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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the µmanagement¶ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn µsurplus¶ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of a
business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term ³management´. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley ± ³Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.´ In the words of George R. Terry ± ³Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.´ According to James L. Lundy ± ³Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.´ In the words of Henry Fayol ± ³To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.´ According to Peter F. Drucker ± ³Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work´. In the words of Koontz and O¶Donnel ± ³Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals´.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren ± ³The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.´ From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that ³management´ is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as ³management´. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a ³distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.´ From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as ³doing things right´. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization¶s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as ³doing the right things´. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of course, high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. And poor
Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. although they can¶t observe it during operation. principles and techniques requires specialized . 7. staffing. organizing. 5. 4. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. Thus. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. 3. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. capital and materials. So it is treated as a science. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. namely. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them.management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. Managers apply knowledge. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. directing and controlling. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. labour. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. 1. principles and techniques which have wide applications. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. feeling of management is result-oriented. In essence. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. informed employees. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals¶ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. Thus. 6. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. All these resources are made available to those who manage. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. The application of these concepts. labour and capital. 2. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness.
In modern organizations. 9. finance manager. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. Similarly. management is viewed as an art. useful. people are bound by authority relationships. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. materials.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. how effectively and economically the five M¶s are combined together to produce desired results. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. and (iii) a class or elite. (ii) a system of authority. Basically. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. According to Herbision and Myers. education. 1. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. materials. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. Anthropology. They transmit orders. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. 8. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem . Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body.knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. For instance. that is. Generally. labour and capital. personnel manager etc. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. money and machines into a productive. military. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. the effective use of the five M¶s of management (money. ongoing concern. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities.e. In other words. 10. a hierarchy of command and control.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. government and hospital. it refers to three distinct ideas. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. Sociology and Psychology. According to Newman. manpower. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men.
1. Financial Controller. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders.. or. But in actual practice. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. etc. technical facilities. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. Supervisors. We generally come across two broad levels of management. The levels of management depend upon its size.e. Production Manager. but as head of wages and salary department. its Chairman. Managing Director.e. (i) administrative management (i. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. viz. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. Administrative management is concerned with ³thinking´ functions such as laying down policy. Marketing Manager. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management.and suggestions upward. Operative management is concerned with the ³doing´ function such as implementation of policies. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. As a separate group. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. etc. policies and plans for the enterprise. and the range of production. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely.. ranks. the lower level of management).. Foremen. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating . day-to-day matters. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. planning and setting up of standards. or the Chief Executive. For instance. Purchase Manager. Board of Directors. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as µManagement¶ which refers to the group. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility.
It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. d) To assemble the resources of money. j) To report to top management.functions. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. Without them the top management¶s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. machines and methods to put the plans into action. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. . b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. materials. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. e) To assign activities. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. 2. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. men.
counseling and effective leadership. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual¶s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. Their authority and responsibility is limited. 3. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. To this end. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. They have to get the work done through the workers. Management is goal-oriented. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. In its absence. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. Without management. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. an organization is merely a collection of men. Management makes group effort more effective. methods. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. 1.k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. sales officers. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. With a view to realize the . the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. machines. accounts officers and so on. money and material. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. They allot various jobs to the workers. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. procedures and reward systems. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. supervisors. It consists of foreman.
Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. Thus unnecessary deviations. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. skills.. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. But unlike medicine or law. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. identifiable discipline. government policy. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. According to McFarland. Management . They try to put everything on the right tract.predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. often threaten the survival of a firm. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. and specialized knowledge. etc. and it is distinct. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. Management as a profession By a professional manager. techniques. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. competition. In the final analysis. Organize the resources properly. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. Failure to take note of customer¶s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for µIdeal java¶ in the two-wheeler market in India. the Indian Institute of Management. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management.
. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. an art as well as a profession. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. Furthermore. unpatterned. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. management is not as exact as natural sciences. the transfer of information. the American Management Association in U. For instance. the All India Management Association. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. But in addition to these insights. managers in general. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. 1. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. This role includes hiring. As a social science. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager¶s job. The term µmanagement roles¶ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. Some individual business organizations. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. However. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature ± interpersonal roles. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. In fact. sabotaging trade unions. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. and short-duration activities. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the . and disciplining employees. bribing public officials to gain favours. motivating. All managers have a role as a leader. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. training. However.S. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. and decision-making.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. do not seem to adhere to the principle of ³service above self´. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers.A.Development Institute. however. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. Half of these managers¶ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. etc. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science.
they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public¶s tastes. and may be inside or outside the organization. Table 1.liaison role. making phone subordinates to members of the calls to relay information. Informational Roles: All managers. training. to some degree. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. subordinates. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. informers who provide favors performing other activities and information. This is the disseminator role. network of outside contacts and doing external board work. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. obliged to Greeting visitors. what competitors may be planning. duties of a legal or social nature. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. activities that involve responsible for staffing.1: Mintzberg¶s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Liaison Symbolic head. Informational Monitor Disseminator . Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager¶s unit. understanding of organization and environment. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. and the like. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. manages also perform a spokesperson role. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. Typically. and associated duties. that involve outsiders. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. When they represent the organisation to outsiders.
managers are responsible for allocating human. 1973). Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to develop and initiates ³improvement new programs. projects´ to bring about change.Spokesperson organization ± some information is factual. Inc. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. supervises design of certain projects as well. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. outsiders on organization¶s giving information of the plans. performing all kinds ± in effect. Last. etc. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. . managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. As resource allocators. media. actions.. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. physical and monetary resources. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. Publishers. programming of subordinates work. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. policies. negotiations. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the organizational decisions. Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Source: Henry Mintzberg. Decisional Roles: Finally. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. results. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. serves as expert on organization¶s industry. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization¶s performance. As entrepreneurs. As disturbance handlers. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units.
Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. During the early 1970. Technical Skills: First-line managers. Specifically. and all managers are involved in making decisions. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager¶s level within the organization. motivate. figurehead. Since managers deal directly with people. and conceptual. Conversely. a manager¶s job is varied and complex. However. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. liaison. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. They know how to communicate. the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. finance. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. as well as many middle managers. . Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers ± regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. computers. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. human. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization¶s operations. lead. In fact. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. or manufacturing.An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg¶s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. For example. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization¶s speciality. this skill is crucial. research by Robert L. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. such as engineering. negotiator. the roles of disseminator. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level.
Spriegal and Lansburg. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. Management Management means getting the work done through and with others. administration is a higher level function. Nature 3.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. Administration is a higher level function: Administration refers to policy-making. This view is held by Tead.1. Floerence and Tead. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. Scope . Management relates to execution of decisions. Administration relates to the decision-making. Administrators are basically concerned with planning and control. iii) There is no distinction between the terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ and they are used interchangeably. 2. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. Managers are concerned mainly with organisation and direction of human resources. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. It is a doing function. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. It is a thinking function. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. etc. on the other hand. Thus. It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies. Meaning Administration Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives. plans and policies of the organisation. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. Administration is a determinative function. Spriegel and Walter.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. Table 1. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. According to them. Thus. It is concerned with the implementation of policies.
6. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. DecisionMaking Administration determines Management decides who what is to be done and when it shall implement the is to be done. 8. Explain its characteristics. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. Self Assessment Questions 1. public organisations in the private sector and non-business sector. i. organisations. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. Five M¶s of management (________. middle and lower. 1. Still management is not completely a profession. 1. environmental forces. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. 7. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. operative workforce for the execution of plans. . objectives. ___________. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle level leading and motivation of executives. 5. 3. counseling and effective leadership.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. lower levels of management. Usage of Term The term µadministration¶ is The term µmanagement¶ is often associated with widely used in business government offices.4. _________.9 Terminal Questions 1. Define management.. __________is principally the task of planning. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant at higher levels of management. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management.e. There are three levels of management-top. co-ordinating. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. administrative decisions. 2.
3. Management 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.1.2. Money.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Discuss the importance of management. teamwork Answers to TQs: 1. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management.2 Process of Management 2. materials.3 Planning 2. Refer section 1.3 2.4 Organizing . Refer section 1.5 3.2. MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2. manpower 3. Refer section 1. 1.
1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people´. Planning 2. Coordinating 5. 1949): 1. Objectives: After this studying this unit. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. in recent time. Staffing.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2. Commanding 4. · Explain Planning. . · Explain different functions of management Process.5 Staffing 2.6 Directing 2. Motivating. Management functions are as follows (Fayol.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2.9 Terminal Questions 2. you will be able to: · Define Management process. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. management functions have been regrouped into four categories.8 Summary 2. Directing.2. Controlling However. Organizing. One can also think of management functionally. Organizing 3.
and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. Decision ± Making Taking decisions is a process. the decision to change the design of a product. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. driving comfort. studies on passenger comfort. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. overall goals. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. Objectives are the ends. policies are the means to achieve those ends. leadership is doing the right things³. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. and then set out the method for achieving it. There is a degree of overlap between the two. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. fuel and machine efficiency. cost structure and so on.2. thus. while a policy. Even so. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. However. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. the two are not quite the same. In the football field. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. or where you want go to. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization¶s mission. Through leadership and management often overlap. say a passenger car. and allocating resources. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. Therefore. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: . You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. general strategies.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: ³Management is doing things right. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. 2.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals.
Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. state. How skilled is our workforce? 4. journals and reports (scientific. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. summarizing what the organization does.A mission is the purpose of the organization. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization¶s potential. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. The mission statement is broad. Opportunities. professional. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. Are the facilities outdated? 3. Is research and development adequate? 4. What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. Thus. customers (internal and external). federal. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. What financing is available? 6. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. What is our market share? 5. and trade). Weaknesses. international). Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: . governments (local. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. suppliers. A mission statement should be short ± and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory.
1. Objectives are also called performance goals. as well as gap analysis. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) . effectiveness. etc. Are our rivals weak? 5. return on investment. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. What substitute products exist? In general terms. What are the emerging technologies? 6. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. Are there new competitors? 3. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. the best strategy is one that fits the organization¶s strengths to opportunities in the environment. What are the possible new markets? 3. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. Are market tastes changing? 5. What are the new regulations? 6. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. Generally. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. earnings per share. What is the strength of the economy? 4.
with ideas and resources. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. structuring. who reports to whom. 2. Strategic. procedures. operational plans are based on the organization¶s tactical plans. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. and where decisions are to be made. grouped. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. and relationships between departments. lines of authority. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. Assign work to individuals 6. Organizations are groups of people.5 Staffing .4 Organizing It involves designing. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management.Tactical plans are based on the organization¶s strategic plan. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. Review plans 2. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. In turn. and goals are clearly stated. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. how the tasks are to be grouped. tactical. working toward common goals. 2. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job 4. who is to do. and coordinated.
Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. placement. Theo Haimann ± ³Concerned with the placement. performance appraisal etc. . 3. O¶Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as ³filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. selection. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. appraisal. 4. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. 2. materials. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization.It is not the machines. 5. recruitment. development. money. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. 3. Koontz. recruitment. selection. promotion. This task has been referred to as staffing. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. training. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. compensation and training of needed people´. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. 2. inventorying the people available. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals´. placement. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick ± ³Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work´ Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. Definition: 1.
3. Through direction.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. vacancies arise out of retirement. directing is the ³interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals´. training development and maintenance of personnel. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. etc. on the other. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. 2. motivate them. It is an important managerial function. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. 5. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. identifying the manpower requirements. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. management initiates actions in the organization. Definition According to Koontz and O¶Donnel. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. recruitment. Direction has dual objectives. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. 8. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through ± out the life of an organization. induction. promotion. resignation. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. On the one hand. 2. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. Direction is an important managerial function.e.6. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. It is instructing people as to what to do. 7. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. 4. . overseeing and leading people. It is a continuing function. selection. Direction function is performed at every level of management.
The manager never ceases to direct. As Theo Haimann puts it. and achievement. status. proposed by Maslow (1943). ³without the issuance of directives. autonomy. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. acceptance. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. The further they progress up the hierarchy. teach. such as. thirst. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. shelter. humanness and psychological health a person will show. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. 3. Theories X and Y. guide. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. and external esteem factors. and the Two-Factor theory. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. 4. and attention . and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. recognition. will vary depending upon his level.Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. from the basic to the complex. such as. sex. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. the more individuality. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. belongingness. 2. 2. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished´. satisfied needs cannot. self-respect. The needs are arranged in order of importance. coach and supervise his subordinates. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied.
advancement. interpersonal relations. and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. includes growth. anxious to accept greater responsibility. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. achieving one¶s potential. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. Theory Y ± In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. working conditions. and salary are hygiene factors. It is also believed that. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. such as. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. autonomy and empowerment. From the above. self-motivated. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. Theory X ± In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. Extrinsic factors. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. . Social. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people¶s attitudes about work. responsibility. such as. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. if they can. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. Motivators are intrinsic factors. whereas. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. and achievement. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager¶s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. company policy. supervision. externally.· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. esteem. recognition. self-direction. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. and exercise self-control.
Self Assessment Questions 1. 3. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. who reports to whom. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. who is to do. When hygiene factors are adequate. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. 2. Organization involves designing. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. 2.In summary. structuring. have to do with a person¶s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. and where decisions are to be made. many related to the tasks being performed.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: . Planning involves the process of defining goals. Explain Staffing in detail 3. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. Hygiene factors on the other hand. recruitment. motivators describe a person¶s relationship with what she or he does. To motivate people. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. 2. Write a short not on directing. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. people will not be dissatisfied.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. What is planning? 2. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. performance appraisal etc.9 Terminal Questions 1. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. 2. how the tasks are to be grouped. neither will they be satisfied.
1. Reference 2. Reference 2.5 Goals of OD 3.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1 Introduction Objectives 3.7 Role of OD 3. Reference 2. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3.3 Characteristics of OD 3.8 Problems in OD .5 3.4 Categories of OD 3. SWOT 3.3 2.6 OD and Management Development 3. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1.2 Definitions 3. Follett 2.
And organization development (OD) is one of them. In summary. and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks. the answer is ³yes´. challenges from turbulent environments. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope. and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. Simple survival ± continuing to have an adequate job ± is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. Today. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. strategy formulation and implementation. A variety of solutions exists.Self Assessment Questions 3. fighting obsolescence of one¶s knowledge and skills. old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. . take advantage of opportunities. increased competition. strategy. Although new jobs are being created at record rates. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology. ³Knowledge´ work is replacing ³muscle´ work. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges ± finding satisfaction in and through work. Early returns were encouraging. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals. Basically. culture. organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. and the organization¶s human and social processes. adapt.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3. and changing customer demands. and profitability. organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future.9 Summary 3.10 Terminal Questions 3. survive. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today¶s world is a daunting task. and processes. efficiency. organization development is a process of teaching people how to solve problems. conflict resolution. and the like. organization structure. and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately. OD focuses on issues related to the ³human side´ of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today ± threats to effectiveness. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. teams. and learn how to do that better and better over time.
and challenges.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change. (Bennis. attitudes. and culture. OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement. · Explain the characteristics of OD. using reflexive. markets.Objectives: After studying this unit. (Schmuck and Miles. and the dizzying rate of change itself. a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs. 1971) Organizational development is a process of planned change. 3. 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure. people. and 3) Developing the organization¶s self-renewing capacity (Beer. you will be able to: · Define organization development. Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives«. · State the goals of OD. processes. 1989) . 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions. strategy.change of an organization¶s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making. planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. 1980). · Discuss the categories of OD programme. A ³process for improving processes´ ± that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill. (Burke and Hornstein. self-analytic methods. 1969).
it is more accurate to describe ³improvement´ as a never-ending journey of continuous change. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. Now let¶s turn to our definition of organization development. these definitions overlap a great deal (that¶s encouraging). to improve an organization¶s visioning. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. that is. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving.´ (Cummings and Worley. led and supported by top management. 1994) As you can see. We will explain this definition in some detail. and theory. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. through an ongoing. and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. values.´ (Porras and Robertson. strategies. ³Organization development is a long-term effort. Collectively. 1993) ³Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization¶s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies. and problem-solving processes. empowerment. and processes for improving an organization¶s effectiveness. There is no ³quick fix´ when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. including action research. and contain several unique insights (that¶s enlightening). In fact. Likewise. learning. serious business.³Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories. through the alteration of organizational members¶ on-the-job behaviours. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. 1992) ³OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies. we mean that organizational change and development takes time.´ This definition is lengthy. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. research. Top management must initiate the improvement . There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field. All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. By long-term effort. We do not propose it as the ³right´ definition.´ (Burke.several years in most cases. Organizational change is hard. and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance. what practices should be included and excluded. structure.
beliefs. not just a small group. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization¶s culture. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. one of widespread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization¶s purposes. activities. Michael Beer¶s definition called for ³developing new and creative organizational solutions´. so is managing the culture. and each influences the others. attitudes. or became distracted with other duties. team. structure. coherent. learning. sentiments. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization¶s members. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. And second. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. By learning processes. structure. we mean those interacting. and organizational learning. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. make decisions. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. and challenges in the organization¶s environment and its internal functioning. By including culture so prominently in our definition. and take actions on problems. For empowerment to become fact of life. The reciprocal influence among culture. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. has a stake in making the organization work. and artifacts. expectations. interactions. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. solve problems. By empowerment processes. first. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. assumptions. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. By empowerment. we mean. Just as visioning. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. and processes makes each important. Still. and culture. norms. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. opportunities. culture is of . We further believe that having compelling.´ Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. commitment. vitality. strategy. where collective aspiration is set free. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. By visioning processes. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as ³« organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. empowerment. developing the strategy for getting there. in contrast to having only a select few involved. and making it happen. listening. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent.³journey´ and be committed to seeing it through. processes. and common purposes of all members of the organization. lost its commitment.
Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. He uses the terms µmultifunctional projectization¶ and µhorizontal systems¶ to describe these teams and their work. values. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. and problem-solving processes. Today¶s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. wasted time. Over time. Processes are how things get done. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be ³brain work´) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the ³right´ ways. This method resulted in loss of synergy. much rework. and procurement. Temporary. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. and using management information. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. discovered. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. . empowerment. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: ³Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. In Liberation Management. Further. members are trained in competencies such as planning. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. hiring. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. By intact work teams and other configurations. firing. think. When teams function well. individuals and the organization function well. the process ³threw the results over the wall´ to the next functional unit. But in many organizations today. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. or developed by a given group. and feel in relation to those problems. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. manufacturing. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. engineering. maintaining quality control. So culture consists of basic assumptions. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. When one function finished with its part of the project. so they are the place OD programs often begin ± getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. such as design. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. think.primary importance. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. and we highlight the importance of visioning. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. empowerment. learning. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. Processes are relatively easy to change. (b) invented. and training.
and co-learners with the client system. 6. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. OD practitioners are facilitators. OD . OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. OD focuses on culture and processes. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD.3 Characteristics of OD 1. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today¶s fast-paced market place. 9. 7. according to Peters. 5. Specifically. To summarize. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. 4. 3. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. This µplanned¶ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. 3. 10. collaborators. rather than focusing attention on individuals. Attempting to create ³win-win´ solutions is standard practice in OD programs. so that change is easily observed. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. 8. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. 2. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. 2. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods.multifunctional. dynamic and adaptive system.
Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. At the individual level. He shares a social philosophy about human values. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. Key areas are the normative type of model. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change.efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. Action research is the basis for such intervention. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. participation. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. rather. further more. Rather. 4. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be µhuman¶ and to increase awareness. takes actions for intervention. collects relevant data. he conducts surveys. joint goals and means. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. The relationship involves mutual trust. 5. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. and revitalization. they are ongoing. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. temporary. and integrate individual and organizational goals. or catalyst. and then. identity. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. 7. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements . growth. 3. rather. problem-solving. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that µnorms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones¶. third party change agent. and cyclic processes. evaluates these data. 3. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. They discourage µdo it yourself¶ approach. interactive. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. It recognizes that organizational goals change. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. 6. Thus. or isolated problems. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. and mutual influence.
. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. with the authority of knowledge and competence. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. 3. practitioners and the client laymen. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and.of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. This Organization Development progrmmes. Two important elements of Organization Development are. second. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. first. (g) To increase the sense of µownership¶ or organization¶s objectives throughout the work force. (c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. like other normative re-educative programmes. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization¶s goals (profit or service) and development of people. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. problem solving climate throughout an organization. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open.
He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage.(h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one¶s area of responsibility. according to him. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. However. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager¶s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. management development has been defined as follows: ³Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. (ii) competitiveness. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. According to him. and greater display of feelings and emotions.6 OD and Management Development At this stage. with their existing objectives and structure. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. more attention to peer-groups. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. Before making a comparison between the two. (iii) assertiveness. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. 3. Based on this. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. less individual competitiveness. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. The term µdevelopment¶ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education.´ Organization development differs from management development. . Miner has drawn difference between two processes.
as a long-term strategy for organizational change. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. and laterally. however. 3. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. Educative and training Short-range. 3. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. 2.Focus Approach Time Specialist accomplishments. Focus on design. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. By 70s. . Thus. focus on achieving improvement in design. Problem-solving approach. 5. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. In early 60s. 6. 4. not on the managers.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. 3. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. however. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. plays key role in organizational improvement. No special requirement. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. horizontally. Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing organization. Trained specialists required. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. 7.
OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. In general. Research studies have also failed to conclude significant contributions of OD in all organizations. it is useless to try OD. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. If an organization is laden with these people. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. Therefore. 5. 2. 4. some specific efforts are required. There should be proper use of OD interventions. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. 3. Therefore. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. OD programmes are often quite costly. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. Thus. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization.confrontation techniques. For example. Self Assessment Questions . It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. it fails even as a long-term strategy. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. 4. However. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. 2. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. Hence. 5. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. 3. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. in order to make best use of OD efforts. etc. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. particularly in bottom-line ones.
Distinguish between µorganizational development¶ and µmanagement development¶. 3. Organization development should be led and supported by ±±±±±±±. 2. Empowerment 4.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. State the various roles of OD. Explain its salient features. 3. 4. ±±±±±±± is associated with ³Liberation Management´. ±±±±±±±±± is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices.10 Terminal Questions 1. problem-focused µnature of OD¶ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. Who is associated with the ³Learning Organizations´? 5. Explain the various characteristics of OD. Define OD. 5.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. _____________is a short-term strategy. Tom Peters 3. 3. There is no µquick fix¶ to organizations¶ problems. Peter Senge . It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. collaborative. 3. The participative. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. 2. Management development aims at developing the managers individually.1. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. OD focuses on culture and processes. Top management 2. 4.
3 Process Consultation 4. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.5 Leadership Development 4.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .6 4.3 3.2 2.1 Introduction Objectives 4. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.2 Survey Feedback 4.6 Team-building .4 Grid Training 4. MU0002-Unit-04.Organization Development ± Interventions Unit-04. Management development Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 3.7 5.5.Organization Development ± Interventions Structure: 4.
9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. work group. team-building. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: ³Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. Thus. Further. survey feedback. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels. Therefore. Historically. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. inter-group level. For example. interpersonal level. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic.8 Change Agents 4. mediation and negotiation activities. grid training. and survey feedback method. and organizational level. other techniques like process . This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization.4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. education and training. However. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. People¶s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. management grid. Nevertheless. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the range of change that an organization requires. and organizational culture. Subsequently. the classification of OD interventions shows variation.11 Terminal Questions 4.10 Summary 4. they make things happen.7 Inter Group Development 4. inter-group activities. process consultation. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. group level.´ There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. techno-structural activities.
consultation, team- building, and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives, have been added. Our further discussion follows this development. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. · Explain grid training. · Describe process consultation. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Role of change agents. 4.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid), the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier, Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan, USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 2. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection, feedback of information, developing action plans based on feedback, and follow up. 1. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership ± managerial support, managerial goal emphasis, managerial work facilitation, peer support, peer goal emphasis, peer work facilitation, and peer interaction facilitation, organizational climate-communication with the company, motivation, decision-making, control within the company, co-ordination between departments, and general management, and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company, satisfaction with the supervisor, satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with the pay, and satisfaction with the work group. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization¶s personnel.
After the questionnaires are completed, data are classified, tabulated, and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 2. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed, feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. In oral system of feedback, it is provided through group discussion or problemsolving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively, feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted, it should be constructive and suggestive, rather, threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case, follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building, by the consultant. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. In particular, survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. 2. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However, effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. First, questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. If it is biased, all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Second, even if valid and reliable information is collected, it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change; it provides base for action for change. 4.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Edgar Schein, the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows:
³The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client¶s environment.´ The basic objectives of P.C are as follows: 1. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership, communication, roles and functions of group members, group decision-making and problemsolving, group norms, and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD. 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 2. Define the Relationship: At this stage, client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees, and spelling out services, time, etc. At this stage, the client¶s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. 3. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. At this stage, the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 4. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 5. Intervene: At this stage, the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural change. 6. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.C is completed, the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes, he assists the
C programmes. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations.organizational members to incorporate those changes. P.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. objective-setting. traditions. From this point of view. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. 2. and alike. The skills relating to planning. and problemsolving are also developed. However. and total organizational levels. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. 3. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. inter-group.C is also not free from criticisms. 2. 4. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. However. and teamwork. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant¶s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. The grid organization development consists of six phases. . like other OD intervention techniques. communication skills. Inter-group Development: At this phase. knowledge. In the review of various P. groups. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. P. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. group. and the organization as a whole. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. focuses on skills. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. problem-solving. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. 1. 3.
The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. the various programmes may be redesigned. in spite of these criticisms. grid training is a non-rigorous method. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. The strategy is then implemented. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. Furthermore. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. Further. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. confident and effective decision-making.´ In a later work. is the ability of leadership to«well. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. Slogging Through The Swamp. complete communication that is timely. therefore. 4. and After Arrival. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. while at the same time . competence. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp".5 Leadership Development When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). and regular.4. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. In this light. Also during these times of change. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. If you are to manage change effectively. lead. and credibility of senior and middle management. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. 5. 6. They have maintained that ³managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. concerned and committed to their welfare. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. During drastic change times. We will look more carefully at each of these. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. they maintained the same stand. Systematic Critique: In this stage. it discounts reality. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence.
In organizations characterized by poor leadership. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. which. teambuilding is the most important. problems in team-work. if haven¶t established a track record of effective leadership. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. brings hope for better times in the future. 4. norming. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. how synergy is generated through team-work. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. let us consider the life cycle of a team.´ A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone¶s best interests. Unfortunately. performing. storming. 4. These stages are: forming. French and Bell have opined that ³probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. As against these. employees expect nothing positive. Leadership before. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as ³who will be members of the team?´ ³Who will perform what functions?´ ³Who will contribute what?´ ³What rules will be . therefore. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. In a climate of distrust.recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. widely accepted. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. if allowed to go on for too long. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. it may be too late. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team¶s time together. For example. The existence of this trust.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. but more importantly.
This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. team members start settling. 5. 4. start to accept others. etc. because of individual differences. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. At this stage. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. Sooner or later. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. Norming: After storming stage. 2.followed?´ ³How can conflicts among members be resolved?´ and so on. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. each team has to be adjourned. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team¶s goals. committee. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. 3. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status.´ . The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: ³Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. jockeying for relative control. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. At this stage. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. The adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. After the adjournment of the team. However. They share personal information.
A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. other factors remaining the same. the complementarity among members is achieved. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. To the extent. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. group efforts tend to slacken. In such an assignment. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. the team would be effective. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. 2. fail to perform their assigned tasks. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. it appears that there are many . For example.Thus. They averaged 138. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. it was found that individuals¶ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. In the above paragraph. and attitudes. goals. group of eight. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. the individual average dropped down still lower-68. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. and so on. that is. In fact. other factors remaining the same. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group¶s meetings. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. From this statement. in one experiment.2 pounds. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too.
Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals. complementary skills. 2. These factors are skills and role clarity. While skills are relevant for job performance. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group. and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. or propose discipline for team members. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. Even if one member lacks behind. supportive environment. . common purpose. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. make recommendations regarding a new supervisor. and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. serve to focus attention. unify efforts. goals. Further. Rewards of both types. have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. Katzenbatch and Smith. organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. 4. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance. 3. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal.factors in an effective team. Thus. 3. 1. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one¶s own role as well as roles of other members. then. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality. two things are required from its members. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. Therefore. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. 2. they will put their maximum. customer satisfaction. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team.financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. management consultants. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. These super-ordinate goals. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork.
the emphasis should be on consensus. Fig. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. rather. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. and rewards. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. 4. 2. 4. the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. At this stage. and 5. such as. Analyzing how the work is performed. Setting goals and priorities for the team. Providing positive feedback. In problem identification.4. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. recognition. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. Analyzing how the team is working. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. personality and attitudes. and 5. 3. generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. group problems to even personal problem. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds. Analyzing how team¶s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. 2. For achieving these. their value systems. . 1.
seeking relevant information. At this stage. Followup action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of team-building. belittling. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings. members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. 4. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. the way people talk about the issue. with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. (ii) Attacking: deriding. ensuring. . the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. etc. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. criticizing person. who was trying to resolve the differences. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. information. cynicism. people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. Often.3. about the issue. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. Negative Behaviour (i) Over talk: interrupting. undermining morale. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours: Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. If this process is adopted several times. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. who was talking more or who was talking less. (iii) Clarifying: resting. etc. At the time of discussion of feedback. understanding. clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team. talking together with speaker. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team¶s responsibilities. 5. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas. encouraging others to participate. feelings. (iii) Negative: cooling. also provides opportunity to understand themselves. the stying with the topic or going off on tangents. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing.
Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. team-building has a positive outlook. structure. and perceptions that groups have of each other. listening. stereotypes. As a result. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. However. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. etc. though. Therefore. However. In general. communicating. management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage. It seeks to change to attitudes. it is not that effective in isolation. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. monitoring. and feedback skills).. in different degrees. 4. In spite of these problems. team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention.These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. to encourage and sustain such feelings. 3. 2. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. are not given adequate attention. it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the organization¶s outcomes. one of the more . It improves the organization¶s problem-solving and decision-making ability. 2. However. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working.
internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. For major change efforts. 4. after which similarities and differences are discussed. Trainer . however. Outside consultants. the other group. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. Differences are clearly articulate. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. with members from each of the conflicting groups. as the accelerator to build up momentum. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes ± which can be benefit or a disadvantage ± because they don¶t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. culture. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. as the break for too quick action. Subgroups. According to Curtis Mial: ³The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. In this method. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. 4. In contrast. The groups then share their lists. the groups can move to the integration phase ± working to develop solutions that will improve relations.Popular methods emphasize problem solving. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. employees of the organization. and personnel. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization¶s history. or outside consultants. but one thing he/she is not the driver´.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . operating procedures. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations.
Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. Grid Training was developed by ±±±±±±±±±±±± 3. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. group. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. inter-group and total organization levels. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. skills and change in behavior. In process consultation.A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. films. 4. Data collection. Self Assessment Questions 1.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. 2.11 Terminal Questions 1. It focuses on skills. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. presentations. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. Training is required for enhancing knowledge. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. cases and experiential learning etc. diagnosis. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. Team-building is most important. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. group discussions. feedback of information. role-plays and instruments. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Training is used both in µcontent orientation¶ and process orientation¶. attitudes and beliefs. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? . changing (intervening) and refreezing. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies ± lectures. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts.
Refer section 4. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 4. 3. and Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values.2 3. 4.6 4. MU0002-Unit-05-Values. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5. Refer section 4. Assumptions. Blake and Mouton. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Data collection 2. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? 3.2.4 2.1 Introduction . Refer section 4. Assumptions. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4.
you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5. · List the chronology of events of values. beliefs and assumptions. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5. assumptions.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5.5.5. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies.Objectives 5. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development.5. Objectives: After studying this unit.2 Definitions . Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions. 5.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves.2 Definitions 5. beliefs and assumptions.7 Terminal Questions 5.1 Introduction A set of values.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5.
and that rationality. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources ± the Hawthorne studies. with values being beliefs about good and bad. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. OD values tend to be humanistic. . and the like. treat people with respect and dignity.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought y Frederick Winslow Taylor s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. dishonesty). it is a cognitive fact for the person. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. assumptions. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions.g. values. or spirit of the time. the laboratory training movement. 5. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power.A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. free speech) and what is undesirable or µbad¶ (e. Simple. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. Values. assumptions. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. and assumptions being. reason. As these ingredients accumulated. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual." or slacking off. Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or µgood¶ (e. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. optimistic. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person.. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. and democratic. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. research on the effects of different leadership styles." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all.. the human relations movement. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics.g. strongly held. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. Taylor s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. Thus. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly.
Group Dynamics (1940) The scientific study of groups using experimental research methodswas launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. In a sense. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. and the supervisor determined their performance. Lippitt (1939). Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. extensive division of labor. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people s beliefs about organizational behaviour. These approaches possessed many desirable features. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. impersonal rules. their feelings and attitudes about the work. People were not cogs. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). apathy. A strong hierarchy of authority. People came to work as whole people. The Functions of the Executive by Chester 1. Research by Lewin. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. much of the research. aggressiveness and poor performance. most efficient way to organize people. wrote an article on The Giving of Orders advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. organizations were not machines. theory. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. and a general humanizing of the workplace. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. Their simple. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. The human relations movement advocated participative management. Mary Parker Follett (1926). training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. the work environment. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. greater attention to workers social needs.y The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of bureaucracy as the best. y y y y y y y . Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. a management theorist and astute observer of labour-management relations. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited.
Lester Coch and John R. This article introduced the concept of organizations as socio-technical systems. this book popularized Maslow s motivation theory. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. to assume responsibility. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. higherlevel needs become dominant. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. French s (1948) article. lack ambition. and understand group dynamics. Rogers focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. indifferent to the organization s needs. Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. resist change.y These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). a mechanistic organization y y y y y y y y . In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. The theory postulated that when lower-level needs are satisfied. increase self-understanding. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. The task of management is to change organizational structures. In an environment of slow change. management practices. a direct precursor of OD. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. Overcoming Resistance to Change. caring social climate. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). healthy adults. are self-centered. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. dislike responsibility. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. Chris Argyrif s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. P. reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. and need to be led. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. pioneers in laboratory training. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement.
. Values have always been an integral part of OD. Out of this zeitgeist. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. practice. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. in an environment of high change. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. compromise. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company OD Six-Pack. one-on-one leadership style.structure may be appropriate. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. The Social Psychology of Organizations by Daniel Katz and Robert L. and greater individual autonomy." that is. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. humanistic. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. an organic organization form is preferred. bureaucracy. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. and shares decision-making with the work group. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. Writing in 1969. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. goal-oriented. as we have said. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. open communications. dysfunctions. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. groups. theory. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. and democratic. and unprincipled power. y Rensis Likert s New Patterns of Management (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. These six books presented the theory. and organizations that is. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. and negative consequences. y y This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. · Development of more effective "team management. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. and values of the field. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. optimistic.
" Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility.· Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. Organizations. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. Therefore. 2. sub-units of organizations. the basic units of change are groups. a professor and Sheldon Davis. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). director of organization development. M. "People support what they help create." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. They listed these ³values in transition´ as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. Here is his list. not the basis of managerial strategy. Stalker used the term ³mechanistic´ in contrast to ³mechanical. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article.´ For example. 4. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. . Robert Tannenbaum. not individuals." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. mutual trust. 3. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy." like pushing buttons. and confidence between and across levels. 6. 1. Controls are interim measurements. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. 5. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication.
Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. collaboration and co-operation. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes.· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. 5. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions . the legitimacy of feelings. authentic interpersonal relations. decentralized decision making. participation and contribution by all organization members. autocratic. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. appropriate uses of power. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. toward seeing them as being in process. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. open communication. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. · Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk.
2 Implications for Dealing with Groups Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. and interpersonal communication. support. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. such as a work group. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. 5. and co-operation within the group. encourage risk-taking. To do this. and reward success. facilitation. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. Most people want to develop their potential. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. including peers and boss. permit failure. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. Also. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. First. listen. Second. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. in addition. challenge. at both the formal and informal levels.Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. groups. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. Third. This skill is a trainable one. Hence. and usually with more than one group. not individuals.5. and are capable of making. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. invest training time and money to increase group members¶ skills. Implications of these assumptions are several. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. the family. conflict management. set high standards. support. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. give responsibility. personal growth.5. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. a church or club group. and job satisfaction. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. leaders need to give important work to teams.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. and organizations? 5. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group¶s effectiveness and development. . Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. give autonomy. What occurs in the work group. and so on. remove obstacles and barriers. not a one-on-one leadership style.
Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. Frequently the challenge is broader.5. values are never static. D. and ways to optimize human potential. adherence to the chain of command. and profitability. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization¶s leaders. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. in which one side wins and the other side loses. an optimistic. Therefore. organizing structures. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. are dysfunctional over the long run and highlight the need for a ³win win´ attitude." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. The rapid technological. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. 5. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. formalized cross-functional communication. By implication. In addition. and so on-are obsolete. The implication is that people are an organization¶s most important resource. grouping by specialized function. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. By implication. societal.Finally. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. Finally. and E can support these changes. they change over time. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. a growing awareness that ³win-lose´ organizational situations. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. Still. emphasis on topdown directives. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. including how persons C. quality of output. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where ³putting people first´ paid off handsomely in profits and performance. developmental. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. and empowering. Concluding Comment: . The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better.
8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 2. 3. Values. 3. Taylor¶s principles of scientific management. Cognitive .W. OD values tend to be humanistic. and assumptions are all ±±±±±±±±±± facts. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. 5. 5. beliefs. 4.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5.7 Terminal Questions 1. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. 5. Write a note about F. values. Define concepts. Self Assessment Questions 1. 2. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. Values. Values are also beliefs. but are widely accepted today. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true.The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. 5. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. beliefs and assumptions. The outcome of ±±±±±±±± was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. optimistic and democratic. __________ is associated with scientific management. Values. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. The concept of ±±±±±±±±±± was introduced by MaxWeber.
Refer section 5. Refer section 5.2. Refer section 5. W.2 2.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6. Taylor 3. Hawthorne experiments 5.3 3.3 4.2 Beyond the Quick Fix . Bureaucracy 4. Refer section 5.2. Refer section 5.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6.1 Introduction Objectives 6.2. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 5. F. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6.
you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning.3 Systems Theory 6.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.3.11 Terminal Questions 6. In this discussion.2 Congruence among System Elements 6. you will be able to: .3.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice.3.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.6.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.2.5 Teams and Teamwork 184.108.40.206 Open Systems Thinking 6.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6.10 Summary 6. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.1 The Nature of Systems 6.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6.4 Participation and Empowerment 6. Objectives: After studying this unit.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.
Models and theories depict.· Explain various models and theories of planned change. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables. in words or pictures. · Describe the parallel learning structures.2. and specify the relationships among the variables. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. 6. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in . The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field. That is. · Explain systems theory. describe those features as variables. · Explain the terms µparticipation¶ and µempowerment¶.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. We will examine the following concepts: · Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. the important features of some phenomenon.
This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. Finally. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). moving to new level of behaviour. mentor.opposing directions. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. For example. With a technique called the force-field analysis. that is. feel things. b. Next. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. Lewin¶s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. Lewin¶s second idea was a model of the change process itself. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. that is. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. Identifying with a new role model. judge things. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. etc. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. Likewise. he must move. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. Scanning the environment for new relevant information . believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion.
That is. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. The total personality and self-concept. for example. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person¶s personality. and 5 correspond ro Lewin¶s moving phase. This motivating evidence is gained by. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s unfreezing phase. which motivate the person to change. The primary task in stage 3. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. moving.Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. Significant relationships. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. and Bruce Westley. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. and attitudes. which cause guilt and anxiety. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. unfreezing. In stage 1. establishing goals and intentions of action. Jeanne Watson. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. . Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. and fit with the individual¶s social surroundings. change will not occur. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person¶s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin¶s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. b. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. Phases 3. that is. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. In stage 2. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s refreezing phase. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system¶s problem. refreezing. terminating the client-consultant relationship. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. That is. 4.
Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. 4) The strategy-structure track. 3) The team-building track. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. cause the organization to be successful.This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. 2) The management skills track. when functioning properly. 6." that.2 Beyond the ³Quick Fix´ A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change.2. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. Change programs take from one to five years to complete. and so forth. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? . 2) Diagnosing the problems. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. critique practices and procedures. called "tracks. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". Interventions include training programs. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. Kilmann¶s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. and 5) The reward system track. problem-solving sessions. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points.
6. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. TRW. and so forth. departments. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. revolutionary. The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. and Xerox with good results. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. or discontinuous change. communication. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. jobs. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. Westinghouse. adaptive. OD programs are directed toward both first. and its holistic view of organization change and development. Ford General Electric. . The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. the use of updated management skills. information sharing. General Foods. then moving to the management skills track. Eastman Kodak. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit ± thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call ³transactional change´ and ³transformational change´). evolutionary. In first-order change. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points.2. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. and all resources with the new strategic direction. incremental. radical. or continuous change.and second-order change. In second-order change. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. work groups. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same.The culture track enhances trust. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered ± the organization is transformed. beginning with the culture track. then moving to the team-building track.
6. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees¶ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. values. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. On the other hand.Organizational climate is defined as people¶s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. Changing structure. and so forth. management practices. leadership. individual and organizational performance. management practices. hard-working or easy-going." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. often unconscious. and beliefs that are enduring. and difficult to change. Fig. friendly or unfriendly. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. and organization culture result in second-order change. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. in turn. which change motivation and." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First ± Order Change . We will do so in several steps.
2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second ± Order Change On the other hand. and organization culture. structure. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. as shown in the above figure. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. Burke says: ³Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation.´ We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. These factors are able to change the climate. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. To summarize. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. that is. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. we must change mission and strategy. Interventions directed toward management practices. leadership styles. . The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change.Fig. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization¶s culture. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. 6. mission and strategy.
It is how OD works. 6. Interventions that focus on culture. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. rewarded). it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. physical setting. which influence on-the job behaviours. For example. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements.2. social factors. management style. . which determine organizational performance and individual development. strategies. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. and technology.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. and interaction processes will affect social factors.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. OD interventions that focus on goals.Fig. according to Porras and Robertson. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members¶ cognitions (they learn what is expected. required. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements.
and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory. Fig.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. This section explains systems theory. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. 6.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures.Fig. 6. Systems . describes the characteristics of systems.
" Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. Every system is delineated by a boundary. Boundaries of open systems are permeable.theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. or transformation processes that change the inputs. and if the environment does not want these outputs. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. in that they permit exchange of information. Therefore. interconnectedness. information. The words µarrangement¶ and µinterrelated¶ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. money. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. . and what is outside the boundary is the environment. Organizations are open systems. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy.3. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. or subsystems. and energy between system and environment.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. resources. when taking a systems approach. dynamics. What is inside the boundary is the system." To summarize. Here. the organization¶s purposes will be reflected in its outputs." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. They do something to the inputs via throughput. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. Open systems have purposes and goals.system. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. For example. the reasons for their existence. that is the system. people. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. system denotes interdependency. Thus. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. 6. the organization will cease to exist. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. components. raw material and so on. conversion.
Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. If the mission (target) changes. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. mining. but most are not useful." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. competitors. Say your company makes buggy whips. Information is important to systems in several ways. aerospace. and the system adjusts to a new goal. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. say. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. however. and makes a course correction. Positive feedback comes from the environment. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. "return to earth. For example.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems ³run down´ and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. Systems require two kinds of feedback. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. and so on. and the like. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips.Fig. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. that information is called positive feedback. By the same token. . negative and positive. For example. 6. eating fads. while screening out other information. It is sometimes called deviationamplifying feed back. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output.
and complex over time. this process is called differentiation. such as capital. The three major input factors are: 1) The environment.´ Also. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). and the workforce¶s expectations. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. systems tend to get more elaborated.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. formal organization. knowledge. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. work. important events. people. and individual level. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important.3. With increased differentiation. unit/group level. which includes formal structures. processes. knowledge. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. 6. and informal organization. which includes skills. differentiated. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. specialized. failures.Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. and systems for performing the work. and technology. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. 2) Resources available to the organization. perceptions. which includes the organization¶s culture informal rules and understandings. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state ± systems have multiple paths to goals. Subsystems exist within larger systems. As Katz and Kahn say: ³The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. either internal or external. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. .
and that changes in one system affect the other system. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory." and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. If the organization¶s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. Hanna writes: . and information to the point of action. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. 6. Fred Emery. performance will suffer. to the workers doing the job. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. controlling variance at the source. fit) must be present among the system¶s components¶ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. two active segments of OD today. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model¶s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. For example. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems.3. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar." The premise is that alignment (harmony. forming autonomous work groups. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. a social system and a technical system. multi-skilled teams. In a company that is performing poorly.Fig. that is. . training group members in multiple skills. performance will suffer. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. which components are "not functioning correctly. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. performance will suffer. 6. if people don¶t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. organizations must optimize both systems. especially autonomous work groups (selfregulated teams or self-direct teams).socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems.
In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. and systems thinking. Of all these disciplines.KI Jayaram. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. Charles Krone. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. forces. issues. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. is the most important. He says of systems thinking: ³It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. according to Peter Senge. and 3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. G. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). events and forces. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads.3. but seen in relation to other issues. systems thinking. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). First. . fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. 6. Second. mental models. from their activities. Third. changing one part of a system influences other parts. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. For example. building shared vision. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. events. because most phenomena have more than one cause. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stakeholders. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands.´ In conclusion. team learning. not single effects.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. therefore. Without a systemic orientation. the fifth discipline. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena.
They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. it is extended broadly throughout the organization.Fourth. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. growth. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. quality circles. survey feedback. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. reduce stress levels. One view. increase commitment to the organization." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. and change.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. 6. and to be responsible." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. personal initiative. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. Participation enhances empowerment. They believed that it was about risk-taking." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. team building. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. to exert influence. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. called "organic." These authors believe the organic view. autonomous work groups. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. is the more useful perspective. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. with its emphasis on risk-taking. and growth. involvement and participation energize greater performance." is bottom-up and less controlling. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. one changes the system. produce better solutions to problems. But . to change a system. and give more power to more people. The other view. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. to contribute their ideas. And fifth. For example. To empower is to give someone power. not just its component parts. which they call "mechanistic. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. quality of work life programs. Further. search conferences. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance.
´ 6. systems. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. teaming. as a team. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. QCs (quality circles). Team Taurus developed Ford¶s best-selling automobile. they must if personally connected to the organization. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. but rather a mindset that employees have about their roles in the organization. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). employees must choose to be empowered.both views contain valid ideas: for example. . HPOs (high-performance organizations). the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today ± gurus extol the virtues of teams. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. confident about their abilities. changes those norms and values. STS (socio-technical systems). people must work together to accomplish them. processes. Teams and teamwork are "in. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. to name just a few. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). While management can create a context that is more empowering. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. Theory. the noun team has become a verb. that is. and relationships if they are to be effective. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. teams create synergy. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. is not something that management does to employees. If the team. Third. research. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: ³Empowerment. Second. then. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting.
In this section. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. and others. and explore ways to realize that potential. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. and respect-teams nurture human nature. cross-functional teams. find innovative ways around barriers. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. socio-technical systems programs. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. including collegiate football national champions. team performance declines. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. that they achieve synergy. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. and responsibility charting. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. quality circles. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. recognition. heart transplant surgical teams. and set ever-higher goals. parallel learning structures. teams satisfy people¶s needs for social interaction. status. and the like. role negotiation technique. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. . temporary teams. process consultation. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. help each other.Fourth. When any one feature is lost. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. inter-group team-building. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. Examples are team-building.
Bushe and Shani say: ³The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. autonomous.´ Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. and continuous learning. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. It isn¶t the supplemental structure that¶s important. talking. deciding. Asea Brown Boveri. constitute another important foundation of organization development. What¶s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. and then leading the process. flexible response.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. 6. you don¶t have a parallel structure. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as ³a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. Projects are the work of the future.Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team.´ The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. and employees. 6. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. At Ford Motor Company. High responsibility. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. clear objectives. superior customer service. Interestingly. and initiate needed changes. In essence. Titeflex. managers. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. Union Pacific Railroad. projects will be performed by teams. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). If you don¶t implement different norms and procedures.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing . especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization¶s methods of work and/or culture.
attitudes. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing.Organization development involves change. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. based on the assumptions that people are rational. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. . will follow their rational self-interest. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normativereductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. Change in a pattern of practice or action. and significant relationships. and together they define problems and seek solutions. The first type is empirical rational strategies. values. anxieties. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. according to this view. that is. rather than the OD practitioner. doubts. OD clearly falls within the normative-reeducative category. Evaluated against these three change strategies. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. skills. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. information. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. Patterns of action and practice are supported ± by sociocultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. not just changes in knowledge. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. and¶ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-re-eductive and the empirical-rational strategies. relationships and customary ways of doing things. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change.
on the basis of selected variables. success corroborating the diagnosis. or practice. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical.e." applied science. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory.. thereby solving the problem. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. Thus. 6.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis.´ Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. practices. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. Greenwood states: ³The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together. pressing problems. OD emphasizes the latter. i. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. and (2) "technology." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. not the individual. for example. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. . hopefully. Burke writes: ³If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. by modifying a group norm or standards. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. The practitioner examines the problem situation.´ From this "practice theory. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. applied science or practice. behavioural science knowledge. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. re-establishes the equilibrium. On this point.
Fig. had this to say about it: ³The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. Self Assessment Questions . who developed the concept of action research. perhaps more accurately. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. Kurt Lewin. feedback of the data to the client system members. practice research and practice theory.9 Action Research The action research model ± a data-based. Action research involves three processes: data collection.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. represent contributions from pure or basic science. and action planning based on the data. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. It is a type of action-research. represent contributions from applied science. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. 6. the two top in puts. and research leading to social action« This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events.´ Concluding Comments: These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. form of applied behavioural science. The two bottom inputs. 6. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. and doing or implementing change efforts. Taken separately. Taken collectively. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing ± learning about the dynamics of organizational change.
1. Explain Kurt Lewin¶s models and theories of planned organizational change. Bring out the essence of ³managing beyond the quick fix´ model of organizational development.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization.11 Terminal Questions 1. Ralph Kilmann 3. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. ±±±±±±±±±± gave the model ³Beyond the Quick Fix´. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. Transactional change . Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. 4. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. ±±±±±±±±±± means moving to new level of behaviour. 2. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations.´ Comment on this statement. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. 6. A _____________ is defined as ³a set of elements standing in interaction. 3. 4.´ 5. First²order change is also called ___________. 3.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. Unfreezing 2. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. 2. ³Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. 6. Action research model combines learning and doing. 6.
Synergy Answers to TQs: 1.1 2.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 Types of Organization Culture.6 Summary .2.3 5. 7.2.Refer section 6.3 4. Refer section 6.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.1 Introduction Objectives 7. Refer section 6. Refer section 6. System 5.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7. Refer section 6.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture 220.127.116.11 3.
1986). For example. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. etc. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. 2. Culture is one of those terms that¶s difficult to express distinctly. despite the best-laid plans. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. Standards of behavior exist. 7. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. Norms. Which in many organizations come down to ³Do not do too much. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. but everyone knows it when they sense it. what members wear. ± similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone¶s personality. Objectives: After studying this unit. do not do too little?´ .7. including guidelines on how much work to do. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. thinking. When organizational participants interact with one another.1 Introduction Basically. they use common language. the culture of a large. discovered. Martin and Meyerson. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. terminology. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. Observed behavioral regularities. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. values. · Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. Practitioners are coming to realize that. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change.7 Terminal Questions 7. what they brag about. but also changing the corporate culture as well. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. and rituals related to deference and demeanor.
and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. New-comers must learn those ³ropes´ in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization¶s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. 6. outputs and outcomes. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. In an efficient market organization. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. people are driven through vision. They often have well-defined policies. Transactions are exchanges of value. processes and procedures. Typical examples are high product quality. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. In contrast to Hierarchies. 5. shared goals. Market cultures are outward looking. 7. but one where all transactions. internal and external are viewed in market terms. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. . value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. Organizational climate: This is an overall ³feeling´ that is conveyed by the physical layout. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. Rather than strict rules and procedures. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization.3. 4. For many years.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber¶s original view of bureaucracy. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. the way participants interact.
discovered. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. the jargon they use. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. norms. 1986). big-bang projects and development. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it.strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. but critical to shaping its behavior.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. 7. supportive way and may take on a parental role. rules. Martin and Meyerson. and procedures. symbols. thinking. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. systems and subsystems. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. although not necessarily documented. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. 1993). It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). Rules. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. plaques. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. culture is like the DNA of an organization. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. the way they dress etc. In biological terms. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. · Its rituals. etc. . Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. invisible to the naked eye. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges.
Values: These are the social principles. are often used interchangeably. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. Thus. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management¶s policies. communicating. productivity. individually and collectively. to denote organizational effectiveness. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. From this point of view. Though an organization espouses a series of values. there are numerous variables. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. from the basis of its policies and action. the personality of the organization). Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. skills. or standards held by members of an organization. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. believing. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization¶s social environment and evolve of behavior. also called as organizational success or growth. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. Identifying. For example. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. intervening and end result. its core value are limited to a few in number. and behaviour. goals. profitability. business and leadership strategies. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. and what is right and what is wrong. there is often contradiction in various approaches. and doing. decisions. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. . These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. organizational growth. Though each individual¶s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. 1. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. various terms such as efficiency.
A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of ±date. motivational. obtaining patents. is workable. incorporating. However. scrap loss. and decision-making. and earnings. others are brought into the organization. According to Likert. 3. communication. costs. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. For example. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity.g. is worth running some risks for. e. . attitudes.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. performance goals. That is.2. motivations. End ± result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. the loyalties. 7. 2. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. building. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: 1. and perceptual cluster. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables.. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. and energy that will be required. and so on. 3. money. and is worth the investment of time. and a common history begins to be built. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. and they tend to be longterm goals. At this point. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. locating space. 4.
the ³culture contract´ that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. 6. the geographic location. and whether products and/or services are involved. relationships. . 1. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. Include employees in the culture change process. These factors from the two cultures include the size. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. commitment. habits. Politics. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. attitudes. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. powerful stakeholders such as unions. 3. especially when making changes in rules and processes. In addition. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. Staffs. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. and history of two firms. age. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can¶t be done successfully?. 4. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. and patterns of daily behavior. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. The personal feelings. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. 3. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. take these losses early. or even customers may support the existing culture. 2. if possible. 5. management. Assess the current culture. Emotions.Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. roles. 2. 7. Structure. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. Make changes from the top down. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line.
8. 2. 7.7 Terminal Questions 1. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. Stay the course by being persistent. Market 3. Self Assessment Questions 1. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. ________cultures are outward looking. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. 3. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. 2. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. behavioural approach. Finally. and strategic constituencies approach. 3. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. 9. 7. Causal variables Answers to TQs: . ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective.6 Summary Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. 7. Artifacts 2. system-resource approach.goal approach.
7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.3 Two Faces of Power 8.3 3. Politics and Organization Development Unit-08.1. MU0002-Unit-08.9 Summary 8.2 2.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 7.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8. Refer section 7.10 Terminal Questions .5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8.1 Introduction Objectives 8. Refer section 7.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8.Power.Power.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8.
and for change to occur in an organization. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations. 8. Objectives: After this studying this unit. Potential power is the capacity to do so. The French word µpouvoir¶ stands for both the noun µpower¶ and the verb µto be able. emotions. indisputable facts of organizational life.¶ To have power is to be able to get desired things done. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid today." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes." ³Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics.1 Introduction Power and politics. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs. power must be exercised. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. · Explain theories about the sources of power. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change. In this unit." .´ ³A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired.8.´ Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations.actions and the decisions that precede them. and behaviours of people. to effect outcomes.
" . 8. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson¶s "Power-Dependence theory. technological. not the possession of power as such. or acquired? In this unit. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. with collective. 8. Without leadership (power) in medical. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. Power-in-action may take many forms. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. political. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. According to him. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power.Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one¶s way. absolute power corrupts absolutely. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. influence. and repression. influencing. bestowed.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" ± positive and negative. confiscation. Crushing. financial. an authority or power dimension is required." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. for organizations to function. Leading. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. forcing. unsocialized need to dominate others. and organizational activities. and lead. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt." A moment¶s reflection. being exercised. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. however. power being the predominant mode. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. the act or ability of influencing others. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. both positive and negative. In fact. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. or positive. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one¶s way in a social situation. spiritual. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. selling. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. hurting.
5. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power.· French and Raven¶s "Bases of Social Power. P." In other words. Referent power ± power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. 2. attraction. that person has power over us. we will terminate or alter the relationship. hate. Legitimate power ± power based on everyone¶s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. and desired by the other. Coercive power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. 3. rejection. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other." · Salancik and Pfeffer¶s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. praise. 4. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. rewards) that are controlled by one party. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. or bases. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A¶s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. power. information. we will continue the exchange relationship. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. Reward power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another." These authors suggested five sources. respect. blame. to give something valued by the other. Viewed in this light. When the net balance for us is positive. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. . that is. of social power as follows: 1. Expert power ± power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. influence. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. that is. to give something negatively valued by the other. The sociologist." · Mintzberg¶s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. and so forth. when the net balance for us is negative. goals. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory.
In this theory, power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals, units, or departments) most important for solving the organization¶s most critical problems. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. This theory, like the ones discussed previously, supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by- others-in this case, the special expertise needed for the organization¶s survival-have power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits, indeed, used by all who have it, to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources, through the placement of allies in key positions, and through the definition of organizational problems and policies." These authors view organizational power as a good thing, for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. This theory, "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players, called influencers, seek to control the organization¶s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power, coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. According to Mintzberg, the five possible bases of power are, first, control of a resource; second, control of a technical skill; and, third, control of a body of knowledge. All of these must be critical to the organization. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. In addition to a base of power, the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. An organization has many potential influencers, such as the board of directors, the managers, the top executives, the employees, the unions, suppliers, customers, regulators, and so forth. The important aspects of Mintzberg¶s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others, that power-in-action requires will and skill, and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In summary, these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar ± power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. The resources may be ability to reward and
punish, being in control of critical skills, knowledge, or information, the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined ³politics simply as the study of who gets what, when, and how´. ³Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices´. ³Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups´. ³Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means´. Thus, we view politics as a subset of power, treating it as informal power, illegitimate in nature. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power, but in this sense, formal power, the power vested in office, the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. Both relate to getting one¶s way-effectance. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. For our purposes, organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations; it is engaging in activities to get one¶s way. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities; the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics, like power, has two faces. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest; unsocialized needs to dominate others; a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win, you must lose-rather than win-win terms; and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy, surprise, holding hidden agendas, withholding information, deceiving. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others; viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible; engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing; a relative absence of the tactics of fighting; and a socialized need to lead, initiate, and influence others. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making, resource allocation, and conflict resolution processes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose; they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. In fact, one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation, conflict resolution, and choosing among alternative means and goals.
8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. Virtually, all OD interventions promote problem-solving, not politics, as a preferred way to get things accomplished. OD interventions increase problem-solving, collaboration, co-operation, fact-finding, and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. For example, OD interventions typically generate valid, public data about the organization¶s culture, processes, strengths, and weaknesses. Valid, public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations; rather, they enhance the positive face of power, thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy, it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme power-oriented situations. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power, but not with the negative face of power. Values such as trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first, problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations; second, power equalization, being one aspect of the positive face of power, increases the amount of power available to organization members, and by so doing adds power to the organization. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator, catalyst, problem solver, and educator. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. According to Chris Argyris, the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information, (2) to promote free, informed choice, and (3) to promote the client¶s internal commitment to the choices made. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner, his or her program, and his or her values, methods, and expertise. The OD consultant, like all consultants, provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors, as we discussed earlier. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. In summary, organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. This major strength of OD derives from the strategy of change, the technology, the values, and the roles of OD practitioners.
Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. 3. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. 5. Skills such as listening. . Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. 6." 4. Success leads to credibility and stature. First.8. it will gain more power. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. problem solving. and ability to gain organizational support. preferably multiple sponsorship. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. acceptability. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. it will be strong externally. coaching. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. According to the framework of French and Raven. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. in powerful places. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization¶s decision makers). both as a person and as a professional. experience. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. communicating. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). Rule One: Become a desired commodity. and expertise. 2. What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems.
constructive social relationships. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one¶s power base. the manager will vigorously defend it. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization¶s powerholders. Rule Five: Mind your own business. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. A valuable byproduct of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. not content. not by getting involved in the answers. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. not the OD consultant. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one¶s own or in others¶ political struggles. Rule Six: Mind your own business. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. those issues vital to the organization¶s success. . Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. OD programs should be results-oriented. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. usually managers. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. The OD program belongs to the manager. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills.counseling. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being managercentered. which is to be an expert on process.
but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge · Expertise · Information · Tradition Others¶ Support y y Strategies for Success Playing It Straight · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Political access Staff support . We could propose more rules of thumb. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others¶ legitimate "turf. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. others¶ support. negotiations the nature of power and politics. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. and using contacts for information. and personality characteristics. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. As shown in the figure. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. Networking is recognized as a potent. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. viable. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions. catalyst. yet legitimate means of acquiring power.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. the strategy and tactics of influence. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. and educator. 8." and "going around the formal system. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. individual power derives from knowledge. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior.Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. Table 8. not power activist or power broker." which arouses defensive actions. problem solver. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power." "using social networks.
³One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. This practical. even those of little power. and relevance-how important one¶s task is in relation to organizational priorities. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. criticality-how important one¶s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. . Personal power.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. in turn. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. arises from expertise. Whetton and Cameron¶s model is shown in following figure. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. personal attraction. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks´. personal power and position power. and legitimacy. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. In this model. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what¶s expected of them. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. Indeed. a person¶s power comes from two main sources. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying.Personality y y y Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don¶t) use organization rules Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. effort. visibility-how much one¶s work is seen by influential people.
Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. power-in-use is called influence. Whetton and Cameron suggest several means of resisting others¶ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power." And. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. Having power is one thing. collaborative work environment. and (3) empowering others. According to these authors.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. and retribution. actually using it to get things done is another. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. Power and politics are similar in nature. Concluding Comments: In this unit. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective.Fig. and (6) build on success. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. (2) provide a positive. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. arise from known conditions. reciprocity. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. 8. Our suggestions for . Retribution refers to coercion and threats. Usually reason is the preferred strategy." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people¶s inappropriate influence attempts. and are amenable to positive control.
Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. Define organization politics. 3. Harold Lasswell . Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ±±±± ±±±±±±±. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. ±±±±±± is the intentional influence over the beliefs. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. emotions or behaviour of people. reputation and professional credibility. 8. 2. 8. Self Assessment Questions 1. Power 2. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. McClelland 3. Referent power 4. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. Power can be either positive or negative. 5. Power and politics are similar in nature. 4.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. ±±±±±±±± defined politics as the study of who gets what. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. 3. _____________ has identified two faces of power.. and are amenable to positive control.10 Terminal Questions 1. 8. 4. and how. 2. when and how. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. 5. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. arise from known conditions. Describe briefly various theories of power. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power.using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. when. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. ±±±±±±±±±± is made up of Charisma.
3 Socio Technical Systems 9.5 4. Refer section 8. Refer section 8.5. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9.1 Introduction Objectives 9. Personality Answers to TQs: 1.Refer section 8.6 5.6 Quality of Work Life Projects .2 2.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 8. Refer section 8.2 Meaning and Definitions 9.5 Quality Circles 9.4 3.4 Management By Objectives 9.
Objectives: After studying this unit.9. organizational problems may repeat. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change. actions.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis.11 Terminal Questions 9. In this dynamic and fluid environment. · Explain Reengineering. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development.8 Total Quality Management 9. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization. .10 Summary 9.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. · Explain Total Quality Management. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9.
9. 1976. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. 2. organization theory. 1967. 5. Rapidity of change. and more critically. In addition. Succession Doesn¶t Destroy Change Effort. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. Pasmore. Cost is Low. Cummings. From a benefit cost analysis. Basic reinforcement theories. Greater Predictability. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. It endeavors to re-design the organization¶s structure. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. 4. This normally is a reasonable.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs.9. Structure changes are normally ³institutionalized´ and less subject to this problem. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. The cost of structural change is generally ³front-end´ loaded. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. It could involve the following steps (Foster. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. 1988): Determining the environmental demands Creating a vision statement Educating organizational members .2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. Organization Acceptance of Change. Downsizing associated with restructuring. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. 3. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic.
MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. Certain degree of overlapping is there. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. Creating the change structure Conducting socio-technical analysis Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. As an approach to management.´ The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: ³MBO is a result-centered. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. its features can be identified as follows: 1.´ Based on the definition of MBO. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of . physical. It is a particular way of thinking about management. 2. On the other hand. Since then. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. non-specialist. with objective orientation as its essence. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. In fact. its definitional aspect. therefore. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts.
Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels.management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. and participation of the managers with accountability for results. its subsystems and people. such as. enhancement of employee commitment and participation. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. etc. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization. Therefore. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. This. the clarity and balance of objectives. its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. Questions. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. superiors and subordinates. Similarly. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions.. all the units or departments and individual manager. (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. delegation of authority. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. The performance review is held regularly. then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities. 1. Therefore. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. Resource allocation. 3. are determined on the basis of objectives. 5. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. What business are we in?´ and what should be our business?´ provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. ³why does the organization exist?´. It works as an integrating device. 4. (ii) long-range . This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. in interaction with external factors. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. normally once a year. including the corporate level. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. 6. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis. Therefore.
Setting Subordinates¶ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. However. resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully. (v) individual manager¶s objectives. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. If not. a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. 5. the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. In fact. Therefore. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. Sometimes. . The process of objective setting begins with superior¶s proposed recommendations for his subordinate¶s objectives. this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. By relating these to objectives. there should be matching between objectives and resources. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization¶s health and the top management perspective for the future. 3.and strategic objectives. Thereafter. a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. with the experience gained over the period of time. they also indicate the resource requirement. 4. In turn. (iii) innovation. (ii) market standing. (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives. (iv) productivity. 2. Therefore. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate¶s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by setting easily achievable objectives. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). By relating these to objectives. the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. (vi) financial and physical resources. the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. and (viii) public responsibility. (vii) manager performance. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability. there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. (iii) short-term organizational objectives. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization. each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. Even though KRAs are most durable. Therefore. (v) worker performance.
7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. · Make recommendations for improvement.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process. QWL programs. it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. which consequently result into high level of task variety. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization¶s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases. what happens at each level may affect other levels also. 9. this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. 9. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. in general. Therefore. appropriate feedback and employee discretion. or in people¶s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. 9. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. Quality circle program consists of several circles. but in its contemporary form. on paper. information. hierarchical structure. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. each having three to fifteen members. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power.6. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s. . and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. and rewards. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. knowledge.
including the use of quality circles.9. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. service. It is very popular in USA in 1990s.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. self-managed teams and task forces. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. and extensive use of employee participation. and speed. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. statistical process control. It is also called continuous quality improvement.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization¶s activities around the concept of quality. statistical quality control. contemporary measures of performance. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. eliminating. quality. · Participative management. such as cost. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. · Competitive benchmarking. Reengineering is a top-down process. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. Self Assessment Questions . 9. provides relevant information to all employees.
__________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. 9. 2. provides relevant information to all employees. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives.1. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. From a benefit cost analysis. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. Drucker 3.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Quality circle Answers to TQs: . There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. 9. 9.11 Terminal Questions 1. Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. actions. 3. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. actions. Intervention 2. It is also called continuous quality improvement. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs.
4 Causes for Resistance to Change. MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.1.2 Nature of Change 10. 10.2 3.1 Introduction Objectives 10.8 Terminal Questions 10.3 Resistance to Change 10. Refer section 9.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Self Assessment Questions 10.Refer section 9. Refer section 9.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change.7 Summary 10.5 4. Refer section 9.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs .3 2.
· State the methods of reducing resistance to change. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. less. structural arrangement. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled .2 Nature of Change The term µchange¶ refers to an alteration in a system. may require special change efforts. or social. indirectly. some parts of organization may be affected more. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. some parts may be affected directly. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. Thus. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. When change occurs in any part of the organization. organizational change may have the following features: 1. Any change may effect the whole organization. However.10. Objectives: After studying this unit.whether physical. which are major ones. others. Thus. 2. Hence. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. · Impact of change on future managers. 3. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). biological. In this dynamic and fluid environment. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. 10. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. and others. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. Organizational change is a continuous process. job design and people. and others. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. organizational problems may repeat.
Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. Homeostasis implies selfcorrecting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. if we look minutely. commented. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. We shall take new workers at the new place. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. On this phenomenon. but when a change is major or unusual. Similarly. In fact. In fact. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. Thus. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past.´ Resistance as Benefit: .3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. 10. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. it has stretched slightly. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. However. However. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. In fact. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. Madhur Bajaj.balloon. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. We wanted a new culture and new layout.as cost and as benefit. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. because it produces identical symptoms. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. employees want to maintain a status quo. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). ³The Pune plant is fully saturated. If people resist to change. so is the resistance to change. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. adjustment is fairly routine. more serious upsets may occur. there are two sides of resistance. it becomes indented at the point of contact. that is. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization.
On the one hand, resistance to change is costly affair, and on the other, it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. While on negative side, the reality lies in between. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Thus, resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: 1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Therefore, the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. These feelings, either real or emotional, may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic, psychological and social. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological, job security etc. precede over other needs. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques, technology, etc., whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them, they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India, it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely, reduce job options, and turn into technological unemployment. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match.
3. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes, bonus, etc. All these are well-established in the old system. Whenever there is change, people may feel that in the new system, they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Psychological Factors Psychological factors are based on people¶s emotions, sentiments and attitudes towards change. These are qualitative and, therefore, may be logical from people¶s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent¶s point of view. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness, status quo, lack of trust in change agent, low tolerance for change, and fear of unknown. 1. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego, people resist change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Thus, the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. 2. Status Quo: People want status quo. i.e. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore, everyone tries to avoid it. 3. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo, people may differ. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Therefore, these people resist any new idea. 4. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent, that is, the person who initiates change. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent, they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 5. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The change will bring results in future, which is always uncertain. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction, particularly social needs, through their mutual compatible interactions. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change, people resist it. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.
1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. When there is any change, their existing social interactions are likely to be changed, which people do not want. Therefore, they resist change. 2. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class, e.g., change initiated by managers affecting workers. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change, even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. For example, Sumantra Ghoshal, a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru, has commented as follows: ³Nothing fails like success; nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation, Caterpillar, Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles, all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called µThe Failure of Success¶. Strategies, values, resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés, dogmas, millstones and routines.´ This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought, these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes, stability of systems, resource limitations, sunk cost, and inter-organizational agreement. Some of these reasons are basic while others are byproducts of those. For example, first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. 1. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices, they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. 2. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. For example, a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules, prescribes rigid authority relationships, and institutes reward and punishment system. All these work in some circumstances. It a change is required in these aspects, the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system.
For example. innovative. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors.3. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. . In this interaction process. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. In such a case. prospectors.´ This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. Resource Limitations: No doubt. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. 2. broad environmental scanning. if the change is required. if new technology is adopted. intensive planning. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. 3. those who wonder what happened. If it is risk-taking. This can be in the form of people also. and has zeal for progress. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. centralized control. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. forward-looking.defenders. decentralized controls. analyzers. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. those who watch things happen. 1. Once the assets are acquired. these can be used for specific period. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. building and training for its personnel. and reactors. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. and commensurate expenses on other items also. It depends more on the style of top management. Thus. 4. For example. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. Let us see what someone has said long back: ³There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. Now. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. 5. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. if any change is to be incorporated. it will require resources to procure machine. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories.
10. some may fear they¶ll be unable to do so.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn¶t necessarily surface in standardized ways. you find a single route and you use it regularly. we¶re creatures of habit. Habit Every day. To cope with this complexity. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. Resistance can be overt. Let¶s look at the sources of resistance. The same applies to employee. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won¶t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. or deferred. we don¶t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. Life is complex enough. threatening to go on strike. Organizational resistance . When we are confronted with change. They may. For instance. finding a new parking place. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. developing a new lunchtime routine. engaging in a work showdown. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you¶re like most people.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. therefore. Therefore. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity.4. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. adjusting to the new office layout. implicit. If for example. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. we¶ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. we all rely on habits. For analytical purpose. it means you¶re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. or programmed responses. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. taking a new set of streets to work. Otherwise. when you go to work or school. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one¶s income. And people in general don¶t like the unknown. or the like. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. As human beings. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. immediate. they cannot survive. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. and so on.
Formalization provides job description. That is. for instance. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. You can¶t change one without affecting the others.Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. The . For example. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. for instance. For example. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. 10. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities ± such as training. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. They tend to be content with the way things are. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. and benefits administration ± has been resisted by many human resource departments. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. he¶s likely to resist. group norms may act as a constraint. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. For example. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization¶s structure to match. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. An individual union member. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. rules and procedures for employees to follow. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. development of pay plans. accountants work with marketers. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. Will the change. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems.
at the level of individual and at the level of group. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. Therefore. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. For this purpose. that is.´ The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. through group dynamics. For example. It implies explanation and then discussion of the proposed changes. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture.ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. In many cases. Locavini observes that ³the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue ± not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. the following efforts can be taken: 1. both at the formal and informal levels. 10. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively.´ Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. People always have some . rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. Unless this problem is overcome properly. this is not a one-time action. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. Stephen Robbins suggests that ³«« managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. However. the problems can be solved at the same level. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people¶s resistance to change successfully. In addition. typically by way of computer network links.
However. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. to become effective. Getting opinions out in the open. education must be a part of the manager¶s everyday activity on the job. as discussed earlier. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. 2. and conferences. more than one person is involved in the change. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. (ii) In group. Usually. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. helped to change attitudes. People should be educated to become familiar with change. and indoctrinated in new relationships. The same is true of problem-solving. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. Thus. As this process goes. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. They must be taught new skills. 3. the group itself should be the point of contact. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. Thus. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: 1. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. most of the times. 4. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. its basic nature. he expresses it through a group. It grows slowly along with relationship. However. its process and working. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. so that they are looked at and evaluated. Though each person interprets the change individually often. For this purpose. sometimes. . the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases.ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. is an important trust-building task. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. meetings. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change.
Self Assessment Questions 1. 3. 2. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. __________ are based on people¶s emotions. and how members contribute. benefits of change. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization.7 Summary Change is inevitable. sentiments and attitudes towards change. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. structural arrangement. 2. Research studies also support this aspect. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. or deferred. mere participation may not help. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required.Through the group contact. It purports how the results are. However. social factors. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. many things about change can be made clear. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. immediate. Such training techniques include role playing. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing . 3. and sensitivity or T-group training. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. psychological factors. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. Economic factors.such aspects as the reasons for change. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. job design and people. psychodrama. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. group resistance and vested interests. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. For instance. Resistance can be overt. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. implicit. 10.
4 3. Thomson South Western. . Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. at the level of individual and at the level of group.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. 10.2 2.management of Organization Change. Modern Organization Development and Change. both at the formal and informal levels. 10. eighth edition. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. Explain the nature of change? 2. Reference: · Wendell L. Bell. Organization Theory and Design. Jr. New Delhi. · Harigopal K.8 Terminal Questions 1.6.Singh. engaging in a work showdown. Refer section 10. · J. Organizational change 2. Regal Publications New Delhi. or the like. Refer section 10. P. through group dynamics. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. Psychological factors 3. French and Cecil H. N. Thomson · Daft Richard L. threatening to go on strike. Organization Development.Response Books. P. Why do organizations resist change? 3. Jain. New Delhi.complaints. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. that is.. · Cummings & Worley.. Refer section 10. Organization Development & Change. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. Principles and Practices.
Robbbins. Prentice-Hall of India.pdf http://www. Ltd. · Laxmi Devi.ac. New Delhi.edu/cameronk/CULTURE%20BOOK-CHAPTER%201. Organizational Behaviour.co.oup.pdf http://www.pdf http://www.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v005/5. · T. Principles & Practice of Management. Prentice-Hall of India. New Delhi.jp/~kyodo/kokyuroku/contents/pdf/1461-15. · Stephens P.umich. Ltd.managementtoday.· James A.html http://muse.htm#TopOfPage http://www. .pdf http://webuser. · Stephen P.com/opm/grtl/OLS/ols6.edu/groups/learning/wp8. Robbins.bus.lib. Management. Educatiional Publishers.com/www.uk/search/article/634958/the-ceos-role-managing-change/ http://www. Organizational Behaviour. Management. E References y y y y y y y y y y y http://fds. Anmol Publications Pvt. N.1lowry. Dhanpat Rai & Co. Sultan Chand & Sons.cfm http://www.co.jhu.umd.htm www.work911. New Delhi.uk/pdf/bt/fincham/Chapter15.com/articles/leadchange. New Delhi.fao.htm#anchor73776 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .managementhelp. Pvt. Prentice-Hall India.wdi. Chhabra. · L.kurims. Prasad. M. Edward Freeman. Organizational Development.org/docrep/w7503e/w7503e05.kyoto-u.humtech.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp598.oup.org/org_chng/org_chng. Stoner and R. 12th edition. F.pdf www.umich.
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