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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the µmanagement¶ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn µsurplus¶ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of a
business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term ³management´. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley ± ³Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.´ In the words of George R. Terry ± ³Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.´ According to James L. Lundy ± ³Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.´ In the words of Henry Fayol ± ³To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.´ According to Peter F. Drucker ± ³Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work´. In the words of Koontz and O¶Donnel ± ³Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals´.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren ± ³The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.´ From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that ³management´ is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as ³management´. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a ³distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.´ From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as ³doing things right´. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization¶s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as ³doing the right things´. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of course, high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. And poor
It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. labour and capital. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. organizing. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. principles and techniques requires specialized . They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. In essence. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. 7. Managers apply knowledge.management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. capital and materials. 4. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. 2. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. although they can¶t observe it during operation. directing and controlling.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. So it is treated as a science. 5. Thus. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. informed employees. namely. 6. labour. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. principles and techniques which have wide applications. 1. The application of these concepts. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. staffing. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals¶ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. All these resources are made available to those who manage. Thus. 3. feeling of management is result-oriented.
The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. it refers to three distinct ideas. (ii) a system of authority. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. 10. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. Anthropology. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. that is. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. personnel manager etc. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. Generally. how effectively and economically the five M¶s are combined together to produce desired results. management is viewed as an art. people are bound by authority relationships. a hierarchy of command and control. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. Basically. ongoing concern. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. military.e. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. government and hospital. In other words. 8. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. education. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. Similarly. finance manager. manpower. According to Newman.knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. materials. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem . useful. For instance. According to Herbision and Myers. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. In modern organizations. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. money and machines into a productive. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. and (iii) a class or elite. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. labour and capital. the effective use of the five M¶s of management (money. materials. They transmit orders. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. 9.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. Sociology and Psychology. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. 1.
and the range of production. policies and plans for the enterprise. Board of Directors. planning and setting up of standards. The levels of management depend upon its size. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals.. or the Chief Executive. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise.e. Foremen. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. (i) administrative management (i. Marketing Manager. Financial Controller. ranks. etc. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as µManagement¶ which refers to the group. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. but as head of wages and salary department. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system.e. day-to-day matters. Administrative management is concerned with ³thinking´ functions such as laying down policy. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating .and suggestions upward. ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. technical facilities. its Chairman.. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented.. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. 1. etc. Supervisors. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. viz. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. Production Manager. Purchase Manager. We generally come across two broad levels of management. Operative management is concerned with the ³doing´ function such as implementation of policies. But in actual practice. or. Managing Director. As a separate group. the lower level of management). For instance. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i.
They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. Without them the top management¶s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. . materials.functions. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. 2. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. e) To assign activities. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. d) To assemble the resources of money. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. men. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. j) To report to top management. machines and methods to put the plans into action.
the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. methods. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. It consists of foreman. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual¶s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. Management is goal-oriented. In its absence. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. To this end. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. accounts officers and so on. They have to get the work done through the workers.k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. supervisors. They allot various jobs to the workers. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. Without management. counseling and effective leadership. procedures and reward systems. 1. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. machines. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. 3. an organization is merely a collection of men. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. sales officers. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. money and material. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. Management makes group effort more effective. With a view to realize the .5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. Their authority and responsibility is limited. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management.
But unlike medicine or law. the Indian Institute of Management. often threaten the survival of a firm. and specialized knowledge. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. skills. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. competition. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. In the final analysis. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages.. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. Failure to take note of customer¶s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for µIdeal java¶ in the two-wheeler market in India. identifiable discipline. techniques. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. etc. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. Management . and it is distinct. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. Management as a profession By a professional manager. According to McFarland. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. Thus unnecessary deviations. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. They try to put everything on the right tract. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience.predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. Organize the resources properly. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. government policy.
The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the .. and disciplining employees. managers in general. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. bribing public officials to gain favours. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant.A. etc. the American Management Association in U. motivating. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature ± interpersonal roles. an art as well as a profession. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. However. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager¶s job. In fact. The term µmanagement roles¶ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. Some individual business organizations. the transfer of information. As a social science. management is not as exact as natural sciences. However. unpatterned. All managers have a role as a leader. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions. and short-duration activities. Half of these managers¶ activities lasted less than nine minutes each.Development Institute. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. training. however. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. sabotaging trade unions. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied.S. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. 1. Furthermore. This role includes hiring. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. For instance. the All India Management Association. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. do not seem to adhere to the principle of ³service above self´. But in addition to these insights. and decision-making.
Typically. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. and may be inside or outside the organization. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members.1: Mintzberg¶s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Liaison Symbolic head. subordinates. obliged to Greeting visitors. Informational Roles: All managers. This is the disseminator role. network of outside contacts and doing external board work. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public¶s tastes. to some degree. training. what competitors may be planning. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. and associated duties. informers who provide favors performing other activities and information. Informational Monitor Disseminator . When they represent the organisation to outsiders. understanding of organization and environment. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. and the like. Table 1. activities that involve responsible for staffing. manages also perform a spokesperson role.liaison role. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager¶s unit. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. that involve outsiders. making phone subordinates to members of the calls to relay information. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. duties of a legal or social nature.
media. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to develop and initiates ³improvement new programs. performing all kinds ± in effect. Publishers. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. 1973). supervises design of certain projects as well. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. serves as expert on organization¶s industry. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. physical and monetary resources. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. As entrepreneurs. Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Source: Henry Mintzberg. As resource allocators. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization¶s performance. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the organizational decisions. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. policies.Spokesperson organization ± some information is factual. actions. outsiders on organization¶s giving information of the plans. results. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. Inc. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. Last. etc. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. programming of subordinates work. As disturbance handlers. .. Decisional Roles: Finally. negotiations. projects´ to bring about change. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. managers are responsible for allocating human.
the roles of disseminator. They know how to communicate. . finance. motivate. lead. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. Technical Skills: First-line managers. as well as many middle managers. and conceptual. liaison. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. Specifically. a manager¶s job is varied and complex. this skill is crucial. Since managers deal directly with people. human. research by Robert L. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers ± regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization¶s operations. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. In fact. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. For example. negotiator. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization¶s speciality. During the early 1970.An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg¶s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. Conversely. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. computers. However. and all managers are involved in making decisions. such as engineering. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager¶s level within the organization. or manufacturing. figurehead. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment.
Administration is a higher level function: Administration refers to policy-making. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. Managers are concerned mainly with organisation and direction of human resources. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. administration is a higher level function. According to them. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. Thus. Thus. This view is held by Tead. Administrators are basically concerned with planning and control. Meaning Administration Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives. on the other hand. iii) There is no distinction between the terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ and they are used interchangeably. 2. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. plans and policies of the organisation.1. It is a doing function. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. Management Management means getting the work done through and with others. etc. Spriegel and Walter. Administration relates to the decision-making. Table 1.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. It is concerned with the implementation of policies. Nature 3. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. Scope . It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies. Spriegal and Lansburg. Floerence and Tead. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. Administration is a determinative function. Management relates to execution of decisions. It is a thinking function.
Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle level leading and motivation of executives. organisations. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. 8. . environmental forces. Self Assessment Questions 1. 7. 6.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. Usage of Term The term µadministration¶ is The term µmanagement¶ is often associated with widely used in business government offices. 1. ___________. lower levels of management. Explain its characteristics.e. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. 5. objectives. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. counseling and effective leadership.4. Define management. DecisionMaking Administration determines Management decides who what is to be done and when it shall implement the is to be done. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. _________. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. Five M¶s of management (________. i. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. 3. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. __________is principally the task of planning. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant at higher levels of management. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. middle and lower.9 Terminal Questions 1. 1. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. administrative decisions. operative workforce for the execution of plans. There are three levels of management-top.. public organisations in the private sector and non-business sector. Still management is not completely a profession. 2. co-ordinating.
materials.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.4 Organizing . manpower 3.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 1.2 Process of Management 2.5 3.1.3 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2. 3.3 Planning 2.2. Money. Management 2.2. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. Refer section 1. teamwork Answers to TQs: 1. Discuss the importance of management. 1. MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2. Refer section 1.
2. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. Organizing. Coordinating 5. Planning 2. One can also think of management functionally.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2.8 Summary 2. in recent time. · Explain different functions of management Process. Motivating. Controlling However. . · Explain Planning.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people´.9 Terminal Questions 2. Commanding 4. 1949): 1.5 Staffing 2. Staffing. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. Objectives: After this studying this unit. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. Organizing 3. Management functions are as follows (Fayol.6 Directing 2. you will be able to: · Define Management process. Directing.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2.
Objectives are the ends. the decision to change the design of a product. fuel and machine efficiency. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: . should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. say a passenger car. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. cost structure and so on. However. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. driving comfort. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. or where you want go to. while a policy. leadership is about setting the desirable goals.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. Even so. policies are the means to achieve those ends. Through leadership and management often overlap. general strategies. studies on passenger comfort. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. thus. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. overall goals. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization¶s mission. Therefore.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: ³Management is doing things right. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. and then set out the method for achieving it. There is a degree of overlap between the two. In the football field. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities.2. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. 2. the two are not quite the same. leadership is doing the right things³. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. and allocating resources. Decision ± Making Taking decisions is a process.
journals and reports (scientific. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. How skilled is our workforce? 4. state. federal. Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. governments (local. customers (internal and external). What makes the organization distinctive? 2. What is our market share? 5. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. Opportunities. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: . Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. A mission statement should be short ± and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. Thus. and trade). Are the facilities outdated? 3. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. Weaknesses.A mission is the purpose of the organization. What financing is available? 6. Is research and development adequate? 4. international). planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization¶s potential. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. suppliers. summarizing what the organization does. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. professional. The mission statement is broad. What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2.
Are our rivals weak? 5. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. as well as gap analysis. the best strategy is one that fits the organization¶s strengths to opportunities in the environment. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. Are there new competitors? 3. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. return on investment. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. What are the possible new markets? 3. effectiveness. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. What are the new regulations? 6. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. Objectives are also called performance goals. Generally. Are market tastes changing? 5. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) . They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. What is the strength of the economy? 4. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. etc. What substitute products exist? In general terms.1. What are the emerging technologies? 6. earnings per share. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2.
5 Staffing . tactical. Organizations are groups of people. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. who reports to whom. Strategic. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. with ideas and resources. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. lines of authority. and coordinated. and where decisions are to be made. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. grouped. who is to do. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. Assign work to individuals 6. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job 4. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. how the tasks are to be grouped. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. procedures. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. operational plans are based on the organization¶s tactical plans. and relationships between departments. and goals are clearly stated.4 Organizing It involves designing. In turn. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. structuring. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process.Tactical plans are based on the organization¶s strategic plan. 2. 2. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. working toward common goals. Review plans 2.
It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. performance appraisal etc. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. 2. recruitment. Definition: 1. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. selection.It is not the machines. selection. development. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals´. compensation and training of needed people´. inventorying the people available. 2. Koontz. 3. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. 5. 4. This task has been referred to as staffing. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. training. promotion. materials. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick ± ³Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work´ Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. recruitment. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. Theo Haimann ± ³Concerned with the placement. placement. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. 3. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. appraisal. placement. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. O¶Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as ³filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. . money.
Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. It is a continuing function. Through direction. It is an important managerial function. 5. vacancies arise out of retirement. on the other. 4. promotion. recruitment. resignation. Direction function is performed at every level of management. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. . it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. It is instructing people as to what to do. directing is the ³interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals´. 2. training development and maintenance of personnel. Direction is an important managerial function. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. On the one hand.e.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. 2. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. overseeing and leading people. management initiates actions in the organization. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through ± out the life of an organization. 3. 7. Direction has dual objectives. 8. selection. etc. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. induction.6. identifying the manpower requirements. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. Definition According to Koontz and O¶Donnel. motivate them.
and the Two-Factor theory. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished´. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. teach. The manager never ceases to direct. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. coach and supervise his subordinates.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. the more individuality. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. will vary depending upon his level. proposed by Maslow (1943). organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. 3. belongingness. The further they progress up the hierarchy. ³without the issuance of directives. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. acceptance. 4. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. and achievement. from the basic to the complex. such as. and external esteem factors. Theories X and Y. status. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. guide.Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. sex. recognition. self-respect. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. such as. shelter. 2. As Theo Haimann puts it. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. humanness and psychological health a person will show. satisfied needs cannot. thirst. autonomy. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. 2. and attention . The needs are arranged in order of importance.
and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. Extrinsic factors. . Theory X ± In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. advancement. recognition. and achievement. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. and exercise self-control. autonomy and empowerment. working conditions. achieving one¶s potential. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager¶s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. self-motivated. self-direction. responsibility. such as. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. Motivators are intrinsic factors. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace.· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. such as. esteem. and salary are hygiene factors. anxious to accept greater responsibility. company policy. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. Theory Y ± In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. externally. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. includes growth. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people¶s attitudes about work. Social. if they can. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. It is also believed that. From the above. whereas. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. supervision. and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. interpersonal relations.
structuring. Organization involves designing. 2.In summary. 3. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. Planning involves the process of defining goals. how the tasks are to be grouped. Hygiene factors on the other hand. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. recruitment. who is to do. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. Write a short not on directing. Explain Staffing in detail 3. many related to the tasks being performed. have to do with a person¶s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. Self Assessment Questions 1. 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: . 2. To motivate people. performance appraisal etc. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. 2.9 Terminal Questions 1. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. neither will they be satisfied. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. What is planning? 2. motivators describe a person¶s relationship with what she or he does. and where decisions are to be made. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. people will not be dissatisfied. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. When hygiene factors are adequate. who reports to whom. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise.
Reference 2.3 Characteristics of OD 3.6 OD and Management Development 3.5 3.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .7 Role of OD 3. SWOT 3.2 Definitions 3.4 Categories of OD 3.5 Goals of OD 3. Follett 2.8 Problems in OD .1. Reference 2.1 Introduction Objectives 3. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3. Reference 2. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1.3 2.
culture. and profitability. organization development is a process of teaching people how to solve problems. challenges from turbulent environments. and changing customer demands. teams. fighting obsolescence of one¶s knowledge and skills. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today¶s world is a daunting task. Basically.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. take advantage of opportunities. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today ± threats to effectiveness. efficiency. In summary.Self Assessment Questions 3. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope. Early returns were encouraging. conflict resolution.10 Terminal Questions 3. and processes. strategy formulation and implementation. organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. survive. and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology. maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals. and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. and learn how to do that better and better over time. A variety of solutions exists. Today.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3. . strategy. increased competition.9 Summary 3. organization structure. the answer is ³yes´. ³Knowledge´ work is replacing ³muscle´ work. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges ± finding satisfaction in and through work. And organization development (OD) is one of them. and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. OD focuses on issues related to the ³human side´ of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals. and the organization¶s human and social processes. adapt. organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. and the like. old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. Simple survival ± continuing to have an adequate job ± is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. Although new jobs are being created at record rates.
1971) Organizational development is a process of planned change. and 3) Developing the organization¶s self-renewing capacity (Beer. A ³process for improving processes´ ± that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. · State the goals of OD. OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement. Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives«. values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies. markets. 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change. 1969). 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure. (Bennis. (Schmuck and Miles. 3. · Explain the characteristics of OD. you will be able to: · Define organization development. and challenges. attitudes. using reflexive. and culture. people. 1989) . self-analytic methods. and the dizzying rate of change itself. a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs. strategy. 1980). processes. planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination.change of an organization¶s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making.Objectives: After studying this unit. (Burke and Hornstein. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD.
and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance. what practices should be included and excluded. structure. 1993) ³Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization¶s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies. Collectively. 1994) As you can see. We do not propose it as the ³right´ definition. values. serious business. that is. through an ongoing.´ (Burke. to improve an organization¶s visioning.´ (Porras and Robertson. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. these definitions overlap a great deal (that¶s encouraging). Organizational change is hard. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. By long-term effort. through the alteration of organizational members¶ on-the-job behaviours.´ (Cummings and Worley. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field. it is more accurate to describe ³improvement´ as a never-ending journey of continuous change. Likewise. research.´ This definition is lengthy.³Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories. these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. ³Organization development is a long-term effort. strategies.several years in most cases. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. learning. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. We will explain this definition in some detail. led and supported by top management. and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. 1992) ³OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies. Top management must initiate the improvement . including action research. Now let¶s turn to our definition of organization development. they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving. empowerment. and theory. and processes for improving an organization¶s effectiveness. In fact. There is no ³quick fix´ when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. and problem-solving processes. and contain several unique insights (that¶s enlightening).
By empowerment. opportunities. By including culture so prominently in our definition. beliefs. we mean those interacting. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization¶s members. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. or became distracted with other duties. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. and artifacts. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. interactions. commitment. team. and take actions on problems. sentiments. and making it happen. norms. and challenges in the organization¶s environment and its internal functioning. Still. and each influences the others. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. where collective aspiration is set free. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. developing the strategy for getting there. coherent. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. assumptions. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization¶s culture. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. processes. activities. By empowerment processes. and common purposes of all members of the organization. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development.³journey´ and be committed to seeing it through. has a stake in making the organization work. and organizational learning. The reciprocal influence among culture. Just as visioning. not just a small group. first. in contrast to having only a select few involved. By visioning processes.´ Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. culture is of . strategy. structure. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. learning. For empowerment to become fact of life. Michael Beer¶s definition called for ³developing new and creative organizational solutions´. one of widespread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization¶s purposes. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. And second. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as ³« organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. attitudes. and processes makes each important. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. lost its commitment. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. expectations. We further believe that having compelling. listening. and culture. By learning processes. make decisions. solve problems. structure. vitality. so is managing the culture. empowerment. we mean.
In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. So culture consists of basic assumptions. wasted time. Processes are relatively easy to change. and we highlight the importance of visioning. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. members are trained in competencies such as planning. think. engineering. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. By intact work teams and other configurations. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. such as design. individuals and the organization function well. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be ³brain work´) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task.primary importance. manufacturing. This method resulted in loss of synergy. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. He uses the terms µmultifunctional projectization¶ and µhorizontal systems¶ to describe these teams and their work. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. Further. discovered. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. and procurement. Today¶s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. or developed by a given group. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the ³right´ ways. empowerment. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. Over time. empowerment. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. the process ³threw the results over the wall´ to the next functional unit. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. so they are the place OD programs often begin ± getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. Temporary. firing. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. learning. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. Processes are how things get done. In Liberation Management. and using management information. maintaining quality control. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: ³Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. values. and training. . and feel in relation to those problems. When teams function well. think. and problem-solving processes. (b) invented. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. When one function finished with its part of the project. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. But in many organizations today. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. much rework. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. hiring. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments.
so that change is easily observed. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. 4. Specifically. 6. 3.multifunctional. dynamic and adaptive system. OD . The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members.3 Characteristics of OD 1. according to Peters. 10. 2. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. and co-learners with the client system. OD practitioners are facilitators. 2. To summarize. collaborators. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. 5. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today¶s fast-paced market place. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. Attempting to create ³win-win´ solutions is standard practice in OD programs. 9. 3. 8. OD focuses on culture and processes. 7. rather than focusing attention on individuals. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. This µplanned¶ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations.
At the individual level. he conducts surveys. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. or isolated problems. further more. Action research is the basis for such intervention. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that µnorms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones¶. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. or catalyst. they are ongoing. rather. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. 3. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. 4. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements . identity. collects relevant data. Key areas are the normative type of model. and then. He shares a social philosophy about human values. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. evaluates these data. Rather. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. The relationship involves mutual trust. growth. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. takes actions for intervention. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. They discourage µdo it yourself¶ approach. rather. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. problem-solving. 5. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be µhuman¶ and to increase awareness. third party change agent. interactive. and integrate individual and organizational goals. temporary.efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. 7. 6. Thus. and revitalization. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. and cyclic processes. joint goals and means. It recognizes that organizational goals change.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. and mutual influence. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. participation. 3.
(b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. first. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization¶s goals (profit or service) and development of people. (c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. like other normative re-educative programmes. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. Two important elements of Organization Development are. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. problem solving climate throughout an organization. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. with the authority of knowledge and competence. 3. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. practitioners and the client laymen. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. . (g) To increase the sense of µownership¶ or organization¶s objectives throughout the work force. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science.of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. This Organization Development progrmmes. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. second. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system.
management development has been defined as follows: ³Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. more attention to peer-groups. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. with their existing objectives and structure. less individual competitiveness. (ii) competitiveness. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager¶s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. The term µdevelopment¶ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. 3. However. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. according to him. (iii) assertiveness.6 OD and Management Development At this stage. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. Before making a comparison between the two. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. Based on this. and greater display of feelings and emotions. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. OD tries to fit the organization to the men.(h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one¶s area of responsibility. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. . MD tries to fit the men to the organization. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus.´ Organization development differs from management development. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. According to him.
Thus. 3. focus on achieving improvement in design. Trained specialists required.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. 3. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. plays key role in organizational improvement. however. and laterally. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. Problem-solving approach. Focus on design. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. however. horizontally. .Focus Approach Time Specialist accomplishments. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. 2. Educative and training Short-range. 7. not on the managers. 3. 6. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing organization. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. 5. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. 4. In early 60s. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. No special requirement. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. By 70s.
in order to make best use of OD efforts. it is useless to try OD. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. 4. OD programmes are often quite costly. Hence. Therefore. However. Thus. If an organization is laden with these people. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. 3. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. particularly in bottom-line ones. 4. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. Therefore. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically.confrontation techniques. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. Research studies have also failed to conclude significant contributions of OD in all organizations. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. etc. 5. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. 5. 3. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. Self Assessment Questions . These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. In general. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. 2. it fails even as a long-term strategy. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. some specific efforts are required. There should be proper use of OD interventions. 2. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. For example. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs.
collaborative. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. 4. 3. Empowerment 4. There is no µquick fix¶ to organizations¶ problems. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. 4. The participative. Explain its salient features. Organization development should be led and supported by ±±±±±±±.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy.10 Terminal Questions 1. Define OD. Distinguish between µorganizational development¶ and µmanagement development¶. Tom Peters 3. OD focuses on culture and processes. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. 5. State the various roles of OD. 2. 3. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. 3. _____________is a short-term strategy. 2. Who is associated with the ³Learning Organizations´? 5. ±±±±±±± is associated with ³Liberation Management´. 3.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Top management 2. Peter Senge . Explain the various characteristics of OD. problem-focused µnature of OD¶ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. ±±±±±±±±± is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices.1.
MU0002-Unit-04.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 3.6 4.6 Team-building .1 Introduction Objectives 4.Organization Development ± Interventions Unit-04. Refer section 3.7 5.3 Process Consultation 4. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.2 Survey Feedback 4.Organization Development ± Interventions Structure: 4.5 Leadership Development 4.5. Refer section 3. Refer section 3. Management development Answers to TQs: 1.2 2.4 Grid Training 4.
´ There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. other techniques like process . Therefore. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. team-building. inter-group activities. People¶s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. Nevertheless. Historically. process consultation. and organizational culture. grid training. the classification of OD interventions shows variation. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. group level. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization.11 Terminal Questions 4. Subsequently. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. survey feedback. work group. management grid.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. and survey feedback method.8 Change Agents 4. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. they make things happen.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. and organizational level. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. Thus.10 Summary 4. Further. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: ³Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. interpersonal level.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels.7 Inter Group Development 4. For example.4. techno-structural activities. However. education and training. inter-group level. mediation and negotiation activities. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the range of change that an organization requires.
consultation, team- building, and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives, have been added. Our further discussion follows this development. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. · Explain grid training. · Describe process consultation. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Role of change agents. 4.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid), the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier, Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan, USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 2. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection, feedback of information, developing action plans based on feedback, and follow up. 1. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership ± managerial support, managerial goal emphasis, managerial work facilitation, peer support, peer goal emphasis, peer work facilitation, and peer interaction facilitation, organizational climate-communication with the company, motivation, decision-making, control within the company, co-ordination between departments, and general management, and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company, satisfaction with the supervisor, satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with the pay, and satisfaction with the work group. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization¶s personnel.
After the questionnaires are completed, data are classified, tabulated, and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 2. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed, feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. In oral system of feedback, it is provided through group discussion or problemsolving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively, feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted, it should be constructive and suggestive, rather, threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case, follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building, by the consultant. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. In particular, survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. 2. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However, effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. First, questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. If it is biased, all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Second, even if valid and reliable information is collected, it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change; it provides base for action for change. 4.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Edgar Schein, the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows:
³The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client¶s environment.´ The basic objectives of P.C are as follows: 1. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership, communication, roles and functions of group members, group decision-making and problemsolving, group norms, and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD. 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 2. Define the Relationship: At this stage, client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees, and spelling out services, time, etc. At this stage, the client¶s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. 3. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. At this stage, the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 4. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 5. Intervene: At this stage, the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural change. 6. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.C is completed, the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes, he assists the
The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. From this point of view. communication skills. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. P. knowledge. The grid organization development consists of six phases. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. groups. 2. In the review of various P. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. P. and problemsolving are also developed. 4. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. 1. and total organizational levels.C programmes. like other OD intervention techniques. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. inter-group. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. The skills relating to planning. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. . Inter-group Development: At this phase. and alike. objective-setting. and the organization as a whole. group. 2.C is also not free from criticisms.organizational members to incorporate those changes. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant¶s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. 3. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. traditions. 3. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. However. However. and teamwork.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. problem-solving. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. focuses on skills. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results.
and After Arrival. it discounts reality. Furthermore. We will look more carefully at each of these. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. in spite of these criticisms. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. and credibility of senior and middle management. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. complete communication that is timely. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. therefore. grid training is a non-rigorous method. Slogging Through The Swamp.5 Leadership Development When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). Also during these times of change. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. 5. 6. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. During drastic change times. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. concerned and committed to their welfare.´ In a later work. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. Systematic Critique: In this stage. while at the same time . is the ability of leadership to«well. In this light. lead. they maintained the same stand. and regular.4. competence. the various programmes may be redesigned. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. Further. The strategy is then implemented. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. 4. If you are to manage change effectively. confident and effective decision-making. They have maintained that ³managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there.
and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. therefore.recognizing that tough decisions need to be made.´ A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. storming. which. but more importantly. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. French and Bell have opined that ³probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone¶s best interests. The existence of this trust.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. Leadership before. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. teambuilding is the most important. let us consider the life cycle of a team. problems in team-work. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team¶s time together. how synergy is generated through team-work. Unfortunately. brings hope for better times in the future. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. if haven¶t established a track record of effective leadership. norming. As against these. employees expect nothing positive. it may be too late. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. 4. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. In a climate of distrust. widely accepted. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. These stages are: forming. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. performing. For example. 4. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as ³who will be members of the team?´ ³Who will perform what functions?´ ³Who will contribute what?´ ³What rules will be . if allowed to go on for too long.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement.
Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. The adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. 3. because of individual differences. However. start to accept others. 5. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. committee. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. 4. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. At this stage. etc. Norming: After storming stage. 2. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team¶s goals. each team has to be adjourned. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: ³Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. After the adjournment of the team. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck.´ . Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. They share personal information. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. jockeying for relative control.followed?´ ³How can conflicts among members be resolved?´ and so on. At this stage. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. team members start settling. Sooner or later.
how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. 2. They averaged 138. In such an assignment. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves.2 pounds. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. the individual average dropped down still lower-68. group efforts tend to slacken. the team would be effective. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. For example. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. group of eight. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. in one experiment. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. fail to perform their assigned tasks. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. it appears that there are many . From this statement. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group¶s meetings. In fact. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. it was found that individuals¶ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. that is. other factors remaining the same. To the extent. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts.Thus. goals. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. other factors remaining the same. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. and so on. and attitudes. In the above paragraph. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. the complementarity among members is achieved. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts.
he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size. customer satisfaction. supportive environment. make recommendations regarding a new supervisor. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. While skills are relevant for job performance. Thus. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality. 4. they will put their maximum. common purpose. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. Even if one member lacks behind. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. Rewards of both types. have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. 3. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one¶s own role as well as roles of other members. then. unify efforts. 1.financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration.factors in an effective team. These factors are skills and role clarity. management consultants. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. Therefore. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance. 2. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. . Katzenbatch and Smith. complementary skills. and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. goals. or propose discipline for team members. serve to focus attention. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. 2. These super-ordinate goals. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group. organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. 3. Further. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. two things are required from its members.
2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action. For achieving these. Analyzing how the team is working. 4. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared. Fig. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. their value systems. personality and attitudes. 2. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem. 4. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure. they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. . and rewards. and 5. 3. 1.4. recognition. Providing positive feedback. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds. Setting goals and priorities for the team. such as. group problems to even personal problem. the emphasis should be on consensus. Analyzing how team¶s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. 2. rather. Analyzing how the work is performed. At this stage. generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. and 5. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. In problem identification. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development.
with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. At this stage. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team¶s responsibilities. information. etc. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas. At the time of discussion of feedback. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing. there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time. talking together with speaker. the way people talk about the issue. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. ensuring. criticizing person. who was talking more or who was talking less. encouraging others to participate. 5. . (iii) Clarifying: resting. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours: Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. seeking relevant information. members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. cynicism. and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility. Often. who was trying to resolve the differences. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. Followup action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of team-building. also provides opportunity to understand themselves.3. the stying with the topic or going off on tangents. the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. (iii) Negative: cooling. understanding. clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. If this process is adopted several times. Negative Behaviour (i) Over talk: interrupting. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. feelings. undermining morale. (ii) Attacking: deriding. people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. belittling. 4. about the issue. etc.
When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. structure. communicating. management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. As a result.. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. 2. However. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. 4. though. Therefore. 3. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. However. one of the more . However. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the organization¶s outcomes. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. 2. and perceptions that groups have of each other. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. It seeks to change to attitudes. in different degrees. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier. to encourage and sustain such feelings. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. In general. stereotypes. team-building has a positive outlook. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. are not given adequate attention. monitoring. In spite of these problems. etc. listening.These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. It improves the organization¶s problem-solving and decision-making ability. and feedback skills). it is not that effective in isolation. it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people.
culture. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. Trainer . as the shock absorber when the going is rough. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. the other group. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. the groups can move to the integration phase ± working to develop solutions that will improve relations. Outside consultants. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. after which similarities and differences are discussed. In contrast. The groups then share their lists. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. however.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. and personnel. as the accelerator to build up momentum. with members from each of the conflicting groups. Subgroups. but one thing he/she is not the driver´.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. 4. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. operating procedures.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . According to Curtis Mial: ³The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization¶s history. as the break for too quick action. In this method. 4. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. Differences are clearly articulate. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. or outside consultants. employees of the organization. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes ± which can be benefit or a disadvantage ± because they don¶t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. For major change efforts.Popular methods emphasize problem solving. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance.
Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. 4. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. diagnosis. role-plays and instruments. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. films. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. group discussions. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. inter-group and total organization levels. group.A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? . 2. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses.11 Terminal Questions 1. feedback of information. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. skills and change in behavior. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. presentations. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies ± lectures. Grid Training was developed by ±±±±±±±±±±±± 3. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. In process consultation. Data collection. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. Team-building is most important. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. Training is used both in µcontent orientation¶ and process orientation¶. attitudes and beliefs. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. changing (intervening) and refreezing. cases and experiential learning etc. It focuses on skills. Self Assessment Questions 1. Training is required for enhancing knowledge.
Assumptions. 3. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5. Refer section 4. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4. and Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values. MU0002-Unit-05-Values. Refer section 4.2.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .6 4.2 3. Refer section 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? 3.1 Introduction . 4. Blake and Mouton. Refer section 4.4 2. Assumptions. Data collection 2.
7 Terminal Questions 5. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5. beliefs and assumptions.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5.1 Introduction A set of values.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5. beliefs and assumptions. assumptions.2 Definitions . and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves.2 Definitions 5. 5.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5. · List the chronology of events of values. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions.Objectives 5. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field. Objectives: After studying this unit.5. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies.5.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5.5.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers.
the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. values. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. and democratic. . and that rationality. and assumptions being. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. assumptions. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. Simple. dishonesty). greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good.. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. and the like. research on the effects of different leadership styles. the laboratory training movement.A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology." or slacking off. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought y Frederick Winslow Taylor s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small.g. assumptions. As these ingredients accumulated. treat people with respect and dignity. Taylor s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. or spirit of the time.g. 5. strongly held. the human relations movement. Thus. it is a cognitive fact for the person. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. optimistic. free speech) and what is undesirable or µbad¶ (e. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. Values. with values being beliefs about good and bad. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources ± the Hawthorne studies.. reason. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. OD values tend to be humanistic. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or µgood¶ (e. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly.
by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. much of the research. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). most efficient way to organize people. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. These approaches possessed many desirable features. the work environment. A strong hierarchy of authority. In a sense. organizations were not machines. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. and the supervisor determined their performance. and a general humanizing of the workplace. Lippitt (1939). theory. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. Research by Lewin. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. apathy. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. greater attention to workers social needs. The human relations movement advocated participative management. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. People were not cogs. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. aggressiveness and poor performance. The Functions of the Executive by Chester 1. Mary Parker Follett (1926). but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. impersonal rules. y y y y y y y . Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. Group Dynamics (1940) The scientific study of groups using experimental research methodswas launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. People came to work as whole people. their feelings and attitudes about the work. wrote an article on The Giving of Orders advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. a management theorist and astute observer of labour-management relations. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people s beliefs about organizational behaviour.y The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of bureaucracy as the best. Their simple. extensive division of labor. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited.
and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. Overcoming Resistance to Change. and need to be led. Lester Coch and John R. The theory postulated that when lower-level needs are satisfied. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system.y These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). increase self-understanding. This article introduced the concept of organizations as socio-technical systems. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. healthy adults. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. Chris Argyrif s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. pioneers in laboratory training. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. The task of management is to change organizational structures. Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. resist change. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. French s (1948) article. and understand group dynamics. are self-centered. In an environment of slow change. lack ambition. this book popularized Maslow s motivation theory. a mechanistic organization y y y y y y y y . Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). higherlevel needs become dominant. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. Rogers focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. a direct precursor of OD. management practices. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. to assume responsibility. caring social climate. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. P. dislike responsibility. indifferent to the organization s needs. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive.
organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. as we have said. compromise. an organic organization form is preferred. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. Out of this zeitgeist. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority.structure may be appropriate. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. and shares decision-making with the work group. These six books presented the theory. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. dysfunctions. and organizations that is. y Rensis Likert s New Patterns of Management (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. and democratic. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. theory. groups. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. Writing in 1969. goal-oriented. optimistic. · Development of more effective "team management. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. and negative consequences. bureaucracy. practice. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. open communications. in an environment of high change. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. and unprincipled power. The Social Psychology of Organizations by Daniel Katz and Robert L. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company OD Six-Pack. and values of the field. and greater individual autonomy. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. y y This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research." that is. humanistic. one-on-one leadership style. Values have always been an integral part of OD. (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. .
6. 3. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. M." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. Stalker used the term ³mechanistic´ in contrast to ³mechanical. 4. the basic units of change are groups." like pushing buttons. not the basis of managerial strategy. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. Controls are interim measurements. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). not individuals.´ For example.· Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. and confidence between and across levels. director of organization development. Here is his list. . sub-units of organizations. "People support what they help create." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. 2. 5. 1. Organizations. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. a professor and Sheldon Davis." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. mutual trust. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. They listed these ³values in transition´ as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. Robert Tannenbaum. Therefore. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people.
The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. open communication. autocratic. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them.· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions . the legitimacy of feelings. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. participation and contribution by all organization members. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. · Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. 5. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. toward seeing them as being in process. collaboration and co-operation. authentic interpersonal relations. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. appropriate uses of power. decentralized decision making. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use.
and so on. encourage risk-taking. not a one-on-one leadership style. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence.5. not individuals.Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. give autonomy. the family. set high standards. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. remove obstacles and barriers. Second. invest training time and money to increase group members¶ skills. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. Hence. and interpersonal communication. . We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. Third. What occurs in the work group. and organizations? 5. support. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. and job satisfaction. groups. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. and usually with more than one group. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group¶s effectiveness and development. permit failure. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. facilitation. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. Implications of these assumptions are several. leaders need to give important work to teams. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. and are capable of making. including peers and boss. such as a work group. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. To do this. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. and reward success. listen. challenge. First. and co-operation within the group. support. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. in addition.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. Most people want to develop their potential.5. a church or club group. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. 5. personal growth.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. at both the formal and informal levels. This skill is a trainable one. Also. conflict management. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. give responsibility.
they change over time. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. and so on-are obsolete. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. a growing awareness that ³win-lose´ organizational situations. adherence to the chain of command. formalized cross-functional communication. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. including how persons C. and profitability. organizing structures. values are never static. and ways to optimize human potential. quality of output. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. D. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. The implication is that people are an organization¶s most important resource. an optimistic. are dysfunctional over the long run and highlight the need for a ³win win´ attitude. and E can support these changes. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. Finally. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization¶s leaders. societal. Still. In addition. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where ³putting people first´ paid off handsomely in profits and performance. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. Therefore. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. and empowering. emphasis on topdown directives. 5. grouping by specialized function. By implication. Frequently the challenge is broader. developmental.Finally. The rapid technological. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. By implication. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. in which one side wins and the other side loses.5. Concluding Comment: .
Values are also beliefs. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. The outcome of ±±±±±±±± was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. Values.7 Terminal Questions 1. optimistic and democratic. beliefs. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Self Assessment Questions 1. 5. 4. Taylor¶s principles of scientific management. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. Define concepts. Cognitive . but are widely accepted today. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. Write a note about F. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. values. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. 2. 2. 3. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5.W.The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. __________ is associated with scientific management. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. Values. and assumptions are all ±±±±±±±±±± facts. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. OD values tend to be humanistic. 3. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. 5. Values. 5.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. The concept of ±±±±±±±±±± was introduced by MaxWeber. 5. beliefs and assumptions.
Taylor 3. Refer section 5.1 Introduction Objectives 6. W.2 Beyond the Quick Fix .2. Refer section 5. Refer section 5.3 3. F.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6. Refer section 5.2.2. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6.3 4.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 5.2 2. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1. Hawthorne experiments 5. Bureaucracy 4.3 5.
3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6. you will be able to: . In this discussion.3.2.1 The Nature of Systems 6.3.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice.10 Summary 188.8.131.52 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning.3 Systems Theory 6.4 Participation and Empowerment 6.11 Terminal Questions 6.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6.3.4 Open Systems Thinking 6. Objectives: After studying this unit.2.5 Teams and Teamwork 6.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.
Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. We will examine the following concepts: · Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6.2. describe those features as variables. and specify the relationships among the variables. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables. 6. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces.· Explain various models and theories of planned change. · Explain systems theory. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. in words or pictures. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. That is. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. · Describe the parallel learning structures. the important features of some phenomenon.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in . Models and theories depict. · Explain the terms µparticipation¶ and µempowerment¶.
judge things. etc. mentor. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. Finally. feel things. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. Likewise. Next. Identifying with a new role model. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. b. With a technique called the force-field analysis. For example. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. Lewin¶s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. moving to new level of behaviour. Lewin¶s second idea was a model of the change process itself. that is. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. that is. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. he must move.opposing directions. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. Scanning the environment for new relevant information .
This motivating evidence is gained by. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. establishing goals and intentions of action. b. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. and 5 correspond ro Lewin¶s moving phase. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s unfreezing phase. That is. Jeanne Watson. That is. In stage 1. The total personality and self-concept. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. which cause guilt and anxiety. unfreezing. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. that is. In stage 2. Phases 3. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. which motivate the person to change. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system¶s problem. refreezing. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person¶s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin¶s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. change will not occur. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. 4. for example. .Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. moving. and fit with the individual¶s social surroundings. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person¶s personality. terminating the client-consultant relationship. Significant relationships. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. The primary task in stage 3. and Bruce Westley. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s refreezing phase. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. and attitudes.
and so forth. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. when functioning properly. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management." that. 3) The team-building track. cause the organization to be successful. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke.2 Beyond the ³Quick Fix´ A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. 4) The strategy-structure track. critique practices and procedures.This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. Interventions include training programs. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? . 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. 6. Change programs take from one to five years to complete. 2) Diagnosing the problems. called "tracks. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. Kilmann¶s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. and 5) The reward system track.2. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. problem-solving sessions. 2) The management skills track. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization.
its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. departments. and its holistic view of organization change and development. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call ³transactional change´ and ³transformational change´). Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. and so forth.2. incremental.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. radical. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. In second-order change. or continuous change. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. then moving to the team-building track. In first-order change. or discontinuous change. Ford General Electric. The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. information sharing.and second-order change. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. TRW. communication.The culture track enhances trust. General Foods. and Xerox with good results. revolutionary. then moving to the management skills track. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. adaptive. 6. the use of updated management skills. Eastman Kodak. and all resources with the new strategic direction. evolutionary. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. Westinghouse. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered ± the organization is transformed. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. OD programs are directed toward both first. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit ± thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. . jobs. work groups. beginning with the culture track.
Organizational climate is defined as people¶s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. hard-working or easy-going. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. 6. leadership." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. We will do so in several steps. and beliefs that are enduring. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. On the other hand. and difficult to change.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First ± Order Change . Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. often unconscious. in turn. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees¶ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. which change motivation and. friendly or unfriendly. management practices. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. values. management practices. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. and organization culture result in second-order change. Fig. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. Changing structure. and so forth. individual and organizational performance. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure.
as shown in the above figure. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change.Fig. Interventions directed toward management practices. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. Burke says: ³Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics.´ We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. leadership styles. To summarize. 6. and organization culture. that is. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. we must change mission and strategy. These factors are able to change the climate. mission and strategy. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). . sudden "leaps" in behaviour. structure. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second ± Order Change On the other hand. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization¶s culture. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change.
For example.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. and interaction processes will affect social factors. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members¶ cognitions (they learn what is expected. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. management style. physical setting. Interventions that focus on culture. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson.Fig. 6. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. which influence on-the job behaviours. social factors. and technology. It is how OD works. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. according to Porras and Robertson.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. which determine organizational performance and individual development.2. required. rewarded). and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. strategies. OD interventions that focus on goals. .
4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966. 6. 6. Fig. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures. This section explains systems theory. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950.Fig. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. Systems . describes the characteristics of systems.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6.
unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. What is inside the boundary is the system. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes.system. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. components. Here. and characteristics of open systems are well-known.theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. interconnectedness. Organizations are open systems. 6.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. and energy between system and environment. or transformation processes that change the inputs. conversion." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. resources. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. and if the environment does not want these outputs. Every system is delineated by a boundary. information. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. when taking a systems approach. The words µarrangement¶ and µinterrelated¶ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. money. Open systems have purposes and goals. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. For example. system denotes interdependency." To summarize. Thus. the reasons for their existence. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy. dynamics. They do something to the inputs via throughput. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. raw material and so on. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. or subsystems. people.3. the organization¶s purposes will be reflected in its outputs." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized. in that they permit exchange of information. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. Therefore. . These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. that is the system. the organization will cease to exist. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt.
competitors. 6. while screening out other information. Say your company makes buggy whips. and makes a course correction. eating fads. and so on. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. Information is important to systems in several ways. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. By the same token. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. If the mission (target) changes.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems ³run down´ and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. For example. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. . "return to earth. and the like. It is sometimes called deviationamplifying feed back. and the system adjusts to a new goal. Positive feedback comes from the environment. mining. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. that information is called positive feedback. aerospace. For example. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. negative and positive. however. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. Systems require two kinds of feedback. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. say. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. but most are not useful.Fig.
Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. either internal or external. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. knowledge. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. work. 2) Resources available to the organization. specialized. which includes the organization¶s culture informal rules and understandings. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). As Katz and Kahn say: ³The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. The three major input factors are: 1) The environment. important events. systems tend to get more elaborated. processes. unit/group level. which includes skills. people. and systems for performing the work. Subsystems exist within larger systems. such as capital. perceptions.´ Also. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. this process is called differentiation. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. and informal organization. and technology. knowledge. formal organization. differentiated. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today.Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. failures. and individual level. which includes formal structures. and the workforce¶s expectations. 6. With increased differentiation. and complex over time. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state ± systems have multiple paths to goals. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it.3. .
and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. which components are "not functioning correctly. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model¶s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work. and that changes in one system affect the other system. performance will suffer. In a company that is performing poorly. controlling variance at the source. if people don¶t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. performance will suffer. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. multi-skilled teams. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. training group members in multiple skills.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. 6." and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. . High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. fit) must be present among the system¶s components¶ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar." The premise is that alignment (harmony. For example. performance will suffer. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. two active segments of OD today. If the organization¶s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. a social system and a technical system. and information to the point of action. Fred Emery. especially autonomous work groups (selfregulated teams or self-direct teams). STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. to the workers doing the job. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory.3. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. organizations must optimize both systems.Fig. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. Hanna writes: . forming autonomous work groups. 6. that is.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems.
In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. systems thinking. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. but seen in relation to other issues. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. G.´ In conclusion.3. the fifth discipline. forces. and 3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. . according to Peter Senge. Second. and systems thinking. therefore. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. mental models. Of all these disciplines. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. First. because most phenomena have more than one cause. 6. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). OD practitioners expect multiple effects. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. issues. He says of systems thinking: ³It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. For example. building shared vision. Without a systemic orientation. Third. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. is the most important. from their activities.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. changing one part of a system influences other parts.KI Jayaram. events and forces. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stakeholders. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. events. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. not single effects. Charles Krone. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. team learning.
the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1." These authors believe the organic view. team building. For example. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. But . and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. increase commitment to the organization. 6. And fifth. which they call "mechanistic. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. To empower is to give someone power. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. to change a system. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. to exert influence. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. and give more power to more people. and to be responsible. search conferences. with its emphasis on risk-taking. reduce stress levels. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts." is bottom-up and less controlling. growth.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. They believed that it was about risk-taking. and growth. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. One view. autonomous work groups. survey feedback. is the more useful perspective. quality of work life programs. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. to contribute their ideas. and change. not just its component parts. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. Further." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice.Fourth. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. called "organic. quality circles. personal initiative. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. produce better solutions to problems. involvement and participation energize greater performance. one changes the system. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin)." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. Participation enhances empowerment. The other view. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently.
While management can create a context that is more empowering. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: ³Empowerment. the noun team has become a verb. Third. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. is not something that management does to employees. If the team. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. they must if personally connected to the organization. Second. employees must choose to be empowered. and relationships if they are to be effective. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. but rather a mindset that employees have about their roles in the organization. Teams and teamwork are "in. research. teaming. HPOs (high-performance organizations). Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. changes those norms and values. systems. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. confident about their abilities.´ 6. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. then. STS (socio-technical systems). and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. that is. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. to name just a few. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. . HPWSs (high-performance work systems). crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. people must work together to accomplish them. as a team. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. processes. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. QCs (quality circles). the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. Theory. Team Taurus developed Ford¶s best-selling automobile.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today ± gurus extol the virtues of teams. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). teams create synergy.both views contain valid ideas: for example.
Fourth. parallel learning structures. and the like. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. inter-group team-building. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. heart transplant surgical teams. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. Examples are team-building. including collegiate football national champions. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. role negotiation technique. and others. . High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. and responsibility charting. cross-functional teams. help each other. process consultation. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. status. In this section. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. and respect-teams nurture human nature. that they achieve synergy. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. quality circles. When any one feature is lost. socio-technical systems programs. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. and set ever-higher goals. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. and explore ways to realize that potential. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. temporary teams. teams satisfy people¶s needs for social interaction. recognition. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. team performance declines. find innovative ways around barriers.
Bushe and Shani say: ³The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. managers. Titeflex. you don¶t have a parallel structure. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it.´ Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. It isn¶t the supplemental structure that¶s important. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. deciding. and initiate needed changes. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. 6. and then leading the process. 6. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). High responsibility. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. If you don¶t implement different norms and procedures. What¶s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation.Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. At Ford Motor Company. and continuous learning. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. In essence. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. constitute another important foundation of organization development.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing . Union Pacific Railroad. Interestingly. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. Asea Brown Boveri. autonomous. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. Projects are the work of the future. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as ³a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. talking. flexible response.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. projects will be performed by teams. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization¶s methods of work and/or culture.´ The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. clear objectives. superior customer service. and employees.
that is. and¶ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing.Organization development involves change. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. skills. relationships and customary ways of doing things. and together they define problems and seek solutions. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normativereductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. . will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. and significant relationships. The first type is empirical rational strategies. attitudes. values. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. anxieties. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. Change in a pattern of practice or action. Patterns of action and practice are supported ± by sociocultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. according to this view. will follow their rational self-interest. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. doubts. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. information. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-re-eductive and the empirical-rational strategies. OD clearly falls within the normative-reeducative category. based on the assumptions that people are rational. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. not just changes in knowledge. rather than the OD practitioner. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. Evaluated against these three change strategies.
OD emphasizes the latter." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. Greenwood states: ³The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together. applied science or practice. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours..´ From this "practice theory. re-establishes the equilibrium. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. success corroborating the diagnosis. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. by modifying a group norm or standards. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. i. and (2) "technology. Thus. The practitioner examines the problem situation. not the individual. on the basis of selected variables." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation.e." applied science. thereby solving the problem.´ Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. .8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. hopefully. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. practices. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. 6. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. for example. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. behavioural science knowledge. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. On this point. or practice. Burke writes: ³If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. pressing problems.
It is a type of action-research. Taken separately. had this to say about it: ³The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. 6. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. Kurt Lewin. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. represent contributions from pure or basic science. represent contributions from applied science. The two bottom inputs. Taken collectively. form of applied behavioural science. practice research and practice theory.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a.Fig.9 Action Research The action research model ± a data-based. feedback of the data to the client system members. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. Self Assessment Questions . Action research involves three processes: data collection. and action planning based on the data. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing ± learning about the dynamics of organizational change. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs.´ Concluding Comments: These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. and doing or implementing change efforts. and research leading to social action« This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. perhaps more accurately. the two top in puts. who developed the concept of action research. 6.
2. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. A _____________ is defined as ³a set of elements standing in interaction. ±±±±±±±±±± means moving to new level of behaviour. Ralph Kilmann 3. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5.11 Terminal Questions 1. 3. 6.1. Explain Kurt Lewin¶s models and theories of planned organizational change. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members.´ Comment on this statement. Unfreezing 2. 6. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change.´ 5.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. 4. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. 2. 4. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Transactional change . ±±±±±±±±±± gave the model ³Beyond the Quick Fix´. 3. ³Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. Action research model combines learning and doing. Bring out the essence of ³managing beyond the quick fix´ model of organizational development. 6. First²order change is also called ___________.
MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.3 5.3 4.3 Types of Organization Culture.6 Summary .2.1 Introduction Objectives 7. Refer section 6.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture 7.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7. Refer section 184.108.40.206 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2 3. System 5. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 6.2.1 2.Refer section 6. 7. Refer section 6.
but everyone knows it when they sense it. Observed behavioral regularities. terminology. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. 2. Which in many organizations come down to ³Do not do too much. When organizational participants interact with one another. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. ± similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone¶s personality.7 Terminal Questions 7. Practitioners are coming to realize that. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. etc. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. thinking. For example.7.1 Introduction Basically. Culture is one of those terms that¶s difficult to express distinctly. what members wear. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. the culture of a large. Objectives: After studying this unit. Norms. they use common language. 1986). organizational culture is the personality of the organization. 7. what they brag about. including guidelines on how much work to do. despite the best-laid plans.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. discovered. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. but also changing the corporate culture as well. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. · Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. values. do not do too little?´ . Standards of behavior exist. Martin and Meyerson.
clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. shared goals.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber¶s original view of bureaucracy. For many years. Rather than strict rules and procedures. In contrast to Hierarchies. 6. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive.3. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. Typical examples are high product quality. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. processes and procedures. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. 4. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. internal and external are viewed in market terms. Market cultures are outward looking. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. They often have well-defined policies. but one where all transactions. . Low absenteeism and high efficiency. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization¶s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. 7. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. Transactions are exchanges of value. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. outputs and outcomes. Organizational climate: This is an overall ³feeling´ that is conveyed by the physical layout. In an efficient market organization. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. 5. New-comers must learn those ³ropes´ in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. the way participants interact. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. people are driven through vision.
or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. thinking. invisible to the naked eye. .strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. etc. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. the way they dress etc. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. supportive way and may take on a parental role. the jargon they use. norms. In biological terms. Rules. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. symbols. culture is like the DNA of an organization. but critical to shaping its behavior. rules. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. plaques. · Its rituals. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. although not necessarily documented. big-bang projects and development. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. 1993). It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). systems and subsystems. and procedures. discovered. 7. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. 1986). Clan leaders act in a facilitative. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. Martin and Meyerson.
there are numerous variables. skills.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. Though each individual¶s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. its core value are limited to a few in number. and behaviour. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. also called as organizational success or growth. goals. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. Thus. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. 1. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization¶s social environment and evolve of behavior. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management¶s policies. from the basis of its policies and action. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. From this point of view. intervening and end result. and doing. Identifying. there is often contradiction in various approaches. and no unanimity is found in different approaches.Values: These are the social principles. decisions. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. profitability. communicating. are often used interchangeably. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. or standards held by members of an organization.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. For example. productivity. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. various terms such as efficiency. to denote organizational effectiveness. believing. Though an organization espouses a series of values. business and leadership strategies. individually and collectively. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. and what is right and what is wrong. . the personality of the organization). IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. organizational growth. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness.
and perceptual cluster. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. However. 2. and so on. For example. and energy that will be required.. communication. and decision-making. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. and is worth the investment of time. and they tend to be longterm goals. End ± result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. 3. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of ±date. . At this point. e. others are brought into the organization.2. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: 1. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. 4. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. is worth running some risks for. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. costs. the loyalties. According to Likert. That is.g. locating space. performance goals. obtaining patents. incorporating. scrap loss. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. motivational. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. and earnings. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. 3. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. is workable. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. 7. motivations. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. money. building. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. and a common history begins to be built. attitudes.
moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can¶t be done successfully?. especially when making changes in rules and processes. management. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. the ³culture contract´ that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. 5. Make changes from the top down. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. age. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. 2. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. Structure. take these losses early. the geographic location. relationships. and patterns of daily behavior. powerful stakeholders such as unions. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. and whether products and/or services are involved. 7. The personal feelings. Staffs. attitudes. Assess the current culture. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. 4. if possible. 3. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. 2. commitment. In addition. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. . Emotions. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. 1. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. Include employees in the culture change process. roles. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. Politics. or even customers may support the existing culture.Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. 3. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. and history of two firms. habits. These factors from the two cultures include the size. 6. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience.
7. and strategic constituencies approach. 3. Self Assessment Questions 1. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed.goal approach. 9. 2. ________cultures are outward looking. Causal variables Answers to TQs: .6 Summary Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. 7. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. system-resource approach. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach.7 Terminal Questions 1. Market 3. 7.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. behavioural approach. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. 3. Stay the course by being persistent. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. Finally. 2. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. Artifacts 2. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization.8. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive.
2 2. Refer section 7.Power. Refer section 7.3 3.1.10 Terminal Questions .5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8. MU0002-Unit-08.3 Two Faces of Power 8.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.9 Summary 8. Refer section 7.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8. Politics and Organization Development Unit-08.Power. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8.1 Introduction Objectives 8.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8.
Potential power is the capacity to do so. to effect outcomes. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. and for change to occur in an organization. In this unit. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development." ³Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire.¶ To have power is to be able to get desired things done. emotions.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs.´ Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations.actions and the decisions that precede them. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8.1 Introduction Power and politics. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations." . power must be exercised.8.´ ³A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid today." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired. 8. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting. The French word µpouvoir¶ stands for both the noun µpower¶ and the verb µto be able. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related. and behaviours of people. · Explain theories about the sources of power. Objectives: After this studying this unit. indisputable facts of organizational life. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change.
The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. influencing. According to him. technological. an authority or power dimension is required. and lead." . Crushing." A moment¶s reflection. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. and repression. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. influence. absolute power corrupts absolutely. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. 8. selling. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. Power-in-action may take many forms. financial. Leading. forcing. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. bestowed. with collective. power being the predominant mode. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. and organizational activities. both positive and negative. hurting. being exercised. 8. In fact. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one¶s way in a social situation. however.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" ± positive and negative. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. not the possession of power as such. unsocialized need to dominate others. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson¶s "Power-Dependence theory.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. political. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. or acquired? In this unit. confiscation. the act or ability of influencing others. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. Without leadership (power) in medical. for organizations to function. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. spiritual.Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one¶s way. or positive." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals.
" In other words. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others." · Mintzberg¶s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. The sociologist." These authors suggested five sources. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. 3. Viewed in this light. when the net balance for us is negative. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. 5. Expert power ± power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. P. of social power as follows: 1. power. that is. rewards) that are controlled by one party. information. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. rejection. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A¶s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B.· French and Raven¶s "Bases of Social Power. goals. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. influence. we will terminate or alter the relationship. 2. or bases. attraction. and so forth. Legitimate power ± power based on everyone¶s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. that person has power over us. Coercive power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. respect. blame. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. Referent power ± power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. . to give something valued by the other. and desired by the other. hate. Reward power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. praise. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. we will continue the exchange relationship. When the net balance for us is positive. to give something negatively valued by the other. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. that is." · Salancik and Pfeffer¶s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. 4.
In this theory, power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals, units, or departments) most important for solving the organization¶s most critical problems. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. This theory, like the ones discussed previously, supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by- others-in this case, the special expertise needed for the organization¶s survival-have power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits, indeed, used by all who have it, to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources, through the placement of allies in key positions, and through the definition of organizational problems and policies." These authors view organizational power as a good thing, for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. This theory, "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players, called influencers, seek to control the organization¶s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power, coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. According to Mintzberg, the five possible bases of power are, first, control of a resource; second, control of a technical skill; and, third, control of a body of knowledge. All of these must be critical to the organization. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. In addition to a base of power, the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. An organization has many potential influencers, such as the board of directors, the managers, the top executives, the employees, the unions, suppliers, customers, regulators, and so forth. The important aspects of Mintzberg¶s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others, that power-in-action requires will and skill, and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In summary, these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar ± power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. The resources may be ability to reward and
punish, being in control of critical skills, knowledge, or information, the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined ³politics simply as the study of who gets what, when, and how´. ³Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices´. ³Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups´. ³Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means´. Thus, we view politics as a subset of power, treating it as informal power, illegitimate in nature. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power, but in this sense, formal power, the power vested in office, the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. Both relate to getting one¶s way-effectance. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. For our purposes, organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations; it is engaging in activities to get one¶s way. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities; the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics, like power, has two faces. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest; unsocialized needs to dominate others; a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win, you must lose-rather than win-win terms; and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy, surprise, holding hidden agendas, withholding information, deceiving. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others; viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible; engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing; a relative absence of the tactics of fighting; and a socialized need to lead, initiate, and influence others. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making, resource allocation, and conflict resolution processes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose; they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. In fact, one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation, conflict resolution, and choosing among alternative means and goals.
8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. Virtually, all OD interventions promote problem-solving, not politics, as a preferred way to get things accomplished. OD interventions increase problem-solving, collaboration, co-operation, fact-finding, and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. For example, OD interventions typically generate valid, public data about the organization¶s culture, processes, strengths, and weaknesses. Valid, public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations; rather, they enhance the positive face of power, thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy, it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme power-oriented situations. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power, but not with the negative face of power. Values such as trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first, problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations; second, power equalization, being one aspect of the positive face of power, increases the amount of power available to organization members, and by so doing adds power to the organization. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator, catalyst, problem solver, and educator. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. According to Chris Argyris, the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information, (2) to promote free, informed choice, and (3) to promote the client¶s internal commitment to the choices made. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner, his or her program, and his or her values, methods, and expertise. The OD consultant, like all consultants, provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors, as we discussed earlier. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. In summary, organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. This major strength of OD derives from the strategy of change, the technology, the values, and the roles of OD practitioners.
Skills such as listening. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization¶s decision makers). Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. acceptability. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. experience. in powerful places. What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities.8. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. 3. ." 4. communicating."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. 5. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. First. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. and expertise. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. coaching. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. 2. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. it will gain more power. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). Success leads to credibility and stature. both as a person and as a professional. and ability to gain organizational support. it will be strong externally. problem solving. According to the framework of French and Raven. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. preferably multiple sponsorship. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. 6.
The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. Rule Six: Mind your own business. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. not by getting involved in the answers. which is to be an expert on process. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one¶s power base. constructive social relationships. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being managercentered. the manager will vigorously defend it. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. Rule Five: Mind your own business. not the OD consultant. OD programs should be results-oriented. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one¶s own or in others¶ political struggles. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization¶s powerholders. those issues vital to the organization¶s success. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. The OD program belongs to the manager. A valuable byproduct of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. usually managers. not content. .counseling. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better.
1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge · Expertise · Information · Tradition Others¶ Support y y Strategies for Success Playing It Straight · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Political access Staff support . not power activist or power broker. Networking is recognized as a potent. negotiations the nature of power and politics." and "going around the formal system. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders." "using social networks.Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions. yet legitimate means of acquiring power.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. viable. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. As shown in the figure. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. others¶ support. and personality characteristics. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. individual power derives from knowledge. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. Table 8. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others¶ legitimate "turf. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program." which arouses defensive actions. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. the strategy and tactics of influence. We could propose more rules of thumb. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. and using contacts for information. problem solver. and educator. catalyst. 8. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires.
The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. personal attraction. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks´. visibility-how much one¶s work is seen by influential people. personal power and position power. criticality-how important one¶s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. ³One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. arises from expertise. in turn. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. This practical. and relevance-how important one¶s task is in relation to organizational priorities. effort. even those of little power. a person¶s power comes from two main sources. and legitimacy. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. . The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception.Personality y y y Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don¶t) use organization rules Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. Personal power.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. In this model. Whetton and Cameron¶s model is shown in following figure. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what¶s expected of them. Indeed. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs.
we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners.Fig. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. collaborative work environment. power-in-use is called influence. and retribution. and are amenable to positive control. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. Whetton and Cameron suggest several means of resisting others¶ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. Having power is one thing. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people¶s inappropriate influence attempts. According to these authors. Power and politics are similar in nature. and (6) build on success. (2) provide a positive. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. 8. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. and (3) empowering others. reciprocity." And. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. actually using it to get things done is another. Usually reason is the preferred strategy. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. arise from known conditions. Retribution refers to coercion and threats. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. Our suggestions for . Concluding Comments: In this unit.
5.10 Terminal Questions 1. 8. 2. and how. Referent power 4. 3.using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. and are amenable to positive control. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. ±±±±±± is the intentional influence over the beliefs. Power can be either positive or negative.. 8. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. reputation and professional credibility. Define organization politics. ±±±±±±±±±± is made up of Charisma. 4. when and how.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. _____________ has identified two faces of power. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. 8. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. 5.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. arise from known conditions. McClelland 3. 4. Self Assessment Questions 1. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ±±±± ±±±±±±±. emotions or behaviour of people. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. Power 2. 3. when. 2. Describe briefly various theories of power. Harold Lasswell . Power and politics are similar in nature. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. ±±±±±±±± defined politics as the study of who gets what.
6 Quality of Work Life Projects .5 4. Refer section 8. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9. Refer section 8.6 5.2 Meaning and Definitions 9.Refer section 8.5. Personality Answers to TQs: 1.4 Management By Objectives 9.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 Socio Technical Systems 9.1 Introduction Objectives 9.5 Quality Circles 9. Refer section 8.2 2. Refer section 8.4 3.
An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. Objectives: After studying this unit. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design. In this dynamic and fluid environment.11 Terminal Questions 9. organizational problems may repeat.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9.9. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. · Explain Reengineering. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program.8 Total Quality Management 9. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. . actions.10 Summary 9.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change. · Explain Total Quality Management.
Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. It endeavors to re-design the organization¶s structure. Cost is Low. Basic reinforcement theories. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. 4. The cost of structural change is generally ³front-end´ loaded. 1976. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. Rapidity of change. Succession Doesn¶t Destroy Change Effort.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. 9. Downsizing associated with restructuring. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. From a benefit cost analysis. 5. In addition. Organization Acceptance of Change.9. 1967. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. Cummings. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. This normally is a reasonable. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. 2. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. 3. Pasmore. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. Greater Predictability. It could involve the following steps (Foster. 1988): Determining the environmental demands Creating a vision statement Educating organizational members . Structure changes are normally ³institutionalized´ and less subject to this problem. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. organization theory. and more critically.
and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. its definitional aspect. physical. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique.´ The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: ³MBO is a result-centered. On the other hand. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. with objective orientation as its essence. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. Since then. Creating the change structure Conducting socio-technical analysis Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. non-specialist. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. It is a particular way of thinking about management. 2. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. As an approach to management. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of . consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. Certain degree of overlapping is there. therefore. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far.´ Based on the definition of MBO. In fact. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. its features can be identified as follows: 1. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization.
Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO.management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. What business are we in?´ and what should be our business?´ provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. The performance review is held regularly. its subsystems and people. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. superiors and subordinates. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities. Therefore. (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. Therefore. its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis. delegation of authority. Resource allocation. 6.. Questions. etc. the clarity and balance of objectives. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. This. 5. It works as an integrating device. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. in interaction with external factors. Similarly. and participation of the managers with accountability for results. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. (ii) long-range . enhancement of employee commitment and participation. Therefore. Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives. including the corporate level. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. such as. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. normally once a year. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. all the units or departments and individual manager. are determined on the basis of objectives. 3. 1. ³why does the organization exist?´. 4.
a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization. the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. Therefore. It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. they also indicate the resource requirement. 5. the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate¶s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by setting easily achievable objectives. Sometimes. However. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. Even though KRAs are most durable. each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. (iii) short-term organizational objectives. (iv) productivity. 4. there should be matching between objectives and resources. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully. (vii) manager performance. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. with the experience gained over the period of time. 2. (vi) financial and physical resources.and strategic objectives. 3. Therefore. Setting Subordinates¶ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. . (v) individual manager¶s objectives. (ii) market standing. In fact. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). By relating these to objectives. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization¶s health and the top management perspective for the future. Therefore. Thereafter. resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. (iii) innovation. By relating these to objectives. If not. The process of objective setting begins with superior¶s proposed recommendations for his subordinate¶s objectives. the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. (v) worker performance. and (viii) public responsibility. In turn. (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer.
it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate.6. · Make recommendations for improvement. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization¶s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases. require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing. what happens at each level may affect other levels also. information. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis. each having three to fifteen members. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. . QWL programs.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. hierarchical structure. in general. appropriate feedback and employee discretion. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s. 9. 9. knowledge. 9. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. or in people¶s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization. and rewards. which consequently result into high level of task variety.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. on paper. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power. Quality circle program consists of several circles. Therefore. but in its contemporary form.
eliminating. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization¶s activities around the concept of quality. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. provides relevant information to all employees. statistical quality control. service. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. self-managed teams and task forces. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. It is very popular in USA in 1990s. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. quality. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. contemporary measures of performance.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. · Participative management. such as cost. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. Self Assessment Questions . and speed. statistical process control.9. It is also called continuous quality improvement. 9. Reengineering is a top-down process. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. including the use of quality circles. · Competitive benchmarking. and extensive use of employee participation.
11 Terminal Questions 1. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. It is also called continuous quality improvement. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. Quality circle Answers to TQs: . An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. 9. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. 9. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. actions. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. 2.1.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. actions. From a benefit cost analysis. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. 3. Drucker 3. provides relevant information to all employees. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. Intervention 2. 9.
3 2.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs .4 Causes for Resistance to Change.7 Summary 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10. Refer section 9. Refer section 9.3 Resistance to Change 10.8 Terminal Questions 10.5 4.Refer section 9. MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.2 3.1.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 9.2 Nature of Change 10. 10.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change. Self Assessment Questions 10.
some parts of organization may be affected more. · Impact of change on future managers. Any change may effect the whole organization. may require special change efforts. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). others. organizational problems may repeat.2 Nature of Change The term µchange¶ refers to an alteration in a system. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other.whether physical. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. biological. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. Objectives: After studying this unit. However. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. Organizational change is a continuous process. Hence.10. job design and people. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. which are major ones. In this dynamic and fluid environment. and others. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. some parts may be affected directly. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled . 2. organizational change may have the following features: 1. indirectly. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. When change occurs in any part of the organization. Thus. and others.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. less. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. or social. 3. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. 10. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. structural arrangement. Thus.
the managers face the problem of resistance to change. because it produces identical symptoms. there are two sides of resistance. We wanted a new culture and new layout. In fact. so is the resistance to change. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. In fact. Madhur Bajaj. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. On this phenomenon. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. Similarly. adjustment is fairly routine. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. employees want to maintain a status quo.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. Homeostasis implies selfcorrecting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations.´ Resistance as Benefit: . or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. 10. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. but when a change is major or unusual. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. it becomes indented at the point of contact. Thus.as cost and as benefit. more serious upsets may occur. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. We shall take new workers at the new place. that is. However.balloon. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. ³The Pune plant is fully saturated. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). If people resist to change. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. if we look minutely. However. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. commented. In fact. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. it has stretched slightly. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization.
On the one hand, resistance to change is costly affair, and on the other, it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. While on negative side, the reality lies in between. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Thus, resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: 1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Therefore, the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. These feelings, either real or emotional, may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic, psychological and social. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological, job security etc. precede over other needs. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques, technology, etc., whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them, they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India, it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely, reduce job options, and turn into technological unemployment. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match.
3. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes, bonus, etc. All these are well-established in the old system. Whenever there is change, people may feel that in the new system, they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Psychological Factors Psychological factors are based on people¶s emotions, sentiments and attitudes towards change. These are qualitative and, therefore, may be logical from people¶s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent¶s point of view. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness, status quo, lack of trust in change agent, low tolerance for change, and fear of unknown. 1. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego, people resist change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Thus, the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. 2. Status Quo: People want status quo. i.e. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore, everyone tries to avoid it. 3. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo, people may differ. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Therefore, these people resist any new idea. 4. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent, that is, the person who initiates change. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent, they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 5. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The change will bring results in future, which is always uncertain. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction, particularly social needs, through their mutual compatible interactions. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change, people resist it. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.
1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. When there is any change, their existing social interactions are likely to be changed, which people do not want. Therefore, they resist change. 2. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class, e.g., change initiated by managers affecting workers. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change, even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. For example, Sumantra Ghoshal, a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru, has commented as follows: ³Nothing fails like success; nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation, Caterpillar, Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles, all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called µThe Failure of Success¶. Strategies, values, resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés, dogmas, millstones and routines.´ This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought, these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes, stability of systems, resource limitations, sunk cost, and inter-organizational agreement. Some of these reasons are basic while others are byproducts of those. For example, first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. 1. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices, they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. 2. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. For example, a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules, prescribes rigid authority relationships, and institutes reward and punishment system. All these work in some circumstances. It a change is required in these aspects, the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system.
it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. decentralized controls. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. and has zeal for progress. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. if new technology is adopted. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. For example. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. 2. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. those who watch things happen. it will require resources to procure machine. This can be in the form of people also.3. For example. In such a case. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. building and training for its personnel. forward-looking. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. if any change is to be incorporated. and reactors. if the change is required. Once the assets are acquired. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. 5. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. Let us see what someone has said long back: ³There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. . what will happen to these assets? Naturally. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. broad environmental scanning. centralized control. Resource Limitations: No doubt. It depends more on the style of top management. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. intensive planning. 1. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too.´ This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. those who wonder what happened. analyzers. and commensurate expenses on other items also. prospectors. If it is risk-taking. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. these can be used for specific period. 4. Now. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. 3. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. In this interaction process. innovative.defenders. Thus.
and so on. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. we don¶t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you¶re like most people. taking a new set of streets to work. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one¶s income. Organizational resistance . When Boeing announces its laying off 10. Resistance can be overt. engaging in a work showdown. when you go to work or school. therefore.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. or programmed responses. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. To cope with this complexity. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. Therefore. we all rely on habits. threatening to go on strike. developing a new lunchtime routine.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn¶t necessarily surface in standardized ways. Otherwise. They may. If for example. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. it means you¶re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. Habit Every day. implicit. Let¶s look at the sources of resistance. you find a single route and you use it regularly. For instance. As human beings. or deferred. When we are confronted with change. Life is complex enough. we¶re creatures of habit. we¶ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. For analytical purpose. adjusting to the new office layout. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. 10. finding a new parking place. some may fear they¶ll be unable to do so. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. they cannot survive. immediate. And people in general don¶t like the unknown. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance.4. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won¶t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. or the like. The same applies to employee.
Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities ± such as training. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. development of pay plans. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. That is. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. Will the change. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. They tend to be content with the way things are. accountants work with marketers. he¶s likely to resist. for instance. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. and benefits administration ± has been resisted by many human resource departments. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. For example. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. For example. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. group norms may act as a constraint. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. You can¶t change one without affecting the others. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. rules and procedures for employees to follow. An individual union member. The . Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups.Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. 10. For example. for instance. Formalization provides job description. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization¶s structure to match.
More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue ± not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. that is.´ The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. It implies explanation and then discussion of the proposed changes. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. Stephen Robbins suggests that ³«« managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. In many cases. Therefore. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. at the level of individual and at the level of group. this is not a one-time action.´ Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. Unless this problem is overcome properly. typically by way of computer network links.ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. the problems can be solved at the same level. Locavini observes that ³the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. In addition.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people¶s resistance to change successfully. For example. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. People always have some . As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. However. For this purpose. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. through group dynamics. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. both at the formal and informal levels. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. the following efforts can be taken: 1. 10.
The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. and conferences. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. is an important trust-building task. its process and working. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. However. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. (ii) In group. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. It grows slowly along with relationship. its basic nature. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. the group itself should be the point of contact. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. Getting opinions out in the open. as discussed earlier. . Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. 3. sometimes. However. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. Usually. The same is true of problem-solving. For this purpose. People should be educated to become familiar with change. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: 1. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. education must be a part of the manager¶s everyday activity on the job. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. Thus. most of the times. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change.ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. helped to change attitudes. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. meetings. and indoctrinated in new relationships. Though each person interprets the change individually often. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. As this process goes. more than one person is involved in the change. so that they are looked at and evaluated. 2. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. 4. They must be taught new skills. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. to become effective. he expresses it through a group. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. Thus. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process.
3.such aspects as the reasons for change. It purports how the results are. 2. and sensitivity or T-group training. Self Assessment Questions 1. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. immediate. 10. Research studies also support this aspect. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing . job design and people. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. social factors. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. __________ are based on people¶s emotions. Such training techniques include role playing. benefits of change. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. However. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. or deferred. 3. Economic factors. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided.7 Summary Change is inevitable. group resistance and vested interests. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. structural arrangement. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. sentiments and attitudes towards change. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. psychodrama. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. mere participation may not help. 2. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. For instance. implicit. many things about change can be made clear. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. and how members contribute. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. psychological factors. Resistance can be overt. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate.Through the group contact. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour.
P. Organization Development. Thomson · Daft Richard L. N. at the level of individual and at the level of group. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. Refer section 10. eighth edition. Reference: · Wendell L.4 3.6. through group dynamics.. New Delhi. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. Organization Development & Change. French and Cecil H.8 Terminal Questions 1. Jain. Modern Organization Development and Change.complaints.management of Organization Change. Organization Theory and Design.2 2. · Harigopal K. that is. 10. both at the formal and informal levels. · Cummings & Worley. Refer section 10. . Refer section 10.Response Books. Why do organizations resist change? 3. New Delhi. or the like. Explain the nature of change? 2. threatening to go on strike. Thomson South Western. Principles and Practices. 10. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. Regal Publications New Delhi.Singh. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels.. Jr. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. Bell. Psychological factors 3. P.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. · J. Organizational change 2. engaging in a work showdown.
managementhelp.umd.pdf http://www. Dhanpat Rai & Co.com/opm/grtl/OLS/ols6. Stoner and R. Ltd.htm#anchor73776 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . 12th edition.pdf http://webuser. New Delhi.uk/search/article/634958/the-ceos-role-managing-change/ http://www.pdf www. Prentice-Hall of India.lib. Prasad.1lowry. Prentice-Hall of India.oup. Ltd. Pvt. Robbins.kurims.umich.com/articles/leadchange. Robbbins.pdf http://www. · L.com/www.html http://muse.htm www. Edward Freeman.managementtoday.oup. Management.htm#TopOfPage http://www. Educatiional Publishers.humtech. Chhabra.co.work911. F.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v005/5. · T. Management.kyoto-u. · Stephen P. Organizational Behaviour. Anmol Publications Pvt.edu/groups/learning/wp8.umich.uk/pdf/bt/fincham/Chapter15. Organizational Behaviour.org/org_chng/org_chng.edu/cameronk/CULTURE%20BOOK-CHAPTER%201. New Delhi. Organizational Development.cfm http://www.jp/~kyodo/kokyuroku/contents/pdf/1461-15.co. M. Sultan Chand & Sons. .pdf http://www. · Laxmi Devi.fao.wdi. Principles & Practice of Management.· James A.org/docrep/w7503e/w7503e05. · Stephens P.bus.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp598. E References y y y y y y y y y y y http://fds.ac.jhu. Prentice-Hall India. New Delhi. New Delhi. N.
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