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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the µmanagement¶ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn µsurplus¶ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of a
business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term ³management´. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley ± ³Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.´ In the words of George R. Terry ± ³Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.´ According to James L. Lundy ± ³Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.´ In the words of Henry Fayol ± ³To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.´ According to Peter F. Drucker ± ³Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work´. In the words of Koontz and O¶Donnel ± ³Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals´.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren ± ³The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.´ From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that ³management´ is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as ³management´. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a ³distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.´ From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as ³doing things right´. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization¶s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as ³doing the right things´. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of course, high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. And poor
It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. 3. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. informed employees. 4. All these resources are made available to those who manage. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. Managers apply knowledge. labour. feeling of management is result-oriented. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals¶ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. Thus. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. principles and techniques which have wide applications. 7. organizing. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known.management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. although they can¶t observe it during operation. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. Thus. 6. 1. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. capital and materials.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. namely. 2. In essence. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. directing and controlling. So it is treated as a science. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. labour and capital. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. principles and techniques requires specialized . The application of these concepts. 5. staffing. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice.
e. a hierarchy of command and control. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. materials. that is.knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. 1. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. (ii) a system of authority. money and machines into a productive. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem . Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. the effective use of the five M¶s of management (money. materials. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. military. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. Similarly. government and hospital. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. Sociology and Psychology. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. personnel manager etc. According to Newman. They transmit orders. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. Basically. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. useful. management is viewed as an art. For instance. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. people are bound by authority relationships. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. manpower. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. labour and capital. education. Anthropology. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. According to Herbision and Myers. 8. how effectively and economically the five M¶s are combined together to produce desired results. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. In other words. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. 10. it refers to three distinct ideas. 9. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. and (iii) a class or elite. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. finance manager. ongoing concern. In modern organizations. Generally.
the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. 1. Board of Directors. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating . technical facilities. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. the lower level of management). and the range of production. Supervisors. policies and plans for the enterprise.and suggestions upward. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. As a separate group. ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. day-to-day matters. viz.e. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as µManagement¶ which refers to the group. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. its Chairman. but as head of wages and salary department. The levels of management depend upon its size. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine.. ranks.e. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. or.. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. (i) administrative management (i. Foremen. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. Marketing Manager. Managing Director. Administrative management is concerned with ³thinking´ functions such as laying down policy. Operative management is concerned with the ³doing´ function such as implementation of policies. We generally come across two broad levels of management. But in actual practice. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. planning and setting up of standards. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. Production Manager. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. or the Chief Executive. Financial Controller. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. Purchase Manager. etc.. For instance. etc. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels.
duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. men. j) To report to top management. machines and methods to put the plans into action. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. 2. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. e) To assign activities.functions. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. . It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. Without them the top management¶s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. d) To assemble the resources of money. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. materials.
the resources of production remain resources and never become production. It consists of foreman. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual¶s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. procedures and reward systems. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. In its absence. methods. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. They allot various jobs to the workers. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. supervisors. Management makes group effort more effective. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. With a view to realize the . 3. To this end. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. machines. Without management. Their authority and responsibility is limited. They have to get the work done through the workers. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. an organization is merely a collection of men. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. money and material. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management.k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. sales officers. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. accounts officers and so on. 1. Management is goal-oriented. counseling and effective leadership.
skills. Failure to take note of customer¶s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for µIdeal java¶ in the two-wheeler market in India. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. and it is distinct. often threaten the survival of a firm. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. In the final analysis. According to McFarland. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. government policy. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. and specialized knowledge.predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. Management as a profession By a professional manager. Management . (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided.. identifiable discipline. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. Organize the resources properly. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. But unlike medicine or law. competition. techniques. iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. etc. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. the Indian Institute of Management. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. Thus unnecessary deviations. They try to put everything on the right tract. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field.
Half of these managers¶ activities lasted less than nine minutes each.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. the All India Management Association. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager¶s job. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. Some individual business organizations. unpatterned. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied.Development Institute. do not seem to adhere to the principle of ³service above self´. managers in general. management is not as exact as natural sciences. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions.S. the American Management Association in U. As a social science. and short-duration activities. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature ± interpersonal roles. But in addition to these insights. In fact. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. This role includes hiring. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. an art as well as a profession. Furthermore. and decision-making. bribing public officials to gain favours. However. etc. The term µmanagement roles¶ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. and disciplining employees. sabotaging trade unions. motivating. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. training. 1. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. All managers have a role as a leader. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles.A. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. For instance. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the . However. however. the transfer of information. he or she is acting in a figurehead role..
that involve outsiders. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. training. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. This is the disseminator role. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. Informational Roles: All managers. Informational Monitor Disseminator . network of outside contacts and doing external board work. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. obliged to Greeting visitors. Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. and the like. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public¶s tastes. Table 1. what competitors may be planning. and may be inside or outside the organization.1: Mintzberg¶s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Liaison Symbolic head.liaison role. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. and associated duties. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. Typically. to some degree. understanding of organization and environment. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. manages also perform a spokesperson role. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. activities that involve responsible for staffing. duties of a legal or social nature. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. subordinates. informers who provide favors performing other activities and information. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager¶s unit. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. making phone subordinates to members of the calls to relay information.
outsiders on organization¶s giving information of the plans. As resource allocators. negotiations. etc. serves as expert on organization¶s industry. programming of subordinates work. actions.. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. Decisional Roles: Finally. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. Publishers. supervises design of certain projects as well. Last. performing all kinds ± in effect. results. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization¶s performance. 1973). projects´ to bring about change. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. As disturbance handlers. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to develop and initiates ³improvement new programs. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. As entrepreneurs. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. policies.Spokesperson organization ± some information is factual. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. media. physical and monetary resources. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Source: Henry Mintzberg. Inc. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the organizational decisions. managers are responsible for allocating human. . requesting of organizational resources of authorization.
Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. human. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. They know how to communicate. figurehead. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager¶s level within the organization. a manager¶s job is varied and complex. and conceptual. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. During the early 1970. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. In fact. . finance. liaison. Specifically. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. computers. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. such as engineering. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization¶s speciality. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. For example. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization¶s operations.An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg¶s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. research by Robert L. this skill is crucial. negotiator. lead. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers ± regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. as well as many middle managers. Conversely. or manufacturing. However. the roles of disseminator. motivate. Technical Skills: First-line managers. Since managers deal directly with people. and all managers are involved in making decisions.
It is a thinking function. It is concerned with the implementation of policies. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. Management relates to execution of decisions. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. Nature 3. Administration is a higher level function: Administration refers to policy-making. Meaning Administration Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration.1. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. Management Management means getting the work done through and with others. It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies. Spriegal and Lansburg. According to them. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. 2. iii) There is no distinction between the terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ and they are used interchangeably. Spriegel and Walter. administration is a higher level function. Floerence and Tead. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. Scope . Table 1. on the other hand. Thus.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. Administration is a determinative function. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. It is a doing function. Managers are concerned mainly with organisation and direction of human resources. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. This view is held by Tead. Thus. Administration relates to the decision-making. plans and policies of the organisation. Administrators are basically concerned with planning and control. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. etc.
5. Self Assessment Questions 1. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle level leading and motivation of executives. Still management is not completely a profession. 7. 6. 1. organisations. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. co-ordinating. operative workforce for the execution of plans. administrative decisions. 1. environmental forces. middle and lower. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.4. objectives. 3.9 Terminal Questions 1.e. 8. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. ___________.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. DecisionMaking Administration determines Management decides who what is to be done and when it shall implement the is to be done. _________. There are three levels of management-top. public organisations in the private sector and non-business sector. 2. Usage of Term The term µadministration¶ is The term µmanagement¶ is often associated with widely used in business government offices. __________is principally the task of planning. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant at higher levels of management. . Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. Explain its characteristics. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. counseling and effective leadership. Five M¶s of management (________.. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. Define management. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. lower levels of management. i.
2.5 3. 1. Refer section 1. Discuss the importance of management. manpower 3. Money.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . 3. MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2.2 Process of Management 2.3 2. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. teamwork Answers to TQs: 1.1.1 Introduction Objectives 2.3 Planning 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.2.4 Organizing . Refer section 1. Management 2. materials. Refer section 1.
. Management functions are as follows (Fayol. you will be able to: · Define Management process.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2.6 Directing 2. Commanding 4. · Explain Planning. Staffing.5 Staffing 2. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan.9 Terminal Questions 2. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. 1949): 1. Organizing. Coordinating 5. in recent time.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people´. Directing. Controlling However.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2.8 Summary 2.2. Objectives: After this studying this unit. Planning 2. One can also think of management functionally. Motivating. · Explain different functions of management Process. Organizing 3.
kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. leadership is doing the right things³. and allocating resources. driving comfort. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. while a policy. cost structure and so on. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: ³Management is doing things right. the decision to change the design of a product.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. Decision ± Making Taking decisions is a process. studies on passenger comfort. general strategies. 2. Therefore. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: . In the football field. Through leadership and management often overlap. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. overall goals. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. say a passenger car. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently.2. Even so. and then set out the method for achieving it. policies are the means to achieve those ends. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. thus. However. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. or where you want go to. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. Objectives are the ends. fuel and machine efficiency. There is a degree of overlap between the two. the two are not quite the same. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization¶s mission.
How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. How skilled is our workforce? 4. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. state. Weaknesses. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. governments (local. Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. A mission statement should be short ± and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. journals and reports (scientific. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: .A mission is the purpose of the organization. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. Are the facilities outdated? 3. What financing is available? 6. Opportunities. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. Thus. Is research and development adequate? 4. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. international). Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. What is our market share? 5. professional. summarizing what the organization does. and trade). An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization¶s potential. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. customers (internal and external). For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. The mission statement is broad. federal. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. suppliers.
What are the possible new markets? 3. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. Are our rivals weak? 5. the best strategy is one that fits the organization¶s strengths to opportunities in the environment. earnings per share. Objectives are also called performance goals. return on investment. What are the emerging technologies? 6. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. etc. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. Are market tastes changing? 5. effectiveness. What is the strength of the economy? 4. What are the new regulations? 6. as well as gap analysis. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities.1. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. What substitute products exist? In general terms. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. Are there new competitors? 3. Generally. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) .
Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job 4. how the tasks are to be grouped. who reports to whom. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. Strategic. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. procedures. who is to do. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. structuring. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. lines of authority. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. and relationships between departments. Organizations are groups of people. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. tactical. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. Review plans 2. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. In turn. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. with ideas and resources. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. and coordinated. 2.5 Staffing . necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. working toward common goals. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. Assign work to individuals 6. grouped.4 Organizing It involves designing. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. and where decisions are to be made. and goals are clearly stated.Tactical plans are based on the organization¶s strategic plan. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. 2. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. operational plans are based on the organization¶s tactical plans.
growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals´. performance appraisal etc. selection. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. recruitment. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. 3. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. 2. 5. O¶Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as ³filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. money. materials. promotion. Theo Haimann ± ³Concerned with the placement. recruitment. This task has been referred to as staffing. Koontz. Definition: 1. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. appraisal. . inventorying the people available. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. development. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick ± ³Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work´ Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. training. 3. placement.It is not the machines. placement. 4. compensation and training of needed people´. selection. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. 2.
vacancies arise out of retirement. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. . management initiates actions in the organization. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. 3. induction. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. 2. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through ± out the life of an organization. 8. Direction function is performed at every level of management. selection. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. overseeing and leading people. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. etc. on the other. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. directing is the ³interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals´. It is an important managerial function. identifying the manpower requirements.6. resignation. Definition According to Koontz and O¶Donnel. promotion. 5. recruitment. 2. On the one hand. 4. training development and maintenance of personnel. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. Direction has dual objectives. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. motivate them. Direction is an important managerial function. It is instructing people as to what to do. 7.e. Through direction. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. It is a continuing function.
acceptance. from the basic to the complex. and achievement. satisfied needs cannot. the more individuality. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. status. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished´. belongingness. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. 4. self-respect. The needs are arranged in order of importance. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. will vary depending upon his level. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. such as. humanness and psychological health a person will show. The manager never ceases to direct. proposed by Maslow (1943).Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. 2. thirst. teach. 3. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. As Theo Haimann puts it. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. shelter.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. sex. recognition. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. autonomy. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. The further they progress up the hierarchy. and the Two-Factor theory. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. such as. and attention . and external esteem factors. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. guide. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. Theories X and Y. coach and supervise his subordinates. 2. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. ³without the issuance of directives. without guiding and overseeing subordinates.
self-direction. responsibility. self-motivated. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. recognition. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. advancement. Extrinsic factors. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. if they can. company policy. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. externally. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. anxious to accept greater responsibility. and exercise self-control. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. autonomy and empowerment. such as. Motivators are intrinsic factors. It is also believed that. interpersonal relations. and achievement. such as.· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. From the above. achieving one¶s potential. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. working conditions. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. supervision. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager¶s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. and salary are hygiene factors. includes growth. whereas. Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people¶s attitudes about work. and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. Social. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. Theory X ± In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. Theory Y ± In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. . esteem.
____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. 2.9 Terminal Questions 1. how the tasks are to be grouped. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. structuring. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. Self Assessment Questions 1. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: . and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Planning involves the process of defining goals. Explain Staffing in detail 3.In summary. When hygiene factors are adequate. performance appraisal etc. To motivate people. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. Hygiene factors on the other hand. 3. What is planning? 2. motivators describe a person¶s relationship with what she or he does. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. have to do with a person¶s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. people will not be dissatisfied. Organization involves designing. recruitment.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. 2. and where decisions are to be made. 2. neither will they be satisfied. 2. many related to the tasks being performed. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. who is to do. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. who reports to whom. Write a short not on directing. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning.
8 Problems in OD .7 Role of OD 3.5 3. SWOT 3. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3.3 2. Reference 2.6 OD and Management Development 3.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1 Introduction Objectives 3. Reference 2.2 Definitions 3. Reference 2.3 Characteristics of OD 3. Follett 2.1.5 Goals of OD 3.4 Categories of OD 3. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1.
the answer is ³yes´. and the like. adapt.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. challenges from turbulent environments.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3. OD focuses on issues related to the ³human side´ of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today¶s world is a daunting task. organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. A variety of solutions exists. strategy formulation and implementation. fighting obsolescence of one¶s knowledge and skills. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges ± finding satisfaction in and through work. Today. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. In summary. maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals. organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today ± threats to effectiveness. increased competition. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. Although new jobs are being created at record rates. and processes. Simple survival ± continuing to have an adequate job ± is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. strategy. take advantage of opportunities. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope. and profitability. and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. Basically. and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks. and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology. organization structure. culture. and changing customer demands. ³Knowledge´ work is replacing ³muscle´ work. .9 Summary 3. efficiency. and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately. conflict resolution. And organization development (OD) is one of them.Self Assessment Questions 3. organization development is a process of teaching people how to solve problems. and the organization¶s human and social processes.10 Terminal Questions 3. survive. and learn how to do that better and better over time. teams. Early returns were encouraging.
Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives«. 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions. markets. self-analytic methods. 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure. 1980).change of an organization¶s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making. using reflexive. · State the goals of OD. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. (Schmuck and Miles. processes. attitudes. strategy. OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement.Objectives: After studying this unit. values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies. A ³process for improving processes´ ± that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill. 1971) Organizational development is a process of planned change. · Explain the characteristics of OD. and culture. 1969). · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. people. and the dizzying rate of change itself. 1989) . planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. (Burke and Hornstein. 3.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change. (Bennis. you will be able to: · Define organization development. and 3) Developing the organization¶s self-renewing capacity (Beer. a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs. and challenges.
In fact. and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions. and theory. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving. learning. All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. through the alteration of organizational members¶ on-the-job behaviours.several years in most cases.´ This definition is lengthy. Organizational change is hard. 1992) ³OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies.³Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories. 1994) As you can see. research. ³Organization development is a long-term effort. these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. and processes for improving an organization¶s effectiveness. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. what practices should be included and excluded. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. values. and contain several unique insights (that¶s enlightening). but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. We will explain this definition in some detail.´ (Burke. By long-term effort. that is. Likewise. We do not propose it as the ³right´ definition. strategies. including action research. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field. Collectively. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. structure. and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance. it is more accurate to describe ³improvement´ as a never-ending journey of continuous change. and problem-solving processes. led and supported by top management. 1993) ³Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization¶s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies.´ (Cummings and Worley. to improve an organization¶s visioning. through an ongoing. serious business. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. these definitions overlap a great deal (that¶s encouraging).´ (Porras and Robertson. Now let¶s turn to our definition of organization development. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. There is no ³quick fix´ when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. empowerment. Top management must initiate the improvement .
where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. interactions. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. By learning processes. solve problems. For empowerment to become fact of life. make decisions. Michael Beer¶s definition called for ³developing new and creative organizational solutions´. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. we mean. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. expectations.´ Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. By empowerment. so is managing the culture. listening. and making it happen. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. culture is of . opportunities. coherent. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. norms. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as ³« organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. team. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. Just as visioning. structure. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. and culture. By empowerment processes. and processes makes each important. empowerment. learning. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. We further believe that having compelling. structure. By visioning processes. and artifacts. or became distracted with other duties. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. strategy. vitality. activities. in contrast to having only a select few involved. The reciprocal influence among culture. And second. sentiments. attitudes. beliefs. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. Still.³journey´ and be committed to seeing it through. and organizational learning. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. and each influences the others. developing the strategy for getting there. processes. not just a small group. we mean those interacting. one of widespread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization¶s purposes. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. where collective aspiration is set free. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. assumptions. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization¶s culture. By including culture so prominently in our definition. and challenges in the organization¶s environment and its internal functioning. and take actions on problems. lost its commitment. first. has a stake in making the organization work. commitment. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. and common purposes of all members of the organization. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization¶s members.
and we highlight the importance of visioning. In Liberation Management. wasted time. This method resulted in loss of synergy. and feel in relation to those problems. Today¶s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. Temporary. By intact work teams and other configurations. or developed by a given group. learning. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. so they are the place OD programs often begin ± getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. . Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be ³brain work´) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. much rework. firing. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. When teams function well. empowerment.primary importance. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: ³Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. and training. think. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the ³right´ ways. discovered. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. (b) invented. think. Processes are how things get done. Further. hiring. Over time. maintaining quality control. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. such as design. But in many organizations today. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. When one function finished with its part of the project. manufacturing. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. individuals and the organization function well. Processes are relatively easy to change. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. empowerment. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. So culture consists of basic assumptions. He uses the terms µmultifunctional projectization¶ and µhorizontal systems¶ to describe these teams and their work. members are trained in competencies such as planning. engineering. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. values. and procurement. the process ³threw the results over the wall´ to the next functional unit. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. and using management information. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. and problem-solving processes.
Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. 7. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods.3 Characteristics of OD 1. so that change is easily observed. rather than focusing attention on individuals. OD . according to Peters. To summarize. Attempting to create ³win-win´ solutions is standard practice in OD programs. 2. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. 5. 3. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. 2. OD practitioners are facilitators. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes.multifunctional. 8. Specifically. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. dynamic and adaptive system. 9. and co-learners with the client system. This µplanned¶ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. 3. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. OD focuses on culture and processes. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today¶s fast-paced market place. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. collaborators. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. 10. 6. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. 4. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1.
This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. 3. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. and integrate individual and organizational goals. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. It recognizes that organizational goals change. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. takes actions for intervention. further more. and revitalization. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. or isolated problems. rather. problem-solving. 4. identity. Thus. he conducts surveys. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. Action research is the basis for such intervention. Key areas are the normative type of model. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. or catalyst. and cyclic processes. 6. 5. collects relevant data. evaluates these data. At the individual level.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that µnorms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones¶. They discourage µdo it yourself¶ approach. and then. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. growth. joint goals and means. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be µhuman¶ and to increase awareness. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements . Rather. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. 7. rather. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. interactive. and mutual influence. He shares a social philosophy about human values. The relationship involves mutual trust. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. third party change agent.efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. 3. temporary. participation. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. they are ongoing.
practitioners and the client laymen. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. 3. second. Two important elements of Organization Development are.of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization¶s goals (profit or service) and development of people. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. problem solving climate throughout an organization. (c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. with the authority of knowledge and competence. like other normative re-educative programmes. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. first. . Although Organization Development Programmes vary. This Organization Development progrmmes. (g) To increase the sense of µownership¶ or organization¶s objectives throughout the work force. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development.
He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. more attention to peer-groups. OD tries to fit the organization to the men.(h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one¶s area of responsibility. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. less individual competitiveness. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager¶s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. According to him. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. 3.6 OD and Management Development At this stage. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. Based on this. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. with their existing objectives and structure. The term µdevelopment¶ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. and greater display of feelings and emotions. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. . the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work.´ Organization development differs from management development. (ii) competitiveness. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. Before making a comparison between the two. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. management development has been defined as follows: ³Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. (iii) assertiveness. However. according to him.
3. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. Thus. Problem-solving approach. Focus on design. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. however. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. 3. 2.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. and laterally. In early 60s. 3. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. horizontally. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. not on the managers. 7. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. . 6. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing organization. 4. focus on achieving improvement in design. plays key role in organizational improvement. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed.Focus Approach Time Specialist accomplishments. however. By 70s. No special requirement. Educative and training Short-range. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. Trained specialists required. 5.
OD programmes are often quite costly. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. 4. For example. 3. 2. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. Hence. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. In general. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. etc. it is useless to try OD. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. However. Therefore. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. 4. Self Assessment Questions . and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. There should be proper use of OD interventions. it fails even as a long-term strategy. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. some specific efforts are required. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. 5. Research studies have also failed to conclude significant contributions of OD in all organizations. particularly in bottom-line ones. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. in order to make best use of OD efforts. If an organization is laden with these people. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. Therefore. 5. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome.confrontation techniques. 3. 2. Thus. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change.
3. _____________is a short-term strategy. Peter Senge . State the various roles of OD. 3. problem-focused µnature of OD¶ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. ±±±±±±± is associated with ³Liberation Management´. ±±±±±±±±± is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. Define OD.1. collaborative. 3. OD focuses on culture and processes. 4. Who is associated with the ³Learning Organizations´? 5. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. 4. Distinguish between µorganizational development¶ and µmanagement development¶. Management development aims at developing the managers individually.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. 5. 2. Top management 2. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. Tom Peters 3. The participative. There is no µquick fix¶ to organizations¶ problems. Explain its salient features. Explain the various characteristics of OD. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 2. Organization development should be led and supported by ±±±±±±±. Empowerment 4.10 Terminal Questions 1. 3.
Refer section 3.Organization Development ± Interventions Structure: 4.7 5.3 Process Consultation 4.2 Survey Feedback 4.2 2.6 Team-building .5 Leadership Development 4.3 3. Refer section 3.5.1 Introduction Objectives 4.Organization Development ± Interventions Unit-04.4 Grid Training 4. Refer section 3. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.6 4.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . MU0002-Unit-04. Management development Answers to TQs: 1.
they make things happen.´ There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. and organizational culture. mediation and negotiation activities. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. interpersonal level.8 Change Agents 4. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: ³Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. inter-group activities. However. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. and organizational level. Further. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. and survey feedback method. team-building. other techniques like process .11 Terminal Questions 4. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. For example. education and training. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. Historically. process consultation. Subsequently.10 Summary 4. Thus. People¶s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. work group. Nevertheless. the classification of OD interventions shows variation.4. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the range of change that an organization requires.7 Inter Group Development 4. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. survey feedback. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. grid training.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. management grid. inter-group level. group level. techno-structural activities. Therefore.
consultation, team- building, and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives, have been added. Our further discussion follows this development. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. · Explain grid training. · Describe process consultation. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Role of change agents. 4.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid), the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier, Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan, USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 2. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection, feedback of information, developing action plans based on feedback, and follow up. 1. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership ± managerial support, managerial goal emphasis, managerial work facilitation, peer support, peer goal emphasis, peer work facilitation, and peer interaction facilitation, organizational climate-communication with the company, motivation, decision-making, control within the company, co-ordination between departments, and general management, and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company, satisfaction with the supervisor, satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with the pay, and satisfaction with the work group. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization¶s personnel.
After the questionnaires are completed, data are classified, tabulated, and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 2. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed, feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. In oral system of feedback, it is provided through group discussion or problemsolving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively, feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted, it should be constructive and suggestive, rather, threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case, follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building, by the consultant. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. In particular, survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. 2. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However, effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. First, questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. If it is biased, all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Second, even if valid and reliable information is collected, it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change; it provides base for action for change. 4.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Edgar Schein, the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows:
³The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client¶s environment.´ The basic objectives of P.C are as follows: 1. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership, communication, roles and functions of group members, group decision-making and problemsolving, group norms, and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD. 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 2. Define the Relationship: At this stage, client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees, and spelling out services, time, etc. At this stage, the client¶s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. 3. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. At this stage, the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 4. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 5. Intervene: At this stage, the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural change. 6. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.C is completed, the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes, he assists the
To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. 2. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. From this point of view. objective-setting. P. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. inter-group. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. However. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. focuses on skills. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. In the review of various P. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. P. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. communication skills. groups. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. and teamwork. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant¶s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. 3.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. and total organizational levels. 2. However.C programmes. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. 1.C is also not free from criticisms.organizational members to incorporate those changes. like other OD intervention techniques. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. and problemsolving are also developed. traditions. . 4. and the organization as a whole. Inter-group Development: At this phase. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. problem-solving. knowledge. and alike. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. The grid organization development consists of six phases. 3. group. The skills relating to planning.
During drastic change times. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". it discounts reality. Systematic Critique: In this stage. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made.4. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. and credibility of senior and middle management. Slogging Through The Swamp. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. 4. They have maintained that ³managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. they maintained the same stand. Also during these times of change. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. the various programmes may be redesigned. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. We will look more carefully at each of these. The strategy is then implemented. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. and After Arrival. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. Furthermore. competence.5 Leadership Development When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). 5. Further. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. in spite of these criticisms. concerned and committed to their welfare. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. In this light. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. employees will expect effective and sensible planning.´ In a later work. while at the same time . therefore. confident and effective decision-making. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. complete communication that is timely. and regular. lead. grid training is a non-rigorous method. is the ability of leadership to«well. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. If you are to manage change effectively. 6. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence.
6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. norming. French and Bell have opined that ³probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. problems in team-work. Unfortunately. let us consider the life cycle of a team. The existence of this trust. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone¶s best interests. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team¶s time together. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. In a climate of distrust. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. 4. storming. but more importantly. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning.recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. if haven¶t established a track record of effective leadership. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. it may be too late. if allowed to go on for too long.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. For example. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. how synergy is generated through team-work. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. performing. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. These stages are: forming. 4. employees expect nothing positive. therefore. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as ³who will be members of the team?´ ³Who will perform what functions?´ ³Who will contribute what?´ ³What rules will be . during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. brings hope for better times in the future. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. which. teambuilding is the most important. As against these. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. widely accepted. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. Leadership before.´ A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness.
followed?´ ³How can conflicts among members be resolved?´ and so on. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. each team has to be adjourned. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. After the adjournment of the team. start to accept others. 3. 5. 4. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. The adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. 2. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: ³Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. committee. At this stage. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. Norming: After storming stage. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. jockeying for relative control. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. At this stage.´ . different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. because of individual differences. However. team members start settling. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. etc. They share personal information. Sooner or later. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team¶s goals. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status.
it was found that individuals¶ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. and so on. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. 2. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. and attitudes. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. in one experiment. group efforts tend to slacken. fail to perform their assigned tasks. the individual average dropped down still lower-68. group of eight. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. From this statement. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group¶s meetings. They averaged 138. For example. goals. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. the team would be effective. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. that is. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. the complementarity among members is achieved. To the extent.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. In fact. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. In the above paragraph. In such an assignment. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. it appears that there are many . other factors remaining the same.Thus. other factors remaining the same. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms.2 pounds. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone.
he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. These factors are skills and role clarity. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. serve to focus attention. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. 4. two things are required from its members. goals. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. complementary skills. and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. customer satisfaction. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. . organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. Therefore. or propose discipline for team members. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. supportive environment. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. management consultants. 1. common purpose. they will put their maximum.financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. Further. 3. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance. make recommendations regarding a new supervisor.factors in an effective team. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. Rewards of both types. Even if one member lacks behind. 2. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. Thus. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality. 3. then. unify efforts. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size. While skills are relevant for job performance. 2. These super-ordinate goals. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one¶s own role as well as roles of other members. Katzenbatch and Smith.
Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. 4. 2. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared. 3. recognition. the emphasis should be on consensus. Providing positive feedback.4. rather. At this stage. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. personality and attitudes. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds. such as. 1. . Fig. and rewards. 4.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem. their value systems. the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. In problem identification. and 5. they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. Analyzing how the team is working. Analyzing how team¶s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. Analyzing how the work is performed. For achieving these. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. 2. group problems to even personal problem. Setting goals and priorities for the team. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. and 5.
(iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas. ensuring. (iii) Negative: cooling. and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork.3. (ii) Attacking: deriding. . there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. etc. seeking relevant information. who was talking more or who was talking less. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing. etc. 5. Often. belittling. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. also provides opportunity to understand themselves. talking together with speaker. information. 4. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team¶s responsibilities. encouraging others to participate. Followup action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of team-building. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. If this process is adopted several times. criticizing person. (iii) Clarifying: resting. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. cynicism. members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time. feelings. with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. the way people talk about the issue. Negative Behaviour (i) Over talk: interrupting. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours: Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. who was trying to resolve the differences. understanding. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. undermining morale. At the time of discussion of feedback. about the issue. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team. the stying with the topic or going off on tangents. At this stage.
In spite of these problems. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier. It improves the organization¶s problem-solving and decision-making ability. However. monitoring. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour.These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. structure. However. it is not that effective in isolation. listening. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. one of the more . this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. However. team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the organization¶s outcomes. 2. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. 3. It seeks to change to attitudes. it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. in different degrees. are not given adequate attention. to encourage and sustain such feelings.. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. 2. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. team-building has a positive outlook. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. stereotypes. In general. Therefore. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage. communicating. As a result. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. etc. though. 4. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. and feedback skills). Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. and perceptions that groups have of each other.
enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities.Popular methods emphasize problem solving. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. In contrast. as the break for too quick action. the other group. but one thing he/she is not the driver´. Outside consultants. According to Curtis Mial: ³The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization¶s history. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. The groups then share their lists. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. as the accelerator to build up momentum. Subgroups.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. culture. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. 4. Differences are clearly articulate. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. however. For major change efforts. Trainer . with members from each of the conflicting groups. or outside consultants. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes ± which can be benefit or a disadvantage ± because they don¶t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. after which similarities and differences are discussed. operating procedures. 4. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. In this method. and personnel. employees of the organization.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. the groups can move to the integration phase ± working to develop solutions that will improve relations.
Team-building is most important. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. It focuses on skills. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. cases and experiential learning etc. feedback of information. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? . Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection.A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies ± lectures. films. Grid Training was developed by ±±±±±±±±±±±± 3. group. Self Assessment Questions 1. diagnosis. In process consultation. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. role-plays and instruments. 2. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. Training is required for enhancing knowledge. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. inter-group and total organization levels. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. attitudes and beliefs. skills and change in behavior. presentations. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing.11 Terminal Questions 1. 4. group discussions. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. Training is used both in µcontent orientation¶ and process orientation¶. Data collection. changing (intervening) and refreezing.
Assumptions. 3.2. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. and Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values. Data collection 2.1 Introduction . Refer section 4. MU0002-Unit-05-Values. Refer section 4. Refer section 4. 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? 3. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4.6 4. Assumptions.4 2.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 4. Blake and Mouton. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5.2 3.
assumptions.7 Terminal Questions 5.2 Definitions .5. 5. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development. · List the chronology of events of values.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5.5.Objectives 5. Objectives: After studying this unit.5. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions. beliefs and assumptions. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers. beliefs and assumptions. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5.2 Definitions 5.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5.1 Introduction A set of values. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5.
Thus. the laboratory training movement. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. assumptions. 5. the human relations movement. and the like. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. reason. assumptions. . Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. free speech) and what is undesirable or µbad¶ (e. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. with values being beliefs about good and bad. strongly held. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. As these ingredients accumulated. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. Taylor s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. Values. and assumptions being. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth.. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job." or slacking off. research on the effects of different leadership styles. OD values tend to be humanistic. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. treat people with respect and dignity." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. optimistic.g. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. and democratic.. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly. it is a cognitive fact for the person. Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or µgood¶ (e. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. and goodwill are the tools for making progress.A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. or spirit of the time. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs.g. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. dishonesty). repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought y Frederick Winslow Taylor s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. values. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources ± the Hawthorne studies. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. Simple. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. and that rationality.
Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. aggressiveness and poor performance. These approaches possessed many desirable features. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. their feelings and attitudes about the work. A strong hierarchy of authority. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. theory. much of the research. apathy. and a general humanizing of the workplace. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. The Functions of the Executive by Chester 1. organizations were not machines. most efficient way to organize people. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people s beliefs about organizational behaviour. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. y y y y y y y . Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. Research by Lewin. the work environment.y The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of bureaucracy as the best. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. a management theorist and astute observer of labour-management relations. Group Dynamics (1940) The scientific study of groups using experimental research methodswas launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. extensive division of labor. In a sense. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. and the supervisor determined their performance. wrote an article on The Giving of Orders advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. Their simple. The human relations movement advocated participative management. greater attention to workers social needs. Lippitt (1939). Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. Mary Parker Follett (1926). People were not cogs. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. impersonal rules. People came to work as whole people. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale.
healthy adults. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. Lester Coch and John R. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. indifferent to the organization s needs. dislike responsibility. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. In an environment of slow change. The task of management is to change organizational structures. and need to be led. increase self-understanding. Overcoming Resistance to Change. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. are self-centered. Chris Argyrif s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. higherlevel needs become dominant. French s (1948) article. pioneers in laboratory training. The theory postulated that when lower-level needs are satisfied. a direct precursor of OD. to assume responsibility. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. caring social climate. a mechanistic organization y y y y y y y y . and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. lack ambition. This article introduced the concept of organizations as socio-technical systems. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. this book popularized Maslow s motivation theory. P. resist change. management practices. Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization.y These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). Rogers focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. and understand group dynamics. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy.
Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. · Development of more effective "team management. optimistic. Out of this zeitgeist. theory. y y This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. goal-oriented. and unprincipled power. The Social Psychology of Organizations by Daniel Katz and Robert L. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. as we have said. open communications. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. compromise. and values of the field. and negative consequences. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. and democratic. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. and organizations that is. humanistic. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. Writing in 1969. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. an organic organization form is preferred. groups. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. and greater individual autonomy. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. y Rensis Likert s New Patterns of Management (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners." that is. . This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. dysfunctions. and shares decision-making with the work group. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. These six books presented the theory. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence.structure may be appropriate. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. in an environment of high change. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company OD Six-Pack. bureaucracy. one-on-one leadership style. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. Values have always been an integral part of OD. practice.
Therefore." like pushing buttons. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). 4. 3.´ For example. Controls are interim measurements." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. 1. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. . the basic units of change are groups. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. mutual trust. 2. director of organization development." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. 5. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. M. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. and confidence between and across levels." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. 6. Organizations. a professor and Sheldon Davis. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. not the basis of managerial strategy. Robert Tannenbaum. Here is his list. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. Stalker used the term ³mechanistic´ in contrast to ³mechanical. sub-units of organizations. "People support what they help create. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals.· Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. not individuals. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. They listed these ³values in transition´ as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good.
participation and contribution by all organization members. decentralized decision making. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. open communication. authentic interpersonal relations. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. the legitimacy of feelings. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. 5. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. appropriate uses of power. autocratic. toward seeing them as being in process. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today.· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. · Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions . collaboration and co-operation. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration.
Third. such as a work group. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. and interpersonal communication. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. and usually with more than one group. give autonomy.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. and are capable of making. 5. a church or club group. support. personal growth. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. challenge. To do this. not individuals. the family. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. . The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. set high standards. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. First. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. invest training time and money to increase group members¶ skills. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. give responsibility. Most people want to develop their potential. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. groups. and reward success.5. facilitation. and job satisfaction. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. encourage risk-taking. Second. What occurs in the work group. This skill is a trainable one. Hence.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. support. in addition. and co-operation within the group. listen. Also. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. and organizations? 5. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. leaders need to give important work to teams. at both the formal and informal levels.5. and so on. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. Implications of these assumptions are several.Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. not a one-on-one leadership style. including peers and boss. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group¶s effectiveness and development. permit failure. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. conflict management. remove obstacles and barriers.
By implication. they change over time. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. Finally." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. 5. adherence to the chain of command. Frequently the challenge is broader. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. and E can support these changes. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane.5. organizing structures. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. D. emphasis on topdown directives. Concluding Comment: . The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. societal. formalized cross-functional communication. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization¶s leaders.Finally. and empowering. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. developmental. an optimistic. The implication is that people are an organization¶s most important resource. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. In addition. The rapid technological. and so on-are obsolete. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where ³putting people first´ paid off handsomely in profits and performance. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. and ways to optimize human potential. and profitability. in which one side wins and the other side loses. grouping by specialized function. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. are dysfunctional over the long run and highlight the need for a ³win win´ attitude. values are never static. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. including how persons C. Still. quality of output. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. By implication. Therefore. a growing awareness that ³win-lose´ organizational situations.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships.
5.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. Values. __________ is associated with scientific management. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. The outcome of ±±±±±±±± was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. 3. Write a note about F. Values are also beliefs. 5. 5. Values. 2. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. 3. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. beliefs. The concept of ±±±±±±±±±± was introduced by MaxWeber. Define concepts.W. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. optimistic and democratic. OD values tend to be humanistic. Cognitive . 2. 5. 4. Taylor¶s principles of scientific management. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true.7 Terminal Questions 1. and assumptions are all ±±±±±±±±±± facts. Values. values.The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. beliefs and assumptions.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. Self Assessment Questions 1. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. but are widely accepted today. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts.
Refer section 5.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1. Hawthorne experiments 5.2.2 2. Refer section 5.1 Introduction Objectives 6. Taylor 3.3 4. F. Refer section 5. Refer section 5.3 3.2 Beyond the Quick Fix .3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . W.3 188.8.131.52 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6. Bureaucracy 4. Refer section 5. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6.
6 Parallel Learning Structures 184.108.40.206 Applied Behavioural Science 220.127.116.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.1 The Nature of Systems 6.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed.3 Systems Theory 6. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6.5 Teams and Teamwork 6. you will be able to: .11 Terminal Questions 6.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.2.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice. In this discussion.4 Participation and Empowerment 6. Objectives: After studying this unit.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6.10 Summary 6.3.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.6.
describe those features as variables. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature.2. We will examine the following concepts: · Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. and specify the relationships among the variables. · Explain the terms µparticipation¶ and µempowerment¶. the important features of some phenomenon. · Describe the parallel learning structures. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. That is.· Explain various models and theories of planned change. · Explain systems theory. Models and theories depict. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field. in words or pictures. 6. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in . · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD.
Scanning the environment for new relevant information . etc. that is. With a technique called the force-field analysis.opposing directions. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. b. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. Identifying with a new role model. Lewin¶s second idea was a model of the change process itself. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. moving to new level of behaviour. that is. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. Finally. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). Lewin¶s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. mentor. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. judge things. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. feel things. For example. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. he must move. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. Likewise. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. Next.
Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s refreezing phase. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual.Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. b. refreezing. and Bruce Westley. That is. In stage 2. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. The total personality and self-concept. that is. which cause guilt and anxiety. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system¶s problem. change will not occur. In stage 1. and attitudes. Significant relationships. for example. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. terminating the client-consultant relationship. The primary task in stage 3. unfreezing. 4. Phases 3. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s unfreezing phase. This motivating evidence is gained by. moving. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person¶s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin¶s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. which motivate the person to change. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. and fit with the individual¶s social surroundings. Jeanne Watson. and 5 correspond ro Lewin¶s moving phase. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. establishing goals and intentions of action. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person¶s personality. . Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. That is.
This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. and 5) The reward system track. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. problem-solving sessions. and so forth. 4) The strategy-structure track. Interventions include training programs." that. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? . called "tracks.This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. 3) Scheduling the "tracks".2.2 Beyond the ³Quick Fix´ A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. 2) Diagnosing the problems. 3) The team-building track. Change programs take from one to five years to complete. critique practices and procedures. 2) The management skills track. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. Kilmann¶s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. when functioning properly. 6. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. cause the organization to be successful. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization.
Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. radical. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. communication. jobs.2. Ford General Electric.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. or discontinuous change. evolutionary. Westinghouse. information sharing. TRW. departments. work groups. beginning with the culture track. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered ± the organization is transformed.and second-order change. and so forth.The culture track enhances trust. and Xerox with good results. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. 6. revolutionary. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. adaptive. The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. then moving to the team-building track. the use of updated management skills. and all resources with the new strategic direction. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit ± thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. OD programs are directed toward both first. or continuous change. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. then moving to the management skills track. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call ³transactional change´ and ³transformational change´). incremental. General Foods. . and its holistic view of organization change and development. Eastman Kodak. In first-order change. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. In second-order change. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups.
Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First ± Order Change . often unconscious. Fig. Changing structure. and beliefs that are enduring. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. leadership. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. in turn. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. and organization culture result in second-order change." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. management practices. On the other hand. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. and difficult to change. We will do so in several steps. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions.Organizational climate is defined as people¶s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. and so forth. friendly or unfriendly. individual and organizational performance. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees¶ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. which change motivation and. values. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. hard-working or easy-going. 6. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. management practices.
Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. that is. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. Burke says: ³Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. leadership styles. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. . These factors are able to change the climate. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. as shown in the above figure.´ We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. mission and strategy. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. we must change mission and strategy. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. and organization culture. 6. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). To summarize. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. Interventions directed toward management practices. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization¶s culture.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second ± Order Change On the other hand. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally.Fig. structure.
2. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. management style. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. For example. and technology. . Interventions that focus on culture. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. and interaction processes will affect social factors. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members¶ cognitions (they learn what is expected.Fig. 6.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. OD interventions that focus on goals. It is how OD works.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. rewarded). social factors. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. which determine organizational performance and individual development. physical setting. strategies. according to Porras and Robertson. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. required. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. which influence on-the job behaviours.
Fig.Fig. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966. This section explains systems theory. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6. describes the characteristics of systems.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory. 6.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. Systems . which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. 6. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD.
All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. dynamics. Here. . or subsystems. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. the reasons for their existence. money. 6. The words µarrangement¶ and µinterrelated¶ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. raw material and so on. Thus. the organization¶s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. Organizations are open systems. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. Every system is delineated by a boundary.system. in that they permit exchange of information.3. resources. or transformation processes that change the inputs. information. For example. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. conversion. Therefore. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. What is inside the boundary is the system. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy. Open systems have purposes and goals. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. that is the system. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. components. when taking a systems approach. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. people. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized." To summarize. system denotes interdependency. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. the organization will cease to exist. interconnectedness. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. They do something to the inputs via throughput." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. and characteristics of open systems are well-known.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. and if the environment does not want these outputs. and energy between system and environment.theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment.
Information is important to systems in several ways. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. say. and the like. that information is called positive feedback. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. competitors. while screening out other information. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. By the same token. however." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. For example. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems ³run down´ and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. mining. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. "return to earth. aerospace. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. but most are not useful. It is sometimes called deviationamplifying feed back. and so on. For example. Say your company makes buggy whips. Systems require two kinds of feedback. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. If the mission (target) changes. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. 6. negative and positive. eating fads. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. and makes a course correction.Fig. and the system adjusts to a new goal. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. Positive feedback comes from the environment. .
and the workforce¶s expectations. systems tend to get more elaborated.Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. differentiated. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. which includes formal structures. knowledge.´ Also. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state ± systems have multiple paths to goals. 2) Resources available to the organization. people. and complex over time. specialized.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. perceptions. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. and individual level. either internal or external. unit/group level. As Katz and Kahn say: ³The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. Subsystems exist within larger systems. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. formal organization. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. important events. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. . which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. this process is called differentiation. which includes skills. and systems for performing the work. which includes the organization¶s culture informal rules and understandings. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. work. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). With increased differentiation. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. The three major input factors are: 1) The environment. failures. and informal organization.3. 6. processes. such as capital. knowledge. and technology.
" The premise is that alignment (harmony. 6. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. which components are "not functioning correctly. If the organization¶s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. organizations must optimize both systems. and information to the point of action. . For example. fit) must be present among the system¶s components¶ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. forming autonomous work groups. performance will suffer. that is.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model¶s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. In a company that is performing poorly. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. two active segments of OD today. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. 6. controlling variance at the source. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. Fred Emery. training group members in multiple skills. if people don¶t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. to the workers doing the job. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. especially autonomous work groups (selfregulated teams or self-direct teams).socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. performance will suffer. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar." and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance.3. Hanna writes: . performance will suffer. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. and that changes in one system affect the other system. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. multi-skilled teams.Fig. a social system and a technical system. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work.
´ In conclusion. building shared vision. and 3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. . Third. He says of systems thinking: ³It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. events and forces. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation.3. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. is the most important. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. not single effects. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. changing one part of a system influences other parts. mental models. Charles Krone. For example. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. therefore. but seen in relation to other issues.In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. and systems thinking. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery.KI Jayaram. systems thinking. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. 6. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. from their activities. team learning. the fifth discipline. Of all these disciplines. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. G. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. events. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. issues. Second. according to Peter Senge. Without a systemic orientation. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). By enhancing each of the other disciplines. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stakeholders. forces. because most phenomena have more than one cause. First.
One view. and give more power to more people. But . They believed that it was about risk-taking. increase commitment to the organization. quality of work life programs. called "organic. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. with its emphasis on risk-taking. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). And fifth. involvement and participation energize greater performance. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. one changes the system. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. The other view. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. growth. and change. 6. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. Further. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. Participation enhances empowerment. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. which they call "mechanistic. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. to contribute their ideas. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. autonomous work groups. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people.Fourth." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions." is bottom-up and less controlling. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. not just its component parts. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. personal initiative. reduce stress levels. and to be responsible. quality circles. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. and growth. to exert influence. produce better solutions to problems. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. survey feedback. is the more useful perspective. To empower is to give someone power." These authors believe the organic view. team building." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. For example. search conferences. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. to change a system.
QCs (quality circles).5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations.´ 6. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. research. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today ± gurus extol the virtues of teams. they must if personally connected to the organization. teaming. . processes. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. the noun team has become a verb. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. but rather a mindset that employees have about their roles in the organization. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. Third. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: ³Empowerment. Theory. employees must choose to be empowered. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. Teams and teamwork are "in. then. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. confident about their abilities.both views contain valid ideas: for example. Second. to name just a few. HPOs (high-performance organizations). A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. systems. Team Taurus developed Ford¶s best-selling automobile. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). While management can create a context that is more empowering. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. people must work together to accomplish them. is not something that management does to employees. as a team. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). If the team. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. that is. and relationships if they are to be effective. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. teams create synergy. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. changes those norms and values. STS (socio-technical systems).
that they achieve synergy. and others. including collegiate football national champions. quality circles. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. heart transplant surgical teams. and the like. inter-group team-building. socio-technical systems programs. help each other. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. teams satisfy people¶s needs for social interaction. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. . and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. and explore ways to realize that potential. Examples are team-building. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. role negotiation technique. parallel learning structures. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. and respect-teams nurture human nature. recognition. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. In this section. status. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. process consultation. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. team performance declines. When any one feature is lost. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. cross-functional teams. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. and responsibility charting. find innovative ways around barriers. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams.Fourth. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. and set ever-higher goals. temporary teams.
and continuous learning. Union Pacific Railroad. Asea Brown Boveri. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. Projects are the work of the future.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing . constitute another important foundation of organization development. you don¶t have a parallel structure. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as ³a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. deciding. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. projects will be performed by teams. talking.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. Bushe and Shani say: ³The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. and then leading the process. superior customer service. and employees. High responsibility. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension.´ The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. If you don¶t implement different norms and procedures. flexible response. 6. In essence. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. managers. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. and initiate needed changes. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. autonomous. Titeflex. 6. clear objectives. What¶s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation.Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs.´ Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization¶s methods of work and/or culture. At Ford Motor Company. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. Interestingly. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. It isn¶t the supplemental structure that¶s important. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it.
These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. and¶ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. Evaluated against these three change strategies. doubts." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. OD clearly falls within the normative-reeducative category. and significant relationships. Change in a pattern of practice or action. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. based on the assumptions that people are rational. information. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. and together they define problems and seek solutions. The first type is empirical rational strategies. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. attitudes. anxieties. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normativereductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-re-eductive and the empirical-rational strategies. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. rather than the OD practitioner. Patterns of action and practice are supported ± by sociocultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. will follow their rational self-interest. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. . that is. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. not just changes in knowledge. skills.Organization development involves change. according to this view. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. relationships and customary ways of doing things. values.
not the individual. practices. pressing problems. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined." applied science. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice.. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. for example. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. by modifying a group norm or standards. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. OD emphasizes the latter. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments.´ Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD.´ From this "practice theory. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. . on the basis of selected variables. 6. On this point. hopefully. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. or practice. applied science or practice.e. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. success corroborating the diagnosis. The practitioner examines the problem situation. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. re-establishes the equilibrium. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. and (2) "technology. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. Thus. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. thereby solving the problem. behavioural science knowledge.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. Greenwood states: ³The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. Burke writes: ³If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. i. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory.
perhaps more accurately. the two top in puts. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. practice research and practice theory. 6. and research leading to social action« This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. feedback of the data to the client system members. and action planning based on the data. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. Kurt Lewin.9 Action Research The action research model ± a data-based. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. had this to say about it: ³The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. Taken separately. who developed the concept of action research. It is a type of action-research. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. and doing or implementing change efforts. 6. represent contributions from pure or basic science. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. The two bottom inputs. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. represent contributions from applied science. Taken collectively.Fig.´ Concluding Comments: These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing ± learning about the dynamics of organizational change. Self Assessment Questions . form of applied behavioural science. Action research involves three processes: data collection.
3. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. ±±±±±±±±±± gave the model ³Beyond the Quick Fix´. Ralph Kilmann 3.´ 5. Bring out the essence of ³managing beyond the quick fix´ model of organizational development. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. A _____________ is defined as ³a set of elements standing in interaction. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. 6. Unfreezing 2.1.11 Terminal Questions 1. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. 6. 2. 2.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Explain Kurt Lewin¶s models and theories of planned organizational change. 4. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. ³Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. 3. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. 4. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change.´ Comment on this statement. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. 6. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. Transactional change . First²order change is also called ___________. ±±±±±±±±±± means moving to new level of behaviour. Action research model combines learning and doing. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change.
5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7. Refer section 6. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 7.2.4. Refer section 6.3 Types of Organization Culture.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.2 3. 7. Refer section 6.3 4.3 5.1 2. System 5.Refer section 6. Refer section 6.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture 18.104.22.168 Summary .
what members wear.7 Terminal Questions 7. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. Culture is one of those terms that¶s difficult to express distinctly.1 Introduction Basically. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. terminology. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. · Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. despite the best-laid plans. Which in many organizations come down to ³Do not do too much. Martin and Meyerson.7. but also changing the corporate culture as well. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. but everyone knows it when they sense it. Observed behavioral regularities. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. 1986). the culture of a large. When organizational participants interact with one another. Norms. Standards of behavior exist. what they brag about. Practitioners are coming to realize that. values. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. 2. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. thinking. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. etc. do not do too little?´ . you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. Objectives: After studying this unit. they use common language. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. ± similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone¶s personality. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. For example. discovered. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. including guidelines on how much work to do. 7.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7.
Transactions are exchanges of value. For many years. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. 7. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. people are driven through vision.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber¶s original view of bureaucracy. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. outputs and outcomes.3. processes and procedures. Market cultures are outward looking. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. In an efficient market organization. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. They often have well-defined policies. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. New-comers must learn those ³ropes´ in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. Rather than strict rules and procedures. . shared goals. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. Typical examples are high product quality. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization¶s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. 6. 5. Organizational climate: This is an overall ³feeling´ that is conveyed by the physical layout. but one where all transactions. 4. the way participants interact. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. In contrast to Hierarchies. internal and external are viewed in market terms. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations.
7. norms. . and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. 1986). the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. plaques. the way they dress etc. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. big-bang projects and development. culture is like the DNA of an organization. supportive way and may take on a parental role. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. etc. but critical to shaping its behavior. Rules. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. discovered. systems and subsystems. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. symbols. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. 1993). rules. Martin and Meyerson. In biological terms.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. thinking. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. · Its rituals. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability.strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. and procedures. although not necessarily documented. invisible to the naked eye. the jargon they use. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented.
Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. decisions. and what is right and what is wrong. believing. productivity. also called as organizational success or growth. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. its core value are limited to a few in number. For example. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. business and leadership strategies. various terms such as efficiency. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. . Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. there is often contradiction in various approaches. From this point of view. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management¶s policies. to denote organizational effectiveness. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. Though each individual¶s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. communicating. individually and collectively. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. skills. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. profitability. and behaviour. or standards held by members of an organization.Values: These are the social principles. 1. and doing. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. Thus. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. are often used interchangeably. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. organizational growth. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. Though an organization espouses a series of values.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. intervening and end result. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. Identifying. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. the personality of the organization). there are numerous variables. goals. from the basis of its policies and action. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization¶s social environment and evolve of behavior.
motivational. and energy that will be required. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. is worth running some risks for. others are brought into the organization.2. locating space. 2. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. and decision-making.g. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. For example.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. the loyalties. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. and is worth the investment of time. attitudes. 3. performance goals. 4. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of ±date. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. and they tend to be longterm goals. scrap loss. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. money. and earnings. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. At this point. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. 7. incorporating. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. communication. End ± result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. 3. and perceptual cluster. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. and so on. That is.. building. costs. . e. is workable. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. obtaining patents. However. motivations. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: 1. According to Likert. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. and a common history begins to be built.
the ³culture contract´ that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. roles. These factors from the two cultures include the size. The personal feelings. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. Structure. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. 4. 1. 7. 2. . Politics. Emotions. 3. management. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. age. and history of two firms. powerful stakeholders such as unions. attitudes. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. take these losses early. 6. or even customers may support the existing culture. commitment. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. Make changes from the top down. habits. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can¶t be done successfully?. relationships. the geographic location. especially when making changes in rules and processes. 2. 3. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. 5.Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. Include employees in the culture change process. In addition. Assess the current culture. and whether products and/or services are involved. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. if possible. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. and patterns of daily behavior. Staffs.
intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. Artifacts 2. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. and strategic constituencies approach. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. ________cultures are outward looking. Finally. Self Assessment Questions 1.goal approach. Stay the course by being persistent. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. 9.7 Terminal Questions 1. 2. system-resource approach.6 Summary Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. Causal variables Answers to TQs: . effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. behavioural approach. 3.8. Market 3. 3. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. 7. 7. 7. 2.
4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8. Politics and Organization Development Unit-08.Power.3 Two Faces of Power 8.1 Introduction Objectives 8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8.1.3 3.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8. Refer section 7. Refer section 7.10 Terminal Questions .5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . MU0002-Unit-08.2 Power Defined and Explored 8. Refer section 7.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8.2 2.9 Summary 8.Power. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8.
power must be exercised. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. In this unit.´ Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. 8. and behaviours of people. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid today. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related. indisputable facts of organizational life.´ ³A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. · Explain theories about the sources of power. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations. emotions. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations. Potential power is the capacity to do so.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8.8. and for change to occur in an organization. to effect outcomes. The French word µpouvoir¶ stands for both the noun µpower¶ and the verb µto be able. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting." ³Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics.actions and the decisions that precede them.1 Introduction Power and politics. Objectives: After this studying this unit." . we examine power and politics in relation to organization development. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change.¶ To have power is to be able to get desired things done.
selling. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson¶s "Power-Dependence theory. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. confiscation. According to him. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power." . influence. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. the act or ability of influencing others." A moment¶s reflection. absolute power corrupts absolutely. hurting. being exercised. for organizations to function. financial. with collective. 8. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. not the possession of power as such. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. power being the predominant mode. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. and organizational activities. 8. or acquired? In this unit. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. political. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one¶s way in a social situation. and lead. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. however. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. bestowed.Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one¶s way." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. Without leadership (power) in medical. forcing. an authority or power dimension is required. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. unsocialized need to dominate others.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" ± positive and negative. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. Leading. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. spiritual. both positive and negative. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. influencing. Crushing. Power-in-action may take many forms. and repression. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. or positive. technological. In fact. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous.
that is.· French and Raven¶s "Bases of Social Power. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. of social power as follows: 1. hate." · Salancik and Pfeffer¶s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. to give something negatively valued by the other. The sociologist. . The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. Legitimate power ± power based on everyone¶s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. rejection. Viewed in this light. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. blame. Coercive power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another." These authors suggested five sources. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. Reward power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. we will continue the exchange relationship. goals. and desired by the other. information. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. Expert power ± power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A¶s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. that is. praise. influence. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. respect. or bases. 4. to give something valued by the other. and so forth. Referent power ± power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. when the net balance for us is negative. When the net balance for us is positive. rewards) that are controlled by one party. 3. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. we will terminate or alter the relationship. P. power. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. that person has power over us. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place." In other words." · Mintzberg¶s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. 2. attraction. 5. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another.
In this theory, power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals, units, or departments) most important for solving the organization¶s most critical problems. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. This theory, like the ones discussed previously, supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by- others-in this case, the special expertise needed for the organization¶s survival-have power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits, indeed, used by all who have it, to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources, through the placement of allies in key positions, and through the definition of organizational problems and policies." These authors view organizational power as a good thing, for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. This theory, "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players, called influencers, seek to control the organization¶s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power, coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. According to Mintzberg, the five possible bases of power are, first, control of a resource; second, control of a technical skill; and, third, control of a body of knowledge. All of these must be critical to the organization. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. In addition to a base of power, the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. An organization has many potential influencers, such as the board of directors, the managers, the top executives, the employees, the unions, suppliers, customers, regulators, and so forth. The important aspects of Mintzberg¶s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others, that power-in-action requires will and skill, and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In summary, these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar ± power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. The resources may be ability to reward and
punish, being in control of critical skills, knowledge, or information, the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined ³politics simply as the study of who gets what, when, and how´. ³Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices´. ³Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups´. ³Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means´. Thus, we view politics as a subset of power, treating it as informal power, illegitimate in nature. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power, but in this sense, formal power, the power vested in office, the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. Both relate to getting one¶s way-effectance. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. For our purposes, organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations; it is engaging in activities to get one¶s way. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities; the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics, like power, has two faces. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest; unsocialized needs to dominate others; a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win, you must lose-rather than win-win terms; and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy, surprise, holding hidden agendas, withholding information, deceiving. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others; viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible; engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing; a relative absence of the tactics of fighting; and a socialized need to lead, initiate, and influence others. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making, resource allocation, and conflict resolution processes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose; they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. In fact, one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation, conflict resolution, and choosing among alternative means and goals.
8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. Virtually, all OD interventions promote problem-solving, not politics, as a preferred way to get things accomplished. OD interventions increase problem-solving, collaboration, co-operation, fact-finding, and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. For example, OD interventions typically generate valid, public data about the organization¶s culture, processes, strengths, and weaknesses. Valid, public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations; rather, they enhance the positive face of power, thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy, it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme power-oriented situations. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power, but not with the negative face of power. Values such as trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first, problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations; second, power equalization, being one aspect of the positive face of power, increases the amount of power available to organization members, and by so doing adds power to the organization. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator, catalyst, problem solver, and educator. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. According to Chris Argyris, the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information, (2) to promote free, informed choice, and (3) to promote the client¶s internal commitment to the choices made. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner, his or her program, and his or her values, methods, and expertise. The OD consultant, like all consultants, provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors, as we discussed earlier. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. In summary, organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. This major strength of OD derives from the strategy of change, the technology, the values, and the roles of OD practitioners.
and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). experience. preferably multiple sponsorship. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. Skills such as listening. it will be strong externally. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. and ability to gain organizational support. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. in powerful places. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems." 4. coaching. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. both as a person and as a professional. . expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). acceptability. According to the framework of French and Raven. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). 5. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. 2. it will gain more power. communicating.8. 3. First. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. 6. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization¶s decision makers). problem solving. Success leads to credibility and stature."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. and expertise.
The OD program belongs to the manager. not the OD consultant. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization¶s powerholders. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. Rule Five: Mind your own business. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. OD programs should be results-oriented. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. Rule Six: Mind your own business. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. the manager will vigorously defend it. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. A valuable byproduct of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence.counseling. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one¶s power base. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. . Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. usually managers. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being managercentered. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. those issues vital to the organization¶s success. which is to be an expert on process. not by getting involved in the answers. constructive social relationships. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. not content. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one¶s own or in others¶ political struggles.
negotiations the nature of power and politics. yet legitimate means of acquiring power. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others¶ legitimate "turf. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. problem solver. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. not power activist or power broker. others¶ support. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. We could propose more rules of thumb.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge · Expertise · Information · Tradition Others¶ Support y y Strategies for Success Playing It Straight · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Political access Staff support . catalyst." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. 8.Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. individual power derives from knowledge." which arouses defensive actions. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. Networking is recognized as a potent. the strategy and tactics of influence." and "going around the formal system. As shown in the figure. and educator." "using social networks. and personality characteristics.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. Table 8. and using contacts for information. viable.
arises from expertise. visibility-how much one¶s work is seen by influential people. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. Personal power.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. Whetton and Cameron¶s model is shown in following figure. and relevance-how important one¶s task is in relation to organizational priorities. In this model. personal power and position power. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what¶s expected of them.Personality y y y Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don¶t) use organization rules Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. and legitimacy. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks´. Indeed. effort. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. even those of little power. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. criticality-how important one¶s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. a person¶s power comes from two main sources. in turn. This practical. personal attraction. . ³One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs.
arise from known conditions. and (6) build on success. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. Concluding Comments: In this unit. Having power is one thing. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people¶s inappropriate influence attempts. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. Usually reason is the preferred strategy. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. actually using it to get things done is another. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. and are amenable to positive control. (2) provide a positive. 8.Fig. Whetton and Cameron suggest several means of resisting others¶ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. and retribution. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. According to these authors." And. Retribution refers to coercion and threats. collaborative work environment. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. Power and politics are similar in nature. Our suggestions for .1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. reciprocity. and (3) empowering others. power-in-use is called influence.
Referent power 4. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups.using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. Power and politics are similar in nature. 3. reputation and professional credibility.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. 5. when and how. 8. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. Describe briefly various theories of power. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. and how. emotions or behaviour of people. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. 8. Power 2. and are amenable to positive control. ±±±±±± is the intentional influence over the beliefs. arise from known conditions. Harold Lasswell . The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. Power can be either positive or negative. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. 8. 2. ±±±±±±±± defined politics as the study of who gets what.. Define organization politics. McClelland 3.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. 5. ±±±±±±±±±± is made up of Charisma. 2. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power.10 Terminal Questions 1. 3. 4. 4. _____________ has identified two faces of power. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ±±±± ±±±±±±±. Self Assessment Questions 1. when.
5 4.Refer section 8.4 3.3 Socio Technical Systems 9.2 Meaning and Definitions 9.5. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9.6 Quality of Work Life Projects . Personality Answers to TQs: 1.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .6 5. Refer section 8.4 Management By Objectives 9.1 Introduction Objectives 9.5 Quality Circles 9. Refer section 8.2 2. Refer section 8. Refer section 8.
These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. actions.9.11 Terminal Questions 9. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9.10 Summary 9. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9.8 Total Quality Management 9. organizational problems may repeat. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis. · Explain Reengineering. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. Objectives: After studying this unit. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9. . · Explain Total Quality Management. In this dynamic and fluid environment. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles.
1967. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. Cost is Low. From a benefit cost analysis. 3. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. Rapidity of change. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. Structure changes are normally ³institutionalized´ and less subject to this problem. Succession Doesn¶t Destroy Change Effort. 5. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. This normally is a reasonable. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. 4. and more critically. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners.9. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. It could involve the following steps (Foster. 1976. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. 1988): Determining the environmental demands Creating a vision statement Educating organizational members . Pasmore. It endeavors to re-design the organization¶s structure. 2.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. The cost of structural change is generally ³front-end´ loaded. 9. In addition.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. Cummings. Downsizing associated with restructuring. Basic reinforcement theories. Greater Predictability. Organization Acceptance of Change. organization theory.
and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. with objective orientation as its essence. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO).´ Based on the definition of MBO. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. 2. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques.´ The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: ³MBO is a result-centered. Certain degree of overlapping is there. As an approach to management. On the other hand. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. non-specialist. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. therefore. Creating the change structure Conducting socio-technical analysis Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. its features can be identified as follows: 1. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. physical. It is a particular way of thinking about management. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. its definitional aspect. Since then. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of . In fact.
1. Resource allocation. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis. in interaction with external factors. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. Questions. This. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. (ii) long-range . Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. delegation of authority. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. Therefore. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. all the units or departments and individual manager. etc. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities. The performance review is held regularly. Therefore. its subsystems and people. and participation of the managers with accountability for results. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. including the corporate level. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. 4. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization.management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. What business are we in?´ and what should be our business?´ provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. It works as an integrating device. 3. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. ³why does the organization exist?´. 6. such as. the clarity and balance of objectives. Similarly. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. Therefore.. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives. superiors and subordinates. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. are determined on the basis of objectives. enhancement of employee commitment and participation. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. normally once a year. 5.
Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability. there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. (vi) financial and physical resources. with the experience gained over the period of time. Thereafter. each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. (iv) productivity. what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization. and (viii) public responsibility. there should be matching between objectives and resources. (v) worker performance. Therefore. (iii) short-term organizational objectives.and strategic objectives. In turn. there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate¶s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by setting easily achievable objectives. In fact. the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully. the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. 4. By relating these to objectives. Setting Subordinates¶ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. (iii) innovation. Sometimes. (ii) market standing. However. resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. . (vii) manager performance. By relating these to objectives. the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. If not. Therefore. a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. 5. Therefore. (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives. It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. they also indicate the resource requirement. The process of objective setting begins with superior¶s proposed recommendations for his subordinate¶s objectives. Even though KRAs are most durable. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization¶s health and the top management perspective for the future. 3. 2. (v) individual manager¶s objectives. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer.
and rewards. on paper.6. QWL programs. . Therefore. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. each having three to fifteen members. · Make recommendations for improvement. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process. but in its contemporary form.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. 9. Quality circle program consists of several circles.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s. appropriate feedback and employee discretion. it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London. information. which consequently result into high level of task variety. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization¶s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases. this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. in general. 9. what happens at each level may affect other levels also. hierarchical structure. knowledge. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis. quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. or in people¶s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. 9. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement.
9. · Competitive benchmarking. It is also called continuous quality improvement. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. Self Assessment Questions .8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization¶s activities around the concept of quality. self-managed teams and task forces. eliminating. statistical quality control. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. quality. provides relevant information to all employees. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. 9. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches. including the use of quality circles. statistical process control. service. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. and extensive use of employee participation. and speed. It is very popular in USA in 1990s. · Participative management. such as cost.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. Reengineering is a top-down process. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. contemporary measures of performance.
Write a short note on Total Quality Management. 9. actions.11 Terminal Questions 1. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. 2. From a benefit cost analysis. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. Drucker 3. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. Quality circle Answers to TQs: . 9. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. provides relevant information to all employees. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2.1. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. Intervention 2. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. 3. It is also called continuous quality improvement. actions. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. 9. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner.
4 Causes for Resistance to Change.5 4.1.3 2.2 Nature of Change 10.7 Summary 10. 10.2 3. Refer section 9.1 Introduction Objectives 10. Refer section 9.8 Terminal Questions 10. Self Assessment Questions 10.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change.3 Resistance to Change 10.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10. MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.Refer section 9. Refer section 9.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .9 Answers to SAQs and TQs .
Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. may require special change efforts.whether physical. 3. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. · Impact of change on future managers. organizational change may have the following features: 1. less. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). Thus. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. others. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. Any change may effect the whole organization. Thus.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. However. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled .2 Nature of Change The term µchange¶ refers to an alteration in a system. 2. some parts may be affected directly. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. which are major ones. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. indirectly.10. 10. or social. and others. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. Objectives: After studying this unit. Hence. structural arrangement. and others. biological. When change occurs in any part of the organization. job design and people. some parts of organization may be affected more. organizational problems may repeat. In this dynamic and fluid environment. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. Organizational change is a continuous process. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization.
and its basic survival may be jeopardized. it has stretched slightly. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. commented. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. if we look minutely. In fact. employees want to maintain a status quo. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. adjustment is fairly routine. Madhur Bajaj. there are two sides of resistance. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. that is. so is the resistance to change. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. On this phenomenon. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). We shall take new workers at the new place.as cost and as benefit. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. In fact. but when a change is major or unusual. Homeostasis implies selfcorrecting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. Thus.´ Resistance as Benefit: . fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. If people resist to change. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. because it produces identical symptoms. Similarly. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. However. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies.balloon. 10. ³The Pune plant is fully saturated. it becomes indented at the point of contact. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. more serious upsets may occur. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. However. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. In fact. We wanted a new culture and new layout.
On the one hand, resistance to change is costly affair, and on the other, it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. While on negative side, the reality lies in between. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Thus, resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: 1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Therefore, the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. These feelings, either real or emotional, may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic, psychological and social. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological, job security etc. precede over other needs. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques, technology, etc., whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them, they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India, it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely, reduce job options, and turn into technological unemployment. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match.
3. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes, bonus, etc. All these are well-established in the old system. Whenever there is change, people may feel that in the new system, they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Psychological Factors Psychological factors are based on people¶s emotions, sentiments and attitudes towards change. These are qualitative and, therefore, may be logical from people¶s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent¶s point of view. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness, status quo, lack of trust in change agent, low tolerance for change, and fear of unknown. 1. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego, people resist change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Thus, the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. 2. Status Quo: People want status quo. i.e. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore, everyone tries to avoid it. 3. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo, people may differ. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Therefore, these people resist any new idea. 4. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent, that is, the person who initiates change. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent, they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 5. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The change will bring results in future, which is always uncertain. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction, particularly social needs, through their mutual compatible interactions. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change, people resist it. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.
1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. When there is any change, their existing social interactions are likely to be changed, which people do not want. Therefore, they resist change. 2. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class, e.g., change initiated by managers affecting workers. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change, even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. For example, Sumantra Ghoshal, a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru, has commented as follows: ³Nothing fails like success; nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation, Caterpillar, Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles, all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called µThe Failure of Success¶. Strategies, values, resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés, dogmas, millstones and routines.´ This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought, these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes, stability of systems, resource limitations, sunk cost, and inter-organizational agreement. Some of these reasons are basic while others are byproducts of those. For example, first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. 1. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices, they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. 2. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. For example, a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules, prescribes rigid authority relationships, and institutes reward and punishment system. All these work in some circumstances. It a change is required in these aspects, the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system.
the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. intensive planning. if any change is to be incorporated. those who wonder what happened. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. centralized control. This can be in the form of people also. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. In this interaction process. In such a case. 4. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. . They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. and has zeal for progress. if the change is required. It depends more on the style of top management. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. decentralized controls. 1. these can be used for specific period. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. broad environmental scanning. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. If it is risk-taking. Thus. 5. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. and commensurate expenses on other items also. Resource Limitations: No doubt. it will require resources to procure machine.3. 2.´ This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. 3. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. if new technology is adopted. Let us see what someone has said long back: ³There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. those who watch things happen. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. innovative.defenders. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. building and training for its personnel. For example. Once the assets are acquired. prospectors. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. For example. and reactors. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. forward-looking. Now. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. analyzers. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness.
do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you¶re like most people. when you go to work or school. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. engaging in a work showdown. adjusting to the new office layout. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. If for example. Let¶s look at the sources of resistance. When we are confronted with change. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one¶s income. finding a new parking place. Resistance can be overt. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. it means you¶re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. Otherwise. The same applies to employee. some may fear they¶ll be unable to do so. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. or the like. For instance. developing a new lunchtime routine. As human beings. Organizational resistance . And people in general don¶t like the unknown. we¶re creatures of habit. Life is complex enough. and so on. or programmed responses. For analytical purpose. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. they cannot survive. or deferred.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn¶t necessarily surface in standardized ways. we¶ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. immediate. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. 10. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. Therefore. we don¶t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. Habit Every day. therefore.4. we all rely on habits. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. you find a single route and you use it regularly. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. threatening to go on strike. To cope with this complexity. taking a new set of streets to work. They may. implicit. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won¶t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards.
mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. 10. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. and benefits administration ± has been resisted by many human resource departments. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. Will the change. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. You can¶t change one without affecting the others. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities ± such as training. accountants work with marketers. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. for instance. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. For example. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. For example.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. For example. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization¶s structure to match. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. for instance. development of pay plans. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. The . Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. That is. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. They tend to be content with the way things are. Formalization provides job description.Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. rules and procedures for employees to follow. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. he¶s likely to resist. An individual union member. group norms may act as a constraint.
the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. Unless this problem is overcome properly. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. It implies explanation and then discussion of the proposed changes. People always have some . this is not a one-time action. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. the following efforts can be taken: 1. 10. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes.´ Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. both at the formal and informal levels. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority.ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. However. Therefore. that is. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue ± not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. For example. the problems can be solved at the same level.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people¶s resistance to change successfully. For this purpose. Stephen Robbins suggests that ³«« managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation.´ The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. In many cases. In addition. typically by way of computer network links. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. at the level of individual and at the level of group. through group dynamics. Locavini observes that ³the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them.
to become effective. so that they are looked at and evaluated. People should be educated to become familiar with change. (ii) In group. 4. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. as discussed earlier. It grows slowly along with relationship. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. For this purpose. 2. is an important trust-building task. Thus. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. meetings. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. he expresses it through a group. helped to change attitudes. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. sometimes. Getting opinions out in the open. its basic nature. education must be a part of the manager¶s everyday activity on the job. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. Usually. The same is true of problem-solving. Thus. and conferences. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. must be understood so that its effective use can be made.ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: 1. 3. most of the times. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. the group itself should be the point of contact. However. more than one person is involved in the change. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. its process and working. They must be taught new skills. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. As this process goes. and indoctrinated in new relationships. However. Though each person interprets the change individually often. . it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change.
taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. 2. sentiments and attitudes towards change. job design and people. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. and sensitivity or T-group training. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change.7 Summary Change is inevitable.such aspects as the reasons for change. psychodrama. structural arrangement. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. implicit. psychological factors. However. Self Assessment Questions 1. For instance. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. 2. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. It purports how the results are. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. mere participation may not help. many things about change can be made clear. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. Research studies also support this aspect. and how members contribute. 3. or deferred. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. Economic factors. __________ are based on people¶s emotions. 3. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing . Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully.Through the group contact. group resistance and vested interests. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. benefits of change. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. social factors. Such training techniques include role playing. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. Resistance can be overt. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. 10. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. immediate. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required.
· Harigopal K. P. Jain.Singh. Principles and Practices. · Cummings & Worley. Thomson · Daft Richard L. Regal Publications New Delhi. P.6. N. Refer section 10. French and Cecil H. Jr. 10. or the like.4 3.Response Books. .2 2..9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. through group dynamics. Modern Organization Development and Change. New Delhi. Explain the nature of change? 2.. Why do organizations resist change? 3. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. eighth edition. Thomson South Western. New Delhi. at the level of individual and at the level of group.management of Organization Change.8 Terminal Questions 1. engaging in a work showdown. Psychological factors 3. Organization Development & Change.complaints. 10. threatening to go on strike. Organization Theory and Design. Refer section 10. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. Organizational change 2. both at the formal and informal levels. · J. Organization Development. that is. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. Refer section 10. Bell. Reference: · Wendell L.
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