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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the µmanagement¶ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn µsurplus¶ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of a
business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term ³management´. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley ± ³Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.´ In the words of George R. Terry ± ³Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.´ According to James L. Lundy ± ³Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.´ In the words of Henry Fayol ± ³To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.´ According to Peter F. Drucker ± ³Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work´. In the words of Koontz and O¶Donnel ± ³Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals´.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren ± ³The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.´ From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that ³management´ is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as ³management´. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a ³distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.´ From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as ³doing things right´. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization¶s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as ³doing the right things´. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of course, high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. And poor
It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. Thus. labour. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. feeling of management is result-oriented. capital and materials. organizing. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals¶ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. 7. 5. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. 2. directing and controlling. Managers apply knowledge. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. 6. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. The application of these concepts. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. In essence. principles and techniques requires specialized . namely.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1.management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. So it is treated as a science. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. All these resources are made available to those who manage. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. staffing. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. 1. Thus. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. 4. labour and capital. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. principles and techniques which have wide applications. informed employees. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. 3. although they can¶t observe it during operation.
Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. money and machines into a productive. According to Newman. and (iii) a class or elite. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. 8. For instance. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. Sociology and Psychology. it refers to three distinct ideas. manpower. 10. personnel manager etc. Similarly. materials. They transmit orders. Generally. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. According to Herbision and Myers. (ii) a system of authority. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. materials. people are bound by authority relationships. that is. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. Basically. 1.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. In modern organizations. how effectively and economically the five M¶s are combined together to produce desired results. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. the effective use of the five M¶s of management (money. labour and capital. finance manager.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body.knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. In other words. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem . ongoing concern. Anthropology. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. management is viewed as an art.e. useful. education. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. a hierarchy of command and control. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. government and hospital. 9. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. military. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers.
Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization.and suggestions upward.. Administrative management is concerned with ³thinking´ functions such as laying down policy. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as µManagement¶ which refers to the group. etc. policies and plans for the enterprise. (i) administrative management (i. 1. the lower level of management). or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. Operative management is concerned with the ³doing´ function such as implementation of policies. ranks. Managing Director. ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. and the range of production. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating . the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. Purchase Manager. but as head of wages and salary department. Production Manager. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. Board of Directors. We generally come across two broad levels of management. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. day-to-day matters. For instance. technical facilities. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. or the Chief Executive. or. etc. viz. its Chairman.e. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. Supervisors. But in actual practice. Marketing Manager. Foremen. Financial Controller. planning and setting up of standards.. As a separate group.e. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. The levels of management depend upon its size..
i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans.functions. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. Without them the top management¶s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. d) To assemble the resources of money. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. men. j) To report to top management. e) To assign activities. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. materials. machines and methods to put the plans into action. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. . d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. 2.
counseling and effective leadership. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. supervisors. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. money and material. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. 1. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. Management is goal-oriented. machines. In its absence. To this end. procedures and reward systems. Without management. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. They allot various jobs to the workers. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules.k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. an organization is merely a collection of men. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. They have to get the work done through the workers. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. Their authority and responsibility is limited. methods. accounts officers and so on. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. It consists of foreman. Management makes group effort more effective. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. sales officers. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. 3. With a view to realize the . Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual¶s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers.
ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. But unlike medicine or law. Management . forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. According to McFarland. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. Management as a profession By a professional manager. identifiable discipline. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. and it is distinct. They try to put everything on the right tract. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. etc. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. competition. often threaten the survival of a firm.. Thus unnecessary deviations. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. In the final analysis. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance.predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. Failure to take note of customer¶s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for µIdeal java¶ in the two-wheeler market in India. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. and specialized knowledge. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. techniques. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. government policy. Organize the resources properly. skills. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. the Indian Institute of Management.
In fact. The term µmanagement roles¶ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. the American Management Association in U. All managers have a role as a leader. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the . the transfer of information. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature ± interpersonal roles. Half of these managers¶ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. bribing public officials to gain favours. This role includes hiring. As a social science. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. do not seem to adhere to the principle of ³service above self´. However. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. and decision-making. unpatterned. But in addition to these insights. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. and disciplining employees. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. Furthermore. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. an art as well as a profession.S. he or she is acting in a figurehead role.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s.A. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions. For instance. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. 1. Some individual business organizations. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. etc. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. management is not as exact as natural sciences. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. the All India Management Association. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager¶s job. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. However. motivating. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. managers in general. however..Development Institute. and short-duration activities. training. sabotaging trade unions.
manages also perform a spokesperson role. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager¶s unit. training. activities that involve responsible for staffing. Table 1. to some degree. that involve outsiders. making phone subordinates to members of the calls to relay information. and the like. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. obliged to Greeting visitors. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public¶s tastes. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. informers who provide favors performing other activities and information.liaison role. what competitors may be planning. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. understanding of organization and environment.1: Mintzberg¶s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Liaison Symbolic head. and may be inside or outside the organization. subordinates. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. and associated duties. Typically. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. duties of a legal or social nature. Informational Roles: All managers. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. This is the disseminator role. network of outside contacts and doing external board work. Informational Monitor Disseminator .
physical and monetary resources. etc. performing all kinds ± in effect. . managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. serves as expert on organization¶s industry. 1973). Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. negotiations. Last. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to develop and initiates ³improvement new programs. managers are responsible for allocating human. As disturbance handlers. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Source: Henry Mintzberg. Inc. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the organizational decisions. Decisional Roles: Finally. programming of subordinates work. As entrepreneurs. supervises design of certain projects as well. As resource allocators. actions. media. policies. Publishers. results. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. projects´ to bring about change. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization¶s performance. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers.. outsiders on organization¶s giving information of the plans. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices.Spokesperson organization ± some information is factual.
These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. However. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization¶s speciality. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization¶s operations. the roles of disseminator. finance. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers ± regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. or manufacturing. For example. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager¶s level within the organization. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. . human. and conceptual.An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg¶s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. motivate. such as engineering. Technical Skills: First-line managers. During the early 1970. They know how to communicate. computers. In fact. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. and all managers are involved in making decisions. a manager¶s job is varied and complex. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. Conversely. as well as many middle managers. Since managers deal directly with people. the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. liaison. research by Robert L. Specifically. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. negotiator. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. lead. figurehead. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. this skill is crucial.
management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. This view is held by Tead. Floerence and Tead. Administration is a higher level function: Administration refers to policy-making.1. administration is a higher level function.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. plans and policies of the organisation. Management Management means getting the work done through and with others. According to them. Scope . Thus. Spriegel and Walter. Thus. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. iii) There is no distinction between the terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ and they are used interchangeably. It is concerned with the implementation of policies. Administration relates to the decision-making. etc. Administration is a determinative function. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. Management relates to execution of decisions. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. on the other hand. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. It is a thinking function. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. 2. Meaning Administration Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives. Managers are concerned mainly with organisation and direction of human resources. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. It is a doing function. Table 1. It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies. Administrators are basically concerned with planning and control. Nature 3. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. Spriegal and Lansburg.
Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance.4. i. Five M¶s of management (________. counseling and effective leadership. 3. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. organisations. environmental forces. Self Assessment Questions 1. Still management is not completely a profession. Usage of Term The term µadministration¶ is The term µmanagement¶ is often associated with widely used in business government offices. co-ordinating. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. operative workforce for the execution of plans. _________. 7. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. There are three levels of management-top. ___________. 1. objectives. administrative decisions. 1. Define management. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle level leading and motivation of executives. Explain its characteristics.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. 6. 2.. middle and lower. . lower levels of management. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. DecisionMaking Administration determines Management decides who what is to be done and when it shall implement the is to be done.e. 8. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant at higher levels of management. public organisations in the private sector and non-business sector. __________is principally the task of planning. 5.9 Terminal Questions 1.
7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Management 2.3 2.1. Refer section 1. Refer section 1. MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2. Discuss the importance of management.1 Introduction Objectives 2. manpower 3. teamwork Answers to TQs: 1.2 Process of Management 2. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. 3. 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Money.2.5 3.3 Planning 2. Refer section 1.2.4 Organizing . materials.
as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2. Organizing. Motivating. 1949): 1. you will be able to: · Define Management process.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people´. · Explain different functions of management Process. · Explain Planning. Objectives: After this studying this unit. management functions have been regrouped into four categories.2.6 Directing 2.9 Terminal Questions 2. Organizing 3. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. in recent time. Planning 2. Directing. Controlling However. Commanding 4. Management functions are as follows (Fayol. Staffing.5 Staffing 2. One can also think of management functionally.8 Summary 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2. Coordinating 5. .
However. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: . 2. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. overall goals. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization¶s mission. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: ³Management is doing things right. driving comfort. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. say a passenger car. Through leadership and management often overlap. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. while a policy. Therefore. Objectives are the ends. policies are the means to achieve those ends.2. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. There is a degree of overlap between the two. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. general strategies. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. In the football field. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. the two are not quite the same. Decision ± Making Taking decisions is a process. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. Even so. or where you want go to. thus. the decision to change the design of a product. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. fuel and machine efficiency. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. leadership is doing the right things³. and then set out the method for achieving it. studies on passenger comfort. and allocating resources. cost structure and so on. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal.
The mission statement is broad. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization¶s potential. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. Is research and development adequate? 4. and trade). What is our market share? 5. state. journals and reports (scientific. What financing is available? 6. Opportunities. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. summarizing what the organization does. Weaknesses. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. Thus. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). How skilled is our workforce? 4.A mission is the purpose of the organization. federal. professional. customers (internal and external). Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. Are the facilities outdated? 3. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: . Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. A mission statement should be short ± and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. international). suppliers. What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. governments (local.
Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. What is the strength of the economy? 4. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. Are our rivals weak? 5. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. the best strategy is one that fits the organization¶s strengths to opportunities in the environment. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. What substitute products exist? In general terms. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. effectiveness. as well as gap analysis. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. Are market tastes changing? 5. Generally. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. What are the emerging technologies? 6. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) . Are there new competitors? 3. etc. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. earnings per share. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. What are the new regulations? 6. Objectives are also called performance goals.1. What are the possible new markets? 3. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. return on investment.
Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided.Tactical plans are based on the organization¶s strategic plan. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. structuring. Review plans 2. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. who reports to whom. lines of authority.4 Organizing It involves designing. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. who is to do. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. Strategic. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. In turn. Assign work to individuals 6. tactical. and relationships between departments. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job 4. working toward common goals. with ideas and resources. operational plans are based on the organization¶s tactical plans. Organizations are groups of people. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. procedures. and coordinated. grouped. 2. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. 2. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. and where decisions are to be made.5 Staffing . and goals are clearly stated. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. how the tasks are to be grouped.
transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. development. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals´. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. 3. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. selection. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. compensation and training of needed people´. appraisal. training.It is not the machines. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. placement. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. selection. recruitment. This task has been referred to as staffing. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. promotion. recruitment. inventorying the people available. 4. O¶Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as ³filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. Koontz. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. performance appraisal etc. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. Theo Haimann ± ³Concerned with the placement. Definition: 1. 3. 2. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. materials. placement. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick ± ³Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work´ Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. 5. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. 2. . money. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement.
Through direction.e. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. induction. resignation. directing is the ³interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals´. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. 2. selection. 7. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. 2. management initiates actions in the organization. It is an important managerial function. recruitment. overseeing and leading people. vacancies arise out of retirement. It is a continuing function. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. 4. Direction function is performed at every level of management. It is instructing people as to what to do. Definition According to Koontz and O¶Donnel. 5. identifying the manpower requirements. on the other. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. promotion. . 3. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. etc. Direction has dual objectives. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through ± out the life of an organization. Direction is an important managerial function. On the one hand. training development and maintenance of personnel.6. 8. motivate them.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management.
Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. guide. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished´. 2.Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. 2. humanness and psychological health a person will show. 3. ³without the issuance of directives. shelter. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. such as. will vary depending upon his level. belongingness. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. and the Two-Factor theory. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. self-respect. 4. Theories X and Y. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. from the basic to the complex. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. such as. and attention . teach. satisfied needs cannot. coach and supervise his subordinates. The further they progress up the hierarchy. and achievement. the more individuality. acceptance. recognition. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. proposed by Maslow (1943). The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. As Theo Haimann puts it. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. The manager never ceases to direct. sex. The needs are arranged in order of importance. status. thirst. and external esteem factors. autonomy.
such as. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. and exercise self-control. interpersonal relations. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager¶s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people¶s attitudes about work. if they can. From the above. such as. includes growth. achieving one¶s potential. and salary are hygiene factors. advancement. company policy. esteem. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. self-direction. whereas. and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. self-motivated. Theory Y ± In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. Social. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. supervision. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. Motivators are intrinsic factors. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. Theory X ± In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. and achievement. recognition. Extrinsic factors.· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. externally. anxious to accept greater responsibility. working conditions. responsibility. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. autonomy and empowerment. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. It is also believed that. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. .
recruitment. When hygiene factors are adequate. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. 2. performance appraisal etc. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. Explain Staffing in detail 3. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. Self Assessment Questions 1. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. neither will they be satisfied. Hygiene factors on the other hand.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: . how the tasks are to be grouped. and where decisions are to be made.In summary. 2. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. structuring.9 Terminal Questions 1. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. people will not be dissatisfied. 2. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. 2. motivators describe a person¶s relationship with what she or he does. Organization involves designing. Planning involves the process of defining goals. What is planning? 2. Write a short not on directing. have to do with a person¶s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. To motivate people. who reports to whom. 3. who is to do. many related to the tasks being performed. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does.
Reference 2.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 2.6 OD and Management Development 3. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3.3 Characteristics of OD 3.7 Role of OD 3.8 Problems in OD .5 3.4 Categories of OD 3.1 Introduction Objectives 3. Reference 2.5 Goals of OD 3.2 Definitions 3. SWOT 3.1. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1. Follett 2. Reference 2.
And organization development (OD) is one of them. In summary. the answer is ³yes´. and changing customer demands. A variety of solutions exists. Early returns were encouraging. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. . Simple survival ± continuing to have an adequate job ± is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks.Self Assessment Questions 3. culture. and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately. maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals. conflict resolution.9 Summary 3. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope. old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. teams. ³Knowledge´ work is replacing ³muscle´ work. efficiency. and the like. and the organization¶s human and social processes. strategy formulation and implementation. take advantage of opportunities. organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. strategy. and processes. and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology. organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3. organization structure. increased competition. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. fighting obsolescence of one¶s knowledge and skills. challenges from turbulent environments. adapt. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today¶s world is a daunting task. Basically. OD focuses on issues related to the ³human side´ of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals. organization development is a process of teaching people how to solve problems.10 Terminal Questions 3. Although new jobs are being created at record rates. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges ± finding satisfaction in and through work. Today. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today ± threats to effectiveness. survive. and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks. and profitability. and learn how to do that better and better over time.
and the dizzying rate of change itself. · State the goals of OD. (Bennis. · Explain the characteristics of OD. you will be able to: · Define organization development.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change. self-analytic methods. OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement. values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies. A ³process for improving processes´ ± that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. 1969). and 3) Developing the organization¶s self-renewing capacity (Beer. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure. attitudes. using reflexive. 1989) . people. markets. strategy. 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions. 1980). (Burke and Hornstein. planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. and culture. (Schmuck and Miles. Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives«. 3. and challenges.change of an organization¶s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making. 1971) Organizational development is a process of planned change. processes. a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs.Objectives: After studying this unit.
and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions.´ This definition is lengthy. they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. through the alteration of organizational members¶ on-the-job behaviours. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. and theory. structure. and processes for improving an organization¶s effectiveness. Organizational change is hard. We do not propose it as the ³right´ definition. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field. it is more accurate to describe ³improvement´ as a never-ending journey of continuous change. 1993) ³Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization¶s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies. 1992) ³OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. what practices should be included and excluded. these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does.´ (Burke. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. serious business.³Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories.several years in most cases. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. including action research.´ (Porras and Robertson. 1994) As you can see. research. and contain several unique insights (that¶s enlightening). and problem-solving processes. and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. In fact. All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change.´ (Cummings and Worley. to improve an organization¶s visioning. that is. Collectively. led and supported by top management. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. There is no ³quick fix´ when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. Likewise. We will explain this definition in some detail. Now let¶s turn to our definition of organization development. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving. learning. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. strategies. ³Organization development is a long-term effort. values. through an ongoing. By long-term effort. Top management must initiate the improvement . They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. empowerment. these definitions overlap a great deal (that¶s encouraging).
assumptions. By learning processes. empowerment. and processes makes each important. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. has a stake in making the organization work. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization¶s members. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as ³« organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. processes. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. or became distracted with other duties. By including culture so prominently in our definition. strategy. And second. and each influences the others. we mean those interacting. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual.³journey´ and be committed to seeing it through. and common purposes of all members of the organization. listening. we mean. By visioning processes. We further believe that having compelling. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. one of widespread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization¶s purposes. and culture. norms. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. coherent. make decisions. opportunities. team. learning. activities. and organizational learning. structure. attitudes. first. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. lost its commitment. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. By empowerment. and making it happen. so is managing the culture. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. in contrast to having only a select few involved.´ Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. sentiments. and artifacts. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. Just as visioning. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization¶s culture. not just a small group. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. expectations. beliefs. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. solve problems. and take actions on problems. The reciprocal influence among culture. By empowerment processes. Still. commitment. vitality. Michael Beer¶s definition called for ³developing new and creative organizational solutions´. and challenges in the organization¶s environment and its internal functioning. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. interactions. For empowerment to become fact of life. structure. developing the strategy for getting there. where collective aspiration is set free. culture is of .
learning. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. and we highlight the importance of visioning. manufacturing. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. Today¶s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. By intact work teams and other configurations. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the ³right´ ways. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. members are trained in competencies such as planning.primary importance. such as design. (b) invented. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. think. and using management information. and feel in relation to those problems. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. . intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. the process ³threw the results over the wall´ to the next functional unit. engineering. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. maintaining quality control. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. empowerment. so they are the place OD programs often begin ± getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be ³brain work´) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. But in many organizations today. much rework. and training. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. values. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. When teams function well. When one function finished with its part of the project. discovered. In Liberation Management. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. individuals and the organization function well. and problem-solving processes. wasted time. and procurement. hiring. He uses the terms µmultifunctional projectization¶ and µhorizontal systems¶ to describe these teams and their work. empowerment. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. Over time. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: ³Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. So culture consists of basic assumptions. This method resulted in loss of synergy. Processes are how things get done. think. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. firing. Processes are relatively easy to change. Temporary. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. Further. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. or developed by a given group.
The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today¶s fast-paced market place.3 Characteristics of OD 1. Attempting to create ³win-win´ solutions is standard practice in OD programs. and co-learners with the client system. 8. 6. To summarize. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. This µplanned¶ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. collaborators. rather than focusing attention on individuals.multifunctional. 9. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. 7. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. OD focuses on culture and processes. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. 10. 3. OD . The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. according to Peters. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. OD practitioners are facilitators. 3. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. 2. 4. Specifically. 2. so that change is easily observed. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. dynamic and adaptive system. 5. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD.
and integrate individual and organizational goals. joint goals and means. He shares a social philosophy about human values. temporary. interactive. identity. rather. 6. It recognizes that organizational goals change. and mutual influence. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements . Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. growth. he conducts surveys. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. Rather. At the individual level. problem-solving. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. 4. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. 7. They discourage µdo it yourself¶ approach. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. and then. 5. 3. Thus. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be µhuman¶ and to increase awareness. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. Key areas are the normative type of model.efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. or isolated problems. third party change agent. collects relevant data. The relationship involves mutual trust. and cyclic processes. participation. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. 3. further more. and revitalization. they are ongoing. evaluates these data. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. rather. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that µnorms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones¶. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. Action research is the basis for such intervention. or catalyst. takes actions for intervention.
(d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. first. practitioners and the client laymen.of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. (g) To increase the sense of µownership¶ or organization¶s objectives throughout the work force. (c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. problem solving climate throughout an organization. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. Two important elements of Organization Development are. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. 3. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization¶s goals (profit or service) and development of people. This Organization Development progrmmes. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. like other normative re-educative programmes. . the collaborative relationships between the scientists. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. with the authority of knowledge and competence. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. second.
he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. According to him. (ii) competitiveness. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. However. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager¶s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. management development has been defined as follows: ³Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. with their existing objectives and structure. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. and greater display of feelings and emotions.´ Organization development differs from management development. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. .(h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one¶s area of responsibility. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. The term µdevelopment¶ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting.6 OD and Management Development At this stage. (iii) assertiveness. Based on this. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. according to him. 3. more attention to peer-groups. less individual competitiveness. Before making a comparison between the two. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. MD tries to fit the men to the organization.
not on the managers. 2. Trained specialists required. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations.Focus Approach Time Specialist accomplishments. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. 3. however. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. 3. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. No special requirement. 3. Thus. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. Problem-solving approach. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. and laterally.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. plays key role in organizational improvement. Focus on design. horizontally. In early 60s. Educative and training Short-range. however. Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing organization. 4. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. 5. By 70s. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. 7. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. . substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. focus on achieving improvement in design. 6.
in order to make best use of OD efforts. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. Therefore. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. In general. 5. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. 3. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. particularly in bottom-line ones. Hence. it fails even as a long-term strategy. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. However. Therefore. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. etc. some specific efforts are required. 3. 4. Thus. Research studies have also failed to conclude significant contributions of OD in all organizations. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. If an organization is laden with these people. Self Assessment Questions . Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience.confrontation techniques. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. it is useless to try OD. There should be proper use of OD interventions. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. 4. OD programmes are often quite costly. For example. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. 5. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. 2. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. 2. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept.
Organization development should be led and supported by ±±±±±±±. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. OD focuses on culture and processes. 4.1. Explain its salient features. problem-focused µnature of OD¶ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. 3. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. ±±±±±±±±± is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. Distinguish between µorganizational development¶ and µmanagement development¶. There is no µquick fix¶ to organizations¶ problems. 2. 3. collaborative. Top management 2. 3. ±±±±±±± is associated with ³Liberation Management´. Peter Senge . It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. Who is associated with the ³Learning Organizations´? 5. 2. 5. 4. Define OD. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. Explain the various characteristics of OD.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Tom Peters 3. State the various roles of OD. The participative. Empowerment 4.10 Terminal Questions 1. _____________is a short-term strategy. 3.
4 Grid Training 4.1 Introduction Objectives 4.Organization Development ± Interventions Unit-04.5 Leadership Development 4.2 2. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 3. Refer section 3.3 3.3 Process Consultation 4.5. Management development Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 3.2 Survey Feedback 4.7 5.6 4.Organization Development ± Interventions Structure: 4.6 Team-building . MU0002-Unit-04.
9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. inter-group activities. interpersonal level. education and training. process consultation. Therefore. However.´ There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. Historically. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach.11 Terminal Questions 4. inter-group level. team-building. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. the classification of OD interventions shows variation. Nevertheless.8 Change Agents 4. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development.10 Summary 4. mediation and negotiation activities. they make things happen.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. management grid. Thus. group level. People¶s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: ³Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the range of change that an organization requires. For example. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others.7 Inter Group Development 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. grid training. work group.4. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. and survey feedback method. and organizational level. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels. and organizational culture. Further. Subsequently. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. other techniques like process . such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. survey feedback. techno-structural activities.
consultation, team- building, and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives, have been added. Our further discussion follows this development. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. · Explain grid training. · Describe process consultation. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Role of change agents. 4.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid), the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier, Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan, USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 2. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection, feedback of information, developing action plans based on feedback, and follow up. 1. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership ± managerial support, managerial goal emphasis, managerial work facilitation, peer support, peer goal emphasis, peer work facilitation, and peer interaction facilitation, organizational climate-communication with the company, motivation, decision-making, control within the company, co-ordination between departments, and general management, and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company, satisfaction with the supervisor, satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with the pay, and satisfaction with the work group. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization¶s personnel.
After the questionnaires are completed, data are classified, tabulated, and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 2. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed, feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. In oral system of feedback, it is provided through group discussion or problemsolving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively, feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted, it should be constructive and suggestive, rather, threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case, follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building, by the consultant. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. In particular, survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. 2. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However, effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. First, questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. If it is biased, all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Second, even if valid and reliable information is collected, it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change; it provides base for action for change. 4.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Edgar Schein, the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows:
³The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client¶s environment.´ The basic objectives of P.C are as follows: 1. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership, communication, roles and functions of group members, group decision-making and problemsolving, group norms, and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD. 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 2. Define the Relationship: At this stage, client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees, and spelling out services, time, etc. At this stage, the client¶s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. 3. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. At this stage, the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 4. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 5. Intervene: At this stage, the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural change. 6. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.C is completed, the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes, he assists the
Inter-group Development: At this phase. like other OD intervention techniques. In the review of various P.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. 3. problem-solving. However. 3.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. traditions. 2.C is also not free from criticisms. 2. From this point of view. and alike. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. . To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. groups. P. The skills relating to planning. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. knowledge. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. P. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. and total organizational levels. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. inter-group. and the organization as a whole. 4. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant¶s inability to steer the organization out of troubles.C programmes. and problemsolving are also developed. objective-setting. The grid organization development consists of six phases. 1. and teamwork. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1.organizational members to incorporate those changes. focuses on skills. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. communication skills. group. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. However. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems.
it discounts reality. in spite of these criticisms. therefore. and regular. grid training is a non-rigorous method. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. They have maintained that ³managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. Further. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. concerned and committed to their welfare.´ In a later work. In this light. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders.5 Leadership Development When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). is the ability of leadership to«well. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. competence. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. The strategy is then implemented. and credibility of senior and middle management. Systematic Critique: In this stage. they maintained the same stand. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. We will look more carefully at each of these. and After Arrival. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. Slogging Through The Swamp. 6. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. If you are to manage change effectively.4. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. Also during these times of change. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. confident and effective decision-making. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. During drastic change times. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. 5. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. Furthermore. lead. the various programmes may be redesigned. while at the same time . grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. complete communication that is timely. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. 4.
employees expect nothing positive. 4. Unfortunately. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as ³who will be members of the team?´ ³Who will perform what functions?´ ³Who will contribute what?´ ³What rules will be . Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. Leadership before. let us consider the life cycle of a team. it may be too late. widely accepted. which. teambuilding is the most important. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone¶s best interests. For example. problems in team-work. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. French and Bell have opined that ³probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. The existence of this trust.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. These stages are: forming. As against these. brings hope for better times in the future. how synergy is generated through team-work. and adjourning as shown below: Fig.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. norming. but more importantly. 4. storming. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team¶s time together. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. if allowed to go on for too long. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. performing.recognizing that tough decisions need to be made.´ A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. therefore. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. In a climate of distrust. if haven¶t established a track record of effective leadership.
Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. Norming: After storming stage. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another.followed?´ ³How can conflicts among members be resolved?´ and so on. They share personal information. 3. The adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. 2. At this stage. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team¶s goals. team members start settling. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. However. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. etc. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: ³Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. each team has to be adjourned. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. because of individual differences. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. start to accept others. Sooner or later. jockeying for relative control. committee. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team.´ . At this stage. 4. 5. After the adjournment of the team. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other.
These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group¶s meetings. goals. In fact. and so on. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project.Thus. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. in one experiment. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. group efforts tend to slacken. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. the complementarity among members is achieved. other factors remaining the same.2 pounds. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. fail to perform their assigned tasks. it was found that individuals¶ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. group of eight. 2. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. For example. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. In such an assignment. They averaged 138. To the extent. From this statement. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. In the above paragraph. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. and attitudes.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. other factors remaining the same. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. the team would be effective. that is. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. the individual average dropped down still lower-68. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. it appears that there are many .
and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. common purpose. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. 2. and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. . 3. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. complementary skills.financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team.factors in an effective team. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one¶s own role as well as roles of other members. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. they will put their maximum. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance. management consultants. and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. 1. two things are required from its members. make recommendations regarding a new supervisor. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. Thus. then. Therefore. Katzenbatch and Smith. customer satisfaction. serve to focus attention. supportive environment. goals. 3. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals. These factors are skills and role clarity. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality. unify efforts. 2. 4. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. Rewards of both types. Further. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size. These super-ordinate goals. While skills are relevant for job performance. Even if one member lacks behind. or propose discipline for team members. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials.
such as. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared. and 5. 4. For achieving these. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. . The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. Setting goals and priorities for the team. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. 2. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. rather. the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure. personality and attitudes. 3. the emphasis should be on consensus. 4. At this stage. 2. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. Analyzing how team¶s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem. Providing positive feedback. Analyzing how the team is working. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds. Analyzing how the work is performed.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. 1. generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. and 5. their value systems. recognition. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. Fig. and rewards.4. group problems to even personal problem. In problem identification.
who was trying to resolve the differences. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours: Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. also provides opportunity to understand themselves. and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility. there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. At the time of discussion of feedback. 5. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. belittling. cynicism. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. undermining morale. etc. etc. Negative Behaviour (i) Over talk: interrupting.3. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings. criticizing person. the way people talk about the issue. seeking relevant information. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. (ii) Attacking: deriding. If this process is adopted several times. understanding. the stying with the topic or going off on tangents. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas. members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. (iii) Clarifying: resting. information. clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team. feelings. At this stage. 4. talking together with speaker. Often. the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. who was talking more or who was talking less. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. (iii) Negative: cooling. encouraging others to participate. Followup action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of team-building. . ensuring. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team¶s responsibilities. about the issue. people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours.
Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. As a result. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. communicating. listening. stereotypes. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. one of the more .. to encourage and sustain such feelings. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. structure. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. 2. Therefore. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. 4. it is not that effective in isolation. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. However. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the organization¶s outcomes. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier. However. It improves the organization¶s problem-solving and decision-making ability. etc. and feedback skills).These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. team-building has a positive outlook. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage. monitoring. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. 3. It seeks to change to attitudes. and perceptions that groups have of each other. though. 2. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. However. In general. management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. in different degrees. it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. In spite of these problems. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. are not given adequate attention.
and the groups look for the causes of the disparities.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. but one thing he/she is not the driver´. For major change efforts. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. or outside consultants. however. 4. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. and personnel. as the break for too quick action. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action.Popular methods emphasize problem solving. According to Curtis Mial: ³The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. with members from each of the conflicting groups. 4. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. In contrast. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. the other group. The groups then share their lists. after which similarities and differences are discussed. as the accelerator to build up momentum. Subgroups. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. culture. operating procedures. employees of the organization. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization¶s history. Differences are clearly articulate. the groups can move to the integration phase ± working to develop solutions that will improve relations. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes ± which can be benefit or a disadvantage ± because they don¶t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. In this method. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . Outside consultants. Trainer . may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions.
It focuses on skills. group. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. 4. attitudes and beliefs. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies ± lectures. inter-group and total organization levels. presentations. films. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. skills and change in behavior. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. Training is used both in µcontent orientation¶ and process orientation¶. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? . The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. Self Assessment Questions 1. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. Data collection. feedback of information.11 Terminal Questions 1. role-plays and instruments. In process consultation. Grid Training was developed by ±±±±±±±±±±±± 3. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. cases and experiential learning etc.A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. Team-building is most important. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. changing (intervening) and refreezing.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. group discussions. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. diagnosis. 2. Training is required for enhancing knowledge.
Refer section 4. Refer section 4. 3. Assumptions. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? 3. MU0002-Unit-05-Values.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Data collection 2. 4. Refer section 4.2 3. and Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values. Assumptions.2. Blake and Mouton. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5. Refer section 4.1 Introduction . Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1.4 2.6 4. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail.
2 Definitions . · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves. 5. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5. beliefs and assumptions.5. Objectives: After studying this unit. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5. beliefs and assumptions. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5.1 Introduction A set of values. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development.5. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions.7 Terminal Questions 5.2 Definitions 5.5. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5.Objectives 5. assumptions. · List the chronology of events of values.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5.
they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. it is a cognitive fact for the person. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual." or slacking off. Taylor s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. assumptions. and assumptions being. . Thus. the laboratory training movement. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. the human relations movement. values. free speech) and what is undesirable or µbad¶ (e. and democratic. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. dishonesty). strongly held. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. with values being beliefs about good and bad.g.A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. As these ingredients accumulated. 5. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or µgood¶ (e. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly. OD values tend to be humanistic. and the like.. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought y Frederick Winslow Taylor s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. treat people with respect and dignity. or spirit of the time. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources ± the Hawthorne studies.. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. assumptions. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. Values. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. and that rationality. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. optimistic. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. reason. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions.g. research on the effects of different leadership styles. Simple. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies.
and a general humanizing of the workplace. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. a management theorist and astute observer of labour-management relations. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people s beliefs about organizational behaviour. apathy. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. Research by Lewin. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. In a sense. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. Group Dynamics (1940) The scientific study of groups using experimental research methodswas launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. greater attention to workers social needs. The human relations movement advocated participative management. People came to work as whole people. The Functions of the Executive by Chester 1. and the supervisor determined their performance. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. Lippitt (1939). Mary Parker Follett (1926). and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. Their simple. People were not cogs. organizations were not machines. the work environment. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. wrote an article on The Giving of Orders advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. much of the research. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. theory. A strong hierarchy of authority. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives.y The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of bureaucracy as the best. their feelings and attitudes about the work. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. most efficient way to organize people. aggressiveness and poor performance. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. y y y y y y y . impersonal rules. These approaches possessed many desirable features. extensive division of labor. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company.
and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. a direct precursor of OD. healthy adults. and need to be led. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. lack ambition.y These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). The task of management is to change organizational structures. caring social climate. resist change. management practices. pioneers in laboratory training. reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. increase self-understanding. Chris Argyrif s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. Lester Coch and John R. indifferent to the organization s needs. and understand group dynamics. Overcoming Resistance to Change. this book popularized Maslow s motivation theory. Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. This article introduced the concept of organizations as socio-technical systems. dislike responsibility. Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. to assume responsibility. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. In an environment of slow change. The theory postulated that when lower-level needs are satisfied. are self-centered. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. higherlevel needs become dominant. Rogers focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. P. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. French s (1948) article. a mechanistic organization y y y y y y y y . Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic.
structure may be appropriate. optimistic." that is. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. an organic organization form is preferred. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. y y This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. in an environment of high change. The Social Psychology of Organizations by Daniel Katz and Robert L. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. Out of this zeitgeist. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. as we have said. Values have always been an integral part of OD. y Rensis Likert s New Patterns of Management (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. and unprincipled power. open communications. . (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. · Development of more effective "team management. and negative consequences. These six books presented the theory. compromise. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. goal-oriented. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. and values of the field. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. practice. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. and greater individual autonomy. and organizations that is. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. Writing in 1969. one-on-one leadership style. and democratic. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company OD Six-Pack. groups. humanistic. and shares decision-making with the work group. theory. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. dysfunctions. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. bureaucracy.
" People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. not the basis of managerial strategy. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. They listed these ³values in transition´ as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. 4. . The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). "People support what they help create." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. and confidence between and across levels. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. 5.· Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. a professor and Sheldon Davis. Organizations. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. sub-units of organizations." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. Controls are interim measurements. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are.´ For example. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. mutual trust. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. 1. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. M." like pushing buttons. 6. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. Therefore." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. 2. the basic units of change are groups. Here is his list. not individuals. director of organization development. 3. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. Robert Tannenbaum. Stalker used the term ³mechanistic´ in contrast to ³mechanical. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard.
participation and contribution by all organization members. open communication. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. decentralized decision making. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions . · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. the legitimacy of feelings. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. 5. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. · Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. autocratic. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. toward seeing them as being in process. authentic interpersonal relations.· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. appropriate uses of power. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. collaboration and co-operation.
And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving.5. and reward success. and job satisfaction. such as a work group. a church or club group. and interpersonal communication. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. and usually with more than one group. Second. the family. not a one-on-one leadership style. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. permit failure. 5. not individuals. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. facilitation. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group¶s effectiveness and development. at both the formal and informal levels. Hence.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. leaders need to give important work to teams. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. groups. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. give responsibility. Most people want to develop their potential. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. encourage risk-taking. in addition. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. personal growth. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. Third. give autonomy. support. conflict management. listen. To do this. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. invest training time and money to increase group members¶ skills. challenge. support.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. remove obstacles and barriers. and co-operation within the group. What occurs in the work group. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. and are capable of making. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. Implications of these assumptions are several.Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. and so on. This skill is a trainable one. set high standards. First. and organizations? 5. . Also. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making.5. including peers and boss.
3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. societal. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where ³putting people first´ paid off handsomely in profits and performance. developmental. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. and profitability. The rapid technological." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. quality of output. emphasis on topdown directives. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. Frequently the challenge is broader. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. formalized cross-functional communication. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization¶s leaders. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. grouping by specialized function. including how persons C. Finally. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. adherence to the chain of command. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. and so on-are obsolete. Therefore. values are never static. D. In addition. and E can support these changes. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. The implication is that people are an organization¶s most important resource. and ways to optimize human potential. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. an optimistic. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. Concluding Comment: .Finally. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. 5. in which one side wins and the other side loses. organizing structures. a growing awareness that ³win-lose´ organizational situations. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. By implication.5. they change over time. and empowering. are dysfunctional over the long run and highlight the need for a ³win win´ attitude. By implication. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. Still.
beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. 2. Values. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. 5. OD values tend to be humanistic.The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. 2. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. Self Assessment Questions 1. beliefs.7 Terminal Questions 1. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. The outcome of ±±±±±±±± was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. 5. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. values. and assumptions are all ±±±±±±±±±± facts. 5. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. Cognitive . This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. beliefs and assumptions. Define concepts. but are widely accepted today. 4. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 3. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. __________ is associated with scientific management. 3.W. The concept of ±±±±±±±±±± was introduced by MaxWeber. Values. Write a note about F. Values. 5. Taylor¶s principles of scientific management. Values are also beliefs. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. optimistic and democratic.
Refer section 5. Refer section 5.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6.2 2. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6. F. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1. Taylor 3. Refer section 5.2.3 5.2. Refer section 5.1 Introduction Objectives 6.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6.2.3 3. Bureaucracy 4.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 4.2 Beyond the Quick Fix . Refer section 5. W. Hawthorne experiments 5.
6.11 Terminal Questions 6.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6. you will be able to: . Objectives: After studying this unit. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6. In this discussion.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.3 Systems Theory 6.5 Teams and Teamwork 6.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.3.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.3.10 Summary 6.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.1 The Nature of Systems 6.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.4 Participation and Empowerment 22.214.171.124 Parallel Learning Structures 6.2.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice.3.
in words or pictures. 6. · Describe the parallel learning structures. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in . but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. We will examine the following concepts: · Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. · Explain systems theory. Models and theories depict. · Explain the terms µparticipation¶ and µempowerment¶. That is. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. the important features of some phenomenon. describe those features as variables. and specify the relationships among the variables.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork.2. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change.· Explain various models and theories of planned change. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field.
Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. Scanning the environment for new relevant information . that is. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. Lewin¶s second idea was a model of the change process itself. For example. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. Finally. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. feel things. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. he must move.opposing directions. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. With a technique called the force-field analysis. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. b. judge things. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. etc. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. Next. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. moving to new level of behaviour. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. that is. Likewise. Identifying with a new role model. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. mentor. Lewin¶s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations.
Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system¶s problem. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s unfreezing phase. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person¶s personality. This motivating evidence is gained by. Jeanne Watson. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. b. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. In stage 2. terminating the client-consultant relationship. and Bruce Westley. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. change will not occur. and fit with the individual¶s social surroundings. That is. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. moving. . and attitudes. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. Significant relationships. that is. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s refreezing phase. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. which motivate the person to change. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. 4. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. establishing goals and intentions of action. unfreezing.Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. which cause guilt and anxiety. Phases 3. for example. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. The total personality and self-concept. refreezing. The primary task in stage 3. In stage 1. That is. and 5 correspond ro Lewin¶s moving phase. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person¶s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin¶s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt.
called "tracks. 2) Diagnosing the problems. when functioning properly. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. cause the organization to be successful. 6. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. problem-solving sessions.2. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change.This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. and so forth." that.2 Beyond the ³Quick Fix´ A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. Interventions include training programs. Change programs take from one to five years to complete. 2) The management skills track. and 5) The reward system track. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. 3) The team-building track. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? . Kilmann¶s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. 4) The strategy-structure track. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". critique practices and procedures.
Westinghouse. incremental. communication. and Xerox with good results. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. adaptive. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. then moving to the team-building track. The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. or discontinuous change. Ford General Electric. beginning with the culture track. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture.The culture track enhances trust. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call ³transactional change´ and ³transformational change´). revolutionary.2. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. In second-order change. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. jobs. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. and so forth. information sharing. work groups. radical. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. or continuous change. and all resources with the new strategic direction.and second-order change. evolutionary. TRW. In first-order change. the use of updated management skills. and its holistic view of organization change and development. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. then moving to the management skills track. OD programs are directed toward both first. 6. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered ± the organization is transformed. General Foods. departments. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit ± thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. Eastman Kodak. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. .
" Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. values. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. which change motivation and.Organizational climate is defined as people¶s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. leadership.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First ± Order Change ." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. and so forth. Changing structure. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. and difficult to change. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. 6. often unconscious. On the other hand. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. individual and organizational performance. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. in turn. friendly or unfriendly. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees¶ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. hard-working or easy-going. Fig. We will do so in several steps. and beliefs that are enduring. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. management practices. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. and organization culture result in second-order change. management practices. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model.
leadership styles. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. we must change mission and strategy. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization¶s culture. Burke says: ³Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. . The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second ± Order Change On the other hand. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). that is. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. 6. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. structure.´ We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. These factors are able to change the climate. mission and strategy. To summarize. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance.Fig. as shown in the above figure. and organization culture. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. Interventions directed toward management practices. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization.
which determine organizational performance and individual development. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. physical setting. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. and interaction processes will affect social factors. management style. Interventions that focus on culture. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members¶ cognitions (they learn what is expected. and technology. according to Porras and Robertson. It is how OD works. For example. 6. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. OD interventions that focus on goals. social factors. . Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6.Fig.2. strategies. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. rewarded). required.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. which influence on-the job behaviours. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements.
Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. Systems . and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6.Fig. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. describes the characteristics of systems. Fig.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory. 6. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. This section explains systems theory. 6.
components. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. . money. in that they permit exchange of information. that is the system. and if the environment does not want these outputs. Here. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. dynamics. Every system is delineated by a boundary. Open systems have purposes and goals. Boundaries of open systems are permeable.theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. when taking a systems approach. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. Organizations are open systems." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. resources. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. conversion." To summarize. Therefore. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. What is inside the boundary is the system. Thus.3. or transformation processes that change the inputs. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. people. the organization¶s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. They do something to the inputs via throughput. information. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized.system. 6. The words µarrangement¶ and µinterrelated¶ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. the organization will cease to exist. raw material and so on. the reasons for their existence. For example. interconnectedness.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. or subsystems. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. system denotes interdependency." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. and energy between system and environment.
and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. but most are not useful. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. and so on. Systems require two kinds of feedback. 6. negative and positive. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. By the same token. and the system adjusts to a new goal. Positive feedback comes from the environment. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. mining. For example. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. and makes a course correction. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. however. and the like. If the mission (target) changes. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. eating fads. say. Say your company makes buggy whips. . it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback.Fig. "return to earth. competitors. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. For example. Information is important to systems in several ways. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. aerospace. while screening out other information. that information is called positive feedback. It is sometimes called deviationamplifying feed back.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems ³run down´ and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use.
which includes formal structures. and individual level. important events. and complex over time. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. 6. 2) Resources available to the organization. and technology. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. The three major input factors are: 1) The environment. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state ± systems have multiple paths to goals. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. and informal organization. differentiated. As Katz and Kahn say: ³The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system.´ Also. such as capital. work. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. which includes skills. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. perceptions. either internal or external. With increased differentiation. failures. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). .Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. people. knowledge. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. and systems for performing the work. knowledge. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. processes.3. which includes the organization¶s culture informal rules and understandings. specialized. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. systems tend to get more elaborated. and the workforce¶s expectations. formal organization. unit/group level. this process is called differentiation. Subsystems exist within larger systems. Outputs are performance at the total organization level.
Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. and that changes in one system affect the other system.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model¶s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. performance will suffer. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. training group members in multiple skills. 6. Hanna writes: . multi-skilled teams. 6.3. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. If the organization¶s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. that is. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. performance will suffer. and information to the point of action. . forming autonomous work groups. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. organizations must optimize both systems. to the workers doing the job. Fred Emery." and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. if people don¶t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work.Fig. a social system and a technical system. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. especially autonomous work groups (selfregulated teams or self-direct teams). You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. In a company that is performing poorly. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. which components are "not functioning correctly. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized." The premise is that alignment (harmony. For example.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. controlling variance at the source.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work. fit) must be present among the system¶s components¶ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. performance will suffer. two active segments of OD today. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD.
KI Jayaram. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. but seen in relation to other issues.In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. and 3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. Third. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. building shared vision. mental models. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). Of all these disciplines. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. changing one part of a system influences other parts. from their activities. Second. because most phenomena have more than one cause. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. forces. First. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. is the most important. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. according to Peter Senge. For example. He says of systems thinking: ³It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. and systems thinking.´ In conclusion. not single effects. the fifth discipline. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. systems thinking. therefore. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. issues. Without a systemic orientation. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stakeholders.3. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. team learning. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. 6. events. Charles Krone. events and forces. . OD practitioners expect multiple effects.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. G.
But . to exert influence. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. quality of work life programs." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. to contribute their ideas. and change. to change a system.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. reduce stress levels. and growth." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. autonomous work groups. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. not just its component parts. Further. growth. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. For example. survey feedback. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. called "organic. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. They believed that it was about risk-taking. One view.Fourth. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. and to be responsible. increase commitment to the organization." These authors believe the organic view. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. search conferences. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. personal initiative. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. team building." is bottom-up and less controlling. one changes the system. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. And fifth. and give more power to more people. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. involvement and participation energize greater performance. produce better solutions to problems. The other view. Participation enhances empowerment. To empower is to give someone power. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. with its emphasis on risk-taking. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. quality circles. 6. which they call "mechanistic. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. is the more useful perspective. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin).
Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. STS (socio-technical systems). "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. confident about their abilities. people must work together to accomplish them. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. to name just a few. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. that is. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). HPOs (high-performance organizations). the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. then. While management can create a context that is more empowering.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today ± gurus extol the virtues of teams. as a team. QCs (quality circles). teaming. Theory. employees must choose to be empowered. is not something that management does to employees. teams create synergy. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. If the team. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. .´ 6. but rather a mindset that employees have about their roles in the organization. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. processes. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. systems. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. Third. Second. and relationships if they are to be effective. the noun team has become a verb. changes those norms and values. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First.both views contain valid ideas: for example. Teams and teamwork are "in. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: ³Empowerment. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. research. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). Team Taurus developed Ford¶s best-selling automobile. they must if personally connected to the organization.
Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. find innovative ways around barriers. and the like. role negotiation technique. and explore ways to realize that potential. and respect-teams nurture human nature. and others. socio-technical systems programs. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. and set ever-higher goals. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. cross-functional teams. parallel learning structures. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. team performance declines.Fourth. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. process consultation. temporary teams. including collegiate football national champions. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. Examples are team-building. When any one feature is lost. inter-group team-building. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. help each other. In this section. status. recognition. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. . quality circles. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. teams satisfy people¶s needs for social interaction. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. and responsibility charting. that they achieve synergy. heart transplant surgical teams. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings.
What¶s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). flexible response. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. Asea Brown Boveri.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. Interestingly. and employees. autonomous. High responsibility.´ Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. Projects are the work of the future. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. At Ford Motor Company. superior customer service. It isn¶t the supplemental structure that¶s important. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. deciding. In essence. If you don¶t implement different norms and procedures. and continuous learning.Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization¶s methods of work and/or culture. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. Titeflex. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. managers.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing . clear objectives. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. and initiate needed changes. Bushe and Shani say: ³The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. you don¶t have a parallel structure. Union Pacific Railroad.´ The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. talking. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. constitute another important foundation of organization development. projects will be performed by teams. 6. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as ³a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. 6. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. and then leading the process. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition.
and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. and significant relationships. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. attitudes. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normativereductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. that is. relationships and customary ways of doing things. will follow their rational self-interest. OD clearly falls within the normative-reeducative category. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. information. and¶ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. according to this view. Evaluated against these three change strategies." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. . The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. skills. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined.Organization development involves change. Patterns of action and practice are supported ± by sociocultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. Change in a pattern of practice or action. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. not just changes in knowledge. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. rather than the OD practitioner. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. doubts. anxieties. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. The first type is empirical rational strategies. and together they define problems and seek solutions. based on the assumptions that people are rational. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-re-eductive and the empirical-rational strategies. values.
Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification.. success corroborating the diagnosis.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. On this point. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. OD emphasizes the latter. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. behavioural science knowledge. re-establishes the equilibrium. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. Thus. i. practices." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. Greenwood states: ³The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together." applied science. The practitioner examines the problem situation. applied science or practice. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. pressing problems. placing it in a classification scheme or typology.´ Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. 6. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. or practice.´ From this "practice theory. and (2) "technology." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. hopefully. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. for example. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments.e. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. on the basis of selected variables. Burke writes: ³If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. by modifying a group norm or standards. not the individual. . thereby solving the problem.
each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. 6. It is a type of action-research. represent contributions from applied science.9 Action Research The action research model ± a data-based. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action.´ Concluding Comments: These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing ± learning about the dynamics of organizational change. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. and research leading to social action« This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. Action research involves three processes: data collection. represent contributions from pure or basic science. Taken collectively. form of applied behavioural science. and action planning based on the data. perhaps more accurately. Kurt Lewin. feedback of the data to the client system members. and doing or implementing change efforts. Taken separately. had this to say about it: ³The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. Self Assessment Questions . the two top in puts. 6.Fig. The two bottom inputs. who developed the concept of action research. practice research and practice theory.
4. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. 6. A _____________ is defined as ³a set of elements standing in interaction. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. First²order change is also called ___________. Bring out the essence of ³managing beyond the quick fix´ model of organizational development. 6.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. 3. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. Transactional change .´ 5. ±±±±±±±±±± means moving to new level of behaviour. Action research model combines learning and doing.11 Terminal Questions 1. Ralph Kilmann 3.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment.´ Comment on this statement. 2. 2.1. 4. ±±±±±±±±±± gave the model ³Beyond the Quick Fix´. ³Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. Unfreezing 2. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. Explain Kurt Lewin¶s models and theories of planned organizational change. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. 3. 6.
1 Introduction Objectives 7. Refer section 6.1 2. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1.3 5.2.2. Refer section 6. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7. Refer section 6.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture 7.6 Summary . System 5. Refer section 6. 7.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7.3 Types of Organization Culture.2 3.4.Refer section 6.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2.3 4.
When organizational participants interact with one another. 7.1 Introduction Basically. For example. they use common language. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. what they brag about.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. · Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. etc. ± similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone¶s personality. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. Practitioners are coming to realize that. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. Culture is one of those terms that¶s difficult to express distinctly. what members wear. do not do too little?´ . the culture of a large. including guidelines on how much work to do. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. values. despite the best-laid plans. but everyone knows it when they sense it. thinking. Which in many organizations come down to ³Do not do too much. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. Martin and Meyerson. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1.7.7 Terminal Questions 7. 1986). Standards of behavior exist. but also changing the corporate culture as well. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. Norms. 2. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. discovered. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. Objectives: After studying this unit. Observed behavioral regularities. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. terminology.
New-comers must learn those ³ropes´ in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. Organizational climate: This is an overall ³feeling´ that is conveyed by the physical layout. Typical examples are high product quality.3. internal and external are viewed in market terms. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. . the way participants interact. processes and procedures. but one where all transactions. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization¶s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. shared goals. Transactions are exchanges of value. Market cultures are outward looking. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. 4.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber¶s original view of bureaucracy. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. For many years. Rather than strict rules and procedures. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. 5. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. 7. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. 6. outputs and outcomes. people are driven through vision. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. In contrast to Hierarchies. They often have well-defined policies. In an efficient market organization. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization.
Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. supportive way and may take on a parental role. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. Martin and Meyerson. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. . and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. rules. discovered. norms. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). but critical to shaping its behavior. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. the jargon they use. 1986). or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. In biological terms. culture is like the DNA of an organization. big-bang projects and development. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. · Its rituals. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. the way they dress etc. systems and subsystems. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. 1993). etc. thinking. Rules. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. invisible to the naked eye. 7. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. and procedures. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. plaques. symbols.strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. although not necessarily documented. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure.
is defined and conceptualized in different ways. and what is right and what is wrong. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. Though an organization espouses a series of values. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. there is often contradiction in various approaches. Identifying. Thus.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. and doing. 1. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. or standards held by members of an organization. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management¶s policies. individually and collectively. and behaviour. organizational growth. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. business and leadership strategies. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. also called as organizational success or growth. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. intervening and end result.Values: These are the social principles. there are numerous variables.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. are often used interchangeably. believing. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. skills. its core value are limited to a few in number. to denote organizational effectiveness. communicating. the personality of the organization). Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. decisions. goals. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. from the basis of its policies and action. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. For example. profitability. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. From this point of view. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. productivity. various terms such as efficiency. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. Though each individual¶s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. . Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization¶s social environment and evolve of behavior.
building. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. motivations. and perceptual cluster. locating space. and is worth the investment of time. 3. and so on. communication. is worth running some risks for. incorporating. and decision-making. That is. For example. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. 2. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: 1. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. 3. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of ±date.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization.2. is workable. obtaining patents. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. motivational. e. scrap loss. According to Likert. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. 7. . and energy that will be required. and a common history begins to be built.g. costs. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. 4. attitudes. and earnings. However. money. the loyalties. End ± result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. At this point. if the appropriate organization culture is in place.. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. performance goals. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. others are brought into the organization. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. and they tend to be longterm goals.
Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. 7. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can¶t be done successfully?. and patterns of daily behavior. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. Staffs. The personal feelings. Include employees in the culture change process. habits. Make changes from the top down. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. and history of two firms. Emotions. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. and whether products and/or services are involved. Structure. 6. roles. In addition. 5. Assess the current culture. . the ³culture contract´ that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. 3. 1. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. 2. age. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. especially when making changes in rules and processes. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. These factors from the two cultures include the size. powerful stakeholders such as unions. attitudes. commitment. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. Politics. 4. management. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. 3. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. or even customers may support the existing culture. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. the geographic location.Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. if possible. relationships. 2. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. take these losses early.
________cultures are outward looking. Self Assessment Questions 1. 2. 7. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. Market 3.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 7.7 Terminal Questions 1. and strategic constituencies approach. Stay the course by being persistent. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. Artifacts 2. behavioural approach. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. 2. 3. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed.6 Summary Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture.8. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. 7. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. Causal variables Answers to TQs: . 3.goal approach. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. Finally. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. system-resource approach. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. 9.
2 2. Refer section 7.3 Two Faces of Power 8.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8.Power.3 3.Power.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8.1.2 Power Defined and Explored 8. Politics and Organization Development Unit-08.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8. Refer section 7.1 Introduction Objectives 8. Refer section 7.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .10 Terminal Questions . MU0002-Unit-08.9 Summary 8.
emotions. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. and behaviours of people. In this unit. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations. power must be exercised. Potential power is the capacity to do so. 8. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change. Objectives: After this studying this unit.actions and the decisions that precede them. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related." ³Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. to effect outcomes. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. indisputable facts of organizational life." . One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations. The French word µpouvoir¶ stands for both the noun µpower¶ and the verb µto be able.´ ³A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do.8.´ Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations.¶ To have power is to be able to get desired things done.1 Introduction Power and politics. · Explain theories about the sources of power. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid today. and for change to occur in an organization. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics.
Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one¶s way. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. spiritual. an authority or power dimension is required. with collective. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. political. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. financial. 8. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. Without leadership (power) in medical. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one¶s way in a social situation. unsocialized need to dominate others. forcing. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. influencing. hurting. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. not the possession of power as such. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. the act or ability of influencing others. and repression. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. bestowed. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. or acquired? In this unit. both positive and negative. 8.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" ± positive and negative. influence. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. being exercised. Crushing." A moment¶s reflection. or positive. and lead. According to him. Leading. absolute power corrupts absolutely. confiscation. In fact. power being the predominant mode." . however. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. Power-in-action may take many forms. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson¶s "Power-Dependence theory. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. for organizations to function. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. selling. and organizational activities.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. technological.
Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. to give something negatively valued by the other. praise. P. when the net balance for us is negative. power. influence. rejection. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. we will terminate or alter the relationship." In other words. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. that person has power over us. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. hate. 2. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. and desired by the other. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. or bases. of social power as follows: 1. When the net balance for us is positive. we will continue the exchange relationship. 4. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. Legitimate power ± power based on everyone¶s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place.· French and Raven¶s "Bases of Social Power. Coercive power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. to give something valued by the other. that is. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. information. attraction. . that is. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A¶s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. 3. Viewed in this light. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. The sociologist. Referent power ± power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. blame. and so forth. Expert power ± power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. rewards) that are controlled by one party. respect." · Mintzberg¶s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. Reward power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another." · Salancik and Pfeffer¶s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. 5. goals. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities." These authors suggested five sources.
In this theory, power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals, units, or departments) most important for solving the organization¶s most critical problems. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. This theory, like the ones discussed previously, supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by- others-in this case, the special expertise needed for the organization¶s survival-have power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits, indeed, used by all who have it, to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources, through the placement of allies in key positions, and through the definition of organizational problems and policies." These authors view organizational power as a good thing, for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. This theory, "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players, called influencers, seek to control the organization¶s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power, coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. According to Mintzberg, the five possible bases of power are, first, control of a resource; second, control of a technical skill; and, third, control of a body of knowledge. All of these must be critical to the organization. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. In addition to a base of power, the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. An organization has many potential influencers, such as the board of directors, the managers, the top executives, the employees, the unions, suppliers, customers, regulators, and so forth. The important aspects of Mintzberg¶s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others, that power-in-action requires will and skill, and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In summary, these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar ± power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. The resources may be ability to reward and
punish, being in control of critical skills, knowledge, or information, the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined ³politics simply as the study of who gets what, when, and how´. ³Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices´. ³Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups´. ³Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means´. Thus, we view politics as a subset of power, treating it as informal power, illegitimate in nature. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power, but in this sense, formal power, the power vested in office, the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. Both relate to getting one¶s way-effectance. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. For our purposes, organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations; it is engaging in activities to get one¶s way. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities; the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics, like power, has two faces. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest; unsocialized needs to dominate others; a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win, you must lose-rather than win-win terms; and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy, surprise, holding hidden agendas, withholding information, deceiving. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others; viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible; engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing; a relative absence of the tactics of fighting; and a socialized need to lead, initiate, and influence others. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making, resource allocation, and conflict resolution processes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose; they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. In fact, one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation, conflict resolution, and choosing among alternative means and goals.
8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. Virtually, all OD interventions promote problem-solving, not politics, as a preferred way to get things accomplished. OD interventions increase problem-solving, collaboration, co-operation, fact-finding, and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. For example, OD interventions typically generate valid, public data about the organization¶s culture, processes, strengths, and weaknesses. Valid, public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations; rather, they enhance the positive face of power, thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy, it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme power-oriented situations. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power, but not with the negative face of power. Values such as trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first, problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations; second, power equalization, being one aspect of the positive face of power, increases the amount of power available to organization members, and by so doing adds power to the organization. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator, catalyst, problem solver, and educator. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. According to Chris Argyris, the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information, (2) to promote free, informed choice, and (3) to promote the client¶s internal commitment to the choices made. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner, his or her program, and his or her values, methods, and expertise. The OD consultant, like all consultants, provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors, as we discussed earlier. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. In summary, organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. This major strength of OD derives from the strategy of change, the technology, the values, and the roles of OD practitioners.
the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems." 4. First. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. and expertise. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. According to the framework of French and Raven. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. 3. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant)."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. in powerful places. coaching. Skills such as listening. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. preferably multiple sponsorship. 5. Success leads to credibility and stature. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. experience. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. communicating.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. it will be strong externally. . Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. 2. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. both as a person and as a professional. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. it will gain more power. 6. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). and ability to gain organizational support. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship.8. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization¶s decision makers). Rule One: Become a desired commodity. acceptability. problem solving.
which is to be an expert on process. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. those issues vital to the organization¶s success. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. the manager will vigorously defend it. not by getting involved in the answers. A valuable byproduct of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business.counseling. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being managercentered. Rule Five: Mind your own business. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization¶s powerholders. not the OD consultant. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. usually managers. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one¶s own or in others¶ political struggles. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. constructive social relationships. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one¶s power base. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. The OD program belongs to the manager. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. Rule Six: Mind your own business. . which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. not content. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. OD programs should be results-oriented.
dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers." "using social networks.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge · Expertise · Information · Tradition Others¶ Support y y Strategies for Success Playing It Straight · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Political access Staff support . Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. We could propose more rules of thumb. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. As shown in the figure. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others¶ legitimate "turf. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. Table 8. individual power derives from knowledge. others¶ support. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. catalyst. viable." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power.Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. and using contacts for information. and personality characteristics. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. Networking is recognized as a potent. problem solver. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior." and "going around the formal system. negotiations the nature of power and politics. the strategy and tactics of influence." which arouses defensive actions. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. not power activist or power broker. and educator. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. 8. yet legitimate means of acquiring power.
one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks´. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned.Personality y y y Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don¶t) use organization rules Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. Indeed.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. even those of little power. and legitimacy. Personal power. ³One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. This practical. . the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what¶s expected of them. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. arises from expertise. a person¶s power comes from two main sources. visibility-how much one¶s work is seen by influential people. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. effort. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. personal power and position power. and relevance-how important one¶s task is in relation to organizational priorities. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. In this model. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. criticality-how important one¶s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. in turn. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. Whetton and Cameron¶s model is shown in following figure. personal attraction.
According to these authors.Fig. arise from known conditions." And. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. Power and politics are similar in nature. Our suggestions for . (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people¶s inappropriate influence attempts. reciprocity. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. Concluding Comments: In this unit. and retribution. 8. Retribution refers to coercion and threats. collaborative work environment. actually using it to get things done is another.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. Whetton and Cameron suggest several means of resisting others¶ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. (2) provide a positive. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. and are amenable to positive control. and (3) empowering others. Having power is one thing. and (6) build on success. power-in-use is called influence. Usually reason is the preferred strategy.
arise from known conditions. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. 5. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. McClelland 3. reputation and professional credibility. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ±±±± ±±±±±±±. emotions or behaviour of people.. and how.10 Terminal Questions 1. _____________ has identified two faces of power. 3. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. 5. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. Define organization politics. 8. Harold Lasswell . Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. Power and politics are similar in nature. Describe briefly various theories of power. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. 2. when. ±±±±±±±±±± is made up of Charisma. and are amenable to positive control. 4. 8.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. 8.using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. Self Assessment Questions 1. ±±±±±±±± defined politics as the study of who gets what. Power can be either positive or negative. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. Power 2. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 4. when and how. Referent power 4. 2. ±±±±±± is the intentional influence over the beliefs. 3.
6 Quality of Work Life Projects .8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .4 Management By Objectives 9.5 Quality Circles 9. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9.4 3.5 4.3 Socio Technical Systems 9. Personality Answers to TQs: 1.5. Refer section 8.Refer section 8.6 5.2 2. Refer section 8.1 Introduction Objectives 9. Refer section 8.2 Meaning and Definitions 9. Refer section 8.
These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.11 Terminal Questions 9. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.10 Summary 9. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9.9. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development. Objectives: After studying this unit.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change.8 Total Quality Management 9. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. organizational problems may repeat. · Explain Reengineering. actions.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. · Explain Total Quality Management. . In this dynamic and fluid environment. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures.
Weeks and months of group effort are saved. 1988): Determining the environmental demands Creating a vision statement Educating organizational members . Structure changes are normally ³institutionalized´ and less subject to this problem. organization theory. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. 2. It endeavors to re-design the organization¶s structure. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. In addition.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. Rapidity of change. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. Downsizing associated with restructuring. Pasmore. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. The cost of structural change is generally ³front-end´ loaded. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. Cost is Low. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. 3. 1976. From a benefit cost analysis. 9. Greater Predictability. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. 4. Organization Acceptance of Change. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. and more critically. 5. This normally is a reasonable. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. Succession Doesn¶t Destroy Change Effort. Cummings. Basic reinforcement theories. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. 1967.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. It could involve the following steps (Foster.9.
therefore. physical. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. 2. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. Creating the change structure Conducting socio-technical analysis Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. On the other hand. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. its features can be identified as follows: 1. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of . with objective orientation as its essence. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. Certain degree of overlapping is there. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and.´ Based on the definition of MBO. It is a particular way of thinking about management. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. non-specialist. In fact. its definitional aspect.´ The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: ³MBO is a result-centered. Since then.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). As an approach to management.
(iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. enhancement of employee commitment and participation. its subsystems and people. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. 6. Questions. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. What business are we in?´ and what should be our business?´ provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. 4. It works as an integrating device. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. all the units or departments and individual manager. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. The performance review is held regularly. ³why does the organization exist?´. superiors and subordinates. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. Therefore.. 5. including the corporate level. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources.management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. Therefore. Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. This. 1. Resource allocation. the clarity and balance of objectives. delegation of authority. normally once a year. its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. 3. such as. Similarly. (ii) long-range . Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. Therefore. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. in interaction with external factors. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. etc. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. and participation of the managers with accountability for results. are determined on the basis of objectives.
Thereafter. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. (v) individual manager¶s objectives. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization. there should be matching between objectives and resources.and strategic objectives. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully. It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. In fact. Setting Subordinates¶ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. 4. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. (iv) productivity. this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. (iii) short-term organizational objectives. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. (vii) manager performance. (v) worker performance. there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate¶s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by setting easily achievable objectives. (ii) market standing. If not. 2. 5. 3. and (viii) public responsibility. with the experience gained over the period of time. they also indicate the resource requirement. the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization¶s health and the top management perspective for the future. (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives. However. By relating these to objectives. there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. Even though KRAs are most durable. The process of objective setting begins with superior¶s proposed recommendations for his subordinate¶s objectives. By relating these to objectives. Sometimes. . a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. Therefore. a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. Therefore. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. (vi) financial and physical resources. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. (iii) innovation. each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability. Therefore. In turn.
this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization. but in its contemporary form. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London. hierarchical structure. it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. on paper. knowledge.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s. Therefore. which consequently result into high level of task variety. . in general. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level.6. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power. Quality circle program consists of several circles. require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing. what happens at each level may affect other levels also.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. each having three to fifteen members. appropriate feedback and employee discretion. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. · Make recommendations for improvement. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal. 9. QWL programs. quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. 9. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization¶s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases. 9. or in people¶s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. and rewards. and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. information.
Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. Reengineering is a top-down process. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches. such as cost.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. · Top management support on an ongoing basis.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization¶s activities around the concept of quality. and extensive use of employee participation. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. and speed. service. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. quality. · Participative management. statistical process control. It is very popular in USA in 1990s. 9. · Competitive benchmarking. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. It is also called continuous quality improvement. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. Self Assessment Questions . self-managed teams and task forces. statistical quality control. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. eliminating. contemporary measures of performance. including the use of quality circles. provides relevant information to all employees.9. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining.
1. actions. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. Write a short note on Total Quality Management.11 Terminal Questions 1. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. 2. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. Quality circle Answers to TQs: . 9. From a benefit cost analysis. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. It is also called continuous quality improvement.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Drucker 3. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. actions. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. 9. 9. 3. provides relevant information to all employees. Intervention 2.
4 Causes for Resistance to Change. Self Assessment Questions 10.1.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .8 Terminal Questions 10.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10. MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10. Refer section 9.2 Nature of Change 10. Refer section 9. Refer section 9.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs .2 3. 10.3 2.5 4.3 Resistance to Change 10.Refer section 9.7 Summary 10.
biological. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. · Impact of change on future managers. 2. Any change may effect the whole organization. indirectly. organizational problems may repeat. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. 3. Thus. Objectives: After studying this unit. may require special change efforts. others. Thus.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.whether physical. or social. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. 10. Hence. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. and others. In this dynamic and fluid environment.2 Nature of Change The term µchange¶ refers to an alteration in a system. However. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled . some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. some parts may be affected directly. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. Organizational change is a continuous process. and others. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). some parts of organization may be affected more. organizational change may have the following features: 1. which are major ones. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization.10. less. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. When change occurs in any part of the organization. structural arrangement. job design and people.
Similarly. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. In fact. more serious upsets may occur. adjustment is fairly routine. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. Thus. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. because it produces identical symptoms. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. if we look minutely. commented. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. that is.as cost and as benefit. In fact. However. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). ³The Pune plant is fully saturated. We shall take new workers at the new place. 10.´ Resistance as Benefit: . or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. On this phenomenon. In fact. Madhur Bajaj. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme.balloon. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. Homeostasis implies selfcorrecting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. but when a change is major or unusual. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. there are two sides of resistance. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. it becomes indented at the point of contact. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. We wanted a new culture and new layout. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. employees want to maintain a status quo. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. However. If people resist to change. it has stretched slightly. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. so is the resistance to change.
On the one hand, resistance to change is costly affair, and on the other, it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. While on negative side, the reality lies in between. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Thus, resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: 1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Therefore, the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. These feelings, either real or emotional, may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic, psychological and social. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological, job security etc. precede over other needs. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques, technology, etc., whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them, they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India, it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely, reduce job options, and turn into technological unemployment. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match.
3. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes, bonus, etc. All these are well-established in the old system. Whenever there is change, people may feel that in the new system, they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Psychological Factors Psychological factors are based on people¶s emotions, sentiments and attitudes towards change. These are qualitative and, therefore, may be logical from people¶s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent¶s point of view. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness, status quo, lack of trust in change agent, low tolerance for change, and fear of unknown. 1. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego, people resist change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Thus, the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. 2. Status Quo: People want status quo. i.e. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore, everyone tries to avoid it. 3. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo, people may differ. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Therefore, these people resist any new idea. 4. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent, that is, the person who initiates change. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent, they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 5. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The change will bring results in future, which is always uncertain. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction, particularly social needs, through their mutual compatible interactions. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change, people resist it. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.
1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. When there is any change, their existing social interactions are likely to be changed, which people do not want. Therefore, they resist change. 2. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class, e.g., change initiated by managers affecting workers. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change, even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. For example, Sumantra Ghoshal, a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru, has commented as follows: ³Nothing fails like success; nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation, Caterpillar, Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles, all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called µThe Failure of Success¶. Strategies, values, resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés, dogmas, millstones and routines.´ This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought, these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes, stability of systems, resource limitations, sunk cost, and inter-organizational agreement. Some of these reasons are basic while others are byproducts of those. For example, first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. 1. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices, they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. 2. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. For example, a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules, prescribes rigid authority relationships, and institutes reward and punishment system. All these work in some circumstances. It a change is required in these aspects, the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system.
If it is risk-taking. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. centralized control. Let us see what someone has said long back: ³There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. forward-looking. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. building and training for its personnel. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. . intensive planning. if any change is to be incorporated. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. and has zeal for progress.´ This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. 5. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. broad environmental scanning. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. it will require resources to procure machine. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. and reactors. 1. and commensurate expenses on other items also. Resource Limitations: No doubt. 2.3. innovative. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. 4. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. decentralized controls. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. analyzers. In such a case.defenders. if the change is required. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. In this interaction process. Now. It depends more on the style of top management. those who wonder what happened. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. if new technology is adopted. For example. Thus. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. prospectors. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. For example. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. This can be in the form of people also. Once the assets are acquired. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. 3. these can be used for specific period. those who watch things happen. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets.
Therefore. For analytical purpose. For instance. we¶ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. we all rely on habits. They may.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. The same applies to employee. therefore. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. adjusting to the new office layout. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won¶t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. and so on.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn¶t necessarily surface in standardized ways. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. they cannot survive. As human beings. or the like. Otherwise. Resistance can be overt. taking a new set of streets to work. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one¶s income. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you¶re like most people. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. when you go to work or school. Life is complex enough. or deferred. 10. To cope with this complexity. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. When we are confronted with change. you find a single route and you use it regularly. threatening to go on strike. implicit. developing a new lunchtime routine. finding a new parking place. some may fear they¶ll be unable to do so. Habit Every day. If for example. Let¶s look at the sources of resistance. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. immediate. we¶re creatures of habit. or programmed responses. Organizational resistance . When Boeing announces its laying off 10. engaging in a work showdown.4. we don¶t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. And people in general don¶t like the unknown. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. it means you¶re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier.
Will the change. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. The . and benefits administration ± has been resisted by many human resource departments. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system.Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities ± such as training. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. group norms may act as a constraint. That is. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. for instance. 10. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. For example.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. Formalization provides job description. accountants work with marketers. development of pay plans. For example. he¶s likely to resist. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. They tend to be content with the way things are. For example. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. for instance. An individual union member. You can¶t change one without affecting the others. rules and procedures for employees to follow. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization¶s structure to match. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas.
strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. In many cases.ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. People always have some .´ The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. 10. However.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people¶s resistance to change successfully. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times.´ Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. Stephen Robbins suggests that ³«« managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. It implies explanation and then discussion of the proposed changes. Therefore. that is. Locavini observes that ³the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. this is not a one-time action. typically by way of computer network links. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. Unless this problem is overcome properly. at the level of individual and at the level of group. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue ± not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. the following efforts can be taken: 1. the problems can be solved at the same level. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. In addition. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. both at the formal and informal levels. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. through group dynamics. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. For example. For this purpose. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way.
Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. helped to change attitudes. As this process goes. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. 2. It grows slowly along with relationship. 3. as discussed earlier. more than one person is involved in the change. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. is an important trust-building task. its basic nature. 4. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: 1. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. and indoctrinated in new relationships. to become effective. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change.ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. and conferences. However. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. They must be taught new skills. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. For this purpose. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. he expresses it through a group. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. most of the times. Though each person interprets the change individually often. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. Thus. meetings. . (ii) In group. Getting opinions out in the open. the group itself should be the point of contact. education must be a part of the manager¶s everyday activity on the job. so that they are looked at and evaluated. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. People should be educated to become familiar with change. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. its process and working. The same is true of problem-solving. Thus. However. Usually. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. sometimes. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease.
immediate. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. 3. 3. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. mere participation may not help. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully.Through the group contact. Self Assessment Questions 1. job design and people.such aspects as the reasons for change. Such training techniques include role playing. 2. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. and how members contribute. Research studies also support this aspect. benefits of change. and sensitivity or T-group training. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. structural arrangement. It purports how the results are. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change.7 Summary Change is inevitable. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. For instance. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. __________ are based on people¶s emotions. group resistance and vested interests. psychological factors. However. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. Economic factors. social factors. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. or deferred. 10. 2. psychodrama. many things about change can be made clear. sentiments and attitudes towards change. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. Resistance can be overt. implicit. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing .
New Delhi. Organizational change 2. Psychological factors 3. at the level of individual and at the level of group.8 Terminal Questions 1. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. 10. or the like.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. Jr. Organization Development. Principles and Practices. Organization Theory and Design. engaging in a work showdown. Explain the nature of change? 2.6. Modern Organization Development and Change. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. . Refer section 10. both at the formal and informal levels. eighth edition. Refer section 10. that is.2 2. Why do organizations resist change? 3.Response Books. · Cummings & Worley. Regal Publications New Delhi. Refer section 10.Singh. Bell. · J. P. New Delhi.4 3..management of Organization Change. Thomson South Western. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. · Harigopal K. French and Cecil H. threatening to go on strike. Organization Development & Change. Jain. N.complaints. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. P. Reference: · Wendell L.. 10. Thomson · Daft Richard L. through group dynamics.
pdf http://www.com/articles/leadchange.managementhelp. Principles & Practice of Management. New Delhi. 12th edition. Ltd.managementtoday.html http://muse.umich.jhu.oup.lib.pdf http://www. Prentice-Hall of India. Robbins.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp598.htm www. Prentice-Hall India. Organizational Development. Organizational Behaviour. · T.kurims. E References y y y y y y y y y y y http://fds. · Stephen P. Anmol Publications Pvt.umd. Organizational Behaviour.· James A.org/org_chng/org_chng. · Stephens P.work911.jp/~kyodo/kokyuroku/contents/pdf/1461-15. Prasad. Pvt.com/opm/grtl/OLS/ols6.pdf http://www. Management.htm#anchor73776 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .kyoto-u.wdi. Educatiional Publishers.ac.uk/search/article/634958/the-ceos-role-managing-change/ http://www. Prentice-Hall of India.cfm http://www. Edward Freeman.fao. Robbbins. Stoner and R. Chhabra.edu/cameronk/CULTURE%20BOOK-CHAPTER%201. Sultan Chand & Sons. · L. New Delhi.co. · Laxmi Devi.bus.pdf http://webuser.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v005/5.org/docrep/w7503e/w7503e05.co. N.edu/groups/learning/wp8. Ltd.1lowry.humtech. New Delhi. M.pdf www.oup. . Dhanpat Rai & Co.umich.uk/pdf/bt/fincham/Chapter15. F.htm#TopOfPage http://www. New Delhi.com/www. Management.
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