¶ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. Usually reason is the preferred strategy. power-in-use is called influence. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. and retribution. collaborative work environment. Having power is one thing. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. arise from known conditions. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. Power and politics are similar in nature. Our suggestions for
. and are amenable to positive control. actually using it to get things done is another. and (6) build on success.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people¶s inappropriate influence attempts. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. and (3) empowering others. Concluding Comments: In this unit. 8. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. reciprocity. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors." And. Reason refers to persuasion by facts.
5. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. 2. ±±±±±±±±±± is made up of Charisma. 3.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. Power 2. 4. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. Power can be either positive or negative. ±±±±±± is the intentional influence over the beliefs.. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. 3. when. 5. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. and are amenable to positive control. Referent power 4. Self Assessment Questions 1.10 Terminal Questions 1. Harold Lasswell
. 8. reputation and professional credibility. Power and politics are similar in nature. and how. Define organization politics.using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. when and how. ±±±±±±±± defined politics as the study of who gets what. emotions or behaviour of people. arise from known conditions. Describe briefly various theories of power. 8. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ±±±± ±±±±±±±. 8. 4. 2. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. _____________ has identified two faces of power. McClelland 3.
5 Quality Circles 9.
MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development
Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9.1 Introduction Objectives 9.5. Personality Answers to TQs: 1.5 4.3 Socio Technical Systems 9. Refer section 8. Refer section 8. Refer section 8.Refer section 8.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
. Refer section 8.4 Management By Objectives 9.4 3.6 Quality of Work Life Projects
.6 5.2 Meaning and Definitions 9.2 2.
One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization.11 Terminal Questions 9. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program. actions. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. · Explain Reengineering. · Explain Total Quality Management. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness.9. Objectives: After studying this unit.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change.
.10 Summary 9. In this dynamic and fluid environment.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.8 Total Quality Management 9. organizational problems may repeat. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.
structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. 1976. 3. It could involve the following steps (Foster. 1967. Structure changes are normally ³institutionalized´ and less subject to this problem. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. 2. 5. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. Greater Predictability. Cummings. Cost is Low.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. Succession Doesn¶t Destroy Change Effort. This normally is a reasonable. organization theory.9. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. Downsizing associated with restructuring. From a benefit cost analysis. Pasmore. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. 9. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. and more critically. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. In addition. The cost of structural change is generally ³front-end´ loaded. It endeavors to re-design the organization¶s structure. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. Organization Acceptance of Change. Rapidity of change. Basic reinforcement theories. 1988): Determining the environmental demands Creating a vision statement Educating organizational members
Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. Since then. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. therefore.´ The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: ³MBO is a result-centered. On the other hand. In fact. its definitional aspect. with objective orientation as its essence. It is a particular way of thinking about management. Certain degree of overlapping is there. physical. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. 2. As an approach to management. non-specialist. Creating the change structure Conducting socio-technical analysis Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. its features can be identified as follows: 1.´ Based on the definition of MBO. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of
. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives.
5. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. superiors and subordinates. Therefore. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. The performance review is held regularly. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis. and participation of the managers with accountability for results. all the units or departments and individual manager. Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. Resource allocation. 6. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. What business are we in?´ and what should be our business?´ provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. normally once a year. enhancement of employee commitment and participation. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. Therefore. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. etc. delegation of authority. then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities. ³why does the organization exist?´. Questions. (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. This. are determined on the basis of objectives. its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. including the corporate level. the clarity and balance of objectives. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. such as. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. Therefore. 1. (ii) long-range
. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. It works as an integrating device. Similarly. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. 3. its subsystems and people.. 4.management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. in interaction with external factors. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve.
In turn. the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. (vi) financial and physical resources. there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. (iii) short-term organizational objectives. (iii) innovation. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability. what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. 5. Therefore. In fact. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). 2.
. the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. Therefore. there should be matching between objectives and resources. Therefore. The process of objective setting begins with superior¶s proposed recommendations for his subordinate¶s objectives. (iv) productivity. and (viii) public responsibility. Thereafter. the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. 3.and strategic objectives. (v) individual manager¶s objectives. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. 4. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. Sometimes. a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization¶s health and the top management perspective for the future. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives. each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate¶s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by setting easily achievable objectives. If not. However. (vii) manager performance. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization. (ii) market standing. with the experience gained over the period of time. they also indicate the resource requirement. (v) worker performance. By relating these to objectives. Even though KRAs are most durable. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. By relating these to objectives. It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. Setting Subordinates¶ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level.
. information.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. on paper. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London. 9.6. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing. or in people¶s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization. but in its contemporary form. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization¶s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. what happens at each level may affect other levels also. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. QWL programs. Quality circle program consists of several circles. which consequently result into high level of task variety.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s. and rewards. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. each having three to fifteen members. appropriate feedback and employee discretion. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal. 9. · Make recommendations for improvement. and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. hierarchical structure.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. in general. 9. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis. quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. Therefore. knowledge.
ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. · Participative management. Self Assessment Questions
. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. and extensive use of employee participation.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. including the use of quality circles. eliminating. It is very popular in USA in 1990s. It is also called continuous quality improvement. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. statistical process control.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization¶s activities around the concept of quality. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. service. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. and speed. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. provides relevant information to all employees. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. · Competitive benchmarking. such as cost. statistical quality control. Reengineering is a top-down process. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. self-managed teams and task forces. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. quality. 9.9. contemporary measures of performance.
__________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. 9. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. actions. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. provides relevant information to all employees. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. Quality circle Answers to TQs:
. Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. Drucker 3. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. 2.11 Terminal Questions 1. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. 9. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3.1. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. 3. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. From a benefit cost analysis. Intervention 2.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. It is also called continuous quality improvement. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. actions. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. 9. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1.
Refer section 9.1 Introduction Objectives 10.Refer section 9.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change.8 Terminal Questions 10.3 Resistance to Change 10.3 2.7 Summary 10. Refer section 9.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs
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.1. Refer section 9.2 3.4 Causes for Resistance to Change.2 Nature of Change 10.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10.
MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development
Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10. Self Assessment Questions 10. 10.5 4.
When change occurs in any part of the organization. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. or social. indirectly. may require special change efforts. which are major ones. and others. biological. organizational problems may repeat. some parts may be affected directly.10. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. 3. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change.2 Nature of Change The term µchange¶ refers to an alteration in a system. However. structural arrangement. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. less. Objectives: After studying this unit. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. · Impact of change on future managers. and others. Organizational change is a continuous process. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. In this dynamic and fluid environment. organizational change may have the following features: 1. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled
. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented).1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.whether physical. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. 10. 2. Thus. job design and people. Hence. Any change may effect the whole organization. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. others. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. some parts of organization may be affected more. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. Thus. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.
the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. If people resist to change.as cost and as benefit. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). and its basic survival may be jeopardized. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. there are two sides of resistance. ³The Pune plant is fully saturated. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. Homeostasis implies selfcorrecting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. We shall take new workers at the new place. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. more serious upsets may occur.balloon. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. employees want to maintain a status quo. In fact.´ Resistance as Benefit:
. Though this phenomenon will be taken later.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. In fact. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. it becomes indented at the point of contact. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. that is. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. because it produces identical symptoms. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. We wanted a new culture and new layout. Thus. it has stretched slightly. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. Similarly. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. However. 10. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. but when a change is major or unusual. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. if we look minutely. commented. adjustment is fairly routine. so is the resistance to change. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. In fact. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. On this phenomenon. Madhur Bajaj. However.
On the one hand, resistance to change is costly affair, and on the other, it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. While on negative side, the reality lies in between. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Thus, resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: 1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Therefore, the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. These feelings, either real or emotional, may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic, psychological and social. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological, job security etc. precede over other needs. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques, technology, etc., whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them, they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India, it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely, reduce job options, and turn into technological unemployment. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match.
3. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes, bonus, etc. All these are well-established in the old system. Whenever there is change, people may feel that in the new system, they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Psychological Factors Psychological factors are based on people¶s emotions, sentiments and attitudes towards change. These are qualitative and, therefore, may be logical from people¶s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent¶s point of view. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness, status quo, lack of trust in change agent, low tolerance for change, and fear of unknown. 1. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego, people resist change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Thus, the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. 2. Status Quo: People want status quo. i.e. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore, everyone tries to avoid it. 3. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo, people may differ. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Therefore, these people resist any new idea. 4. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent, that is, the person who initiates change. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent, they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 5. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The change will bring results in future, which is always uncertain. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction, particularly social needs, through their mutual compatible interactions. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change, people resist it. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.
1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. When there is any change, their existing social interactions are likely to be changed, which people do not want. Therefore, they resist change. 2. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class, e.g., change initiated by managers affecting workers. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change, even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. For example, Sumantra Ghoshal, a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru, has commented as follows: ³Nothing fails like success; nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation, Caterpillar, Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles, all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called µThe Failure of Success¶. Strategies, values, resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés, dogmas, millstones and routines.´ This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought, these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes, stability of systems, resource limitations, sunk cost, and inter-organizational agreement. Some of these reasons are basic while others are byproducts of those. For example, first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. 1. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices, they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. 2. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. For example, a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules, prescribes rigid authority relationships, and institutes reward and punishment system. All these work in some circumstances. It a change is required in these aspects, the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system.
intensive planning. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories.´ This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. For example. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. broad environmental scanning. This can be in the form of people also.
. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. those who wonder what happened. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. Resource Limitations: No doubt. these can be used for specific period. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment.3. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. Let us see what someone has said long back: ³There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. Now. 3. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. it will require resources to procure machine. Once the assets are acquired. if new technology is adopted. and reactors. those who watch things happen. In such a case. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. innovative. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. Thus. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. prospectors. analyzers. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. For example. and has zeal for progress. 4. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. and commensurate expenses on other items also. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. decentralized controls. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. centralized control. if the change is required. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. If it is risk-taking. 2. building and training for its personnel. In this interaction process. 5.defenders. It depends more on the style of top management. 1. forward-looking. if any change is to be incorporated.
As human beings. When we are confronted with change. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. therefore. or the like. we don¶t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. Life is complex enough. threatening to go on strike. we¶ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. they cannot survive. some may fear they¶ll be unable to do so. They may. 10. Organizational resistance
. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. Habit Every day. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance.4. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. The same applies to employee. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. adjusting to the new office layout. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn¶t necessarily surface in standardized ways. we all rely on habits. Resistance can be overt. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. finding a new parking place. it means you¶re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. For instance. immediate. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. implicit. we¶re creatures of habit. or deferred. taking a new set of streets to work. Therefore. Let¶s look at the sources of resistance. For analytical purpose. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won¶t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. And people in general don¶t like the unknown. or programmed responses. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. Otherwise. and so on. If for example. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you¶re like most people. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. you find a single route and you use it regularly. engaging in a work showdown. To cope with this complexity. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. developing a new lunchtime routine.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. when you go to work or school. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one¶s income.
These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. That is. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. 10.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. for instance. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees.Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. and benefits administration ± has been resisted by many human resource departments. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. group norms may act as a constraint. development of pay plans. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. Formalization provides job description. The
. accountants work with marketers. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. he¶s likely to resist. You can¶t change one without affecting the others. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. for instance. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization¶s structure to match. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. Will the change. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. For example. rules and procedures for employees to follow. For example. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. An individual union member. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. For example. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities ± such as training. They tend to be content with the way things are. the way in which companies are configured today is changing.
In many cases. the problems can be solved at the same level.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people¶s resistance to change successfully. In addition. People always have some
. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. However. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. Therefore.´ Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. Unless this problem is overcome properly. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups.´ The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue ± not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. Stephen Robbins suggests that ³«« managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. 10. both at the formal and informal levels. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. typically by way of computer network links. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. at the level of individual and at the level of group. the following efforts can be taken: 1.ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. through group dynamics. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. For this purpose. this is not a one-time action. Locavini observes that ³the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. that is. For example. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. It implies explanation and then discussion of the proposed changes.
This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. and indoctrinated in new relationships. more than one person is involved in the change. its basic nature. They must be taught new skills. is an important trust-building task. Thus. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. instead of solving the problem at the individual level.
. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. education must be a part of the manager¶s everyday activity on the job. However. most of the times. helped to change attitudes. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. Usually. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. sometimes. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. The same is true of problem-solving. For this purpose. People should be educated to become familiar with change. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. However. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. so that they are looked at and evaluated. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. It grows slowly along with relationship. as discussed earlier. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: 1. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. meetings. 3. Getting opinions out in the open. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. 2. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. to become effective. 4. the group itself should be the point of contact. As this process goes. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. (ii) In group. Though each person interprets the change individually often. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. Thus. he expresses it through a group.ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. and conferences. its process and working. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist.
social factors. job design and people. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. 2. __________ are based on people¶s emotions. Research studies also support this aspect. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. immediate. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. or deferred. and sensitivity or T-group training. benefits of change. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. Resistance can be overt. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. For instance. 2.Through the group contact. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. sentiments and attitudes towards change. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members.such aspects as the reasons for change. Self Assessment Questions 1. and how members contribute. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing
. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. 3. 10. It purports how the results are. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. many things about change can be made clear. group resistance and vested interests. psychodrama. psychological factors. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. implicit. However. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management.7 Summary Change is inevitable. Economic factors. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. structural arrangement. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. 3. Such training techniques include role playing. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. mere participation may not help. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour.
engaging in a work showdown. Principles and Practices. · Cummings & Worley. Reference: · Wendell L. Organizational change 2. 10. Thomson South Western. Why do organizations resist change? 3. Refer section 10.. Thomson · Daft Richard L.. Organization Development. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change.
. Organization Development & Change.complaints. threatening to go on strike.Singh. at the level of individual and at the level of group. through group dynamics. Jain. Organization Theory and Design. N.4 3.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. · Harigopal K. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited.management of Organization Change. Psychological factors 3. that is. P. 10. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. Refer section 10. French and Cecil H. or the like.2 2. Regal Publications New Delhi. Bell. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. New Delhi. both at the formal and informal levels. Modern Organization Development and Change. eighth edition. Refer section 10. Explain the nature of change? 2.Response Books. P.8 Terminal Questions 1. · J. New Delhi. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. Jr.6.
com/articles/leadchange. Prentice-Hall of India. Anmol Publications Pvt.kyoto-u.org/org_chng/org_chng.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp598. Prasad. Ltd.bus. Dhanpat Rai & Co.html http://muse.pdf http://webuser.oup. Pvt. N.co.pdf www.com/www.fao.edu/cameronk/CULTURE%20BOOK-CHAPTER%201. Management.wdi. New Delhi. · Stephens P.ac.umich.umd. 12th edition.umich.org/docrep/w7503e/w7503e05.cfm http://www. Organizational Behaviour.kurims.· James A.edu/groups/learning/wp8. Educatiional Publishers. · Laxmi Devi. Robbins.uk/pdf/bt/fincham/Chapter15.1lowry. Edward Freeman.managementhelp.managementtoday.htm#TopOfPage http://www.htm#anchor73776
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