This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the µmanagement¶ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn µsurplus¶ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of a
business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term ³management´. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley ± ³Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.´ In the words of George R. Terry ± ³Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.´ According to James L. Lundy ± ³Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.´ In the words of Henry Fayol ± ³To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.´ According to Peter F. Drucker ± ³Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work´. In the words of Koontz and O¶Donnel ± ³Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals´.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren ± ³The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.´ From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that ³management´ is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as ³management´. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a ³distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.´ From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as ³doing things right´. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization¶s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as ³doing the right things´. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of course, high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. And poor
management is an essential ingredient of an organization.management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. So it is treated as a science. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. 7. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. In essence. labour and capital. 6. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. Thus. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. labour. capital and materials. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. directing and controlling. 2. principles and techniques requires specialized . staffing. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. All these resources are made available to those who manage. Managers apply knowledge. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. 3. 1. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. 4. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals¶ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. informed employees. principles and techniques which have wide applications. The application of these concepts. feeling of management is result-oriented. although they can¶t observe it during operation. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. namely. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. 5. Thus. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. organizing. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land.
discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. materials. personnel manager etc. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. 9. Basically. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. military. labour and capital. people are bound by authority relationships. 1. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. a hierarchy of command and control. education. In modern organizations.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. Similarly. and (iii) a class or elite. For instance. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. manpower. the effective use of the five M¶s of management (money. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. finance manager. According to Herbision and Myers. In other words. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. Generally. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. that is. money and machines into a productive. how effectively and economically the five M¶s are combined together to produce desired results. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. government and hospital. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem .4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. According to Newman. They transmit orders. it refers to three distinct ideas. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage.knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. ongoing concern. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. (ii) a system of authority. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. useful.e. materials. 10. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. management is viewed as an art. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. 8. Anthropology. Sociology and Psychology. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. Universal Application: Management is universal in character.
technical facilities. Marketing Manager. As a separate group. The levels of management depend upon its size. Operative management is concerned with the ³doing´ function such as implementation of policies. ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating . the lower level of management). it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels.. Administrative management is concerned with ³thinking´ functions such as laying down policy.and suggestions upward. For instance. We generally come across two broad levels of management. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. Supervisors. or. Managing Director. but as head of wages and salary department. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. Board of Directors. (i) administrative management (i. Production Manager. 1. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented.e. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i.. Foremen. policies and plans for the enterprise. and the range of production.e. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. viz. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as µManagement¶ which refers to the group. Purchase Manager. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. But in actual practice. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. its Chairman. ranks. Financial Controller. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. or the Chief Executive. day-to-day matters. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. etc. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. etc. planning and setting up of standards..
e) To exercise effective control of the operations. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise.functions. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. j) To report to top management. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. men. d) To assemble the resources of money. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. 2. machines and methods to put the plans into action. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. Without them the top management¶s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. materials. e) To assign activities. . c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department.
evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. methods. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual¶s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. They allot various jobs to the workers. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. Management makes group effort more effective. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. accounts officers and so on. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. To this end. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. money and material. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. supervisors. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. Without management. With a view to realize the . It consists of foreman. sales officers. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. Management is goal-oriented. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. They have to get the work done through the workers.k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. procedures and reward systems. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. In its absence. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. counseling and effective leadership. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. 1. machines. Their authority and responsibility is limited. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. 3. an organization is merely a collection of men.
Failure to take note of customer¶s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for µIdeal java¶ in the two-wheeler market in India. Management as a profession By a professional manager. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. But unlike medicine or law. and specialized knowledge. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. the Indian Institute of Management. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. Thus unnecessary deviations. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. techniques.predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. skills. and it is distinct. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. According to McFarland. iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning.. government policy. Management . competition. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. In the final analysis. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. often threaten the survival of a firm. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. identifiable discipline. Organize the resources properly. etc. They try to put everything on the right tract. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal.
he or she is acting in a figurehead role. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. However. Half of these managers¶ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. In fact. sabotaging trade unions. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. the All India Management Association. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. All managers have a role as a leader. an art as well as a profession. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager¶s job. For instance. bribing public officials to gain favours. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. do not seem to adhere to the principle of ³service above self´. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. Some individual business organizations. The term µmanagement roles¶ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. and decision-making. and short-duration activities. training. management is not as exact as natural sciences. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the . Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. As a social science. and disciplining employees. This role includes hiring. the transfer of information. But in addition to these insights.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. However. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature ± interpersonal roles. Furthermore. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. however. the American Management Association in U.. etc. 1. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships.A. managers in general. motivating.Development Institute. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions.S. unpatterned. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession.
he or she has an outside liaison relationship. manages also perform a spokesperson role. duties of a legal or social nature. that involve outsiders. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. to some degree. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public¶s tastes. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. training. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. what competitors may be planning. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager¶s unit. Informational Roles: All managers. making phone subordinates to members of the calls to relay information. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. activities that involve responsible for staffing. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. and may be inside or outside the organization. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. obliged to Greeting visitors. subordinates. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. and associated duties. Typically. and the like. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. Informational Monitor Disseminator .liaison role. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. understanding of organization and environment.1: Mintzberg¶s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Liaison Symbolic head. Table 1. informers who provide favors performing other activities and information. This is the disseminator role. network of outside contacts and doing external board work.
As entrepreneurs. Publishers. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to develop and initiates ³improvement new programs. actions. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. Inc. As disturbance handlers. media. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. . policies. Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Source: Henry Mintzberg. negotiations. Decisional Roles: Finally. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. Last.. serves as expert on organization¶s industry. performing all kinds ± in effect. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. projects´ to bring about change. physical and monetary resources. As resource allocators. 1973). results. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization¶s performance. programming of subordinates work. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. managers are responsible for allocating human. supervises design of certain projects as well. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. Transmits information to Holding board meetings.Spokesperson organization ± some information is factual. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. etc. outsiders on organization¶s giving information of the plans. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the organizational decisions.
Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. They know how to communicate. For example. lead. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. human. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers ± regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. figurehead. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. Since managers deal directly with people. or manufacturing. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. motivate. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. liaison. such as engineering. the roles of disseminator. . In fact. and all managers are involved in making decisions. research by Robert L. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization¶s speciality. a manager¶s job is varied and complex. However.An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg¶s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization¶s operations. Technical Skills: First-line managers. Conversely. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager¶s level within the organization. Specifically. During the early 1970. as well as many middle managers. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. computers. this skill is crucial. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. finance. the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. negotiator. and conceptual.
plans and policies of the organisation. Floerence and Tead. Thus.1. It is a doing function. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. Administrators are basically concerned with planning and control. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. Spriegel and Walter. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. 2.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. Managers are concerned mainly with organisation and direction of human resources. Meaning Administration Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives. Management Management means getting the work done through and with others. It is a thinking function. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. iii) There is no distinction between the terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ and they are used interchangeably. It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies. Administration relates to the decision-making. According to them. Administration is a higher level function: Administration refers to policy-making. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. on the other hand. This view is held by Tead. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. Scope . Nature 3. Table 1. Thus. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. etc. Administration is a determinative function. administration is a higher level function. Management relates to execution of decisions. It is concerned with the implementation of policies. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. Spriegal and Lansburg. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms.
___________. Usage of Term The term µadministration¶ is The term µmanagement¶ is often associated with widely used in business government offices.9 Terminal Questions 1. 5. 8. Explain its characteristics. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. 3.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. Five M¶s of management (________. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. Still management is not completely a profession. environmental forces. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels.4.e. Self Assessment Questions 1. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant at higher levels of management. __________is principally the task of planning. Define management. 6. i. DecisionMaking Administration determines Management decides who what is to be done and when it shall implement the is to be done. counseling and effective leadership. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. middle and lower. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. There are three levels of management-top. operative workforce for the execution of plans. administrative decisions.. co-ordinating. 1. public organisations in the private sector and non-business sector. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. lower levels of management. 1. objectives. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. 2. _________. . Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle level leading and motivation of executives. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. 7. organisations.
materials. MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2.2 Process of Management 2. manpower 3. 1. Refer section 1.1 Introduction Objectives 2.3 Planning 2. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. teamwork Answers to TQs: 1. Money.4 Organizing .10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 3.5 3.2. Discuss the importance of management.2.1.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 1. Management 2. Refer section 1.3 2.
5 Staffing 2. Staffing. Organizing. Management functions are as follows (Fayol. Planning 2. Motivating. 1949): 1. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. Coordinating 5.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2. · Explain different functions of management Process. Controlling However. . management functions have been regrouped into four categories.6 Directing 2.2. Commanding 4. Objectives: After this studying this unit.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2. · Explain Planning.9 Terminal Questions 2. One can also think of management functionally. Organizing 3. in recent time.8 Summary 2. Directing. you will be able to: · Define Management process. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people´.
the decision to change the design of a product.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: ³Management is doing things right. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. driving comfort. general strategies. In the football field. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. and allocating resources. 2. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. Therefore. or where you want go to. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. the two are not quite the same. say a passenger car. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. There is a degree of overlap between the two. fuel and machine efficiency. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. thus. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. Even so. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. overall goals. leadership is doing the right things³.2. policies are the means to achieve those ends. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: . a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. studies on passenger comfort. cost structure and so on. while a policy. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. However. Decision ± Making Taking decisions is a process. and then set out the method for achieving it. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. Through leadership and management often overlap. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization¶s mission. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. Objectives are the ends.
What is our market share? 5. customers (internal and external).A mission is the purpose of the organization. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. suppliers. international). How skilled is our workforce? 4. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization¶s potential. professional. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). The mission statement is broad. journals and reports (scientific. Weaknesses. What financing is available? 6. A mission statement should be short ± and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. and trade). summarizing what the organization does. Is research and development adequate? 4. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. governments (local. Thus. Are the facilities outdated? 3. state. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. Opportunities. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: . federal. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2.
In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. effectiveness. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) . return on investment. the best strategy is one that fits the organization¶s strengths to opportunities in the environment. Are there new competitors? 3. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. as well as gap analysis. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. What substitute products exist? In general terms. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. Objectives are also called performance goals. etc. What are the possible new markets? 3. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. Generally. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. Are market tastes changing? 5. Are our rivals weak? 5. What is the strength of the economy? 4. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. earnings per share.1. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. What are the new regulations? 6. What are the emerging technologies? 6.
and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. Strategic.4 Organizing It involves designing. and relationships between departments. In turn. who reports to whom. structuring. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. Review plans 2. operational plans are based on the organization¶s tactical plans. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. and goals are clearly stated. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. grouped. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job 4. tactical. and coordinated. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. with ideas and resources. working toward common goals. how the tasks are to be grouped. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. 2. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. Assign work to individuals 6. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. Organizations are groups of people. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure.5 Staffing . Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. 2. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. lines of authority. procedures. who is to do. and where decisions are to be made.Tactical plans are based on the organization¶s strategic plan. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles.
This task has been referred to as staffing. placement. inventorying the people available. selection. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick ± ³Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work´ Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. recruitment. O¶Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as ³filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. 2. recruitment. . Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. compensation and training of needed people´.It is not the machines. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. performance appraisal etc. 5. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. materials. promotion. placement. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. money. Definition: 1. 4. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals´. 3. Theo Haimann ± ³Concerned with the placement. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. 3. 2. Koontz. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. selection. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. development. appraisal. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. training.
4. overseeing and leading people. 3. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. 2. Direction function is performed at every level of management. Through direction. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. training development and maintenance of personnel. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. etc. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. vacancies arise out of retirement. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. 8. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. recruitment. 2. On the one hand. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. resignation. It is an important managerial function. motivate them.e. It is instructing people as to what to do. promotion. induction. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through ± out the life of an organization. management initiates actions in the organization. identifying the manpower requirements. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. It is a continuing function. Direction has dual objectives. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. 7. . directing is the ³interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals´.6. selection. Direction is an important managerial function. 5. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. on the other. Definition According to Koontz and O¶Donnel.
As Theo Haimann puts it. ³without the issuance of directives. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour.Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. and external esteem factors.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. Theories X and Y. satisfied needs cannot. will vary depending upon his level. proposed by Maslow (1943). Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. guide. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. from the basic to the complex. status. and achievement. recognition. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished´. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. The needs are arranged in order of importance. The manager never ceases to direct. such as. self-respect. The further they progress up the hierarchy. thirst. belongingness. shelter. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. autonomy. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. 2. sex. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. the more individuality. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. and attention . coach and supervise his subordinates. acceptance. teach. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. such as. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. and the Two-Factor theory. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. humanness and psychological health a person will show. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. 4. 2. 3. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger.
It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. supervision. externally. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. such as. Extrinsic factors. and achievement. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. self-motivated. autonomy and empowerment. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. Theory X ± In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. self-direction. anxious to accept greater responsibility. and salary are hygiene factors. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. esteem. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. company policy. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager¶s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. . but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. interpersonal relations. such as. It is also believed that. includes growth. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. achieving one¶s potential.· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. Theory Y ± In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. and exercise self-control. whereas. if they can. recognition. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. responsibility. From the above. advancement. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. working conditions. Social. Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people¶s attitudes about work. Motivators are intrinsic factors.
When hygiene factors are adequate. establishing strategies for achieving these goals.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. 2. motivators describe a person¶s relationship with what she or he does. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. Write a short not on directing. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. many related to the tasks being performed. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. recruitment. people will not be dissatisfied. What is planning? 2. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. 2. Hygiene factors on the other hand. how the tasks are to be grouped. who is to do. structuring. who reports to whom. Explain Staffing in detail 3.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: . Organization involves designing.In summary.9 Terminal Questions 1. To motivate people. 2. performance appraisal etc. neither will they be satisfied. Planning involves the process of defining goals. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. Self Assessment Questions 1. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. 2. 3. have to do with a person¶s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. and where decisions are to be made. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal.
5 Goals of OD 3. Reference 2. Follett 2.3 Characteristics of OD 3.2 Definitions 3.4 Categories of OD 3. SWOT 3.7 Role of OD 3. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3. Reference 2.6 OD and Management Development 3.3 2.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .5 3.1.8 Problems in OD .1 Introduction Objectives 3. Reference 2. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1.
and the like. and processes. Basically. Although new jobs are being created at record rates. the answer is ³yes´. old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. Today. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. And organization development (OD) is one of them. maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals. and the organization¶s human and social processes. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today¶s world is a daunting task. survive.10 Terminal Questions 3. and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. increased competition. challenges from turbulent environments. organization structure. strategy. . and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. organization development is a process of teaching people how to solve problems.Self Assessment Questions 3. adapt. Simple survival ± continuing to have an adequate job ± is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. In summary. conflict resolution. and learn how to do that better and better over time.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks. efficiency. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. strategy formulation and implementation. A variety of solutions exists.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today ± threats to effectiveness. culture. fighting obsolescence of one¶s knowledge and skills. OD focuses on issues related to the ³human side´ of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals. and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. ³Knowledge´ work is replacing ³muscle´ work. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges ± finding satisfaction in and through work. take advantage of opportunities. teams. Early returns were encouraging. and profitability. organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. and changing customer demands.9 Summary 3. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope.
attitudes. Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives«. using reflexive. self-analytic methods. planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. and culture. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD.Objectives: After studying this unit. · State the goals of OD. 3. values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies. 1989) . and challenges. 1980). you will be able to: · Define organization development. people. and the dizzying rate of change itself. (Burke and Hornstein. 1971) Organizational development is a process of planned change. strategy. OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement. (Bennis. and 3) Developing the organization¶s self-renewing capacity (Beer. a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs. 1969). A ³process for improving processes´ ± that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. processes. 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure. (Schmuck and Miles.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change. markets. 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions. · Explain the characteristics of OD.change of an organization¶s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making.
In fact. research. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. serious business. Now let¶s turn to our definition of organization development. that is. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. Collectively. structure.´ (Cummings and Worley. Likewise. these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. values. we mean that organizational change and development takes time.´ (Porras and Robertson. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving. ³Organization development is a long-term effort. they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. We will explain this definition in some detail. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. it is more accurate to describe ³improvement´ as a never-ending journey of continuous change. We do not propose it as the ³right´ definition. 1994) As you can see. and processes for improving an organization¶s effectiveness. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. and problem-solving processes. Organizational change is hard.³Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories. 1993) ³Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization¶s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies.´ (Burke. By long-term effort. to improve an organization¶s visioning. through the alteration of organizational members¶ on-the-job behaviours. strategies. 1992) ³OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies. All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. led and supported by top management. empowerment. what practices should be included and excluded. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field. through an ongoing. these definitions overlap a great deal (that¶s encouraging). collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions.several years in most cases. and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance. and contain several unique insights (that¶s enlightening). Top management must initiate the improvement . learning. and theory.´ This definition is lengthy. There is no ³quick fix´ when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. including action research. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success.
we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. By including culture so prominently in our definition. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. we mean those interacting. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success.³journey´ and be committed to seeing it through. one of widespread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization¶s purposes. or became distracted with other duties. and making it happen. and processes makes each important. For empowerment to become fact of life. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. By visioning processes. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization¶s culture. By learning processes. strategy. has a stake in making the organization work. solve problems. team. And second. Michael Beer¶s definition called for ³developing new and creative organizational solutions´. first. make decisions. empowerment. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. and common purposes of all members of the organization. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. structure. coherent. and culture. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. not just a small group. beliefs. structure. Just as visioning. vitality. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization¶s members. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. processes. and artifacts. commitment. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. assumptions. activities. sentiments. By empowerment. and organizational learning. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. we mean. learning.´ Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. lost its commitment. By empowerment processes. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. where collective aspiration is set free. culture is of . norms. and take actions on problems. The reciprocal influence among culture. opportunities. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. listening. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. expectations. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as ³« organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. and each influences the others. so is managing the culture. and challenges in the organization¶s environment and its internal functioning. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. attitudes. in contrast to having only a select few involved. We further believe that having compelling. interactions. Still. developing the strategy for getting there.
and training. But in many organizations today. maintaining quality control. empowerment. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. Over time. manufacturing. He uses the terms µmultifunctional projectization¶ and µhorizontal systems¶ to describe these teams and their work. individuals and the organization function well. Processes are relatively easy to change. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. engineering. and procurement. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. Further. think. Temporary. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: ³Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive.primary importance. so they are the place OD programs often begin ± getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. think. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. the process ³threw the results over the wall´ to the next functional unit. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. discovered. and using management information. and problem-solving processes. firing. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. or developed by a given group. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. When one function finished with its part of the project. members are trained in competencies such as planning. such as design. much rework. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be ³brain work´) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. By intact work teams and other configurations. hiring. and we highlight the importance of visioning. learning. empowerment. values. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. (b) invented. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. and feel in relation to those problems. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. This method resulted in loss of synergy. . (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. When teams function well. Today¶s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. Processes are how things get done. So culture consists of basic assumptions. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the ³right´ ways. wasted time. In Liberation Management.
OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. dynamic and adaptive system. 4. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today¶s fast-paced market place. 3. 5. 9. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. and co-learners with the client system. 2. 10. 6. OD focuses on culture and processes.3 Characteristics of OD 1. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. Attempting to create ³win-win´ solutions is standard practice in OD programs. rather than focusing attention on individuals. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. OD . An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. Specifically. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. according to Peters. To summarize. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. This µplanned¶ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. collaborators. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members.multifunctional. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. 7. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. OD practitioners are facilitators. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. 2. so that change is easily observed. 3. 8.
and adaptability for the organization as a whole. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. Key areas are the normative type of model. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. He shares a social philosophy about human values. participation. growth. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. he conducts surveys. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements . and integrate individual and organizational goals. 4. takes actions for intervention. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. rather. evaluates these data. further more. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that µnorms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones¶. Action research is the basis for such intervention. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. joint goals and means.efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. and mutual influence. 3. or isolated problems. and then. temporary. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. identity. It recognizes that organizational goals change. third party change agent. 3. The relationship involves mutual trust. They discourage µdo it yourself¶ approach. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. or catalyst. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be µhuman¶ and to increase awareness. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. rather. interactive. they are ongoing. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. Rather. At the individual level. and cyclic processes. problem-solving. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. collects relevant data. and revitalization. 6. Thus. 7.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. 5. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action.
(b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. practitioners and the client laymen. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. second. 3. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization¶s goals (profit or service) and development of people. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. like other normative re-educative programmes.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. (g) To increase the sense of µownership¶ or organization¶s objectives throughout the work force. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. problem solving climate throughout an organization.of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. Two important elements of Organization Development are. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. This Organization Development progrmmes. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. . with the authority of knowledge and competence. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. first. (c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and.
with their existing objectives and structure. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. Based on this.(h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one¶s area of responsibility. However. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus.6 OD and Management Development At this stage. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. more attention to peer-groups. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. Before making a comparison between the two. (iii) assertiveness. . 3. (ii) competitiveness. and greater display of feelings and emotions.´ Organization development differs from management development. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. less individual competitiveness. According to him. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. management development has been defined as follows: ³Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager¶s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. The term µdevelopment¶ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. according to him. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD.
8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. 7. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. 2. . Thus. focus on achieving improvement in design. and laterally. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. however. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. not on the managers. 6. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations.Focus Approach Time Specialist accomplishments. 3. 4. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing organization. 5. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. plays key role in organizational improvement. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. Trained specialists required. No special requirement. In early 60s. Focus on design. however. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. 3. 3. By 70s. Educative and training Short-range. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. Problem-solving approach. horizontally. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training.
There should be proper use of OD interventions. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. Hence. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. For example. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. 2. 3. 3. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. Therefore. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. 5. it is useless to try OD. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. Research studies have also failed to conclude significant contributions of OD in all organizations. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. particularly in bottom-line ones. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. In general. However. 5. If an organization is laden with these people. in order to make best use of OD efforts. etc. 2. OD programmes are often quite costly. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. 4. 4. Therefore. it fails even as a long-term strategy. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change.confrontation techniques. Self Assessment Questions . and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. Thus. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. some specific efforts are required.
4. Empowerment 4. ±±±±±±± is associated with ³Liberation Management´.10 Terminal Questions 1. 2. Explain the various characteristics of OD. 3. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. Who is associated with the ³Learning Organizations´? 5. 3. 2. Distinguish between µorganizational development¶ and µmanagement development¶. ±±±±±±±±± is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. Organization development should be led and supported by ±±±±±±±. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. OD focuses on culture and processes. 3. Tom Peters 3. Peter Senge . collaborative. The participative. There is no µquick fix¶ to organizations¶ problems.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.1. Define OD. Explain its salient features. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. State the various roles of OD. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. problem-focused µnature of OD¶ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. _____________is a short-term strategy. 5. 3. Top management 2. 4.
7 5.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2 2. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.Organization Development ± Interventions Structure: 4.1 Introduction Objectives 4. Management development Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 3.2 Survey Feedback 4.Organization Development ± Interventions Unit-04. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.6 4.5.6 Team-building .3 3. MU0002-Unit-04.3 Process Consultation 4.4 Grid Training 4.5 Leadership Development 4.
survey feedback. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. team-building. management grid.8 Change Agents 4. Historically. they make things happen. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. process consultation.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the range of change that an organization requires. For example. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic.11 Terminal Questions 4. other techniques like process . Therefore. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. the classification of OD interventions shows variation.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level.´ There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. People¶s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. inter-group activities. mediation and negotiation activities. Further. and survey feedback method.4. Subsequently. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: ³Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. education and training.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. and organizational level.7 Inter Group Development 4. grid training. interpersonal level. However. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels. group level. inter-group level. and organizational culture. work group.10 Summary 4. Nevertheless. techno-structural activities. Thus.
consultation, team- building, and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives, have been added. Our further discussion follows this development. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. · Explain grid training. · Describe process consultation. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Role of change agents. 4.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid), the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier, Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan, USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 2. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection, feedback of information, developing action plans based on feedback, and follow up. 1. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership ± managerial support, managerial goal emphasis, managerial work facilitation, peer support, peer goal emphasis, peer work facilitation, and peer interaction facilitation, organizational climate-communication with the company, motivation, decision-making, control within the company, co-ordination between departments, and general management, and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company, satisfaction with the supervisor, satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with the pay, and satisfaction with the work group. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization¶s personnel.
After the questionnaires are completed, data are classified, tabulated, and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 2. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed, feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. In oral system of feedback, it is provided through group discussion or problemsolving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively, feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted, it should be constructive and suggestive, rather, threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case, follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building, by the consultant. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. In particular, survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. 2. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However, effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. First, questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. If it is biased, all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Second, even if valid and reliable information is collected, it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change; it provides base for action for change. 4.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Edgar Schein, the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows:
³The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client¶s environment.´ The basic objectives of P.C are as follows: 1. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership, communication, roles and functions of group members, group decision-making and problemsolving, group norms, and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD. 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 2. Define the Relationship: At this stage, client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees, and spelling out services, time, etc. At this stage, the client¶s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. 3. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. At this stage, the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 4. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 5. Intervene: At this stage, the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural change. 6. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.C is completed, the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes, he assists the
. communication skills. 1. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. objective-setting. inter-group.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant¶s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. 3. 4. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. and problemsolving are also developed. focuses on skills. From this point of view. and the organization as a whole. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. group. like other OD intervention techniques. groups.organizational members to incorporate those changes. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. and alike. However. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. Inter-group Development: At this phase.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. problem-solving. 2. P.C programmes. 3. knowledge. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. In the review of various P. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. traditions. The skills relating to planning. and total organizational levels. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. The grid organization development consists of six phases. P. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge.C is also not free from criticisms. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. 2. and teamwork. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. However. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation.
They have maintained that ³managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. During drastic change times. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. grid training is a non-rigorous method. and regular. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. 4. competence. Systematic Critique: In this stage. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. and credibility of senior and middle management. the various programmes may be redesigned. Also during these times of change. Furthermore. Slogging Through The Swamp. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton.5 Leadership Development When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). and After Arrival. We will look more carefully at each of these. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. lead. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. complete communication that is timely. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. In this light. The strategy is then implemented. it discounts reality. is the ability of leadership to«well. 6. concerned and committed to their welfare.4. while at the same time . The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. If you are to manage change effectively. Further.´ In a later work. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. in spite of these criticisms. therefore. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. 5. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. confident and effective decision-making. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. they maintained the same stand.
and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. brings hope for better times in the future.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as ³who will be members of the team?´ ³Who will perform what functions?´ ³Who will contribute what?´ ³What rules will be . For example. norming. let us consider the life cycle of a team. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. employees expect nothing positive. it may be too late. French and Bell have opined that ³probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. As against these. 4. The existence of this trust. Unfortunately. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. therefore. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team¶s time together.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. performing. if allowed to go on for too long. In a climate of distrust. how synergy is generated through team-work. teambuilding is the most important. problems in team-work. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. 4. Leadership before. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone¶s best interests. These stages are: forming. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. storming. but more importantly. which.´ A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. widely accepted. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. if haven¶t established a track record of effective leadership. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes.recognizing that tough decisions need to be made.
different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. 5. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. start to accept others. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. team members start settling. etc. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. jockeying for relative control. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks.followed?´ ³How can conflicts among members be resolved?´ and so on. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. Norming: After storming stage. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. each team has to be adjourned. However. 4. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. because of individual differences.´ . they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. After the adjournment of the team. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. 2. At this stage. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: ³Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. At this stage. The adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team¶s goals. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. They share personal information. committee. Sooner or later. 3.
synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. For example. In fact.Thus. the individual average dropped down still lower-68. the team would be effective. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study.2 pounds. that is. it was found that individuals¶ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. other factors remaining the same. the complementarity among members is achieved. it appears that there are many . The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. They averaged 138. goals. group of eight. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. In the above paragraph. in one experiment. fail to perform their assigned tasks. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. In such an assignment. To the extent. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. group efforts tend to slacken. and attitudes. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group¶s meetings. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. From this statement. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. 2. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. and so on. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. other factors remaining the same.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope.
These super-ordinate goals. and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one¶s own role as well as roles of other members. . Thus. have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. 1. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. 2. 3. 3. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. management consultants. Katzenbatch and Smith. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials. unify efforts. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. complementary skills. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. common purpose. they will put their maximum. two things are required from its members. 2. serve to focus attention. Therefore. then. Even if one member lacks behind. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. or propose discipline for team members. goals. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size. and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals.financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. Rewards of both types. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality. These factors are skills and role clarity. Further. organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. 4. and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance. make recommendations regarding a new supervisor.factors in an effective team. While skills are relevant for job performance. customer satisfaction. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. supportive environment.
3. Setting goals and priorities for the team. 2. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. For achieving these. such as. generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. 2. and 5. and 5. group problems to even personal problem. At this stage. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. rather. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. personality and attitudes.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action. Fig. 4. recognition. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. Analyzing how team¶s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. 4. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. In problem identification. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared. the emphasis should be on consensus.4. they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. 1. Analyzing how the team is working. the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure. . their value systems. and rewards. Providing positive feedback. Analyzing how the work is performed.
the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. the stying with the topic or going off on tangents. with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team¶s responsibilities. who was trying to resolve the differences. seeking relevant information. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. also provides opportunity to understand themselves. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time. there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. information. (ii) Attacking: deriding. etc. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours: Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. (iii) Negative: cooling. feelings. members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility. If this process is adopted several times. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. At the time of discussion of feedback. 4. cynicism. people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. 5. Followup action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of team-building. etc. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing. encouraging others to participate. ensuring. who was talking more or who was talking less. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. Negative Behaviour (i) Over talk: interrupting. clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team. understanding. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. talking together with speaker. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. about the issue. undermining morale. . Often. the way people talk about the issue. At this stage. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings.3. criticizing person. belittling. (iii) Clarifying: resting.
It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier. However. it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. to encourage and sustain such feelings. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. 3. communicating.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. listening. in different degrees. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. Therefore. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. etc. It improves the organization¶s problem-solving and decision-making ability. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example.. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the organization¶s outcomes. 2. stereotypes. and perceptions that groups have of each other. management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. However. It seeks to change to attitudes. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. In spite of these problems. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. monitoring. though. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage. As a result. it is not that effective in isolation. are not given adequate attention. team-building has a positive outlook. However.These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. and feedback skills). 4. 2. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. structure. team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. one of the more . In general.
internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. According to Curtis Mial: ³The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. operating procedures. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. and personnel. Differences are clearly articulate. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization¶s history. Trainer . however. Outside consultants. In contrast. In this method. or outside consultants. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. and how it believes the other group perceivers it.Popular methods emphasize problem solving. the groups can move to the integration phase ± working to develop solutions that will improve relations. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . For major change efforts.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. with members from each of the conflicting groups. Subgroups. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. 4. as the break for too quick action. culture. but one thing he/she is not the driver´. the other group. after which similarities and differences are discussed. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes ± which can be benefit or a disadvantage ± because they don¶t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. 4. The groups then share their lists. employees of the organization. as the accelerator to build up momentum. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance.
11 Terminal Questions 1. skills and change in behavior. Training is used both in µcontent orientation¶ and process orientation¶. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? . Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. 4. feedback of information. Team-building is most important. Grid Training was developed by ±±±±±±±±±±±± 3. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. It focuses on skills. group. Training is required for enhancing knowledge. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. group discussions. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. Self Assessment Questions 1. attitudes and beliefs. inter-group and total organization levels.A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies ± lectures. cases and experiential learning etc.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. presentations. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. 2. Data collection. role-plays and instruments. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. diagnosis. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. In process consultation. films. changing (intervening) and refreezing. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual.
Assumptions.4 2.6 4. Refer section 4.2. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. and Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values. Refer section 4. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? 3. Refer section 4. 4.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5.2 3.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.1 Introduction . MU0002-Unit-05-Values. 3. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4. Data collection 2. Assumptions. Blake and Mouton. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 4.
and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5.2 Definitions .2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves.5. beliefs and assumptions. Objectives: After studying this unit.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.1 Introduction A set of values.2 Definitions 5.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5.5.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5. · List the chronology of events of values. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5. 5.Objectives 5.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5.5.7 Terminal Questions 5. assumptions.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions. beliefs and assumptions.
assume that everyone has intrinsic worth. assumptions. assumptions.g. treat people with respect and dignity. it is a cognitive fact for the person. free speech) and what is undesirable or µbad¶ (e.A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. As these ingredients accumulated. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. dishonesty). Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. reason. optimistic. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth." or slacking off. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources ± the Hawthorne studies. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought y Frederick Winslow Taylor s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. strongly held. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. or spirit of the time. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual.g. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. Thus. the human relations movement. the laboratory training movement.. with values being beliefs about good and bad. Simple. Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or µgood¶ (e. Taylor s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. and assumptions being. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. 5. OD values tend to be humanistic. .. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. and the like. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. Values. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. and that rationality. research on the effects of different leadership styles. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. and democratic. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. values.
Research by Lewin. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. and the supervisor determined their performance. The human relations movement advocated participative management. apathy. wrote an article on The Giving of Orders advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. The Functions of the Executive by Chester 1. greater attention to workers social needs. Their simple. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. aggressiveness and poor performance. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. the work environment. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people s beliefs about organizational behaviour. most efficient way to organize people. People were not cogs. People came to work as whole people. much of the research. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. In a sense. y y y y y y y . Lippitt (1939). extensive division of labor. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. Mary Parker Follett (1926). by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. These approaches possessed many desirable features.y The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of bureaucracy as the best. impersonal rules. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). a management theorist and astute observer of labour-management relations. organizations were not machines. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. Group Dynamics (1940) The scientific study of groups using experimental research methodswas launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. their feelings and attitudes about the work. A strong hierarchy of authority. and a general humanizing of the workplace. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. theory.
y These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. higherlevel needs become dominant. Chris Argyrif s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. Rogers focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. and understand group dynamics. French s (1948) article. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. management practices. P. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. are self-centered. Lester Coch and John R. and need to be led. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). indifferent to the organization s needs. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. caring social climate. Overcoming Resistance to Change. this book popularized Maslow s motivation theory. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. dislike responsibility. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. lack ambition. a direct precursor of OD. Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. pioneers in laboratory training. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. increase self-understanding. Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. to assume responsibility. resist change. This article introduced the concept of organizations as socio-technical systems. a mechanistic organization y y y y y y y y . The theory postulated that when lower-level needs are satisfied. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. The task of management is to change organizational structures. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. In an environment of slow change. healthy adults. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy.
groups. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. y Rensis Likert s New Patterns of Management (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. . Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. compromise. goal-oriented. The Social Psychology of Organizations by Daniel Katz and Robert L. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company OD Six-Pack. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems." that is. and shares decision-making with the work group. theory. and values of the field. in an environment of high change. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. Out of this zeitgeist. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. dysfunctions. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. y y This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. and democratic. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. These six books presented the theory. Writing in 1969. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. one-on-one leadership style. humanistic. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. optimistic. an organic organization form is preferred. open communications. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. bureaucracy. and unprincipled power. (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. and greater individual autonomy. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. and organizations that is. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. Values have always been an integral part of OD. · Development of more effective "team management. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression.structure may be appropriate. and negative consequences. practice. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. as we have said.
Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. not individuals. and confidence between and across levels. 6." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. 2. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. 3. They listed these ³values in transition´ as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. Here is his list. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. 1. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). a professor and Sheldon Davis. . Stalker used the term ³mechanistic´ in contrast to ³mechanical. "People support what they help create. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. Robert Tannenbaum. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on.´ For example. M. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. Organizations. 4. mutual trust.· Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. sub-units of organizations. Controls are interim measurements. director of organization development. the basic units of change are groups. 5." like pushing buttons. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. Therefore. not the basis of managerial strategy.
and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. 5. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. toward seeing them as being in process. autocratic. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. participation and contribution by all organization members. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. collaboration and co-operation. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. authentic interpersonal relations.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions . The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. · Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them.· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. the legitimacy of feelings. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. decentralized decision making. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. open communication. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. appropriate uses of power. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today.
First. permit failure. leaders need to give important work to teams. the family. support. and job satisfaction. Implications of these assumptions are several. such as a work group. This skill is a trainable one. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. and co-operation within the group. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. listen. challenge. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. and interpersonal communication. To do this. What occurs in the work group. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. and organizations? 5. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness.Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. including peers and boss. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. personal growth. conflict management. and so on. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. Third. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. . a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. facilitation. set high standards. Second. Also. and usually with more than one group.5. encourage risk-taking. not individuals. not a one-on-one leadership style. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. groups. Most people want to develop their potential. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. 5. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. give autonomy. invest training time and money to increase group members¶ skills. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group¶s effectiveness and development. and reward success. at both the formal and informal levels. and are capable of making. Hence. a church or club group. remove obstacles and barriers.5. in addition. give responsibility. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. support.
grouping by specialized function. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. emphasis on topdown directives. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. formalized cross-functional communication. and ways to optimize human potential. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. in which one side wins and the other side loses. and empowering. are dysfunctional over the long run and highlight the need for a ³win win´ attitude. In addition. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. quality of output. and so on-are obsolete. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. societal. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. By implication.Finally. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where ³putting people first´ paid off handsomely in profits and performance. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization¶s leaders. Frequently the challenge is broader. organizing structures. and profitability. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. The rapid technological. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. D. Concluding Comment: . Therefore. including how persons C." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. 5. they change over time. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. By implication. values are never static. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. Finally. The implication is that people are an organization¶s most important resource. and E can support these changes. an optimistic. Still. adherence to the chain of command. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good.5. developmental. a growing awareness that ³win-lose´ organizational situations.
W. Values. The concept of ±±±±±±±±±± was introduced by MaxWeber.7 Terminal Questions 1. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. optimistic and democratic. beliefs. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. Self Assessment Questions 1.The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. 5. Values. Define concepts. __________ is associated with scientific management. but are widely accepted today.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Taylor¶s principles of scientific management. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. 2. 5. and assumptions are all ±±±±±±±±±± facts. The outcome of ±±±±±±±± was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. 2. 5. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. 4. Cognitive . 3. Write a note about F. beliefs and assumptions. OD values tend to be humanistic. 5. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. Values. 3. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. Values are also beliefs. values.
2. Refer section 5.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Taylor 3.2 2.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6.2. W. Refer section 5. Bureaucracy 4.3 4. Refer section 5.3 5.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6.2. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 5.3 3. Hawthorne experiments 5.2 Beyond the Quick Fix .1 Introduction Objectives 6. Refer section 5. F.
3. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.4 Participation and Empowerment 6.11 Terminal Questions 6.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6.1 The Nature of Systems 6.3. Objectives: After studying this unit. you will be able to: .9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6.6.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.3. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning.3 Systems Theory 6.2.10 Summary 6.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.5 Teams and Teamwork 6.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.2.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.3.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6. In this discussion.
2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. · Explain systems theory. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces.· Explain various models and theories of planned change. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in . and specify the relationships among the variables. We will examine the following concepts: · Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6.2. Models and theories depict. the important features of some phenomenon. describe those features as variables. 6. · Describe the parallel learning structures. That is. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. · Explain the terms µparticipation¶ and µempowerment¶. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. in words or pictures.
Lewin¶s second idea was a model of the change process itself. b. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. Finally. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. judge things. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. that is. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. mentor. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. feel things.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. moving to new level of behaviour. Next. Identifying with a new role model. For example. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. etc. that is.opposing directions. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. he must move. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. Likewise. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). Lewin¶s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. Scanning the environment for new relevant information . Creation of guilt or anxiety c. With a technique called the force-field analysis.
The primary task in stage 3. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. terminating the client-consultant relationship. Significant relationships. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. moving. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. That is. In stage 2. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. That is. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. Phases 3. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship.Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. The total personality and self-concept. unfreezing. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. . for example. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. b. which motivate the person to change. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. and fit with the individual¶s social surroundings. that is. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s unfreezing phase. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person¶s personality. 4. and attitudes. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person¶s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin¶s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. refreezing. Jeanne Watson. and Bruce Westley. and 5 correspond ro Lewin¶s moving phase. establishing goals and intentions of action. In stage 1. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s refreezing phase. change will not occur. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system¶s problem. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. This motivating evidence is gained by. which cause guilt and anxiety. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones.
Change programs take from one to five years to complete. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. problem-solving sessions. Interventions include training programs. and 5) The reward system track. Kilmann¶s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. called "tracks. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? . Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management.This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. 2) Diagnosing the problems.2 Beyond the ³Quick Fix´ A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. 6." that. cause the organization to be successful. when functioning properly. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. and so forth. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization.2. 4) The strategy-structure track. 2) The management skills track. 3) The team-building track. critique practices and procedures.
3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. TRW. then moving to the team-building track. and so forth. . This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call ³transactional change´ and ³transformational change´). Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. and all resources with the new strategic direction. The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. radical. or discontinuous change. communication. Eastman Kodak. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. beginning with the culture track. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. incremental. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. In first-order change. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. 6. Westinghouse. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. jobs. then moving to the management skills track. information sharing. adaptive. and Xerox with good results. General Foods. work groups. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. revolutionary. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. the use of updated management skills. Ford General Electric. In second-order change.The culture track enhances trust. or continuous change. OD programs are directed toward both first. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit ± thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed.and second-order change. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered ± the organization is transformed. evolutionary. and its holistic view of organization change and development. departments. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups.2. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points.
Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. 6. Fig. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. management practices. and so forth. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. interventions directed toward mission and strategy." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. values. friendly or unfriendly. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. in turn. We will do so in several steps. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees¶ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. often unconscious.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First ± Order Change . Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. Changing structure.Organizational climate is defined as people¶s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. individual and organizational performance. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. hard-working or easy-going. which change motivation and. and difficult to change. On the other hand. leadership. and organization culture result in second-order change. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. management practices. and beliefs that are enduring.
that is. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization¶s culture. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second ± Order Change On the other hand. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization.Fig. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. To summarize. as shown in the above figure. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. Burke says: ³Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. and organization culture. leadership styles. These factors are able to change the climate. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. we must change mission and strategy. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. structure. 6. sudden "leaps" in behaviour.´ We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. mission and strategy. Interventions directed toward management practices. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. .
This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. rewarded). physical setting. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. .2. OD interventions that focus on goals. according to Porras and Robertson. 6. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. which determine organizational performance and individual development. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. which influence on-the job behaviours. For example. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members¶ cognitions (they learn what is expected.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. and technology. and interaction processes will affect social factors. social factors. strategies. Interventions that focus on culture. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. management style. It is how OD works.Fig. required.
Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures.Fig. This section explains systems theory.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. Fig. 6.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. describes the characteristics of systems. Systems .5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6. 6.
system. resources. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. Organizations are open systems. raw material and so on. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. the organization¶s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. ." To summarize. the reasons for their existence. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. or subsystems. Every system is delineated by a boundary. when taking a systems approach." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. the organization will cease to exist. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. and energy between system and environment.theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change.3. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. people. The words µarrangement¶ and µinterrelated¶ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. Here.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. Open systems have purposes and goals. They do something to the inputs via throughput." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized. Thus. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. and if the environment does not want these outputs. system denotes interdependency." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. components. information. What is inside the boundary is the system. conversion. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. Therefore. For example. in that they permit exchange of information. dynamics. 6. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. or transformation processes that change the inputs. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy. that is the system. interconnectedness. money.
Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. "return to earth. It is sometimes called deviationamplifying feed back. Say your company makes buggy whips. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. however. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems ³run down´ and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. For example. aerospace. . Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. and the system adjusts to a new goal. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. while screening out other information. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. mining. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. eating fads. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. and so on. say. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. For example. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. Positive feedback comes from the environment. Systems require two kinds of feedback. 6. negative and positive. Information is important to systems in several ways. that information is called positive feedback." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. and makes a course correction. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. but most are not useful. and the like.Fig. By the same token. competitors. If the mission (target) changes.
´ Also. formal organization. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. unit/group level. such as capital. failures. perceptions. 6. and systems for performing the work. knowledge. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. and individual level. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. knowledge. work. and informal organization. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). 2) Resources available to the organization. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state ± systems have multiple paths to goals.3. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. which includes formal structures. The three major input factors are: 1) The environment. this process is called differentiation. systems tend to get more elaborated. either internal or external. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. As Katz and Kahn say: ³The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. which includes the organization¶s culture informal rules and understandings. specialized. With increased differentiation.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. and technology. people.Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. and the workforce¶s expectations. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. differentiated. which includes skills. and complex over time. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. processes. Subsystems exist within larger systems. important events. .
" and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. Hanna writes: . giving information and feedback to the people doing the work.Fig. and information to the point of action.3. and that changes in one system affect the other system. if people don¶t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. multi-skilled teams.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. controlling variance at the source. especially autonomous work groups (selfregulated teams or self-direct teams). Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s." The premise is that alignment (harmony. 6. 6. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. In a company that is performing poorly. . If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. Fred Emery. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. If the organization¶s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model¶s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. two active segments of OD today. to the workers doing the job. fit) must be present among the system¶s components¶ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. a social system and a technical system. forming autonomous work groups. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. which components are "not functioning correctly.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. performance will suffer. that is. training group members in multiple skills. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. For example. performance will suffer. organizations must optimize both systems. performance will suffer.
according to Peter Senge. issues. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice.KI Jayaram. is the most important. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stakeholders.´ In conclusion. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands.3. therefore. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. building shared vision. because most phenomena have more than one cause. forces. from their activities. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. the fifth discipline. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. changing one part of a system influences other parts.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. events. G. team learning. Of all these disciplines. and 3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. Without a systemic orientation. systems thinking. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). and systems thinking. Third. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. Second. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. mental models. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). For example. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. events and forces. 6.In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. but seen in relation to other issues. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. Charles Krone. He says of systems thinking: ³It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. not single effects. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. . First.
" These authors believe the organic view. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. and to be responsible. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. team building. and change. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. One view.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. Further. increase commitment to the organization. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance." is bottom-up and less controlling. to exert influence. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. which they call "mechanistic. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. not just its component parts. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. involvement and participation energize greater performance. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. search conferences. to contribute their ideas. They believed that it was about risk-taking. survey feedback. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. But . Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. quality of work life programs. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. personal initiative. Participation enhances empowerment. and give more power to more people. For example. autonomous work groups. and growth. The other view.Fourth. with its emphasis on risk-taking. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. one changes the system. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. called "organic." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. growth. produce better solutions to problems. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. to change a system. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. And fifth. 6. reduce stress levels." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). To empower is to give someone power. quality circles. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. is the more useful perspective. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being.
research. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. changes those norms and values. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. Second. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. to name just a few. they must if personally connected to the organization. then. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. and relationships if they are to be effective. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. Teams and teamwork are "in. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. the noun team has become a verb. processes. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. While management can create a context that is more empowering. employees must choose to be empowered. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). teaming. STS (socio-technical systems). Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today ± gurus extol the virtues of teams. teams create synergy. QCs (quality circles). Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). that is. systems. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team.both views contain valid ideas: for example. . and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion.´ 6. Team Taurus developed Ford¶s best-selling automobile. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. HPOs (high-performance organizations). If the team. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: ³Empowerment. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. Theory. confident about their abilities. people must work together to accomplish them. but rather a mindset that employees have about their roles in the organization. Third. is not something that management does to employees. as a team.
Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. inter-group team-building. that they achieve synergy. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. . Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. parallel learning structures. In this section. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. find innovative ways around barriers. temporary teams. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. process consultation. quality circles. When any one feature is lost. and others. and set ever-higher goals. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. role negotiation technique. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. status. team performance declines. help each other. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. cross-functional teams. and respect-teams nurture human nature. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. and responsibility charting. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. heart transplant surgical teams. including collegiate football national champions. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. teams satisfy people¶s needs for social interaction.Fourth. and the like. Examples are team-building. socio-technical systems programs. and explore ways to realize that potential. recognition. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance.
Asea Brown Boveri. and then leading the process.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). and continuous learning. Interestingly. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system.´ The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. 6. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. High responsibility. 6. and initiate needed changes. you don¶t have a parallel structure. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. superior customer service.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing . It isn¶t the supplemental structure that¶s important. and employees. autonomous. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. talking. Titeflex. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization¶s methods of work and/or culture. managers. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. If you don¶t implement different norms and procedures. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. At Ford Motor Company. constitute another important foundation of organization development. Projects are the work of the future. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. Union Pacific Railroad. deciding.´ Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. flexible response. projects will be performed by teams. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders.Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. Bushe and Shani say: ³The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. What¶s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. clear objectives. In essence. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as ³a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. and report to one of your subordinates on another team.
based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. values. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. rather than the OD practitioner. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. and significant relationships. anxieties. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. based on the assumptions that people are rational. The first type is empirical rational strategies.Organization development involves change. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. will follow their rational self-interest. Evaluated against these three change strategies. according to this view. . The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. doubts. Change in a pattern of practice or action. information. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. relationships and customary ways of doing things. and together they define problems and seek solutions. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. and¶ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. Patterns of action and practice are supported ± by sociocultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. that is. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. attitudes. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. OD clearly falls within the normative-reeducative category. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. skills. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. not just changes in knowledge. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-re-eductive and the empirical-rational strategies. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normativereductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative.
behavioural science knowledge. hopefully. practices. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. thereby solving the problem. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. OD emphasizes the latter. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. i.´ From this "practice theory. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. . and (2) "technology. The practitioner examines the problem situation. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. Burke writes: ³If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs.e. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. on the basis of selected variables. Thus..Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. re-establishes the equilibrium. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. or practice." applied science. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. Greenwood states: ³The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together. pressing problems. by modifying a group norm or standards. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. success corroborating the diagnosis." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and.´ Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. not the individual. 6. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. On this point. for example. applied science or practice. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness.
feedback of the data to the client system members. The two bottom inputs.Fig.´ Concluding Comments: These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. Taken separately. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. who developed the concept of action research. and doing or implementing change efforts. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. and action planning based on the data. Kurt Lewin. had this to say about it: ³The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing ± learning about the dynamics of organizational change. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. Action research involves three processes: data collection. perhaps more accurately. 6. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. 6. practice research and practice theory. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. the two top in puts.9 Action Research The action research model ± a data-based. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. represent contributions from applied science. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. Taken collectively. and research leading to social action« This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. Self Assessment Questions .8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. represent contributions from pure or basic science. It is a type of action-research. form of applied behavioural science.
4. A _____________ is defined as ³a set of elements standing in interaction. 6. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. 4.1. Transactional change . which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change.´ Comment on this statement. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. 6.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field.´ 5. 3. Action research model combines learning and doing. First²order change is also called ___________. ±±±±±±±±±± gave the model ³Beyond the Quick Fix´. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. ³Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. Bring out the essence of ³managing beyond the quick fix´ model of organizational development. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. ±±±±±±±±±± means moving to new level of behaviour.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Ralph Kilmann 3. Unfreezing 2. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. 3. 2. Explain Kurt Lewin¶s models and theories of planned organizational change. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. 2.11 Terminal Questions 1. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. 6. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process.
4.2 3.3 184.108.40.206 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 4.Refer section 6. Refer section 6.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture 7. Refer section 6.3 Types of Organization Culture. Refer section 6. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.2. System 5. 7. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 6.6 Summary .1 2.1 Introduction Objectives 7.
and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. but everyone knows it when they sense it. When organizational participants interact with one another. Standards of behavior exist. 2. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. 7. they use common language. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. thinking. despite the best-laid plans. etc. Culture is one of those terms that¶s difficult to express distinctly. · Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. what they brag about. 1986). For example. Martin and Meyerson. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. ± similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone¶s personality. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. Objectives: After studying this unit. discovered.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7.7 Terminal Questions 7. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture.7. Which in many organizations come down to ³Do not do too much. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. the culture of a large. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. but also changing the corporate culture as well. terminology.1 Introduction Basically. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. Norms.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. what members wear. do not do too little?´ . or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. values. Observed behavioral regularities. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. Practitioners are coming to realize that. including guidelines on how much work to do.
Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. Market cultures are outward looking. Organizational climate: This is an overall ³feeling´ that is conveyed by the physical layout. In contrast to Hierarchies. They often have well-defined policies.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber¶s original view of bureaucracy. 7.3. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. outputs and outcomes. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. Rather than strict rules and procedures. 5. In an efficient market organization. For many years. processes and procedures. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. the way participants interact. shared goals. . Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. but one where all transactions. New-comers must learn those ³ropes´ in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. Typical examples are high product quality. people are driven through vision. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. internal and external are viewed in market terms. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. 4. Transactions are exchanges of value. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization¶s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. 6.
the jargon they use. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. In biological terms. systems and subsystems. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. the way they dress etc. and procedures. although not necessarily documented.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. symbols. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. supportive way and may take on a parental role. but critical to shaping its behavior. · Its rituals. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. invisible to the naked eye. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. plaques. discovered. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. culture is like the DNA of an organization. big-bang projects and development. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. 1986). Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. Martin and Meyerson. etc. thinking. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). 7. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. norms. 1993). or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. .strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. Rules. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. rules. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially.
its core value are limited to a few in number. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. goals.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. and behaviour. Though an organization espouses a series of values. business and leadership strategies. also called as organizational success or growth. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. Thus. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. from the basis of its policies and action. are often used interchangeably. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management¶s policies. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization¶s social environment and evolve of behavior. From this point of view. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. or standards held by members of an organization. profitability. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. For example.Values: These are the social principles. and doing. communicating. skills. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. decisions. various terms such as efficiency. and what is right and what is wrong. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. organizational growth. Though each individual¶s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. there are numerous variables. . to denote organizational effectiveness. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. individually and collectively. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. 1. productivity. the personality of the organization). intervening and end result. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. there is often contradiction in various approaches.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. Identifying. believing.
performance goals. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of ±date. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. building. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. and earnings. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. scrap loss. 7. money. motivations. costs. communication. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. 3. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: 1. At this point. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. is worth running some risks for. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. According to Likert. locating space. incorporating. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. obtaining patents. and energy that will be required. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. attitudes. 2.g. 4. e. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. and perceptual cluster. others are brought into the organization. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. motivational. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible.2. and so on. and is worth the investment of time. the loyalties. End ± result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. and a common history begins to be built. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. . 3. For example. and decision-making. is workable.. and they tend to be longterm goals. That is. However.
and whether products and/or services are involved. Politics. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. Make changes from the top down. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. commitment. 3. the ³culture contract´ that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. age. 1. 7. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. 5. relationships. or even customers may support the existing culture. management. habits. Include employees in the culture change process. 3. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. Emotions. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. Assess the current culture. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. 2.Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. roles. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. 4. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. 2. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. take these losses early. powerful stakeholders such as unions. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. and history of two firms. and patterns of daily behavior. 6. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can¶t be done successfully?. attitudes. the geographic location. The personal feelings. if possible. . Structure. especially when making changes in rules and processes. Staffs. In addition. These factors from the two cultures include the size.
Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. Causal variables Answers to TQs: . 2.8. Market 3. 7. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. behavioural approach.7 Terminal Questions 1. 3.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. system-resource approach. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. ________cultures are outward looking. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. Stay the course by being persistent. 3. Self Assessment Questions 1.6 Summary Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. 2. and strategic constituencies approach. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach.goal approach. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. 7. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. Finally. Artifacts 2. 7. 9. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables.
5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8. MU0002-Unit-08. Refer section 7.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.2 2. Refer section 7.Power.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8.1.3 3.1 Introduction Objectives 8. Refer section 7.Power.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8.10 Terminal Questions .9 Summary 8.3 Two Faces of Power 8. Politics and Organization Development Unit-08.
8. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid today.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change.´ Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations.¶ To have power is to be able to get desired things done. Objectives: After this studying this unit. and behaviours of people. The French word µpouvoir¶ stands for both the noun µpower¶ and the verb µto be able. emotions." .actions and the decisions that precede them. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations. and for change to occur in an organization. In this unit. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related.1 Introduction Power and politics. · Explain theories about the sources of power." ³Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. Potential power is the capacity to do so. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting. to effect outcomes. 8. power must be exercised. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired. indisputable facts of organizational life.´ ³A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do.
persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. absolute power corrupts absolutely. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world.Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one¶s way. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one¶s way in a social situation. selling." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. or acquired? In this unit. According to him. however. financial. forcing. political. influence. Power-in-action may take many forms. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. bestowed. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. 8. power being the predominant mode. and repression. not the possession of power as such. and lead. both positive and negative. and organizational activities.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" ± positive and negative. 8. Without leadership (power) in medical. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. unsocialized need to dominate others. Leading.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. or positive. In fact. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. spiritual. for organizations to function. technological. being exercised. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals." . we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson¶s "Power-Dependence theory. Crushing. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. confiscation. the act or ability of influencing others. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. an authority or power dimension is required. with collective. influencing. hurting. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive." A moment¶s reflection. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent.
and so forth. that is. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. Reward power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. we will terminate or alter the relationship. rewards) that are controlled by one party." In other words. influence." · Salancik and Pfeffer¶s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. goals. Coercive power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another." · Mintzberg¶s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. or bases. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. and desired by the other. When the net balance for us is positive. to give something valued by the other. Viewed in this light. power. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. P. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. respect. Legitimate power ± power based on everyone¶s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder." These authors suggested five sources. 2. . Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. praise. Expert power ± power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other.· French and Raven¶s "Bases of Social Power. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. rejection. we will continue the exchange relationship. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. hate. attraction. 5. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A¶s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. Referent power ± power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. when the net balance for us is negative. to give something negatively valued by the other. information. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. blame. 3. The sociologist. of social power as follows: 1. 4. that is. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. that person has power over us.
In this theory, power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals, units, or departments) most important for solving the organization¶s most critical problems. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. This theory, like the ones discussed previously, supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by- others-in this case, the special expertise needed for the organization¶s survival-have power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits, indeed, used by all who have it, to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources, through the placement of allies in key positions, and through the definition of organizational problems and policies." These authors view organizational power as a good thing, for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. This theory, "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players, called influencers, seek to control the organization¶s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power, coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. According to Mintzberg, the five possible bases of power are, first, control of a resource; second, control of a technical skill; and, third, control of a body of knowledge. All of these must be critical to the organization. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. In addition to a base of power, the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. An organization has many potential influencers, such as the board of directors, the managers, the top executives, the employees, the unions, suppliers, customers, regulators, and so forth. The important aspects of Mintzberg¶s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others, that power-in-action requires will and skill, and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In summary, these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar ± power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. The resources may be ability to reward and
punish, being in control of critical skills, knowledge, or information, the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined ³politics simply as the study of who gets what, when, and how´. ³Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices´. ³Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups´. ³Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means´. Thus, we view politics as a subset of power, treating it as informal power, illegitimate in nature. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power, but in this sense, formal power, the power vested in office, the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. Both relate to getting one¶s way-effectance. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. For our purposes, organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations; it is engaging in activities to get one¶s way. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities; the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics, like power, has two faces. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest; unsocialized needs to dominate others; a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win, you must lose-rather than win-win terms; and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy, surprise, holding hidden agendas, withholding information, deceiving. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others; viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible; engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing; a relative absence of the tactics of fighting; and a socialized need to lead, initiate, and influence others. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making, resource allocation, and conflict resolution processes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose; they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. In fact, one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation, conflict resolution, and choosing among alternative means and goals.
8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. Virtually, all OD interventions promote problem-solving, not politics, as a preferred way to get things accomplished. OD interventions increase problem-solving, collaboration, co-operation, fact-finding, and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. For example, OD interventions typically generate valid, public data about the organization¶s culture, processes, strengths, and weaknesses. Valid, public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations; rather, they enhance the positive face of power, thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy, it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme power-oriented situations. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power, but not with the negative face of power. Values such as trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first, problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations; second, power equalization, being one aspect of the positive face of power, increases the amount of power available to organization members, and by so doing adds power to the organization. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator, catalyst, problem solver, and educator. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. According to Chris Argyris, the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information, (2) to promote free, informed choice, and (3) to promote the client¶s internal commitment to the choices made. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner, his or her program, and his or her values, methods, and expertise. The OD consultant, like all consultants, provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors, as we discussed earlier. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. In summary, organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. This major strength of OD derives from the strategy of change, the technology, the values, and the roles of OD practitioners.
problem solving. coaching. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). 3. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. it will gain more power. . the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization¶s decision makers).8. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally." 4. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. acceptability. 5. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. in powerful places. 6. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. According to the framework of French and Raven. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. experience. it will be strong externally. both as a person and as a professional. and expertise. preferably multiple sponsorship. 2. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. First. communicating. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. and ability to gain organizational support. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. Success leads to credibility and stature. Skills such as listening.
When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. the manager will vigorously defend it. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. which is to be an expert on process. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. Rule Five: Mind your own business. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. those issues vital to the organization¶s success. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization¶s powerholders. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better.counseling. usually managers. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. . The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. constructive social relationships. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. not by getting involved in the answers. Rule Six: Mind your own business. A valuable byproduct of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one¶s power base. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. OD programs should be results-oriented. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being managercentered. The OD program belongs to the manager. not content. not the OD consultant. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one¶s own or in others¶ political struggles. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills.
A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. the strategy and tactics of influence. Table 8. and personality characteristics. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. and educator. problem solver. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. yet legitimate means of acquiring power." and "going around the formal system. 8. not power activist or power broker. Networking is recognized as a potent. and using contacts for information. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. negotiations the nature of power and politics. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. We could propose more rules of thumb. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator." which arouses defensive actions.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge · Expertise · Information · Tradition Others¶ Support y y Strategies for Success Playing It Straight · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Political access Staff support . The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires.Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. As shown in the figure. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. viable. catalyst. individual power derives from knowledge." "using social networks. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. others¶ support. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others¶ legitimate "turf. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation.
even those of little power. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. This practical. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks´. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. Personal power. effort. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. personal attraction. a person¶s power comes from two main sources. visibility-how much one¶s work is seen by influential people. Whetton and Cameron¶s model is shown in following figure. personal power and position power. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. . The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. arises from expertise. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. and relevance-how important one¶s task is in relation to organizational priorities. Indeed. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. in turn.Personality y y y Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don¶t) use organization rules Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. and legitimacy. ³One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. criticality-how important one¶s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. In this model. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what¶s expected of them.
Fig. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. Whetton and Cameron suggest several means of resisting others¶ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. Our suggestions for . Concluding Comments: In this unit." And. According to these authors. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. reciprocity. Having power is one thing. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. collaborative work environment. Retribution refers to coercion and threats. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. Usually reason is the preferred strategy. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. and (3) empowering others. arise from known conditions. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people¶s inappropriate influence attempts. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. power-in-use is called influence. Power and politics are similar in nature. and are amenable to positive control. and (6) build on success. (2) provide a positive. 8. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. and retribution. actually using it to get things done is another.
and are amenable to positive control. _____________ has identified two faces of power. McClelland 3. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success.using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. 4. 8. Power can be either positive or negative. 8. Harold Lasswell . 3.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. Self Assessment Questions 1.. when and how. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. 2. 8. 5. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. ±±±±±± is the intentional influence over the beliefs. reputation and professional credibility. arise from known conditions. Define organization politics. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups.10 Terminal Questions 1. Power 2.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. when. Referent power 4. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. emotions or behaviour of people. ±±±±±±±± defined politics as the study of who gets what. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. 5. 4. and how. 3. 2. Describe briefly various theories of power. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ±±±± ±±±±±±±. ±±±±±±±±±± is made up of Charisma. Power and politics are similar in nature. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems.
4 Management By Objectives 9. Refer section 8. Refer section 8.2 Meaning and Definitions 9.6 5.3 Socio Technical Systems 9. Refer section 8.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .4 3. Refer section 8.6 Quality of Work Life Projects .5 4. Personality Answers to TQs: 1.Refer section 8.5 Quality Circles 9.1 Introduction Objectives 9.2 2.5. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9.
One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization. . An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9.8 Total Quality Management 9.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. actions. · Explain Reengineering. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.9. In this dynamic and fluid environment. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis. organizational problems may repeat. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.10 Summary 9. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program. · Explain Total Quality Management.11 Terminal Questions 9. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design. Objectives: After studying this unit.
1988): Determining the environmental demands Creating a vision statement Educating organizational members . Cost is Low. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. Succession Doesn¶t Destroy Change Effort. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. 2. Rapidity of change. 3. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. organization theory. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. It endeavors to re-design the organization¶s structure. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. From a benefit cost analysis. 4. In addition. This normally is a reasonable. Downsizing associated with restructuring. It could involve the following steps (Foster. Pasmore. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. Basic reinforcement theories. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change.9. 1967. Structure changes are normally ³institutionalized´ and less subject to this problem. 1976. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. Cummings. 9. 5. The cost of structural change is generally ³front-end´ loaded. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. Greater Predictability.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. and more critically. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. Organization Acceptance of Change.
Since then. In fact. As an approach to management. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. Creating the change structure Conducting socio-technical analysis Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. therefore. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. with objective orientation as its essence. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. It is a particular way of thinking about management. non-specialist. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of . Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. On the other hand. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. 2. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. physical. Certain degree of overlapping is there. its definitional aspect.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO).´ Based on the definition of MBO. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner.´ The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: ³MBO is a result-centered. its features can be identified as follows: 1. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques.
each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. The performance review is held regularly. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. 4. its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. Questions. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. in interaction with external factors. It works as an integrating device. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources.management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. 1. Similarly. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. all the units or departments and individual manager. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. delegation of authority. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. This. Therefore. superiors and subordinates. Therefore. and participation of the managers with accountability for results. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. Resource allocation. (ii) long-range . Therefore. the clarity and balance of objectives. Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. enhancement of employee commitment and participation. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be.. are determined on the basis of objectives. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. What business are we in?´ and what should be our business?´ provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. normally once a year. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities. such as. including the corporate level. 6. 5. etc. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. ³why does the organization exist?´. 3. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. its subsystems and people. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO.
(iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. (v) individual manager¶s objectives. Therefore. the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. 4. Sometimes. Even though KRAs are most durable. In fact. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). and (viii) public responsibility. (vii) manager performance.and strategic objectives. this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. Thereafter. what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate¶s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by setting easily achievable objectives. 2. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. with the experience gained over the period of time. By relating these to objectives. (vi) financial and physical resources. the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. (iii) short-term organizational objectives. (ii) market standing. (v) worker performance. Therefore. However. It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. By relating these to objectives. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization¶s health and the top management perspective for the future. a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. there should be matching between objectives and resources. (iii) innovation. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. . 3. In turn. Therefore. resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. Setting Subordinates¶ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. (iv) productivity. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability. they also indicate the resource requirement. If not. there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. 5. The process of objective setting begins with superior¶s proposed recommendations for his subordinate¶s objectives.
Quality circle program consists of several circles. information. it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. each having three to fifteen members. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. 9. this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s. appropriate feedback and employee discretion.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. in general. and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. QWL programs.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. but in its contemporary form. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization¶s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases. hierarchical structure. 9.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. 9.6. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization. what happens at each level may affect other levels also. · Make recommendations for improvement. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal. knowledge. which consequently result into high level of task variety. require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. or in people¶s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. on paper. and rewards. . Therefore.
8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization¶s activities around the concept of quality. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches. eliminating. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. contemporary measures of performance. such as cost. including the use of quality circles. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. and speed. Reengineering is a top-down process.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. and extensive use of employee participation. Self Assessment Questions . It is also called continuous quality improvement. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. statistical process control.9. service. · Participative management. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. provides relevant information to all employees. · Competitive benchmarking. quality. 9. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. self-managed teams and task forces. It is very popular in USA in 1990s. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. statistical quality control.
structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. Intervention 2. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. 9. 9.11 Terminal Questions 1. It is also called continuous quality improvement. Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement.1. actions. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. 2. 3. Quality circle Answers to TQs: .12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. From a benefit cost analysis. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. 9. provides relevant information to all employees. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. actions. Drucker 3. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964.
2 Nature of Change 10.8 Terminal Questions 10. Refer section 9.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .9 Answers to SAQs and TQs .6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change.3 Resistance to Change 10. Refer section 9.4 Causes for Resistance to Change. Refer section 9. 10.2 3.1. Self Assessment Questions 10.Refer section 9.3 2.5 4.1 Introduction Objectives 10. MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.7 Summary 10.
10. However. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). · Impact of change on future managers. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. or social. 10. Organizational change is a continuous process. job design and people. Thus. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. less.whether physical. Hence. organizational problems may repeat. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. 3. biological. indirectly.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. Thus. structural arrangement. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. When change occurs in any part of the organization. In this dynamic and fluid environment. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. may require special change efforts. and others. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled . which are major ones. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. and others. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. 2. some parts of organization may be affected more.2 Nature of Change The term µchange¶ refers to an alteration in a system. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. organizational change may have the following features: 1. others. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. Any change may effect the whole organization. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. some parts may be affected directly. Objectives: After studying this unit.
In fact.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. employees want to maintain a status quo. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. However. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. commented. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. but when a change is major or unusual. Madhur Bajaj. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. because it produces identical symptoms. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change.balloon. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. However. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). Thus. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. If people resist to change. We wanted a new culture and new layout. In fact. it becomes indented at the point of contact. On this phenomenon. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. Similarly. Homeostasis implies selfcorrecting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. it has stretched slightly. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers.´ Resistance as Benefit: . adjustment is fairly routine. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. that is. if we look minutely. ³The Pune plant is fully saturated. In fact. more serious upsets may occur. so is the resistance to change. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. We shall take new workers at the new place. there are two sides of resistance.as cost and as benefit. 10. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations.
On the one hand, resistance to change is costly affair, and on the other, it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. While on negative side, the reality lies in between. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Thus, resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: 1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Therefore, the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. These feelings, either real or emotional, may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic, psychological and social. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological, job security etc. precede over other needs. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques, technology, etc., whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them, they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India, it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely, reduce job options, and turn into technological unemployment. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match.
3. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes, bonus, etc. All these are well-established in the old system. Whenever there is change, people may feel that in the new system, they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Psychological Factors Psychological factors are based on people¶s emotions, sentiments and attitudes towards change. These are qualitative and, therefore, may be logical from people¶s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent¶s point of view. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness, status quo, lack of trust in change agent, low tolerance for change, and fear of unknown. 1. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego, people resist change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Thus, the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. 2. Status Quo: People want status quo. i.e. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore, everyone tries to avoid it. 3. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo, people may differ. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Therefore, these people resist any new idea. 4. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent, that is, the person who initiates change. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent, they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 5. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The change will bring results in future, which is always uncertain. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction, particularly social needs, through their mutual compatible interactions. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change, people resist it. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.
1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. When there is any change, their existing social interactions are likely to be changed, which people do not want. Therefore, they resist change. 2. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class, e.g., change initiated by managers affecting workers. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change, even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. For example, Sumantra Ghoshal, a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru, has commented as follows: ³Nothing fails like success; nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation, Caterpillar, Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles, all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called µThe Failure of Success¶. Strategies, values, resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés, dogmas, millstones and routines.´ This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought, these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes, stability of systems, resource limitations, sunk cost, and inter-organizational agreement. Some of these reasons are basic while others are byproducts of those. For example, first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. 1. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices, they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. 2. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. For example, a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules, prescribes rigid authority relationships, and institutes reward and punishment system. All these work in some circumstances. It a change is required in these aspects, the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system.
Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. decentralized controls. 5. if the change is required. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. intensive planning. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. prospectors. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. 2. if any change is to be incorporated. If it is risk-taking. 1. For example. Thus. Let us see what someone has said long back: ³There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. It depends more on the style of top management. these can be used for specific period. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. 3. Once the assets are acquired. forward-looking.defenders. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. In such a case. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. analyzers. it will require resources to procure machine. and reactors. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. . those who watch things happen. building and training for its personnel. 4. For example. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. broad environmental scanning. and has zeal for progress. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. and commensurate expenses on other items also. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. Now. Resource Limitations: No doubt. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. In this interaction process. This can be in the form of people also. if new technology is adopted. centralized control.3. those who wonder what happened. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves.´ This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. innovative. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment.
adjusting to the new office layout. or deferred. And people in general don¶t like the unknown. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. we don¶t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day.4. we all rely on habits. you find a single route and you use it regularly. or the like. To cope with this complexity. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. engaging in a work showdown. immediate. or programmed responses. Life is complex enough. Organizational resistance . a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. If for example. we¶ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. The same applies to employee. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. some may fear they¶ll be unable to do so. Otherwise. and so on. As human beings. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. they cannot survive. 10. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won¶t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. Habit Every day. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one¶s income. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. implicit. When we are confronted with change. For instance. when you go to work or school. it means you¶re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. threatening to go on strike. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you¶re like most people. For analytical purpose. They may. developing a new lunchtime routine. Let¶s look at the sources of resistance. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. we¶re creatures of habit. When Boeing announces its laying off 10.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn¶t necessarily surface in standardized ways. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. therefore.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. taking a new set of streets to work. finding a new parking place. Resistance can be overt. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. Therefore.
mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams.Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. rules and procedures for employees to follow. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. An individual union member. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. and benefits administration ± has been resisted by many human resource departments. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization¶s structure to match. 10. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. That is.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. group norms may act as a constraint. The . Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. for instance. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. development of pay plans. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. Formalization provides job description. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities ± such as training. They tend to be content with the way things are. accountants work with marketers. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. For example. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. for instance. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. he¶s likely to resist. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. For example. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. You can¶t change one without affecting the others. Will the change. For example. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change.
It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. Unless this problem is overcome properly. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. the following efforts can be taken: 1. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels.ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. Locavini observes that ³the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. Stephen Robbins suggests that ³«« managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. People always have some . the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. both at the formal and informal levels. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. However. 10. In addition. Therefore. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. In many cases. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change.´ Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. For this purpose.´ The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. the problems can be solved at the same level. For example. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. at the level of individual and at the level of group. through group dynamics. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue ± not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. typically by way of computer network links. that is. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. It implies explanation and then discussion of the proposed changes.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people¶s resistance to change successfully. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. this is not a one-time action. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture.
Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. the group itself should be the point of contact. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. to become effective. is an important trust-building task. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. . People should be educated to become familiar with change. 4. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. It grows slowly along with relationship. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: 1. education must be a part of the manager¶s everyday activity on the job. and conferences. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. he expresses it through a group. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. The same is true of problem-solving. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. (ii) In group. However. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. more than one person is involved in the change. sometimes. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. Thus. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. Thus. its process and working. However. Usually.ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. helped to change attitudes. its basic nature. 3. most of the times. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. so that they are looked at and evaluated. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. They must be taught new skills. Though each person interprets the change individually often. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. For this purpose. 2. As this process goes. and indoctrinated in new relationships. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. Getting opinions out in the open. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. meetings. as discussed earlier.
group resistance and vested interests. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. and how members contribute. many things about change can be made clear. For instance. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. 3. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. 10. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members.such aspects as the reasons for change. benefits of change. Such training techniques include role playing.Through the group contact. immediate. psychodrama.7 Summary Change is inevitable. or deferred. Resistance can be overt. social factors. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. However. structural arrangement. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. 2. It purports how the results are. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. Economic factors. psychological factors. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing . Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. Research studies also support this aspect. __________ are based on people¶s emotions. and sensitivity or T-group training. job design and people. mere participation may not help. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. Self Assessment Questions 1. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. sentiments and attitudes towards change. 3. implicit. 2.
New Delhi.Response Books. 10. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels..management of Organization Change.8 Terminal Questions 1. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. Thomson South Western. Modern Organization Development and Change. . Organization Theory and Design.. Principles and Practices. P. Jain. or the like. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. Refer section 10.complaints. Organizational change 2. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. · Harigopal K. threatening to go on strike.2 2. · J. P. eighth edition. 10. Reference: · Wendell L. Regal Publications New Delhi. Refer section 10. Why do organizations resist change? 3. Organization Development. Organization Development & Change. Refer section 10. engaging in a work showdown. French and Cecil H. through group dynamics. · Cummings & Worley.4 3. Thomson · Daft Richard L. that is. Jr.Singh. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. Psychological factors 3. both at the formal and informal levels. at the level of individual and at the level of group. Explain the nature of change? 2.6.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. N. Bell. New Delhi.
. Ltd.umd.pdf http://www.pdf http://www. · Laxmi Devi.uk/search/article/634958/the-ceos-role-managing-change/ http://www. · L. E References y y y y y y y y y y y http://fds.com/opm/grtl/OLS/ols6.co. New Delhi. Principles & Practice of Management. Management. New Delhi.com/articles/leadchange. Stoner and R. F. Ltd. Robbins.lib. Anmol Publications Pvt.com/www. · T.oup. Prentice-Hall India.1lowry. Sultan Chand & Sons. New Delhi. N. 12th edition.humtech. Edward Freeman.umich. New Delhi.htm www.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp598.· James A.org/org_chng/org_chng.edu/cameronk/CULTURE%20BOOK-CHAPTER%201.work911.jp/~kyodo/kokyuroku/contents/pdf/1461-15.managementtoday.wdi.oup. Prentice-Hall of India.fao.ac. Chhabra.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v005/5.pdf http://www.managementhelp. Organizational Behaviour.co. Prasad. Organizational Development. Prentice-Hall of India.umich.htm#anchor73776 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Robbbins. Management.kyoto-u.pdf www.html http://muse. Educatiional Publishers.pdf http://webuser.edu/groups/learning/wp8.htm#TopOfPage http://www. · Stephens P.jhu.uk/pdf/bt/fincham/Chapter15. M. Dhanpat Rai & Co.org/docrep/w7503e/w7503e05. · Stephen P. Organizational Behaviour.kurims.cfm http://www.bus. Pvt.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.