This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the µmanagement¶ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn µsurplus¶ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of a
business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term ³management´. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley ± ³Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.´ In the words of George R. Terry ± ³Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.´ According to James L. Lundy ± ³Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.´ In the words of Henry Fayol ± ³To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.´ According to Peter F. Drucker ± ³Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work´. In the words of Koontz and O¶Donnel ± ³Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals´.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren ± ³The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.´ From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that ³management´ is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as ³management´. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a ³distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.´ From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as ³doing things right´. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization¶s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as ³doing the right things´. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of course, high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. And poor
Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. In essence. directing and controlling. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. Managers apply knowledge. labour and capital. 3. feeling of management is result-oriented. informed employees. staffing.management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. principles and techniques requires specialized . Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. 5. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. 1. capital and materials. labour. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. 4. namely. The application of these concepts. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. although they can¶t observe it during operation. 6. All these resources are made available to those who manage. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. 2. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals¶ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. organizing. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. So it is treated as a science. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. principles and techniques which have wide applications. 7. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. Thus. Thus.
management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. the effective use of the five M¶s of management (money. useful. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. Anthropology. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. Basically. ongoing concern. education. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem . a hierarchy of command and control. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. According to Newman.e. Sociology and Psychology. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. it refers to three distinct ideas. 9. labour and capital. that is. money and machines into a productive. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. personnel manager etc. manpower. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. For instance. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. materials. They transmit orders. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. government and hospital. In modern organizations. materials. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. finance manager. management is viewed as an art. people are bound by authority relationships. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. Similarly.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers.knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. In other words. 8. According to Herbision and Myers. 10. (ii) a system of authority. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. how effectively and economically the five M¶s are combined together to produce desired results. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. military. 1. Generally. and (iii) a class or elite.
Supervisors. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. For instance. etc. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. As a separate group.. ranks. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. Financial Controller. policies and plans for the enterprise.. day-to-day matters.e. Administrative management is concerned with ³thinking´ functions such as laying down policy. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. technical facilities.and suggestions upward. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. But in actual practice. Purchase Manager. Board of Directors. the lower level of management). but as head of wages and salary department. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. Production Manager. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. its Chairman. viz.. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. planning and setting up of standards. 1. Marketing Manager. and the range of production. etc. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. We generally come across two broad levels of management. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions.e. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. Foremen. (i) administrative management (i. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. Operative management is concerned with the ³doing´ function such as implementation of policies. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating . The levels of management depend upon its size. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. Managing Director. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as µManagement¶ which refers to the group. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. or the Chief Executive. or.
. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. materials. d) To assemble the resources of money. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. Without them the top management¶s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. men. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. j) To report to top management. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid.functions. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. 2. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. e) To assign activities. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. machines and methods to put the plans into action. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management.
1. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. With a view to realize the . Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual¶s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. Management is goal-oriented. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. money and material. supervisors. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. 3. To this end. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. accounts officers and so on. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. sales officers. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. They allot various jobs to the workers. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. In its absence. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. Their authority and responsibility is limited. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. an organization is merely a collection of men. counseling and effective leadership. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. procedures and reward systems. machines.k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. Management makes group effort more effective. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. It consists of foreman. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. Without management. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. methods. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. They have to get the work done through the workers.
Management . According to McFarland. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. Organize the resources properly. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. identifiable discipline. etc. In the final analysis. They try to put everything on the right tract. and it is distinct. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. Thus unnecessary deviations. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. often threaten the survival of a firm. competition. But unlike medicine or law. Failure to take note of customer¶s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for µIdeal java¶ in the two-wheeler market in India.predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. government policy. iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. techniques.. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. Management as a profession By a professional manager. skills. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. the Indian Institute of Management. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. and specialized knowledge. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology.
However. But in addition to these insights. The term µmanagement roles¶ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. unpatterned. training. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. do not seem to adhere to the principle of ³service above self´. In fact. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature ± interpersonal roles. the transfer of information. sabotaging trade unions. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. management is not as exact as natural sciences. Half of these managers¶ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. This role includes hiring. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. managers in general. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager¶s job.S. motivating. and disciplining employees. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. however. bribing public officials to gain favours. the All India Management Association. For instance.Development Institute.A. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. etc. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. Some individual business organizations. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. and short-duration activities. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the . 1. and decision-making. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. the American Management Association in U. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. However.. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. All managers have a role as a leader. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. Furthermore. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. As a social science. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. an art as well as a profession.
The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. that involve outsiders.liaison role. informers who provide favors performing other activities and information. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. Informational Monitor Disseminator . emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. subordinates. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. and may be inside or outside the organization. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager¶s unit. network of outside contacts and doing external board work. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. obliged to Greeting visitors. understanding of organization and environment. Table 1. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. This is the disseminator role. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. what competitors may be planning. manages also perform a spokesperson role. activities that involve responsible for staffing. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. and associated duties. and the like. Typically. Informational Roles: All managers. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. duties of a legal or social nature. Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports.1: Mintzberg¶s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Liaison Symbolic head. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. to some degree. training. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public¶s tastes. making phone subordinates to members of the calls to relay information.
Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. outsiders on organization¶s giving information of the plans. As disturbance handlers. 1973). Inc. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. programming of subordinates work. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization¶s performance. performing all kinds ± in effect. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. policies. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Source: Henry Mintzberg. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. actions. projects´ to bring about change. negotiations. Decisional Roles: Finally. supervises design of certain projects as well. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the organizational decisions. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to develop and initiates ³improvement new programs. As entrepreneurs. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. media. serves as expert on organization¶s industry. results. managers are responsible for allocating human. Publishers. Last. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling.Spokesperson organization ± some information is factual. . physical and monetary resources. As resource allocators. etc. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units..
During the early 1970. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization¶s speciality. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. liaison. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. figurehead. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. human. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. the roles of disseminator. However. this skill is crucial. such as engineering. They know how to communicate. the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. computers. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. Conversely.An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg¶s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. finance. a manager¶s job is varied and complex. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. Specifically. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers ± regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. or manufacturing. lead. negotiator. . For example. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager¶s level within the organization. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization¶s operations. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. as well as many middle managers. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. Technical Skills: First-line managers. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. In fact. and all managers are involved in making decisions. and conceptual. research by Robert L. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. Since managers deal directly with people. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. motivate. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field.
2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. According to them. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. Thus. Administration relates to the decision-making. Managers are concerned mainly with organisation and direction of human resources. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. It is a thinking function. Management relates to execution of decisions. Administration is a determinative function.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. Nature 3. Spriegal and Lansburg. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. administration is a higher level function. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. plans and policies of the organisation. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. Administration is a higher level function: Administration refers to policy-making. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. iii) There is no distinction between the terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ and they are used interchangeably. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. 2. on the other hand. Management Management means getting the work done through and with others. etc. Administrators are basically concerned with planning and control. It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. Table 1.1. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. Spriegel and Walter. Thus. Scope . Floerence and Tead. It is concerned with the implementation of policies. This view is held by Tead. Meaning Administration Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. It is a doing function.
DecisionMaking Administration determines Management decides who what is to be done and when it shall implement the is to be done. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. i. 6. 1. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. . counseling and effective leadership. 8. _________. objectives. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant at higher levels of management. Five M¶s of management (________. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle level leading and motivation of executives. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. Still management is not completely a profession. middle and lower. __________is principally the task of planning. lower levels of management. environmental forces. Self Assessment Questions 1. There are three levels of management-top.9 Terminal Questions 1. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. operative workforce for the execution of plans.e. 5. Define management. ___________.4.. 7. organisations. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. co-ordinating. public organisations in the private sector and non-business sector. administrative decisions. 2. Usage of Term The term µadministration¶ is The term µmanagement¶ is often associated with widely used in business government offices. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. 3. 1. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. Explain its characteristics.
manpower 3. Management 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2. materials. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2. 1.2 Process of Management 2. Discuss the importance of management.4 Organizing . Refer section 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.3 Planning 2. MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2. 3.1. Money. Refer section 1. teamwork Answers to TQs: 1.3 2. Refer section 1.5 3.2.
Management functions are as follows (Fayol.8 Summary 2. Coordinating 5. Organizing. · Explain different functions of management Process.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. Objectives: After this studying this unit. Controlling However.2. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. Directing.9 Terminal Questions 2. in recent time. Organizing 3. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. Motivating.6 Directing 2. Staffing. you will be able to: · Define Management process.5 Staffing 2. · Explain Planning. . One can also think of management functionally.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people´. Planning 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2. Commanding 4. 1949): 1.
Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. while a policy. Objectives are the ends. studies on passenger comfort. 2. Through leadership and management often overlap. Therefore. the two are not quite the same. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. and then set out the method for achieving it. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. fuel and machine efficiency. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: . It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. In the football field.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization¶s mission. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. Decision ± Making Taking decisions is a process. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. or where you want go to. However. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. the decision to change the design of a product. leadership is doing the right things³. There is a degree of overlap between the two. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. driving comfort. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. general strategies. cost structure and so on. leadership is about setting the desirable goals.2. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. say a passenger car. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. and allocating resources.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: ³Management is doing things right. overall goals. thus. Even so. policies are the means to achieve those ends.
What financing is available? 6. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. federal. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: . Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. international). suppliers. Thus. state. Weaknesses. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. professional. Are the facilities outdated? 3. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization.A mission is the purpose of the organization. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. and trade). The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. What is our market share? 5. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. summarizing what the organization does. The mission statement is broad. journals and reports (scientific. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. Opportunities. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization¶s potential. Is research and development adequate? 4. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). A mission statement should be short ± and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. customers (internal and external). governments (local. What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. How skilled is our workforce? 4. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management.
etc. What are the new regulations? 6. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. What are the emerging technologies? 6. effectiveness. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. Are market tastes changing? 5. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. return on investment. What substitute products exist? In general terms. What is the strength of the economy? 4. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. earnings per share. as well as gap analysis. Are our rivals weak? 5. Objectives are also called performance goals. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. the best strategy is one that fits the organization¶s strengths to opportunities in the environment. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2.1. What are the possible new markets? 3. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) . Generally. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. Are there new competitors? 3.
and coordinated. 2. working toward common goals. how the tasks are to be grouped. Assign work to individuals 6. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. Strategic. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. structuring. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. and goals are clearly stated. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. who reports to whom. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. In turn.5 Staffing . grouped. 2. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. operational plans are based on the organization¶s tactical plans. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. Organizations are groups of people. who is to do. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. with ideas and resources. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job 4.4 Organizing It involves designing. and where decisions are to be made. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management.Tactical plans are based on the organization¶s strategic plan. tactical. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. procedures. lines of authority. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. Review plans 2. and relationships between departments.
materials. Koontz. 5. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. performance appraisal etc. Theo Haimann ± ³Concerned with the placement.It is not the machines. training. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick ± ³Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work´ Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. selection. This task has been referred to as staffing. development. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. . transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. 2. promotion. recruitment. selection. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. 2. 3. O¶Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as ³filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals´. recruitment. placement. compensation and training of needed people´. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. placement. 4. Definition: 1. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. inventorying the people available. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. money. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. 3. appraisal.
Direction function is performed at every level of management. promotion. 8. vacancies arise out of retirement. Through direction. 2. It is a continuing function.6. Direction is an important managerial function. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. directing is the ³interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals´. Definition According to Koontz and O¶Donnel. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. 2. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively.e. recruitment. It is instructing people as to what to do. motivate them. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through ± out the life of an organization. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. identifying the manpower requirements. 7. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. management initiates actions in the organization.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. On the one hand. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. selection. . A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. induction. 4. resignation. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. training development and maintenance of personnel. on the other. 5. etc. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. Direction has dual objectives. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. overseeing and leading people. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. 3. It is an important managerial function.
only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. As Theo Haimann puts it. The further they progress up the hierarchy. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve.Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. recognition. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. such as. self-respect.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. 3. 2. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. shelter. guide. and achievement. satisfied needs cannot. autonomy. humanness and psychological health a person will show. such as. from the basic to the complex. teach. status. acceptance. 2. thirst. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. and external esteem factors. 4. The needs are arranged in order of importance. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. coach and supervise his subordinates. and the Two-Factor theory. belongingness. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. The manager never ceases to direct. and attention . Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. Theories X and Y. sex. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. proposed by Maslow (1943). The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. ³without the issuance of directives. will vary depending upon his level. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished´. the more individuality. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however.
externally. It is also believed that. and exercise self-control. if they can. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. Motivators are intrinsic factors. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. autonomy and empowerment. supervision. responsibility. and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. working conditions. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. esteem. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. Extrinsic factors. achieving one¶s potential. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. such as. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. self-motivated. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders.· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. advancement. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager¶s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. self-direction. Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people¶s attitudes about work. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. and achievement. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. such as. anxious to accept greater responsibility. recognition. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. interpersonal relations. includes growth. . Theory Y ± In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. Theory X ± In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. Social. From the above. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. whereas. company policy. and salary are hygiene factors.
2. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. who reports to whom. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. Planning involves the process of defining goals. have to do with a person¶s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. Hygiene factors on the other hand.9 Terminal Questions 1. 2. 3. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. motivators describe a person¶s relationship with what she or he does. To motivate people. recruitment. many related to the tasks being performed. and where decisions are to be made. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. When hygiene factors are adequate. performance appraisal etc. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. What is planning? 2. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. Self Assessment Questions 1. 2. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. how the tasks are to be grouped. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities.In summary. Explain Staffing in detail 3. Organization involves designing. structuring. neither will they be satisfied. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. people will not be dissatisfied.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: . Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. Write a short not on directing. 2. who is to do.
4 Categories of OD 3.1. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3. Follett 2.3 Characteristics of OD 3.7 Role of OD 3.5 3.3 2. SWOT 3. Reference 2.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Reference 2. Reference 2.5 Goals of OD 3.2 Definitions 3.6 OD and Management Development 3. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1.8 Problems in OD .1 Introduction Objectives 3.
teams. In summary. And organization development (OD) is one of them. increased competition. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today ± threats to effectiveness. organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges ± finding satisfaction in and through work. OD focuses on issues related to the ³human side´ of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals. and processes. adapt. and profitability. strategy. maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals. and the like.Self Assessment Questions 3. challenges from turbulent environments. survive. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. strategy formulation and implementation. . We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. Basically. and changing customer demands.10 Terminal Questions 3. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. organization development is a process of teaching people how to solve problems. old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. A variety of solutions exists. Simple survival ± continuing to have an adequate job ± is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. fighting obsolescence of one¶s knowledge and skills. organization structure. and the organization¶s human and social processes. the answer is ³yes´. efficiency. and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3. take advantage of opportunities. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today¶s world is a daunting task. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. Today.9 Summary 3. culture. ³Knowledge´ work is replacing ³muscle´ work. Although new jobs are being created at record rates. Early returns were encouraging. and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope. conflict resolution. and learn how to do that better and better over time.
Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives«. (Schmuck and Miles. markets.change of an organization¶s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making. and the dizzying rate of change itself. people. · State the goals of OD. and culture. 1989) . 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions. · Explain the characteristics of OD. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies. attitudes. 3. using reflexive.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change. you will be able to: · Define organization development. planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs.Objectives: After studying this unit. and challenges. (Burke and Hornstein. A ³process for improving processes´ ± that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill. 1969). strategy. 1971) Organizational development is a process of planned change. 1980). · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. (Bennis. processes. and 3) Developing the organization¶s self-renewing capacity (Beer. OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement. self-analytic methods. 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure.
research. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field. they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance. it is more accurate to describe ³improvement´ as a never-ending journey of continuous change. through the alteration of organizational members¶ on-the-job behaviours. There is no ³quick fix´ when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. and processes for improving an organization¶s effectiveness. and theory.´ (Porras and Robertson. 1993) ³Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization¶s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies. and problem-solving processes. learning. 1992) ³OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies.´ (Cummings and Worley. 1994) As you can see. structure. led and supported by top management. strategies. and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions. through an ongoing. these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. ³Organization development is a long-term effort. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. empowerment. We do not propose it as the ³right´ definition. We will explain this definition in some detail. All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change.several years in most cases. serious business. Top management must initiate the improvement . that is. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving. Now let¶s turn to our definition of organization development. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. Collectively. including action research. Organizational change is hard. what practices should be included and excluded. these definitions overlap a great deal (that¶s encouraging). Likewise.³Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories.´ (Burke. to improve an organization¶s visioning. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science.´ This definition is lengthy. By long-term effort. values. In fact. and contain several unique insights (that¶s enlightening). but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau.
and culture. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization¶s culture. so is managing the culture. has a stake in making the organization work. attitudes. By including culture so prominently in our definition. activities. Michael Beer¶s definition called for ³developing new and creative organizational solutions´. culture is of . Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. team. vitality. developing the strategy for getting there. listening. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. Just as visioning. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. learning. Still. beliefs. first. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization¶s members. and take actions on problems. strategy. lost its commitment. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. coherent. For empowerment to become fact of life. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. make decisions. structure. And second. opportunities. processes. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. By empowerment processes. empowerment. structure. By learning processes. By visioning processes. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity.³journey´ and be committed to seeing it through. and each influences the others. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. commitment. norms. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. and artifacts. not just a small group. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. assumptions.´ Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. expectations. where collective aspiration is set free. and processes makes each important. and making it happen. one of widespread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization¶s purposes. solve problems. The reciprocal influence among culture. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as ³« organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. we mean. We further believe that having compelling. and organizational learning. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. By empowerment. we mean those interacting. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. sentiments. and common purposes of all members of the organization. and challenges in the organization¶s environment and its internal functioning. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. interactions. in contrast to having only a select few involved. or became distracted with other duties.
But in many organizations today. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. learning. engineering. When one function finished with its part of the project. firing. . (b) invented. and feel in relation to those problems. When teams function well. and training. Over time. In Liberation Management. think. discovered. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. wasted time. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. or developed by a given group. maintaining quality control. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. Further. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. empowerment. hiring. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. individuals and the organization function well. values. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. much rework. manufacturing. He uses the terms µmultifunctional projectization¶ and µhorizontal systems¶ to describe these teams and their work. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. so they are the place OD programs often begin ± getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. Processes are how things get done. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be ³brain work´) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the ³right´ ways. think. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. Today¶s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. Temporary. such as design. So culture consists of basic assumptions. empowerment. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: ³Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. and problem-solving processes. Processes are relatively easy to change. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. and we highlight the importance of visioning. and procurement. the process ³threw the results over the wall´ to the next functional unit. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. members are trained in competencies such as planning. This method resulted in loss of synergy. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification.primary importance. By intact work teams and other configurations. and using management information.
OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. 9. 10. Attempting to create ³win-win´ solutions is standard practice in OD programs. rather than focusing attention on individuals. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. 3. Specifically. dynamic and adaptive system. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. 7. so that change is easily observed. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. 6. OD . 4. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. OD focuses on culture and processes. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. and co-learners with the client system.3 Characteristics of OD 1. To summarize. 5. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. 8. 2. This µplanned¶ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. 2. OD practitioners are facilitators. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today¶s fast-paced market place. 3. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done.multifunctional. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. collaborators. according to Peters.
efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. or catalyst. He shares a social philosophy about human values. rather. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. Key areas are the normative type of model. and integrate individual and organizational goals. he conducts surveys. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. joint goals and means. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. 4. and mutual influence. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements . 5.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. Thus. 3. evaluates these data. identity. and cyclic processes. temporary. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. problem-solving. growth. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. collects relevant data. Rather. They discourage µdo it yourself¶ approach. The relationship involves mutual trust. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that µnorms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones¶. and then. further more. third party change agent. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be µhuman¶ and to increase awareness. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. 6. or isolated problems. rather. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. At the individual level. Action research is the basis for such intervention. 3. interactive. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. and revitalization. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. takes actions for intervention. It recognizes that organizational goals change. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. they are ongoing. 7. participation. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed.
3. second. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. problem solving climate throughout an organization. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. like other normative re-educative programmes. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. This Organization Development progrmmes. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. first. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization¶s goals (profit or service) and development of people. . with the authority of knowledge and competence. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. (c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system.of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. Two important elements of Organization Development are. (g) To increase the sense of µownership¶ or organization¶s objectives throughout the work force. practitioners and the client laymen.
more attention to peer-groups.6 OD and Management Development At this stage. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. according to him. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. and greater display of feelings and emotions. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized.(h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one¶s area of responsibility. According to him. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. management development has been defined as follows: ³Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. Before making a comparison between the two. less individual competitiveness. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager¶s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. 3. with their existing objectives and structure. However. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. (iii) assertiveness. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. The term µdevelopment¶ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority.´ Organization development differs from management development. Based on this. (ii) competitiveness. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. . and (iv) a sense of responsibility.
Problem-solving approach. Trained specialists required. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. horizontally. 4. . substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. 3. No special requirement. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. 7. plays key role in organizational improvement. 3. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. 6. Educative and training Short-range. 5. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. focus on achieving improvement in design.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. Thus. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. By 70s. Focus on design. Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing organization.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. not on the managers. 3.Focus Approach Time Specialist accomplishments. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. however. In early 60s. however. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. 2. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. and laterally. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life.
OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. Self Assessment Questions . There should be proper use of OD interventions. 4. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. 2. 3. For example. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. some specific efforts are required. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. If an organization is laden with these people. 2. Therefore. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. 4. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. particularly in bottom-line ones. 5.confrontation techniques. Therefore. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. 5. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. However. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. Research studies have also failed to conclude significant contributions of OD in all organizations. 3. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. Thus. In general. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. it is useless to try OD. it fails even as a long-term strategy. in order to make best use of OD efforts. etc. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. Hence. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. OD programmes are often quite costly.
OD focuses on culture and processes. Distinguish between µorganizational development¶ and µmanagement development¶. 2. Organization development should be led and supported by ±±±±±±±. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. collaborative. Who is associated with the ³Learning Organizations´? 5. Explain its salient features. Empowerment 4. The participative. 3. Tom Peters 3. ±±±±±±±±± is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. Define OD. 3. 4. _____________is a short-term strategy. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. Peter Senge . But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. There is no µquick fix¶ to organizations¶ problems. problem-focused µnature of OD¶ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. ±±±±±±± is associated with ³Liberation Management´. 3. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. State the various roles of OD.1.10 Terminal Questions 1.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. 5. 2.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 3. Explain the various characteristics of OD. 4. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. Top management 2.
8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 3. MU0002-Unit-04.Organization Development ± Interventions Structure: 4.2 2.5 Leadership Development 4.5.2 Survey Feedback 4. Refer section 3.6 4.7 5. Refer section 3.6 Team-building .3 Process Consultation 4. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.Organization Development ± Interventions Unit-04. Refer section 3.1 Introduction Objectives 4. Management development Answers to TQs: 1.4 Grid Training 4.
12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4.´ There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. the classification of OD interventions shows variation. education and training. they make things happen.10 Summary 4.4. survey feedback.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. team-building.7 Inter Group Development 4. Nevertheless. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: ³Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. group level. However. Historically. work group. Further. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the range of change that an organization requires. and survey feedback method. management grid. For example. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. and organizational level. and organizational culture. Thus. People¶s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. process consultation. other techniques like process . inter-group level. grid training. inter-group activities. Subsequently. mediation and negotiation activities. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. Therefore. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic.11 Terminal Questions 4. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. interpersonal level.8 Change Agents 4. techno-structural activities.
consultation, team- building, and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives, have been added. Our further discussion follows this development. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. · Explain grid training. · Describe process consultation. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Role of change agents. 4.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid), the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier, Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan, USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 2. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection, feedback of information, developing action plans based on feedback, and follow up. 1. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership ± managerial support, managerial goal emphasis, managerial work facilitation, peer support, peer goal emphasis, peer work facilitation, and peer interaction facilitation, organizational climate-communication with the company, motivation, decision-making, control within the company, co-ordination between departments, and general management, and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company, satisfaction with the supervisor, satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with the pay, and satisfaction with the work group. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization¶s personnel.
After the questionnaires are completed, data are classified, tabulated, and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 2. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed, feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. In oral system of feedback, it is provided through group discussion or problemsolving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively, feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted, it should be constructive and suggestive, rather, threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case, follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building, by the consultant. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. In particular, survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. 2. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However, effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. First, questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. If it is biased, all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Second, even if valid and reliable information is collected, it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change; it provides base for action for change. 4.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Edgar Schein, the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows:
³The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client¶s environment.´ The basic objectives of P.C are as follows: 1. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership, communication, roles and functions of group members, group decision-making and problemsolving, group norms, and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD. 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 2. Define the Relationship: At this stage, client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees, and spelling out services, time, etc. At this stage, the client¶s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. 3. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. At this stage, the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 4. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 5. Intervene: At this stage, the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural change. 6. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.C is completed, the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes, he assists the
The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. 3. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. traditions. The grid organization development consists of six phases. and the organization as a whole. 2.C programmes.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. and total organizational levels. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. inter-group. The skills relating to planning. focuses on skills. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. and problemsolving are also developed. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. and teamwork. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals.C is also not free from criticisms. P. In the review of various P. like other OD intervention techniques. Inter-group Development: At this phase. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant¶s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. objective-setting. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. However. 1. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. From this point of view.organizational members to incorporate those changes. groups. P. . 2. However. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. problem-solving. 4. group. communication skills. knowledge. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. and alike. 3.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton.
5 Leadership Development When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). grid training is a non-rigorous method. If you are to manage change effectively. in spite of these criticisms. Slogging Through The Swamp. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. Systematic Critique: In this stage.´ In a later work. During drastic change times. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. They have maintained that ³managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. and regular. and After Arrival. confident and effective decision-making. In this light. 4. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. competence. Further. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. We will look more carefully at each of these. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. while at the same time . 5. 6. they maintained the same stand. concerned and committed to their welfare. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. and credibility of senior and middle management. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. complete communication that is timely. it discounts reality.4. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. The strategy is then implemented. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. Furthermore. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. is the ability of leadership to«well. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". lead. therefore. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. Also during these times of change. the various programmes may be redesigned.
results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. As against these. For example. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as ³who will be members of the team?´ ³Who will perform what functions?´ ³Who will contribute what?´ ³What rules will be . by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. it may be too late. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. brings hope for better times in the future. In a climate of distrust. Leadership before. employees expect nothing positive. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. performing. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. therefore. norming. which. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. if allowed to go on for too long. 4. if haven¶t established a track record of effective leadership. These stages are: forming. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. Unfortunately. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team.recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team¶s time together. 4. how synergy is generated through team-work. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone¶s best interests. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. teambuilding is the most important. but more importantly.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. problems in team-work. storming.´ A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. French and Bell have opined that ³probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. let us consider the life cycle of a team. widely accepted. The existence of this trust.
The adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. team members start settling. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team¶s goals. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. 2. At this stage. Sooner or later. Norming: After storming stage. committee. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. each team has to be adjourned. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. At this stage. After the adjournment of the team. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: ³Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. However. etc. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. 3. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. 4. They share personal information.followed?´ ³How can conflicts among members be resolved?´ and so on. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. start to accept others. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. 5. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. because of individual differences. jockeying for relative control.´ . Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team.
group of eight. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. To the extent. the individual average dropped down still lower-68. From this statement. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. For example. it appears that there are many . They averaged 138. and so on. In fact.Thus. other factors remaining the same. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. fail to perform their assigned tasks. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group¶s meetings. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. in one experiment. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. group efforts tend to slacken. In such an assignment. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. other factors remaining the same. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. In the above paragraph. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. and attitudes. goals. the team would be effective. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. the complementarity among members is achieved. it was found that individuals¶ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually.2 pounds.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. 2. that is. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine.
While skills are relevant for job performance.factors in an effective team. 2. Even if one member lacks behind. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. serve to focus attention. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. then. customer satisfaction. These super-ordinate goals. 2. Further. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality. 1. supportive environment. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. two things are required from its members. 3. organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance. Katzenbatch and Smith. These factors are skills and role clarity. Rewards of both types. and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one¶s own role as well as roles of other members. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. Thus. common purpose. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. . they will put their maximum. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. make recommendations regarding a new supervisor. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. 4. or propose discipline for team members. Therefore. management consultants. 3. complementary skills. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size.financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals. goals. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. unify efforts.
such as. 4. the emphasis should be on consensus. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. Analyzing how the work is performed. their value systems. At this stage. group problems to even personal problem. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. and rewards. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem. personality and attitudes. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared. Fig. Setting goals and priorities for the team. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. and 5. 4. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. recognition.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action. 2.4. For achieving these. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. 2. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. In problem identification. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. Providing positive feedback. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds. 3. 1. they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. Analyzing how team¶s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. rather. . the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure. and 5. generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. Analyzing how the team is working.
talking together with speaker. (iii) Clarifying: resting. At the time of discussion of feedback. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings. belittling. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas. the way people talk about the issue. with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. seeking relevant information. criticizing person. members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. etc. 5. and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. etc. undermining morale. who was trying to resolve the differences. there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. ensuring. 4. If this process is adopted several times. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. about the issue. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time. feelings. cynicism. Negative Behaviour (i) Over talk: interrupting. encouraging others to participate. Followup action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of team-building.3. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team. understanding. (ii) Attacking: deriding. the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. who was talking more or who was talking less. At this stage. (iii) Negative: cooling. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours: Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team¶s responsibilities. Often. information. the stying with the topic or going off on tangents. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. . This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. also provides opportunity to understand themselves.
etc. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. communicating.. stereotypes. It seeks to change to attitudes. It improves the organization¶s problem-solving and decision-making ability. As a result. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. However. structure. 4. 3. in different degrees. 2. and perceptions that groups have of each other. and feedback skills). it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people.These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. though. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the organization¶s outcomes. to encourage and sustain such feelings. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier. However. team-building has a positive outlook. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. 2. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. However. In spite of these problems. listening. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage. In general. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. monitoring.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. one of the more . Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. it is not that effective in isolation. Therefore. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. are not given adequate attention. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology.
employees of the organization. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. Outside consultants. however.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . but one thing he/she is not the driver´. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. with members from each of the conflicting groups. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. as the break for too quick action. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. and personnel. the other group. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. Trainer . In this method. The groups then share their lists. According to Curtis Mial: ³The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. after which similarities and differences are discussed. For major change efforts. Subgroups.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. 4. as the accelerator to build up momentum. 4. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. culture. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes ± which can be benefit or a disadvantage ± because they don¶t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. Differences are clearly articulate. operating procedures. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. or outside consultants. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization¶s history.Popular methods emphasize problem solving. the groups can move to the integration phase ± working to develop solutions that will improve relations. In contrast. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance.
changing (intervening) and refreezing. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. feedback of information. Team-building is most important. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies ± lectures. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. cases and experiential learning etc. Self Assessment Questions 1. Data collection. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. diagnosis. generation of new behavioral science knowledge.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. group. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4.A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. In process consultation. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? . Training is required for enhancing knowledge. films. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. role-plays and instruments. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. 2. Grid Training was developed by ±±±±±±±±±±±± 3. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. attitudes and beliefs. Training is used both in µcontent orientation¶ and process orientation¶. It focuses on skills.11 Terminal Questions 1. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. inter-group and total organization levels. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. group discussions. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. skills and change in behavior. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. presentations. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. 4.
4 2. Refer section 4.6 4. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5. 4. Refer section 4. Blake and Mouton. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail.2 3. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? 3. Assumptions.1 Introduction . Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 4. and Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Data collection 2.2.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 3. MU0002-Unit-05-Values. Assumptions. Refer section 4.
beliefs and assumptions.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field. Objectives: After studying this unit.5.5. assumptions.Objectives 5. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development. 5. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves.1 Introduction A set of values.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5.2 Definitions 5.7 Terminal Questions 5. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions. beliefs and assumptions.2 Definitions . These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5. · List the chronology of events of values.5.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5.
Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth." or slacking off. OD values tend to be humanistic. optimistic. and that rationality. free speech) and what is undesirable or µbad¶ (e. or spirit of the time. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. Taylor s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. strongly held.g.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought y Frederick Winslow Taylor s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. and democratic. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources ± the Hawthorne studies. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. view all people as having the potential for growth and development.g. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. . Values. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. research on the effects of different leadership styles. As these ingredients accumulated. the laboratory training movement. 5.A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. it is a cognitive fact for the person. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. with values being beliefs about good and bad. values. dishonesty). assumptions. the human relations movement. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. assumptions. Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or µgood¶ (e. Simple. and assumptions being. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs.. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly. Thus. treat people with respect and dignity. reason. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies.. and the like.
The Functions of the Executive by Chester 1. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. wrote an article on The Giving of Orders advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people s beliefs about organizational behaviour. Lippitt (1939). Their simple. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. a management theorist and astute observer of labour-management relations. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. Mary Parker Follett (1926). training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. theory. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. the work environment. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. most efficient way to organize people. greater attention to workers social needs. The human relations movement advocated participative management. impersonal rules. y y y y y y y . In a sense. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. and the supervisor determined their performance. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives.y The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of bureaucracy as the best. Research by Lewin. extensive division of labor. apathy. People were not cogs. much of the research. Group Dynamics (1940) The scientific study of groups using experimental research methodswas launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. A strong hierarchy of authority. their feelings and attitudes about the work. aggressiveness and poor performance. organizations were not machines. and a general humanizing of the workplace. People came to work as whole people. These approaches possessed many desirable features. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance.
this book popularized Maslow s motivation theory. In an environment of slow change. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. Chris Argyrif s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. and need to be led. a mechanistic organization y y y y y y y y .y These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. and understand group dynamics. Overcoming Resistance to Change. P. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. The theory postulated that when lower-level needs are satisfied. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. pioneers in laboratory training. indifferent to the organization s needs. caring social climate. management practices. are self-centered. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. Rogers focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. to assume responsibility. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. French s (1948) article. The task of management is to change organizational structures. Lester Coch and John R. reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. healthy adults. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. dislike responsibility. higherlevel needs become dominant. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. increase self-understanding. lack ambition. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. resist change. a direct precursor of OD. This article introduced the concept of organizations as socio-technical systems.
y Rensis Likert s New Patterns of Management (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. as we have said. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. and unprincipled power. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company OD Six-Pack. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. groups. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. and values of the field. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. y y This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. dysfunctions. and greater individual autonomy. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. in an environment of high change. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. and negative consequences. and organizations that is. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. These six books presented the theory. open communications. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. one-on-one leadership style. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations.structure may be appropriate. bureaucracy. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. and shares decision-making with the work group." that is. . The Social Psychology of Organizations by Daniel Katz and Robert L. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. practice. goal-oriented. optimistic. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. an organic organization form is preferred. humanistic. and democratic. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. Writing in 1969. theory. Out of this zeitgeist. Values have always been an integral part of OD. compromise. · Development of more effective "team management.
1. Stalker used the term ³mechanistic´ in contrast to ³mechanical. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. "People support what they help create. and confidence between and across levels. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. 4. mutual trust. sub-units of organizations. 6. Controls are interim measurements. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. 5. director of organization development. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. Here is his list.´ For example." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. ." like pushing buttons.· Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. Robert Tannenbaum. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. not individuals. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. 3. a professor and Sheldon Davis. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). They listed these ³values in transition´ as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. Therefore. M. not the basis of managerial strategy. the basic units of change are groups. 2. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. Organizations. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control.
These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. toward seeing them as being in process. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. decentralized decision making. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. authentic interpersonal relations. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. autocratic.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions .· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. 5. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. collaboration and co-operation. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. · Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. appropriate uses of power. participation and contribution by all organization members. open communication. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. the legitimacy of feelings. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies.
invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. This skill is a trainable one. a church or club group. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. at both the formal and informal levels. remove obstacles and barriers. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. 5. not individuals. To do this. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. support. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. Implications of these assumptions are several. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group¶s effectiveness and development. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. groups. set high standards. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. Hence. personal growth. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style.5. in addition. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture.5. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. facilitation. and job satisfaction. challenge. and co-operation within the group. . Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. including peers and boss. and usually with more than one group. Also. leaders need to give important work to teams. and reward success. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence.Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. the family. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. such as a work group. and so on. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. give autonomy. not a one-on-one leadership style. What occurs in the work group. and organizations? 5. support.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. invest training time and money to increase group members¶ skills. Second. listen. First. conflict management. Third. and are capable of making. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. and interpersonal communication. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. Most people want to develop their potential. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. encourage risk-taking. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. give responsibility. permit failure.
The rapid technological. Still. and empowering. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. and profitability. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity.Finally. an optimistic. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better.5. Frequently the challenge is broader. Therefore. and E can support these changes.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. societal. grouping by specialized function. developmental. Finally. By implication." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. emphasis on topdown directives. they change over time. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization¶s leaders. quality of output. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where ³putting people first´ paid off handsomely in profits and performance. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. 5. formalized cross-functional communication. are dysfunctional over the long run and highlight the need for a ³win win´ attitude. By implication. in which one side wins and the other side loses. a growing awareness that ³win-lose´ organizational situations. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. In addition. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. and ways to optimize human potential. adherence to the chain of command. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. Concluding Comment: . values are never static. D. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. including how persons C. organizing structures. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. and so on-are obsolete. The implication is that people are an organization¶s most important resource.
OD values tend to be humanistic. 2. Values. beliefs.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. Write a note about F. Values. 5.W. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. The concept of ±±±±±±±±±± was introduced by MaxWeber.The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. Cognitive . values. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. __________ is associated with scientific management. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. 2. The outcome of ±±±±±±±± was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. Values. 4. Taylor¶s principles of scientific management. 5. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. optimistic and democratic. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. 5. 3. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s.7 Terminal Questions 1. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. and assumptions are all ±±±±±±±±±± facts. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. beliefs and assumptions. Define concepts. but are widely accepted today. 3. Values are also beliefs. 5.
3 4.2 2. F.2. Refer section 5.1 Introduction Objectives 6. Refer section 5.2 Beyond the Quick Fix . Taylor 3.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6.2. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1.2. Refer section 5.3 3.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Bureaucracy 4. Hawthorne experiments 5. Refer section 5.3 5. W. Refer section 5.
5 Teams and Teamwork 6. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning.3 Systems Theory 6.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.4 Participation and Empowerment 6.3. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.6. you will be able to: .126.96.36.199 The Nature of Systems 6.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6. Objectives: After studying this unit.3.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6. In this discussion.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6.2.10 Summary 6.11 Terminal Questions 6.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.
We will examine the following concepts: · Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. · Describe the parallel learning structures. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. · Explain systems theory. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. describe those features as variables. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. That is. and specify the relationships among the variables. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. Models and theories depict. · Explain the terms µparticipation¶ and µempowerment¶. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in .2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. the important features of some phenomenon.· Explain various models and theories of planned change. in words or pictures.2. 6.
Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. that is. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. judge things. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. Likewise. feel things. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. that is. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. With a technique called the force-field analysis. Lewin¶s second idea was a model of the change process itself.opposing directions. etc. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. Scanning the environment for new relevant information . Finally. For example. Lewin¶s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. mentor. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. Next. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. he must move. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. b. moving to new level of behaviour. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. Identifying with a new role model. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent.
In stage 1. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s refreezing phase. and Bruce Westley. In stage 2. That is. Phases 3. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person¶s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin¶s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. That is. and attitudes.Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. terminating the client-consultant relationship. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s unfreezing phase. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person¶s personality. which motivate the person to change. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. unfreezing. moving. Significant relationships. and 5 correspond ro Lewin¶s moving phase. The total personality and self-concept. which cause guilt and anxiety. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. This motivating evidence is gained by. The primary task in stage 3. . disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. change will not occur. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. Jeanne Watson. that is. b. establishing goals and intentions of action. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system¶s problem. refreezing. for example. 4. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. and fit with the individual¶s social surroundings.
4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results." that. 2) Diagnosing the problems. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. 6. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. and so forth.2 Beyond the ³Quick Fix´ A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? . Change programs take from one to five years to complete.2. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. 4) The strategy-structure track. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. cause the organization to be successful. when functioning properly. Kilmann¶s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. problem-solving sessions. Interventions include training programs. and 5) The reward system track. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. 2) The management skills track. critique practices and procedures. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. 3) The team-building track. called "tracks.This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting.
adaptive. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. information sharing. or continuous change. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. TRW.and second-order change. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. departments. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered ± the organization is transformed. and so forth. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. beginning with the culture track. Ford General Electric. work groups. then moving to the management skills track. then moving to the team-building track. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. 6. or discontinuous change. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. communication. and Xerox with good results. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. the use of updated management skills. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call ³transactional change´ and ³transformational change´). The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. and its holistic view of organization change and development. Westinghouse.The culture track enhances trust. jobs. evolutionary. radical. In second-order change. OD programs are directed toward both first. In first-order change. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. . The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. revolutionary. and all resources with the new strategic direction. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change.2. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit ± thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. Eastman Kodak. incremental. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. General Foods.
interventions directed toward mission and strategy. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. 6. On the other hand. We will do so in several steps. management practices. friendly or unfriendly. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. and so forth. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. Changing structure. often unconscious.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First ± Order Change . individual and organizational performance. hard-working or easy-going. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. Fig. and beliefs that are enduring. and difficult to change. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. leadership.Organizational climate is defined as people¶s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. management practices. in turn. values. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. and organization culture result in second-order change." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. which change motivation and." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees¶ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure.
6. mission and strategy. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. as shown in the above figure. we must change mission and strategy. structure. These factors are able to change the climate. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second ± Order Change On the other hand. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). that is. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization¶s culture. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. . The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change.´ We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. Interventions directed toward management practices. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. To summarize. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. and organization culture. Burke says: ³Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics.Fig. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. leadership styles. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended.
according to Porras and Robertson. physical setting. 6. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. social factors. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. which influence on-the job behaviours.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. and technology.2.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. Interventions that focus on culture. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. and interaction processes will affect social factors. For example.Fig. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. OD interventions that focus on goals. It is how OD works. which determine organizational performance and individual development. rewarded). management style. required. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. . strategies. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members¶ cognitions (they learn what is expected.
6. This section explains systems theory. describes the characteristics of systems. Systems .3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory.Fig. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. 6. Fig.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6.
theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. money. . and energy between system and environment. system denotes interdependency. Organizations are open systems." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized. resources.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. the organization¶s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. They do something to the inputs via throughput." To summarize. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. or transformation processes that change the inputs. the reasons for their existence. in that they permit exchange of information. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs.system." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. people." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. conversion. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. The words µarrangement¶ and µinterrelated¶ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. Therefore. components. 6. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. Every system is delineated by a boundary. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. For example. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. information. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. Here. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. Thus. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. the organization will cease to exist. Open systems have purposes and goals. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. interconnectedness. raw material and so on.3. What is inside the boundary is the system. and if the environment does not want these outputs. that is the system. dynamics. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. or subsystems. when taking a systems approach.
Say your company makes buggy whips. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. that information is called positive feedback. and so on. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. For example. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. say. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. aerospace.Fig. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. and makes a course correction. however. . It is sometimes called deviationamplifying feed back. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. "return to earth. eating fads. but most are not useful. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. Systems require two kinds of feedback.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems ³run down´ and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. If the mission (target) changes. By the same token. while screening out other information. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. competitors. Information is important to systems in several ways. mining. and the system adjusts to a new goal. For example. 6. negative and positive. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. Positive feedback comes from the environment. and the like. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback.
and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. failures. With increased differentiation. Subsystems exist within larger systems. and informal organization. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. and technology. people. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state ± systems have multiple paths to goals. perceptions. which includes formal structures. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. and systems for performing the work. processes. and individual level. this process is called differentiation. and the workforce¶s expectations. either internal or external. important events. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. work. and complex over time. such as capital. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. As Katz and Kahn say: ³The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. which includes skills. formal organization. The three major input factors are: 1) The environment. knowledge. unit/group level. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. knowledge. which includes the organization¶s culture informal rules and understandings. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today.3. 6. specialized. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). differentiated. 2) Resources available to the organization. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it.Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. systems tend to get more elaborated.´ Also. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. .
. two active segments of OD today. performance will suffer. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. performance will suffer. if people don¶t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. training group members in multiple skills. forming autonomous work groups. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. and information to the point of action. In a company that is performing poorly. to the workers doing the job." The premise is that alignment (harmony. multi-skilled teams. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. especially autonomous work groups (selfregulated teams or self-direct teams). controlling variance at the source.Fig. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. Hanna writes: .3." and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. and that changes in one system affect the other system. For example. organizations must optimize both systems. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. which components are "not functioning correctly. Fred Emery. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. performance will suffer. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model¶s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. If the organization¶s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. fit) must be present among the system¶s components¶ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. that is. 6.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. a social system and a technical system. 6.
team learning. but seen in relation to other issues. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stakeholders. Without a systemic orientation. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands.KI Jayaram. building shared vision.´ In conclusion. not single effects. because most phenomena have more than one cause. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. Charles Krone. and systems thinking. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. issues. the fifth discipline. events and forces. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. according to Peter Senge. systems thinking.3. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. He says of systems thinking: ³It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. is the most important.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. mental models. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. changing one part of a system influences other parts. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. G. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. forces. 6.In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. and 3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. . By enhancing each of the other disciplines. Second. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. Third. therefore. First. Of all these disciplines. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. events. from their activities. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. For example.
called "organic. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. and change. autonomous work groups. not just its component parts. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. To empower is to give someone power." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. it is extended broadly throughout the organization.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. and give more power to more people. search conferences. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. They believed that it was about risk-taking. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. with its emphasis on risk-taking. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. personal initiative. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. one changes the system. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. reduce stress levels. to contribute their ideas. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions." These authors believe the organic view. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. to change a system. 6. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. Participation enhances empowerment. increase commitment to the organization. quality circles." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. involvement and participation energize greater performance. and to be responsible.Fourth. survey feedback. But . growth. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. And fifth. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. is the more useful perspective. Further. One view. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. to exert influence. team building. quality of work life programs. The other view. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. and growth. which they call "mechanistic. produce better solutions to problems. For example." is bottom-up and less controlling.
HPWSs (high-performance work systems). A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. Third. changes those norms and values. Teams and teamwork are "in. . employees must choose to be empowered. as a team. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. they must if personally connected to the organization. that is. processes. but rather a mindset that employees have about their roles in the organization. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. teams create synergy. If the team. research. teaming. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. While management can create a context that is more empowering. systems. STS (socio-technical systems). to name just a few. Theory. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today ± gurus extol the virtues of teams. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. the noun team has become a verb. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile.´ 6. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: ³Empowerment. Team Taurus developed Ford¶s best-selling automobile. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. people must work together to accomplish them. is not something that management does to employees. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. QCs (quality circles). then.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. confident about their abilities. Second. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777.both views contain valid ideas: for example. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. and relationships if they are to be effective. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. HPOs (high-performance organizations).
we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. heart transplant surgical teams. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. and respect-teams nurture human nature. inter-group team-building. recognition. temporary teams. cross-functional teams. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. Examples are team-building. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. . the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. and responsibility charting. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. that they achieve synergy. socio-technical systems programs. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. and explore ways to realize that potential. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. quality circles. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. role negotiation technique. status. help each other. In this section. and set ever-higher goals. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. process consultation. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. find innovative ways around barriers. including collegiate football national champions. When any one feature is lost. and the like.Fourth. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. team performance declines. and others. parallel learning structures. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. teams satisfy people¶s needs for social interaction.
High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. talking. It isn¶t the supplemental structure that¶s important. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs.´ Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. you don¶t have a parallel structure.´ The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. Bushe and Shani say: ³The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. and initiate needed changes. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. deciding. and acting differently than normally takes place at work.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. flexible response. What¶s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). Projects are the work of the future. and employees.Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. 6. managers. projects will be performed by teams. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization¶s methods of work and/or culture. Interestingly. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. High responsibility. Titeflex. and continuous learning. Asea Brown Boveri. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. autonomous. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. 6.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing . specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. constitute another important foundation of organization development. clear objectives. If you don¶t implement different norms and procedures. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as ³a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. superior customer service. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. Union Pacific Railroad. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. and then leading the process. In essence. At Ford Motor Company.
and together they define problems and seek solutions. information. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. attitudes. doubts. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. and¶ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. anxieties. The first type is empirical rational strategies. according to this view. OD clearly falls within the normative-reeducative category. Patterns of action and practice are supported ± by sociocultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. and significant relationships. that is. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-re-eductive and the empirical-rational strategies. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normativereductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. relationships and customary ways of doing things. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. not just changes in knowledge. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. values." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. rather than the OD practitioner. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. Change in a pattern of practice or action. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. will follow their rational self-interest. based on the assumptions that people are rational. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. skills. . And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones.Organization development involves change. Evaluated against these three change strategies. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies.
A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. Thus. by modifying a group norm or standards. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. applied science or practice. On this point. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. hopefully. not the individual. Burke writes: ³If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. 6. and (2) "technology. thereby solving the problem. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined.´ Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. for example. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. success corroborating the diagnosis. behavioural science knowledge." applied science. on the basis of selected variables. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice. . the major leverage point for change is at the group level. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. i. pressing problems. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. or practice.e.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. Greenwood states: ³The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together.´ From this "practice theory. practices.. The practitioner examines the problem situation. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. re-establishes the equilibrium. OD emphasizes the latter. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science.
practice research and practice theory. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. 6. Action research involves three processes: data collection. feedback of the data to the client system members. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. represent contributions from applied science. 6. had this to say about it: ³The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. Self Assessment Questions . The two bottom inputs. form of applied behavioural science.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development.´ Concluding Comments: These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true.Fig. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing ± learning about the dynamics of organizational change. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. and research leading to social action« This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. Taken separately. It is a type of action-research. Kurt Lewin. and action planning based on the data. Taken collectively. who developed the concept of action research. represent contributions from pure or basic science. and doing or implementing change efforts. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change.9 Action Research The action research model ± a data-based. the two top in puts. perhaps more accurately.
4. A _____________ is defined as ³a set of elements standing in interaction. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. 2. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. 6. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. Ralph Kilmann 3. 6.´ 5. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. 3. 6. Transactional change . ±±±±±±±±±± means moving to new level of behaviour.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. 2.´ Comment on this statement. 4.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. Explain Kurt Lewin¶s models and theories of planned organizational change. ±±±±±±±±±± gave the model ³Beyond the Quick Fix´.11 Terminal Questions 1. ³Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. Action research model combines learning and doing. 3. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change. Unfreezing 2.1. First²order change is also called ___________. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. Bring out the essence of ³managing beyond the quick fix´ model of organizational development.
Refer section 6.6 Summary .1 2.3 Types of Organization Culture.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture 7. Refer section 6.2.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 6. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 6.Refer section 6.2.3 4. 7.2.1 Introduction Objectives 7.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7.4. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7. System 5.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7.3 5.2 3.
norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. 7. ± similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone¶s personality.7. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. Practitioners are coming to realize that. they use common language.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. what they brag about. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. Which in many organizations come down to ³Do not do too much. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. thinking. Norms. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. · Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. do not do too little?´ . but everyone knows it when they sense it. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. Culture is one of those terms that¶s difficult to express distinctly. Objectives: After studying this unit. terminology.1 Introduction Basically. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. despite the best-laid plans. 1986).7 Terminal Questions 7. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. including guidelines on how much work to do. values. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. but also changing the corporate culture as well. Martin and Meyerson. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. discovered. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. etc. When organizational participants interact with one another. the culture of a large. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. Standards of behavior exist. For example. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. 2.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. what members wear. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. Observed behavioral regularities.
Rather than strict rules and procedures. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. shared goals. internal and external are viewed in market terms. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. Organizational climate: This is an overall ³feeling´ that is conveyed by the physical layout. 5. In an efficient market organization. Market cultures are outward looking. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization¶s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated.3. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. people are driven through vision. For many years. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. . Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. Typical examples are high product quality. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. 4.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber¶s original view of bureaucracy. 7. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. outputs and outcomes. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. Transactions are exchanges of value. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. but one where all transactions. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. processes and procedures. the way participants interact. 6. New-comers must learn those ³ropes´ in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. They often have well-defined policies. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. In contrast to Hierarchies.
4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. thinking. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. symbols. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. supportive way and may take on a parental role. 7. · Its rituals. rules. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). the way they dress etc. 1993). It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. plaques. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. . the jargon they use.strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. norms. etc. 1986). and procedures. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. In biological terms. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. invisible to the naked eye. discovered. systems and subsystems. big-bang projects and development. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. although not necessarily documented. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. Rules. but critical to shaping its behavior. culture is like the DNA of an organization. Martin and Meyerson. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary.
also called as organizational success or growth. skills. For example. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. and doing. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. to denote organizational effectiveness. Though an organization espouses a series of values. Though each individual¶s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. communicating. there are numerous variables. believing. there is often contradiction in various approaches. and what is right and what is wrong. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. From this point of view. . its core value are limited to a few in number. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization¶s social environment and evolve of behavior. the personality of the organization). productivity. goals. and behaviour. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. various terms such as efficiency. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. business and leadership strategies. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. individually and collectively. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. organizational growth. or standards held by members of an organization. are often used interchangeably. Thus. Identifying.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. 1. profitability. from the basis of its policies and action.Values: These are the social principles. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. decisions. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. intervening and end result. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management¶s policies.
then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. For example. . 7. money. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of ±date..g. That is. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: 1. costs. is workable. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. locating space. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. and a common history begins to be built. End ± result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. and they tend to be longterm goals. and so on. attitudes. 3. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. obtaining patents. and perceptual cluster. and energy that will be required. and earnings. incorporating. communication. the loyalties. e. motivations. is worth running some risks for. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. and is worth the investment of time. others are brought into the organization. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. motivational. 3. building.2. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. if the appropriate organization culture is in place.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. and decision-making. According to Likert. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. 2. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. However. performance goals. 4. At this point. scrap loss.
roles. Emotions. The personal feelings. These factors from the two cultures include the size. 2. the ³culture contract´ that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. In addition.Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. Make changes from the top down. Structure. Assess the current culture. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. management. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. attitudes. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. or even customers may support the existing culture. 4. if possible. 3. commitment. . powerful stakeholders such as unions. especially when making changes in rules and processes. and patterns of daily behavior. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. 6. and whether products and/or services are involved. habits. and history of two firms. 3. 1. 2. 7. 5. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. Staffs. Politics. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. age. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. take these losses early. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can¶t be done successfully?. the geographic location. Include employees in the culture change process. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. relationships. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and.
Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. 2. system-resource approach. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. 9.7 Terminal Questions 1.goal approach. Market 3. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. and strategic constituencies approach.8. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. 7. Finally. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. ________cultures are outward looking. Self Assessment Questions 1. Causal variables Answers to TQs: . 3. 3. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. Artifacts 2. 7. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. 2. 7. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. behavioural approach. Stay the course by being persistent.6 Summary Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. Discuss the development and change of organizational development.
Politics and Organization Development Unit-08.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8.1.Power.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1 Introduction Objectives 8.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8. Refer section 7.9 Summary 8.Power. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8. MU0002-Unit-08. Refer section 7.3 Two Faces of Power 8.10 Terminal Questions . Refer section 7.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8.2 2.3 3.
11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8. In this unit. power must be exercised. emotions. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics." ³Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. indisputable facts of organizational life." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related.8. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired." . The French word µpouvoir¶ stands for both the noun µpower¶ and the verb µto be able.´ ³A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs. 8. to effect outcomes. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid today.actions and the decisions that precede them. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting. Potential power is the capacity to do so. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations.´ Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. · Explain theories about the sources of power.¶ To have power is to be able to get desired things done.1 Introduction Power and politics. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development. and behaviours of people. and for change to occur in an organization. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. Objectives: After this studying this unit.
and organizational activities. According to him. forcing. bestowed. Without leadership (power) in medical. Leading. Power-in-action may take many forms. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt." . The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. Crushing. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. however. being exercised.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" ± positive and negative. for organizations to function. 8. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. selling. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. financial. with collective." A moment¶s reflection. power being the predominant mode. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. not the possession of power as such. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power.Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one¶s way. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. the act or ability of influencing others. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. or acquired? In this unit. technological. absolute power corrupts absolutely. and repression.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. influencing. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one¶s way in a social situation. 8. political. spiritual. and lead. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. confiscation. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. both positive and negative. or positive. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. hurting. unsocialized need to dominate others. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson¶s "Power-Dependence theory. an authority or power dimension is required. influence. In fact. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power.
The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other.· French and Raven¶s "Bases of Social Power. When the net balance for us is positive. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A¶s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. 5. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. to give something valued by the other. and so forth. 2. that person has power over us. influence. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. goals. 3. power. we will terminate or alter the relationship. and desired by the other. when the net balance for us is negative. Legitimate power ± power based on everyone¶s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. Viewed in this light." These authors suggested five sources. . Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. Reward power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. information. blame. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. of social power as follows: 1. The sociologist. hate. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. we will continue the exchange relationship. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. or bases. Referent power ± power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to." In other words." · Mintzberg¶s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. to give something negatively valued by the other. respect. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love." · Salancik and Pfeffer¶s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. praise. 4. Coercive power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. P. rejection. attraction. Expert power ± power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. that is. rewards) that are controlled by one party. that is.
In this theory, power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals, units, or departments) most important for solving the organization¶s most critical problems. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. This theory, like the ones discussed previously, supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by- others-in this case, the special expertise needed for the organization¶s survival-have power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits, indeed, used by all who have it, to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources, through the placement of allies in key positions, and through the definition of organizational problems and policies." These authors view organizational power as a good thing, for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. This theory, "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players, called influencers, seek to control the organization¶s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power, coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. According to Mintzberg, the five possible bases of power are, first, control of a resource; second, control of a technical skill; and, third, control of a body of knowledge. All of these must be critical to the organization. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. In addition to a base of power, the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. An organization has many potential influencers, such as the board of directors, the managers, the top executives, the employees, the unions, suppliers, customers, regulators, and so forth. The important aspects of Mintzberg¶s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others, that power-in-action requires will and skill, and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In summary, these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar ± power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. The resources may be ability to reward and
punish, being in control of critical skills, knowledge, or information, the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined ³politics simply as the study of who gets what, when, and how´. ³Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices´. ³Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups´. ³Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means´. Thus, we view politics as a subset of power, treating it as informal power, illegitimate in nature. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power, but in this sense, formal power, the power vested in office, the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. Both relate to getting one¶s way-effectance. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. For our purposes, organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations; it is engaging in activities to get one¶s way. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities; the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics, like power, has two faces. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest; unsocialized needs to dominate others; a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win, you must lose-rather than win-win terms; and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy, surprise, holding hidden agendas, withholding information, deceiving. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others; viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible; engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing; a relative absence of the tactics of fighting; and a socialized need to lead, initiate, and influence others. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making, resource allocation, and conflict resolution processes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose; they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. In fact, one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation, conflict resolution, and choosing among alternative means and goals.
8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. Virtually, all OD interventions promote problem-solving, not politics, as a preferred way to get things accomplished. OD interventions increase problem-solving, collaboration, co-operation, fact-finding, and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. For example, OD interventions typically generate valid, public data about the organization¶s culture, processes, strengths, and weaknesses. Valid, public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations; rather, they enhance the positive face of power, thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy, it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme power-oriented situations. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power, but not with the negative face of power. Values such as trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first, problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations; second, power equalization, being one aspect of the positive face of power, increases the amount of power available to organization members, and by so doing adds power to the organization. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator, catalyst, problem solver, and educator. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. According to Chris Argyris, the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information, (2) to promote free, informed choice, and (3) to promote the client¶s internal commitment to the choices made. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner, his or her program, and his or her values, methods, and expertise. The OD consultant, like all consultants, provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors, as we discussed earlier. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. In summary, organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. This major strength of OD derives from the strategy of change, the technology, the values, and the roles of OD practitioners.
Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization¶s decision makers). and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). coaching. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. Success leads to credibility and stature. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. . it will gain more power. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. First. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. Skills such as listening. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. in powerful places. and ability to gain organizational support. and expertise. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. 2. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. communicating. According to the framework of French and Raven. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. preferably multiple sponsorship. acceptability. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge)." 4. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). both as a person and as a professional. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. 6. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. 3.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. it will be strong externally. problem solving. experience.8. 5.
and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. not the OD consultant. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization¶s powerholders. The OD program belongs to the manager. not content. OD programs should be results-oriented. the manager will vigorously defend it.counseling. not by getting involved in the answers. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. Rule Six: Mind your own business. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. usually managers. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one¶s own or in others¶ political struggles. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being managercentered. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. A valuable byproduct of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one¶s power base. . Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. which is to be an expert on process. those issues vital to the organization¶s success. constructive social relationships. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. Rule Five: Mind your own business. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable.
Table 8. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others¶ legitimate "turf. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. and educator. negotiations the nature of power and politics. problem solver." "using social networks.Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. catalyst. 8. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. the strategy and tactics of influence." which arouses defensive actions. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. not power activist or power broker." and "going around the formal system. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. As shown in the figure. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. and using contacts for information." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge · Expertise · Information · Tradition Others¶ Support y y Strategies for Success Playing It Straight · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Political access Staff support . others¶ support. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions. and personality characteristics. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. We could propose more rules of thumb. yet legitimate means of acquiring power. Networking is recognized as a potent.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. individual power derives from knowledge. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. viable.
The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. even those of little power. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. personal power and position power. and relevance-how important one¶s task is in relation to organizational priorities. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. in turn.Personality y y y Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don¶t) use organization rules Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. . Whetton and Cameron¶s model is shown in following figure.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. ³One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. Indeed. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. arises from expertise. effort. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what¶s expected of them. a person¶s power comes from two main sources. Personal power. criticality-how important one¶s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. and legitimacy. In this model. personal attraction. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. visibility-how much one¶s work is seen by influential people. This practical. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks´.
(2) selecting the proper influence strategy. Power and politics are similar in nature. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work." And. Usually reason is the preferred strategy. (2) provide a positive. Having power is one thing. reciprocity. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. Retribution refers to coercion and threats. arise from known conditions. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. Our suggestions for . Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. and (3) empowering others. power-in-use is called influence." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people¶s inappropriate influence attempts. and are amenable to positive control. 8. Whetton and Cameron suggest several means of resisting others¶ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. and (6) build on success.Fig. Concluding Comments: In this unit. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. actually using it to get things done is another. collaborative work environment. According to these authors. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. and retribution. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power.
11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. _____________ has identified two faces of power.using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. Harold Lasswell . 4. reputation and professional credibility. Define organization politics. McClelland 3. 4. arise from known conditions. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ±±±± ±±±±±±±. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. and how. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. when and how. Power 2. and are amenable to positive control. 2. when. Describe briefly various theories of power. 3. Self Assessment Questions 1. 5. 8. 2. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. Power can be either positive or negative. Referent power 4. ±±±±±±±±±± is made up of Charisma. Power and politics are similar in nature. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. 3.10 Terminal Questions 1. ±±±±±±±± defined politics as the study of who gets what. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. emotions or behaviour of people. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. ±±±±±± is the intentional influence over the beliefs.. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. 5. 8. 8.
Refer section 8. Refer section 8.3 Socio Technical Systems 9.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2 2.5 Quality Circles 9. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9.4 3. Refer section 8.2 Meaning and Definitions 9.4 Management By Objectives 9.5.1 Introduction Objectives 9.5 4. Refer section 8. Personality Answers to TQs: 1.6 Quality of Work Life Projects . Refer section 8.6 5.
1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program. In this dynamic and fluid environment.8 Total Quality Management 9. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development. actions. · Explain Total Quality Management. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures.10 Summary 9. .11 Terminal Questions 9. organizational problems may repeat. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis. · Explain Reengineering.9.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design. Objectives: After studying this unit. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities.
Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. Rapidity of change. 5. organization theory. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. 1988): Determining the environmental demands Creating a vision statement Educating organizational members . Organization Acceptance of Change. 2. 3. Cummings. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. Pasmore. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. 1967. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. 1976.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. 9. Greater Predictability. Structure changes are normally ³institutionalized´ and less subject to this problem. 4. and more critically. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. Succession Doesn¶t Destroy Change Effort.9. The cost of structural change is generally ³front-end´ loaded. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. This normally is a reasonable. Basic reinforcement theories. Cost is Low.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. In addition. It could involve the following steps (Foster. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. Downsizing associated with restructuring. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. It endeavors to re-design the organization¶s structure. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. From a benefit cost analysis.
is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. with objective orientation as its essence. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. non-specialist. On the other hand. its definitional aspect. 2. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. Since then. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. physical. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of . many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. As an approach to management. Creating the change structure Conducting socio-technical analysis Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique.´ The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: ³MBO is a result-centered. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. its features can be identified as follows: 1. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. therefore. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. Certain degree of overlapping is there. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. In fact.´ Based on the definition of MBO. It is a particular way of thinking about management. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO).
3. 1. its subsystems and people. in interaction with external factors. Therefore. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives. (ii) long-range . normally once a year. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be.management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. ³why does the organization exist?´. 5. Resource allocation. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. and participation of the managers with accountability for results. Therefore. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. the clarity and balance of objectives. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. It works as an integrating device. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. Therefore. This. its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. superiors and subordinates. including the corporate level. (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. 6. 4. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. all the units or departments and individual manager. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. Similarly. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization. The performance review is held regularly. enhancement of employee commitment and participation. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. are determined on the basis of objectives. delegation of authority. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. such as. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis. etc. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers.. Questions. What business are we in?´ and what should be our business?´ provide guidelines for the statement of purpose.
5. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives.and strategic objectives. a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives. (v) worker performance. Setting Subordinates¶ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. 2. (iii) innovation. there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). Even though KRAs are most durable. the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. Therefore. (iii) short-term organizational objectives. resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate¶s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by setting easily achievable objectives. If not. this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. In fact. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability. the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. (v) individual manager¶s objectives. the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. Sometimes. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. they also indicate the resource requirement. 4. what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. Therefore. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization. The process of objective setting begins with superior¶s proposed recommendations for his subordinate¶s objectives. and (viii) public responsibility. the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. . each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. (ii) market standing. Thereafter. In turn. there should be matching between objectives and resources. (iv) productivity. 3. It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization¶s health and the top management perspective for the future. By relating these to objectives. Therefore. (vii) manager performance. (vi) financial and physical resources. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. However. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully. with the experience gained over the period of time. By relating these to objectives.
Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal. Therefore. Quality circle program consists of several circles. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization¶s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. hierarchical structure. quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. QWL programs.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. · Make recommendations for improvement.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s. . each having three to fifteen members. appropriate feedback and employee discretion. require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing. but in its contemporary form. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization. or in people¶s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. 9. this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. and rewards. what happens at each level may affect other levels also. knowledge. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis. information.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. in general. and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. 9. 9.6. which consequently result into high level of task variety. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. on paper.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate.
including the use of quality circles.9. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. provides relevant information to all employees. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. such as cost. 9. · A major emphasis on continuous learning.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. and speed.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization¶s activities around the concept of quality. service. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. quality. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. · Participative management. Reengineering is a top-down process. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. self-managed teams and task forces. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches. statistical quality control. Self Assessment Questions .TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. contemporary measures of performance. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. It is very popular in USA in 1990s. · Competitive benchmarking. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. It is also called continuous quality improvement. statistical process control. eliminating. and extensive use of employee participation. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely.
Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. actions. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. 9. 2. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. Quality circle Answers to TQs: . MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. provides relevant information to all employees. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. 9. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. From a benefit cost analysis. Intervention 2.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. 3. Drucker 3. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. actions. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. Explain Management By Objectives? 4.11 Terminal Questions 1. It is also called continuous quality improvement. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. 9.1. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives.
Refer section 9.2 3.3 2.4 Causes for Resistance to Change. Refer section 9. 10.Refer section 9.1.2 Nature of Change 10.7 Summary 10.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs .5 4.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10. MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10. Self Assessment Questions 10.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 9.3 Resistance to Change 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10.8 Terminal Questions 10.
2 Nature of Change The term µchange¶ refers to an alteration in a system. some parts may be affected directly. Objectives: After studying this unit. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. or social. 3. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. However. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change.10. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. job design and people. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. indirectly. In this dynamic and fluid environment. Hence. 10. may require special change efforts.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. structural arrangement. · Impact of change on future managers. organizational problems may repeat. which are major ones. and others. 2. Thus. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled . biological. When change occurs in any part of the organization. less. organizational change may have the following features: 1. Thus. some parts of organization may be affected more. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change.whether physical. others. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. Organizational change is a continuous process. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. Any change may effect the whole organization. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. and others. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization.
so is the resistance to change. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. In fact. it has stretched slightly. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. In fact. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. employees want to maintain a status quo.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. ³The Pune plant is fully saturated. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. adjustment is fairly routine. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed.as cost and as benefit. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. Thus. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. Madhur Bajaj. 10. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme.´ Resistance as Benefit: . the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. Similarly. it becomes indented at the point of contact. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. In fact. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. On this phenomenon. However. Homeostasis implies selfcorrecting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past.balloon. that is. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. commented. We shall take new workers at the new place. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. because it produces identical symptoms. more serious upsets may occur. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. However. there are two sides of resistance. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. if we look minutely. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. We wanted a new culture and new layout. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. If people resist to change. but when a change is major or unusual. and its basic survival may be jeopardized.
On the one hand, resistance to change is costly affair, and on the other, it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. While on negative side, the reality lies in between. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Thus, resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: 1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Therefore, the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. These feelings, either real or emotional, may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic, psychological and social. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological, job security etc. precede over other needs. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques, technology, etc., whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them, they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India, it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely, reduce job options, and turn into technological unemployment. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match.
3. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes, bonus, etc. All these are well-established in the old system. Whenever there is change, people may feel that in the new system, they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Psychological Factors Psychological factors are based on people¶s emotions, sentiments and attitudes towards change. These are qualitative and, therefore, may be logical from people¶s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent¶s point of view. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness, status quo, lack of trust in change agent, low tolerance for change, and fear of unknown. 1. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego, people resist change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Thus, the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. 2. Status Quo: People want status quo. i.e. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore, everyone tries to avoid it. 3. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo, people may differ. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Therefore, these people resist any new idea. 4. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent, that is, the person who initiates change. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent, they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 5. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The change will bring results in future, which is always uncertain. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction, particularly social needs, through their mutual compatible interactions. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change, people resist it. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.
1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. When there is any change, their existing social interactions are likely to be changed, which people do not want. Therefore, they resist change. 2. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class, e.g., change initiated by managers affecting workers. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change, even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. For example, Sumantra Ghoshal, a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru, has commented as follows: ³Nothing fails like success; nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation, Caterpillar, Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles, all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called µThe Failure of Success¶. Strategies, values, resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés, dogmas, millstones and routines.´ This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought, these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes, stability of systems, resource limitations, sunk cost, and inter-organizational agreement. Some of these reasons are basic while others are byproducts of those. For example, first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. 1. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices, they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. 2. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. For example, a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules, prescribes rigid authority relationships, and institutes reward and punishment system. All these work in some circumstances. It a change is required in these aspects, the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system.
. centralized control. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. 3. In such a case. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. broad environmental scanning. those who watch things happen. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. decentralized controls. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. If it is risk-taking. Thus. Let us see what someone has said long back: ³There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. these can be used for specific period. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. prospectors. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. 1. it will require resources to procure machine. if new technology is adopted. This can be in the form of people also. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. innovative. 2. Resource Limitations: No doubt. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. It depends more on the style of top management. if the change is required. intensive planning. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. 5. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. In this interaction process. Once the assets are acquired. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. For example. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. and commensurate expenses on other items also. if any change is to be incorporated. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. and has zeal for progress. For example. forward-looking. building and training for its personnel. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. and reactors. Now. those who wonder what happened. analyzers. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things.´ This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies.defenders. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. 4. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution.3.
and so on. when you go to work or school. you find a single route and you use it regularly. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. it means you¶re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. implicit. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. we don¶t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. Habit Every day. we¶ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. Therefore. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one¶s income. threatening to go on strike. If for example. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. 10. some may fear they¶ll be unable to do so. immediate. When we are confronted with change.4. finding a new parking place. taking a new set of streets to work. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. Resistance can be overt. To cope with this complexity. They may. therefore. engaging in a work showdown. The same applies to employee. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won¶t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. adjusting to the new office layout. developing a new lunchtime routine. Otherwise. we all rely on habits. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. For analytical purpose. we¶re creatures of habit. As human beings. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. Organizational resistance . they cannot survive.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn¶t necessarily surface in standardized ways. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you¶re like most people.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. For instance. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. or deferred. or programmed responses. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. And people in general don¶t like the unknown. or the like. Life is complex enough. Let¶s look at the sources of resistance.
human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. Formalization provides job description. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. for instance.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. For example. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization¶s structure to match.Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. he¶s likely to resist. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. For example. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. You can¶t change one without affecting the others. for instance. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities ± such as training. development of pay plans. rules and procedures for employees to follow. For example. and benefits administration ± has been resisted by many human resource departments. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. Will the change. The . may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. accountants work with marketers. They tend to be content with the way things are. 10. That is. An individual union member. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. group norms may act as a constraint.
Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. It implies explanation and then discussion of the proposed changes. typically by way of computer network links. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. Unless this problem is overcome properly. Stephen Robbins suggests that ³«« managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. that is. For example. In addition. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. at the level of individual and at the level of group.´ The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. Therefore. through group dynamics. the following efforts can be taken: 1. this is not a one-time action. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. Locavini observes that ³the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people¶s resistance to change successfully. For this purpose. the problems can be solved at the same level. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue ± not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. both at the formal and informal levels.ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. However.´ Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. In many cases. 10. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. People always have some .
The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. They must be taught new skills. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. Though each person interprets the change individually often. is an important trust-building task. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. meetings. most of the times. Thus. the group itself should be the point of contact. and indoctrinated in new relationships. (ii) In group. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual.ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. so that they are looked at and evaluated. education must be a part of the manager¶s everyday activity on the job. For this purpose. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. more than one person is involved in the change. to become effective. The same is true of problem-solving. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. its process and working. he expresses it through a group. sometimes. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. 2. Usually. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. Thus. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: 1. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. its basic nature. However. and conferences. 4. 3. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. as discussed earlier. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. However. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. Getting opinions out in the open. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. As this process goes. . helped to change attitudes. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. It grows slowly along with relationship. People should be educated to become familiar with change. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers.
Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. 2. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. 3.such aspects as the reasons for change. immediate. job design and people. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. 2. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. However. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. psychological factors. and how members contribute. For instance. __________ are based on people¶s emotions.Through the group contact. structural arrangement.7 Summary Change is inevitable. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. Such training techniques include role playing. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. social factors. and sensitivity or T-group training. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. Resistance can be overt. 10. mere participation may not help. group resistance and vested interests. It purports how the results are. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. Self Assessment Questions 1. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing . The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. implicit. Economic factors. many things about change can be made clear. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. psychodrama. or deferred. Research studies also support this aspect. 3. sentiments and attitudes towards change. benefits of change.
or the like. Refer section 10. threatening to go on strike. engaging in a work showdown. .6. Principles and Practices.Response Books. Thomson · Daft Richard L. eighth edition.. Bell. Modern Organization Development and Change. N. Organization Development. Organization Development & Change. at the level of individual and at the level of group. Refer section 10. Why do organizations resist change? 3. Psychological factors 3.4 3. · Harigopal K. Organization Theory and Design.. Jain. · J. P. through group dynamics. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. New Delhi. 10. both at the formal and informal levels. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups.Singh. French and Cecil H.2 2. New Delhi. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. · Cummings & Worley.management of Organization Change. Jr. Reference: · Wendell L. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. Thomson South Western. Organizational change 2.8 Terminal Questions 1.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. that is. Explain the nature of change? 2. Refer section 10. 10.complaints. Regal Publications New Delhi. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. P.
umich. · T.fao.edu/cameronk/CULTURE%20BOOK-CHAPTER%201.oup.htm#TopOfPage http://www.umich.ac. Prasad.co. New Delhi. Prentice-Hall of India.kurims.pdf www.pdf http://www.html http://muse.kyoto-u. · Laxmi Devi. F.uk/pdf/bt/fincham/Chapter15. · Stephens P.1lowry.lib.managementhelp.wdi. Robbins.pdf http://www.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v005/5. Organizational Behaviour. New Delhi.pdf http://webuser.com/articles/leadchange. Dhanpat Rai & Co.com/opm/grtl/OLS/ols6.work911. Sultan Chand & Sons. Robbbins.humtech. · L.managementtoday. New Delhi. M. Prentice-Hall of India. 12th edition.htm#anchor73776 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . New Delhi.co. Organizational Development. E References y y y y y y y y y y y http://fds. Ltd. · Stephen P.com/www. Management. Stoner and R.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp598. Chhabra. .bus.pdf http://www.cfm http://www.umd.org/org_chng/org_chng.jp/~kyodo/kokyuroku/contents/pdf/1461-15.· James A.org/docrep/w7503e/w7503e05. Principles & Practice of Management. Ltd.oup.uk/search/article/634958/the-ceos-role-managing-change/ http://www. N. Management.htm www.edu/groups/learning/wp8. Pvt.jhu. Edward Freeman. Prentice-Hall India. Educatiional Publishers. Organizational Behaviour. Anmol Publications Pvt.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.