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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the µmanagement¶ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn µsurplus¶ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs of a
business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term ³management´. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley ± ³Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.´ In the words of George R. Terry ± ³Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.´ According to James L. Lundy ± ³Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.´ In the words of Henry Fayol ± ³To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.´ According to Peter F. Drucker ± ³Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work´. In the words of Koontz and O¶Donnel ± ³Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals´.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren ± ³The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.´ From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that ³management´ is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as ³management´. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a ³distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.´ From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as ³doing things right´. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization¶s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as ³doing the right things´. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of course, high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. And poor
Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. namely. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels.management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. principles and techniques which have wide applications. feeling of management is result-oriented. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals¶ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. staffing. labour and capital. although they can¶t observe it during operation. 6. 5. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. All these resources are made available to those who manage. principles and techniques requires specialized . the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. 7. In essence. labour. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. 1. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. Managers apply knowledge. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. 4. informed employees. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. 3. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. 2. Thus. Thus. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. So it is treated as a science. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. organizing. directing and controlling. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. capital and materials. The application of these concepts. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources.
discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. ongoing concern.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. manpower. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. Sociology and Psychology. 8. education. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. that is. materials. Generally. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. labour and capital. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. and (iii) a class or elite.e. Basically. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. personnel manager etc. finance manager.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. how effectively and economically the five M¶s are combined together to produce desired results. government and hospital. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. useful. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem . management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. management is viewed as an art. They transmit orders. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. it refers to three distinct ideas. 9. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. According to Herbision and Myers. (ii) a system of authority. 10. Similarly. In other words.knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. 1. the effective use of the five M¶s of management (money. military. materials. Anthropology. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. For instance. In modern organizations. According to Newman. money and machines into a productive. a hierarchy of command and control. people are bound by authority relationships.
or the Chief Executive. Board of Directors.. Administrative management is concerned with ³thinking´ functions such as laying down policy. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. and the range of production. 1. We generally come across two broad levels of management. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as µManagement¶ which refers to the group. Production Manager. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. etc. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. But in actual practice. or. Operative management is concerned with the ³doing´ function such as implementation of policies. As a separate group. the lower level of management). Purchase Manager. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. planning and setting up of standards. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. day-to-day matters.e. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. viz. Managing Director. For instance. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. (i) administrative management (i. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads.. etc. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. Foremen. Marketing Manager. its Chairman.. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. The levels of management depend upon its size.e. but as head of wages and salary department. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. technical facilities. Financial Controller.and suggestions upward. Supervisors. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. policies and plans for the enterprise. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. ranks. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating . the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors.
machines and methods to put the plans into action. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. 2. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. materials. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid.functions. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. men. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. Without them the top management¶s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. . They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. d) To assemble the resources of money. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. e) To assign activities. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. j) To report to top management. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans.
They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. It consists of foreman. Their authority and responsibility is limited. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. With a view to realize the . In its absence. They allot various jobs to the workers. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. counseling and effective leadership. procedures and reward systems. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. To this end. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. machines. accounts officers and so on. 3. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements.k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. methods. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. sales officers. They have to get the work done through the workers. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual¶s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. an organization is merely a collection of men. money and material. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. Management makes group effort more effective. Management is goal-oriented. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. supervisors. 1. Without management. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. It is the activating force that gets things done through people.
(v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. and it is distinct. In the final analysis. But unlike medicine or law. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. Failure to take note of customer¶s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for µIdeal java¶ in the two-wheeler market in India. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. etc. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. and specialized knowledge. According to McFarland. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. Thus unnecessary deviations. the Indian Institute of Management. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. Management as a profession By a professional manager. often threaten the survival of a firm. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. identifiable discipline. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. They try to put everything on the right tract. Organize the resources properly. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions.predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. Management . (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. skills. techniques.. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. government policy. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. competition. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers.
. Furthermore. All managers have a role as a leader. the American Management Association in U. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the . sabotaging trade unions. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. As a social science. But in addition to these insights. bribing public officials to gain favours. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions. managers in general. etc. However. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. Some individual business organizations. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. This role includes hiring. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. and decision-making. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature ± interpersonal roles. 1. motivating. The term µmanagement roles¶ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. and short-duration activities.S. unpatterned. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. management is not as exact as natural sciences.A. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. Half of these managers¶ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. however. In fact. For instance. However. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager¶s job. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. training. an art as well as a profession. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. the All India Management Association. and disciplining employees. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. do not seem to adhere to the principle of ³service above self´. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. the transfer of information. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India.Development Institute. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers.
to some degree. duties of a legal or social nature. and associated duties. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. and the like. Informational Roles: All managers. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager¶s unit. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. informers who provide favors performing other activities and information. This is the disseminator role. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. obliged to Greeting visitors. Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. Typically. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. network of outside contacts and doing external board work. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public¶s tastes. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. activities that involve responsible for staffing. and may be inside or outside the organization. subordinates. understanding of organization and environment. manages also perform a spokesperson role. Informational Monitor Disseminator . making phone subordinates to members of the calls to relay information. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members.1: Mintzberg¶s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Liaison Symbolic head. that involve outsiders. training. what competitors may be planning.liaison role. Table 1.
managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. . Transmits information to Holding board meetings. Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Source: Henry Mintzberg. Last. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. 1973). Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to develop and initiates ³improvement new programs. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. negotiations. etc. programming of subordinates work. actions. serves as expert on organization¶s industry. As resource allocators.Spokesperson organization ± some information is factual. media. outsiders on organization¶s giving information of the plans. physical and monetary resources. supervises design of certain projects as well. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. results. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important.. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the organizational decisions. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. projects´ to bring about change. As disturbance handlers. As entrepreneurs. Decisional Roles: Finally. policies. performing all kinds ± in effect. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization¶s performance. Inc. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. managers are responsible for allocating human. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. Publishers.
Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. as well as many middle managers. the roles of disseminator. However. human. research by Robert L. negotiator. During the early 1970. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization¶s speciality. Conversely. finance. such as engineering. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. a manager¶s job is varied and complex. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels.An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg¶s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. computers. liaison. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. and all managers are involved in making decisions. For example. motivate. They know how to communicate. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers ± regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. . He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager¶s level within the organization. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. lead. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. In fact. Technical Skills: First-line managers. the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. Since managers deal directly with people. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. or manufacturing. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. and conceptual. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization¶s operations. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. Specifically. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. figurehead. this skill is crucial. and inspire enthusiasm and trust.
Thus. Administrators are basically concerned with planning and control. Management relates to execution of decisions. plans and policies of the organisation. on the other hand. Spriegal and Lansburg.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. administration is a higher level function. iii) There is no distinction between the terms µmanagement¶ and µadministration¶ and they are used interchangeably. Floerence and Tead. etc. It is a thinking function. It is concerned with the implementation of policies. It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies. Administration relates to the decision-making. According to them. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. Managers are concerned mainly with organisation and direction of human resources. Table 1. Spriegel and Walter. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration.1. Meaning Administration Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives. It is a doing function. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. Administration is a higher level function: Administration refers to policy-making.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. Nature 3. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. Administration is a determinative function. 2. Thus. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. Management Management means getting the work done through and with others. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. Scope . This view is held by Tead.
8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. middle and lower. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. lower levels of management. ___________. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle level leading and motivation of executives.4. 8.e. Usage of Term The term µadministration¶ is The term µmanagement¶ is often associated with widely used in business government offices.9 Terminal Questions 1. organisations. 1. Five M¶s of management (________. There are three levels of management-top. operative workforce for the execution of plans. _________. Define management. 5. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. 3. environmental forces. i. 6.. __________is principally the task of planning. 7. 2. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. co-ordinating. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. public organisations in the private sector and non-business sector. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant at higher levels of management. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. counseling and effective leadership. Still management is not completely a profession. DecisionMaking Administration determines Management decides who what is to be done and when it shall implement the is to be done. administrative decisions. . It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. Explain its characteristics. 1. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. Self Assessment Questions 1. objectives.
materials. MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2.5 3. Refer section 1. teamwork Answers to TQs: 1. 3. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. Money. Management 2.4 Organizing .2 Process of Management 2.3 2.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 1. Discuss the importance of management.1. Refer section 1. 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.2.2. manpower 3.3 Planning 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2.
management functions have been regrouped into four categories. Motivating. · Explain Planning. in recent time. Directing. Staffing. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. you will be able to: · Define Management process. Organizing. Commanding 4. · Explain different functions of management Process. Controlling However. 1949): 1.2. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. Management functions are as follows (Fayol.6 Directing 2.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people´. Organizing 3.5 Staffing 2. . Coordinating 5. Planning 2. Objectives: After this studying this unit.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 2. One can also think of management functionally.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2.8 Summary 2.9 Terminal Questions 2.
Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. However. or where you want go to. and then set out the method for achieving it. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. the decision to change the design of a product. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. Objectives are the ends. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. say a passenger car. 2.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: ³Management is doing things right. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: .2. policies are the means to achieve those ends. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. studies on passenger comfort. There is a degree of overlap between the two. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. Decision ± Making Taking decisions is a process. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization¶s mission. In the football field. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. fuel and machine efficiency. Through leadership and management often overlap. while a policy. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. general strategies. thus. driving comfort. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. Therefore. cost structure and so on. leadership is doing the right things³. Even so. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. the two are not quite the same. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. overall goals. and allocating resources. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin.
summarizing what the organization does. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. and trade). Thus. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: . The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization¶s potential. federal. journals and reports (scientific. A mission statement should be short ± and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. Is research and development adequate? 4. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. Are the facilities outdated? 3. What is our market share? 5. state. What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. customers (internal and external). The mission statement is broad. How skilled is our workforce? 4. Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. professional. governments (local. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. Opportunities. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. suppliers. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization.A mission is the purpose of the organization. What financing is available? 6. Weaknesses. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). international).
Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. effectiveness. What are the possible new markets? 3. the best strategy is one that fits the organization¶s strengths to opportunities in the environment. What is the strength of the economy? 4. What substitute products exist? In general terms. What are the new regulations? 6. earnings per share. Objectives are also called performance goals.1. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. as well as gap analysis. Are our rivals weak? 5. What are the emerging technologies? 6. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. Are there new competitors? 3. Generally. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. Are market tastes changing? 5. etc. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. return on investment. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) . Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. Is there a shortage of resources? 4.
tactical. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole.Tactical plans are based on the organization¶s strategic plan. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. Organizations are groups of people. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. and coordinated. who reports to whom. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. and goals are clearly stated. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. In turn. grouped. procedures. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form.5 Staffing . This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. 2. structuring. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. operational plans are based on the organization¶s tactical plans. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job 4. and where decisions are to be made.4 Organizing It involves designing. Review plans 2. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. Assign work to individuals 6. who is to do. working toward common goals. how the tasks are to be grouped. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. lines of authority. with ideas and resources. and relationships between departments. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. Strategic. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. 2.
Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. 2. selection. O¶Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as ³filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. Koontz. placement. 3. recruitment. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. Definition: 1. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. inventorying the people available. performance appraisal etc. selection. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. Theo Haimann ± ³Concerned with the placement. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals´. 2. materials. This task has been referred to as staffing. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. development. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. recruitment. placement. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise.It is not the machines. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. . money. appraisal. 4. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. 3. training. 5. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. promotion. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. compensation and training of needed people´. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick ± ³Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work´ Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department.
It is a continuing function. vacancies arise out of retirement. 4. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. 7. It is instructing people as to what to do. motivate them. recruitment. selection. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. directing is the ³interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals´. Direction is an important managerial function.e. Through direction. 2. Direction function is performed at every level of management. 8. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through ± out the life of an organization. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. 3.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. Definition According to Koontz and O¶Donnel. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. induction. overseeing and leading people. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. management initiates actions in the organization.6. resignation. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. on the other. 2. . etc. identifying the manpower requirements. promotion. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. Direction has dual objectives. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. 5. It is an important managerial function. training development and maintenance of personnel. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. On the one hand.
thirst. autonomy. Theories X and Y. such as. coach and supervise his subordinates. belongingness.Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. and external esteem factors. The manager never ceases to direct. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. and achievement. status. 2. sex. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. 3. will vary depending upon his level. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. and attention . acceptance. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. self-respect. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. the more individuality. 2. recognition.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. 4. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished´. The further they progress up the hierarchy. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. humanness and psychological health a person will show. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. and the Two-Factor theory. teach. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. satisfied needs cannot. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. As Theo Haimann puts it. guide. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. shelter. proposed by Maslow (1943). ³without the issuance of directives. from the basic to the complex. such as. The needs are arranged in order of importance.
Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. responsibility. externally. autonomy and empowerment. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. and achievement. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. such as. if they can. advancement. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager¶s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions.· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. esteem. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. interpersonal relations. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. supervision. It is also believed that. such as. whereas. Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people¶s attitudes about work. working conditions. anxious to accept greater responsibility. and exercise self-control. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. self-motivated. . achieving one¶s potential. and salary are hygiene factors. Theory Y ± In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. company policy. recognition. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. self-direction. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. includes growth. Extrinsic factors. Social. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. Motivators are intrinsic factors. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. Theory X ± In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. From the above.
Hygiene factors on the other hand. performance appraisal etc. Organization involves designing. people will not be dissatisfied.9 Terminal Questions 1. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. Write a short not on directing. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. recruitment. Planning involves the process of defining goals.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: . 2. who reports to whom. What is planning? 2. how the tasks are to be grouped. To motivate people. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. 3. have to do with a person¶s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. 2. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. When hygiene factors are adequate. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. establishing strategies for achieving these goals.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. motivators describe a person¶s relationship with what she or he does. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. Explain Staffing in detail 3. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. neither will they be satisfied. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. 2.In summary. structuring. 2. and where decisions are to be made. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. who is to do. Self Assessment Questions 1. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. many related to the tasks being performed.
3 Characteristics of OD 3.1 Introduction Objectives 3.2 Definitions 3.8 Problems in OD . MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3.1. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1.3 2.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Reference 2.7 Role of OD 3. Reference 2. SWOT 3.6 OD and Management Development 3.5 Goals of OD 3. Reference 2. Follett 2.5 3.4 Categories of OD 3.
Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope. organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks. In summary. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. organization structure. and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. OD focuses on issues related to the ³human side´ of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals. strategy. and the organization¶s human and social processes. organization development is a process of teaching people how to solve problems. and profitability. strategy formulation and implementation. teams. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today¶s world is a daunting task.9 Summary 3. Although new jobs are being created at record rates. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges ± finding satisfaction in and through work. increased competition. ³Knowledge´ work is replacing ³muscle´ work. And organization development (OD) is one of them.Self Assessment Questions 3. Simple survival ± continuing to have an adequate job ± is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals. conflict resolution. Today. the answer is ³yes´. and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. Basically. survive. culture. old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. efficiency. challenges from turbulent environments. and changing customer demands. and learn how to do that better and better over time. organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. adapt. take advantage of opportunities. Early returns were encouraging.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change.10 Terminal Questions 3. fighting obsolescence of one¶s knowledge and skills. and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology. . Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today ± threats to effectiveness. A variety of solutions exists. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3. and the like. and processes.
3. planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives«. 1971) Organizational development is a process of planned change. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. strategy. · Explain the characteristics of OD. (Bennis. and challenges. 1969). people. and the dizzying rate of change itself. 1989) . OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement.change of an organization¶s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making. and 3) Developing the organization¶s self-renewing capacity (Beer. (Burke and Hornstein. · State the goals of OD. and culture. markets. values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change. (Schmuck and Miles. A ³process for improving processes´ ± that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill. using reflexive.Objectives: After studying this unit. 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions. 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure. 1980). a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs. you will be able to: · Define organization development. processes. self-analytic methods. attitudes.
we mean that organizational change and development takes time.´ This definition is lengthy. and processes for improving an organization¶s effectiveness.´ (Burke. By long-term effort. led and supported by top management. 1994) As you can see. structure. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. and problem-solving processes. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. Now let¶s turn to our definition of organization development. these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does.´ (Cummings and Worley. 1993) ³Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization¶s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies. values. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. 1992) ³OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies.´ (Porras and Robertson. Top management must initiate the improvement .³Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories. serious business. and contain several unique insights (that¶s enlightening). to improve an organization¶s visioning. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. that is. these definitions overlap a great deal (that¶s encouraging). ³Organization development is a long-term effort. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. strategies. and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field. Likewise. research. through the alteration of organizational members¶ on-the-job behaviours. Collectively. We do not propose it as the ³right´ definition. We will explain this definition in some detail.several years in most cases. and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. In fact. learning. Organizational change is hard. including action research. what practices should be included and excluded. and theory. empowerment. it is more accurate to describe ³improvement´ as a never-ending journey of continuous change. through an ongoing. All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. There is no ³quick fix´ when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving.
where collective aspiration is set free. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. And second. assumptions. sentiments. processes. strategy. structure. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. By including culture so prominently in our definition. By learning processes. culture is of . the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. so is managing the culture. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. lost its commitment. make decisions. structure. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. beliefs.´ Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. listening. developing the strategy for getting there. and common purposes of all members of the organization. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent.³journey´ and be committed to seeing it through. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. and each influences the others. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization¶s culture. has a stake in making the organization work. attitudes. We further believe that having compelling. team. expectations. in contrast to having only a select few involved. and processes makes each important. learning. The reciprocal influence among culture. opportunities. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. By empowerment processes. or became distracted with other duties. interactions. Still. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. and take actions on problems. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. Michael Beer¶s definition called for ³developing new and creative organizational solutions´. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. we mean. activities. By empowerment. and making it happen. For empowerment to become fact of life. norms. and challenges in the organization¶s environment and its internal functioning. solve problems. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. Just as visioning. not just a small group. and culture. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization¶s members. and organizational learning. coherent. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. vitality. first. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. empowerment. commitment. we mean those interacting. By visioning processes. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as ³« organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. and artifacts. one of widespread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization¶s purposes.
But in many organizations today. Today¶s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. such as design. so they are the place OD programs often begin ± getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. and we highlight the importance of visioning. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. empowerment. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. and procurement. or developed by a given group. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. By intact work teams and other configurations. Further. So culture consists of basic assumptions. This method resulted in loss of synergy. (b) invented. the process ³threw the results over the wall´ to the next functional unit. engineering. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. hiring. think. When one function finished with its part of the project. Temporary. firing. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. empowerment. values. manufacturing. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be ³brain work´) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. . discovered. and using management information. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. much rework. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. individuals and the organization function well. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. Processes are how things get done. He uses the terms µmultifunctional projectization¶ and µhorizontal systems¶ to describe these teams and their work. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: ³Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done.primary importance. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. learning. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. In Liberation Management. When teams function well. wasted time. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. Processes are relatively easy to change. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. maintaining quality control. and feel in relation to those problems. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the ³right´ ways. and training. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. and problem-solving processes. Over time. think. members are trained in competencies such as planning. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration.
Attempting to create ³win-win´ solutions is standard practice in OD programs. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. so that change is easily observed. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. 8. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization.multifunctional. 4. OD practitioners are facilitators. OD focuses on culture and processes. Specifically. 10. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. 2. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today¶s fast-paced market place. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. rather than focusing attention on individuals. 7. 2. 6. 3. This µplanned¶ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. 5. OD . Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. collaborators. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. To summarize. dynamic and adaptive system.3 Characteristics of OD 1. 9. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. and co-learners with the client system. 3. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. according to Peters. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open.
participation. 5. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. third party change agent.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. Action research is the basis for such intervention. 3. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. temporary. or isolated problems. rather. takes actions for intervention. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that µnorms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones¶. Rather. 7. problem-solving. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. 4. It recognizes that organizational goals change. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. 3. Thus. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements . so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. and integrate individual and organizational goals. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. growth. and then. further more. At the individual level. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. they are ongoing. he conducts surveys.efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. The relationship involves mutual trust. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. 6. or catalyst. joint goals and means. and mutual influence. They discourage µdo it yourself¶ approach. identity. rather. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. collects relevant data. evaluates these data. He shares a social philosophy about human values. interactive. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be µhuman¶ and to increase awareness. and cyclic processes. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. and revitalization. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. Key areas are the normative type of model.
Two important elements of Organization Development are. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization¶s goals (profit or service) and development of people. (c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. with the authority of knowledge and competence. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. like other normative re-educative programmes. second. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. first. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. (g) To increase the sense of µownership¶ or organization¶s objectives throughout the work force. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. This Organization Development progrmmes. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. 3. problem solving climate throughout an organization. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. . practitioners and the client laymen.of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients.
according to him. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent.(h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one¶s area of responsibility. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager¶s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. less individual competitiveness. 3. Based on this. OD tries to fit the organization to the men.´ Organization development differs from management development. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. The term µdevelopment¶ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education.6 OD and Management Development At this stage. According to him. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. management development has been defined as follows: ³Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. (ii) competitiveness. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. with their existing objectives and structure. more attention to peer-groups. (iii) assertiveness. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. Before making a comparison between the two. . and greater display of feelings and emotions. However. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization.
Focus Approach Time Specialist accomplishments. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. In early 60s. plays key role in organizational improvement. Thus. 3. however. 2. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. and laterally. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. Problem-solving approach. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. 3. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. No special requirement. By 70s. 4. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. 5. not on the managers. Educative and training Short-range. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing organization. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. 6. Trained specialists required. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. however. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. . 7. 3. focus on achieving improvement in design. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. horizontally.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. Focus on design.
It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. However. some specific efforts are required. In general. Therefore. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. in order to make best use of OD efforts. 3. 2. There should be proper use of OD interventions. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. Research studies have also failed to conclude significant contributions of OD in all organizations. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. 3. 4. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. For example. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. etc. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. it fails even as a long-term strategy. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. 5. 5. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. Therefore. OD programmes are often quite costly. 2. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real.confrontation techniques. 4. Self Assessment Questions . it is useless to try OD. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. Thus. particularly in bottom-line ones. If an organization is laden with these people. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. Hence.
3. _____________is a short-term strategy. problem-focused µnature of OD¶ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. Explain the various characteristics of OD. There is no µquick fix¶ to organizations¶ problems. 2. 2. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. 3.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Distinguish between µorganizational development¶ and µmanagement development¶.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. ±±±±±±±±± is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. Empowerment 4. ±±±±±±± is associated with ³Liberation Management´. 3. Define OD. Tom Peters 3. 5. 4. Who is associated with the ³Learning Organizations´? 5. OD focuses on culture and processes. Explain its salient features. collaborative. The participative.1. Peter Senge . State the various roles of OD. Organization development should be led and supported by ±±±±±±±. 3. 4. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3.10 Terminal Questions 1. Top management 2.
8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .Organization Development ± Interventions Structure: 4. Management development Answers to TQs: 1.5 Leadership Development 4. Refer section 3.1 Introduction Objectives 4.2 Survey Feedback 4.3 3.6 4.7 5.6 Team-building .2 2. Refer section 3.Organization Development ± Interventions Unit-04. Refer section 3.3 Process Consultation 4. MU0002-Unit-04. Refer section 3.5. Refer section 3.4 Grid Training 4.
management grid. Subsequently. the classification of OD interventions shows variation.´ There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. other techniques like process . OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. People¶s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level.4.10 Summary 4. group level. education and training. survey feedback.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. For example. and organizational level. Nevertheless.7 Inter Group Development 4. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the range of change that an organization requires. inter-group activities. inter-group level. Historically.8 Change Agents 4. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. interpersonal level. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. Therefore. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. they make things happen. However. team-building. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. and survey feedback method. process consultation. Thus.11 Terminal Questions 4. grid training. and organizational culture. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels. techno-structural activities. work group. Further. mediation and negotiation activities. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: ³Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4.
consultation, team- building, and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives, have been added. Our further discussion follows this development. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. · Explain grid training. · Describe process consultation. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Role of change agents. 4.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid), the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier, Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan, USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 2. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection, feedback of information, developing action plans based on feedback, and follow up. 1. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership ± managerial support, managerial goal emphasis, managerial work facilitation, peer support, peer goal emphasis, peer work facilitation, and peer interaction facilitation, organizational climate-communication with the company, motivation, decision-making, control within the company, co-ordination between departments, and general management, and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company, satisfaction with the supervisor, satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with the pay, and satisfaction with the work group. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization¶s personnel.
After the questionnaires are completed, data are classified, tabulated, and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 2. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed, feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. In oral system of feedback, it is provided through group discussion or problemsolving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively, feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted, it should be constructive and suggestive, rather, threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case, follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building, by the consultant. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. In particular, survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. 2. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However, effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. First, questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. If it is biased, all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Second, even if valid and reliable information is collected, it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change; it provides base for action for change. 4.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Edgar Schein, the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows:
³The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client¶s environment.´ The basic objectives of P.C are as follows: 1. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership, communication, roles and functions of group members, group decision-making and problemsolving, group norms, and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD. 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 2. Define the Relationship: At this stage, client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees, and spelling out services, time, etc. At this stage, the client¶s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. 3. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. At this stage, the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 4. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 5. Intervene: At this stage, the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural change. 6. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.C is completed, the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes, he assists the
4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. inter-group. problem-solving. 2. and the organization as a whole. From this point of view. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant¶s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. However. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. traditions. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice.organizational members to incorporate those changes. communication skills. knowledge. focuses on skills. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. However. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge.C programmes. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. group. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. like other OD intervention techniques. The skills relating to planning. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. and teamwork. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. 4. In the review of various P. and alike. objective-setting. Inter-group Development: At this phase. P. The grid organization development consists of six phases. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. and problemsolving are also developed.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. and total organizational levels. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. groups. . Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. 3. P. 2. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. 1. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual.C is also not free from criticisms. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. 3.
Furthermore. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. complete communication that is timely. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. We can call these Preparing For the Journey.5 Leadership Development When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). is the ability of leadership to«well. they maintained the same stand. confident and effective decision-making. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. lead. If you are to manage change effectively. therefore. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. In this light. the various programmes may be redesigned. 5. and After Arrival. competence. while at the same time . We will look more carefully at each of these. They have maintained that ³managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. 6. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. it discounts reality. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. in spite of these criticisms. and regular. Also during these times of change. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence.4. and credibility of senior and middle management. Slogging Through The Swamp. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. During drastic change times. Systematic Critique: In this stage. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. Further. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. concerned and committed to their welfare. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. 4. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. The strategy is then implemented. grid training is a non-rigorous method.´ In a later work.
they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team¶s time together. brings hope for better times in the future.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. For example. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone¶s best interests. but more importantly. 4. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. how synergy is generated through team-work. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. In a climate of distrust. These stages are: forming.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. it may be too late. 4. French and Bell have opined that ³probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. if allowed to go on for too long. problems in team-work.´ A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. let us consider the life cycle of a team. performing. As against these. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change.recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. therefore. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. which. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. Unfortunately. Leadership before. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as ³who will be members of the team?´ ³Who will perform what functions?´ ³Who will contribute what?´ ³What rules will be . In organizations characterized by poor leadership. norming. widely accepted. storming. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. if haven¶t established a track record of effective leadership. The existence of this trust. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. teambuilding is the most important. employees expect nothing positive. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier.
group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. At this stage. 5. etc. Norming: After storming stage. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1.´ . even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. 3. At this stage. After the adjournment of the team. because of individual differences. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. jockeying for relative control. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. Sooner or later. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. The adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. They share personal information. committee. However. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team¶s goals. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. each team has to be adjourned. start to accept others. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: ³Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. 2. team members start settling. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. 4.followed?´ ³How can conflicts among members be resolved?´ and so on. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another.
When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. the team would be effective. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. In fact.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. goals. In the above paragraph.2 pounds. 2. group of eight. it appears that there are many . This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. From this statement. To the extent. the complementarity among members is achieved. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. and so on. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not.Thus. the individual average dropped down still lower-68. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. In such an assignment. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. other factors remaining the same. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group¶s meetings. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. For example. fail to perform their assigned tasks. that is. other factors remaining the same. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. it was found that individuals¶ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. They averaged 138. in one experiment. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. and attitudes. group efforts tend to slacken.
Even if one member lacks behind. 2. customer satisfaction. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. Further. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size. Therefore. two things are required from its members. then. These super-ordinate goals. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. they will put their maximum. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. management consultants. and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. Katzenbatch and Smith.financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. 3. complementary skills. organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one¶s own role as well as roles of other members. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs.factors in an effective team. make recommendations regarding a new supervisor. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. Rewards of both types. 3. 1. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. or propose discipline for team members. Thus. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals. unify efforts. common purpose. serve to focus attention. supportive environment. 4. . Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials. 2. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. These factors are skills and role clarity. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. goals. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. While skills are relevant for job performance. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team.
such as. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. . 2. 2. generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. group problems to even personal problem. personality and attitudes. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. and 5. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. For achieving these. their value systems. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. 3. Analyzing how team¶s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. and 5. the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure. rather. Providing positive feedback. the emphasis should be on consensus. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. 1. 4. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared. recognition. 4.4. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. Setting goals and priorities for the team. Analyzing how the work is performed. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action. and rewards. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. Analyzing how the team is working. At this stage. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds. Fig. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem. In problem identification.
members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. also provides opportunity to understand themselves. cynicism. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. If this process is adopted several times. talking together with speaker. 5. about the issue. who was talking more or who was talking less. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing. Often. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. . 4. the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be.3. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings. feelings. people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. information. clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team. criticizing person. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours: Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. the stying with the topic or going off on tangents. Followup action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of team-building. At the time of discussion of feedback. (iii) Negative: cooling. with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. (ii) Attacking: deriding. belittling. understanding. undermining morale. Negative Behaviour (i) Over talk: interrupting. ensuring. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. etc. the way people talk about the issue. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team¶s responsibilities. (iii) Clarifying: resting. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. etc. there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. encouraging others to participate. who was trying to resolve the differences. seeking relevant information. At this stage. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time. and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility.
One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the organization¶s outcomes. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. in different degrees. 4. management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. to encourage and sustain such feelings. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members.. 3. In spite of these problems. 2. In general. team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. As a result. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. However. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. though. it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. 2. listening. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. stereotypes. Therefore. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. are not given adequate attention. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. and feedback skills). When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier. team-building has a positive outlook.These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. monitoring.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. structure. However. etc. one of the more . It improves the organization¶s problem-solving and decision-making ability. However. and perceptions that groups have of each other. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. It seeks to change to attitudes. it is not that effective in isolation. communicating.
the groups can move to the integration phase ± working to develop solutions that will improve relations. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes ± which can be benefit or a disadvantage ± because they don¶t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. In contrast. culture. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. Outside consultants. and personnel. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. operating procedures. The groups then share their lists. as the break for too quick action. In this method. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. 4. For major change efforts. 4. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. or outside consultants. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization¶s history. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. as the accelerator to build up momentum. Differences are clearly articulate.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. the other group.Popular methods emphasize problem solving. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. with members from each of the conflicting groups.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. however. Trainer . but one thing he/she is not the driver´. According to Curtis Mial: ³The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. after which similarities and differences are discussed. Subgroups. employees of the organization.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions.
A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. Team-building is most important. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. attitudes and beliefs. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. 4. group discussions. It focuses on skills. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4.11 Terminal Questions 1. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. changing (intervening) and refreezing. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. Training is used both in µcontent orientation¶ and process orientation¶.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. skills and change in behavior. diagnosis. Training is required for enhancing knowledge. In process consultation. presentations. role-plays and instruments. feedback of information. group. films. Data collection. Self Assessment Questions 1. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies ± lectures. Grid Training was developed by ±±±±±±±±±±±± 3. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? . 2. inter-group and total organization levels. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. cases and experiential learning etc.
1 Introduction . Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. Data collection 2.4 2.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 4. Assumptions. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1. and Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5.6 4.2. Refer section 4. Refer section 4. Refer section 4. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? 3.2 3. Assumptions. 4. 3. Blake and Mouton. MU0002-Unit-05-Values.
5.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field.1 Introduction A set of values. beliefs and assumptions.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies. 5.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions.5. assumptions. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers.Objectives 5. · List the chronology of events of values.7 Terminal Questions 5.5.2 Definitions 5.2 Definitions .8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5. beliefs and assumptions. Objectives: After studying this unit.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5.
the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. and assumptions being. free speech) and what is undesirable or µbad¶ (e. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth. the human relations movement. assumptions. optimistic. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or µgood¶ (e.g. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. it is a cognitive fact for the person. Values. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. values.A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. 5. and democratic. reason.. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. research on the effects of different leadership styles. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. strongly held. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual." or slacking off.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought y Frederick Winslow Taylor s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small.g. and the like. Thus. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources ± the Hawthorne studies.. the laboratory training movement. Taylor s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. treat people with respect and dignity. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. OD values tend to be humanistic." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. Simple. dishonesty). with values being beliefs about good and bad. assumptions. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. and that rationality. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. or spirit of the time. As these ingredients accumulated. . and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly.
and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. In a sense. and the supervisor determined their performance. A strong hierarchy of authority. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people s beliefs about organizational behaviour. Lippitt (1939). most efficient way to organize people. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s.y The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of bureaucracy as the best. aggressiveness and poor performance. The Functions of the Executive by Chester 1. People came to work as whole people. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). The human relations movement advocated participative management. much of the research. and a general humanizing of the workplace. impersonal rules. Their simple. wrote an article on The Giving of Orders advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. apathy. organizations were not machines. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. extensive division of labor. theory. y y y y y y y . Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. Research by Lewin. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. These approaches possessed many desirable features. greater attention to workers social needs. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. a management theorist and astute observer of labour-management relations. Group Dynamics (1940) The scientific study of groups using experimental research methodswas launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. Mary Parker Follett (1926). their feelings and attitudes about the work. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. the work environment. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. People were not cogs. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. authoritarian leadership caused dependency.
The task of management is to change organizational structures. caring social climate. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. management practices. and understand group dynamics. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop.y These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. a direct precursor of OD. pioneers in laboratory training. Overcoming Resistance to Change. French s (1948) article. and need to be led. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. lack ambition. increase self-understanding. healthy adults. This article introduced the concept of organizations as socio-technical systems. Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. Rogers focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. are self-centered. The theory postulated that when lower-level needs are satisfied. Lester Coch and John R. this book popularized Maslow s motivation theory. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). to assume responsibility. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. Chris Argyrif s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. P. indifferent to the organization s needs. dislike responsibility. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. resist change. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. higherlevel needs become dominant. a mechanistic organization y y y y y y y y . In an environment of slow change. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy.
and values of the field. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. theory. These six books presented the theory. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. and greater individual autonomy. an organic organization form is preferred. groups. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company OD Six-Pack. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. open communications. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. compromise. and organizations that is. optimistic. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. as we have said. bureaucracy. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. and shares decision-making with the work group. dysfunctions. y y This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. . one-on-one leadership style." that is. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority.structure may be appropriate. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. goal-oriented. and unprincipled power. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. y Rensis Likert s New Patterns of Management (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. in an environment of high change. and democratic. humanistic. Values have always been an integral part of OD. The Social Psychology of Organizations by Daniel Katz and Robert L. · Development of more effective "team management. practice. and negative consequences. Writing in 1969. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. Out of this zeitgeist. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations.
The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). sub-units of organizations. director of organization development. 1. and confidence between and across levels. 4." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. 5. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. . Organizations. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. 6. 3. M." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control.´ For example. not the basis of managerial strategy. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. not individuals. 2. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. a professor and Sheldon Davis." like pushing buttons. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. Therefore.· Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. Stalker used the term ³mechanistic´ in contrast to ³mechanical. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. "People support what they help create. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. They listed these ³values in transition´ as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. mutual trust. Here is his list. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. Controls are interim measurements. the basic units of change are groups. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. Robert Tannenbaum. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations.
the legitimacy of feelings. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. authentic interpersonal relations. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions . The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. toward seeing them as being in process. open communication. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. participation and contribution by all organization members. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. autocratic. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. appropriate uses of power. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. collaboration and co-operation. decentralized decision making. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them.· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. 5. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. · Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time.
one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. give autonomy. 5. including peers and boss. Hence. and job satisfaction. Third. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. facilitation. at both the formal and informal levels. permit failure. give responsibility. and reward success. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. and interpersonal communication. Second. and co-operation within the group. not individuals. in addition. and so on. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. challenge. conflict management. What occurs in the work group. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. invest training time and money to increase group members¶ skills. leaders need to give important work to teams. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions.5. First.5. and are capable of making. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. such as a work group. To do this. not a one-on-one leadership style. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. Implications of these assumptions are several. a church or club group. encourage risk-taking. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. set high standards. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. This skill is a trainable one. support. and organizations? 5. . Most people want to develop their potential. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. and usually with more than one group. Also. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group¶s effectiveness and development. the family. listen. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. groups. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. remove obstacles and barriers.Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. support. personal growth.
3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. an optimistic. including how persons C. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where ³putting people first´ paid off handsomely in profits and performance. values are never static. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. Therefore. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system.Finally. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. and empowering. in which one side wins and the other side loses. By implication. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. formalized cross-functional communication. The implication is that people are an organization¶s most important resource. societal.5. Frequently the challenge is broader. Concluding Comment: . Still. they change over time. The rapid technological. In addition. 5. Finally. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. By implication. developmental." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. and profitability. a growing awareness that ³win-lose´ organizational situations. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. grouping by specialized function. emphasis on topdown directives. and so on-are obsolete. organizing structures. and E can support these changes. quality of output. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization¶s leaders. D. are dysfunctional over the long run and highlight the need for a ³win win´ attitude. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. adherence to the chain of command. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. and ways to optimize human potential.
Values. Write a note about F. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. Cognitive . but are widely accepted today. __________ is associated with scientific management.The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. Values. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. 4. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. 3. Taylor¶s principles of scientific management.W.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. The concept of ±±±±±±±±±± was introduced by MaxWeber. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. and assumptions are all ±±±±±±±±±± facts. beliefs. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. beliefs and assumptions. Define concepts. 5. OD values tend to be humanistic. The outcome of ±±±±±±±± was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. 3. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. optimistic and democratic. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. Values are also beliefs. 5. 2. 5. Self Assessment Questions 1. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. 5. values. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5.7 Terminal Questions 1. 2. Values.
Hawthorne experiments 5. Refer section 5.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6.3 3. F.2 Beyond the Quick Fix .3 4. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6. Taylor 3. W.3 5. Refer section 5. Refer section 5. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2. Bureaucracy 4.2. Refer section 5.2 2.1 Introduction Objectives 6. Refer section 5.2.
11 Terminal Questions 6.2.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6. In this discussion.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs. you will be able to: .3.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.2. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6.4 Participation and Empowerment 6.3.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.3 Systems Theory 6.3.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.3.10 Summary 6.1 The Nature of Systems 6. Objectives: After studying this unit. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6.5 Teams and Teamwork 6.6.
2. That is. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. describe those features as variables. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field. We will examine the following concepts: · Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature.· Explain various models and theories of planned change. and specify the relationships among the variables. · Describe the parallel learning structures. 6. in words or pictures. · Explain the terms µparticipation¶ and µempowerment¶. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. · Explain systems theory. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in . The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. Models and theories depict. the important features of some phenomenon.
change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. judge things. he must move. Lewin¶s second idea was a model of the change process itself. feel things. Lewin¶s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. that is. Finally. With a technique called the force-field analysis. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces.opposing directions. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. b. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. that is. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. Next. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. Likewise. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. For example. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. mentor. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. Identifying with a new role model. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. Scanning the environment for new relevant information .non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. etc. moving to new level of behaviour. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production.
moving. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. The primary task in stage 3. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. refreezing. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person¶s personality. That is. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person¶s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin¶s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. and 5 correspond ro Lewin¶s moving phase. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. . Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. Significant relationships. for example. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. which cause guilt and anxiety. and Bruce Westley. In stage 2. That is. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change.Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s refreezing phase. terminating the client-consultant relationship. that is. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. In stage 1. unfreezing. b. 4. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. Phases 3. This phase corresponds to Lewin¶s unfreezing phase. Jeanne Watson. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system¶s problem. change will not occur. and attitudes. This motivating evidence is gained by. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. The total personality and self-concept. and fit with the individual¶s social surroundings. establishing goals and intentions of action. which motivate the person to change.
3) The team-building track." that.2. problem-solving sessions. and 5) The reward system track. 6.2 Beyond the ³Quick Fix´ A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change.This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. called "tracks. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. cause the organization to be successful. and so forth. critique practices and procedures. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. when functioning properly. 4) The strategy-structure track. Kilmann¶s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? . Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. Interventions include training programs. 2) The management skills track. Change programs take from one to five years to complete. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. 2) Diagnosing the problems.
beginning with the culture track. then moving to the management skills track. jobs. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. communication. Westinghouse. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit ± thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. In second-order change. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. and its holistic view of organization change and development. radical. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. incremental. the use of updated management skills. and so forth. then moving to the team-building track.2. and Xerox with good results. evolutionary. The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. In first-order change. and all resources with the new strategic direction. adaptive. or continuous change.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. 6. General Foods. departments. Eastman Kodak. . Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. OD programs are directed toward both first.and second-order change. information sharing. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered ± the organization is transformed. revolutionary. TRW. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. Ford General Electric. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. or discontinuous change.The culture track enhances trust. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call ³transactional change´ and ³transformational change´). work groups.
1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First ± Order Change .Organizational climate is defined as people¶s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. and difficult to change. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. hard-working or easy-going. Changing structure. We will do so in several steps. and beliefs that are enduring. On the other hand. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. 6." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. and so forth. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees¶ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. management practices. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. which change motivation and. leadership. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. friendly or unfriendly." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. values. in turn. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. often unconscious. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. and organization culture result in second-order change. Fig. individual and organizational performance. management practices.
leadership styles. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. structure. Burke says: ³Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization¶s culture. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. To summarize. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. These factors are able to change the climate. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. 6.´ We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. as shown in the above figure. mission and strategy. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance.Fig. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. we must change mission and strategy. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). Interventions directed toward management practices. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. that is.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second ± Order Change On the other hand. . The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. and organization culture. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change.
which determine organizational performance and individual development. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members¶ cognitions (they learn what is expected.Fig.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. For example. and interaction processes will affect social factors. according to Porras and Robertson. which influence on-the job behaviours. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. management style. Interventions that focus on culture. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. social factors. physical setting. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. required. strategies. . rewarded). OD interventions that focus on goals. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. It is how OD works. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. 6. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. and technology.2. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours.
Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966. This section explains systems theory. describes the characteristics of systems.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6. Fig. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory. Systems . 6.Fig. 6. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD.
system denotes interdependency. resources. raw material and so on. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra.system. 6. dynamics. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. the organization will cease to exist. Thus." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. and energy between system and environment. people. conversion. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. when taking a systems approach. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. interconnectedness. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. Open systems have purposes and goals.3. the organization¶s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. For example. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. Organizations are open systems.theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. Every system is delineated by a boundary. The words µarrangement¶ and µinterrelated¶ describe interdependent elements forming an entity." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. information. What is inside the boundary is the system. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. money." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized. and if the environment does not want these outputs. in that they permit exchange of information. the reasons for their existence. that is the system. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. components. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. Here. or subsystems." To summarize. They do something to the inputs via throughput. Therefore. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy. .1 The Nature of Systems The nature. or transformation processes that change the inputs.
6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems ³run down´ and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month.Fig. Positive feedback comes from the environment. For example. mining. "return to earth. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. . competitors. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. that information is called positive feedback. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. aerospace. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. and the like. and the system adjusts to a new goal. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. while screening out other information. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. but most are not useful. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. Systems require two kinds of feedback. 6. say. and so on. negative and positive. Information is important to systems in several ways. By the same token. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. however." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. and makes a course correction. If the mission (target) changes. eating fads. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. Say your company makes buggy whips. It is sometimes called deviationamplifying feed back. For example.
. and individual level. failures. and informal organization. such as capital. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. which includes skills. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization).2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. and systems for performing the work. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state ± systems have multiple paths to goals. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. and technology. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. which includes formal structures. knowledge. important events. The three major input factors are: 1) The environment. either internal or external. knowledge. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. unit/group level. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. specialized. formal organization. this process is called differentiation. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. differentiated. Subsystems exist within larger systems. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. and the workforce¶s expectations. people. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy.Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. As Katz and Kahn say: ³The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system.´ Also. processes. 6. With increased differentiation.3. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. which includes the organization¶s culture informal rules and understandings. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. perceptions. systems tend to get more elaborated. work. and complex over time. 2) Resources available to the organization.
multi-skilled teams. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. two active segments of OD today. that is." and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. a social system and a technical system. which components are "not functioning correctly. and that changes in one system affect the other system. 6. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. fit) must be present among the system¶s components¶ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. For example. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. training group members in multiple skills. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory.Fig. 6. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. organizations must optimize both systems.3. especially autonomous work groups (selfregulated teams or self-direct teams). If the organization¶s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems." The premise is that alignment (harmony. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. performance will suffer. if people don¶t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. In a company that is performing poorly. Fred Emery. controlling variance at the source. forming autonomous work groups. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. to the workers doing the job. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. . STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. and information to the point of action. performance will suffer. Hanna writes: . Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model¶s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. performance will suffer.
from their activities. according to Peter Senge. systems thinking. First. and 3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs.In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. mental models. building shared vision. team learning. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. Of all these disciplines. Second.KI Jayaram. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. 6.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. and systems thinking. not single effects. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. events. forces. He says of systems thinking: ³It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. changing one part of a system influences other parts. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). therefore. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. events and forces. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. issues. Third. is the most important. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery.3. the fifth discipline. but seen in relation to other issues. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations.´ In conclusion. because most phenomena have more than one cause. G. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stakeholders. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. Without a systemic orientation. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. . For example. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. Charles Krone. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. By enhancing each of the other disciplines.
These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. is the more useful perspective. involvement and participation energize greater performance. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. 6. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. produce better solutions to problems. autonomous work groups. Participation enhances empowerment. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. To empower is to give someone power. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. search conferences. quality circles." These authors believe the organic view. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. one changes the system." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. The other view. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). quality of work life programs. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation." is bottom-up and less controlling. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. growth.Fourth. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. to contribute their ideas. For example. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. Further. not just its component parts. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. and give more power to more people. and to be responsible. and growth. personal initiative. And fifth." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. reduce stress levels. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. to change a system. and change. But . Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. survey feedback. team building. to exert influence." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. One view. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. called "organic. with its emphasis on risk-taking. increase commitment to the organization. which they call "mechanistic. They believed that it was about risk-taking.
´ 6. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. teams create synergy. If the team. to name just a few. Theory. While management can create a context that is more empowering. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. they must if personally connected to the organization. Second. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. processes. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today ± gurus extol the virtues of teams. research. systems. Team Taurus developed Ford¶s best-selling automobile. is not something that management does to employees. and relationships if they are to be effective.both views contain valid ideas: for example. the noun team has become a verb. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: ³Empowerment. then. STS (socio-technical systems). teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. teaming. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. Teams and teamwork are "in. that is. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. changes those norms and values. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. people must work together to accomplish them. . much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. confident about their abilities. as a team. employees must choose to be empowered. QCs (quality circles). HPOs (high-performance organizations). Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). but rather a mindset that employees have about their roles in the organization. Third. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction.
quality circles. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. heart transplant surgical teams. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. In this section. socio-technical systems programs. and set ever-higher goals. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. team performance declines. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. including collegiate football national champions.Fourth. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. temporary teams. process consultation. that they achieve synergy. and responsibility charting. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. and respect-teams nurture human nature. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. inter-group team-building. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. status. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. find innovative ways around barriers. parallel learning structures. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. and explore ways to realize that potential. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. and the like. help each other. . teams satisfy people¶s needs for social interaction. cross-functional teams. role negotiation technique. Examples are team-building. and others. recognition. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. When any one feature is lost.
empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. If you don¶t implement different norms and procedures. Projects are the work of the future. autonomous.´ The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. and then leading the process. clear objectives. 6. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. Interestingly. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. Bushe and Shani say: ³The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. In essence. and report to one of your subordinates on another team.7 A Normative ± Re-educative Strategy of Changing . constitute another important foundation of organization development. 6. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. Asea Brown Boveri. deciding. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as ³a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. and employees. Union Pacific Railroad. What¶s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. flexible response.´ Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization.Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. and continuous learning. It isn¶t the supplemental structure that¶s important. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. High responsibility. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. superior customer service. managers. you don¶t have a parallel structure. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. projects will be performed by teams. and initiate needed changes. Titeflex. At Ford Motor Company. talking. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization¶s methods of work and/or culture. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization.
and¶ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-re-eductive and the empirical-rational strategies. Change in a pattern of practice or action. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. Patterns of action and practice are supported ± by sociocultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. will follow their rational self-interest. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normativereductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. information. doubts. skills.Organization development involves change. values. that is. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. anxieties. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. and significant relationships. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. Evaluated against these three change strategies. based on the assumptions that people are rational. relationships and customary ways of doing things. attitudes. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. rather than the OD practitioner. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. . and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. The first type is empirical rational strategies. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. OD clearly falls within the normative-reeducative category. and together they define problems and seek solutions. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. according to this view. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. not just changes in knowledge." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative.
. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. and (2) "technology." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. Thus. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. on the basis of selected variables.´ Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD.´ From this "practice theory.. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. or practice. hopefully.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. by modifying a group norm or standards. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice. re-establishes the equilibrium. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. Greenwood states: ³The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together. 6. success corroborating the diagnosis. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. practices. The practitioner examines the problem situation.e. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. thereby solving the problem. i. Burke writes: ³If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. OD emphasizes the latter. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. behavioural science knowledge. not the individual." applied science.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. for example. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. pressing problems. applied science or practice. On this point. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem.
the two top in puts. 6. It is a type of action-research. The two bottom inputs. represent contributions from applied science.´ Concluding Comments: These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. and research leading to social action« This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. who developed the concept of action research. perhaps more accurately. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. Self Assessment Questions . Action research is a method that combines learning and doing ± learning about the dynamics of organizational change.Fig. represent contributions from pure or basic science. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. form of applied behavioural science. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. and action planning based on the data. and doing or implementing change efforts. Taken separately. 6. feedback of the data to the client system members. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. Action research involves three processes: data collection. had this to say about it: ³The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering.9 Action Research The action research model ± a data-based.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. Kurt Lewin. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. Taken collectively. practice research and practice theory.
In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. A _____________ is defined as ³a set of elements standing in interaction.11 Terminal Questions 1. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. 6. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. Explain Kurt Lewin¶s models and theories of planned organizational change. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals¶ behaviours. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change.´ 5. Action research model combines learning and doing. Ralph Kilmann 3. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. Transactional change . First²order change is also called ___________. 4.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. 2. 6. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. Unfreezing 2. ±±±±±±±±±± means moving to new level of behaviour.1. Bring out the essence of ³managing beyond the quick fix´ model of organizational development.´ Comment on this statement. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. ³Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. ±±±±±±±±±± gave the model ³Beyond the Quick Fix´. 3. 2. 3. 4. 6. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.
Refer section 6. 7.3 Types of Organization Culture.2.4.Refer section 6.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7.6 Summary .2.1 2.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.3 5.1 Introduction Objectives 7.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture 7. System 5. Refer section 6.2 3. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1.2.3 4. Refer section 6. Refer section 6.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .
the culture of a large. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. When organizational participants interact with one another. 1986). You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. For example. · Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. etc.7 Terminal Questions 7. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. terminology. they use common language. Objectives: After studying this unit. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. including guidelines on how much work to do. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. do not do too little?´ . The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. Practitioners are coming to realize that. Martin and Meyerson. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. what members wear. what they brag about. thinking. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. despite the best-laid plans.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. Standards of behavior exist. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. but also changing the corporate culture as well. Observed behavioral regularities. values. but everyone knows it when they sense it.7. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. Culture is one of those terms that¶s difficult to express distinctly.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. Which in many organizations come down to ³Do not do too much.1 Introduction Basically. Norms. 2. discovered. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. 7. ± similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone¶s personality.
shared goals. They often have well-defined policies. processes and procedures. New-comers must learn those ³ropes´ in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. In contrast to Hierarchies. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. Market cultures are outward looking. . 4. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. internal and external are viewed in market terms. 7.3. 6. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. but one where all transactions.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber¶s original view of bureaucracy. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. 5. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. Organizational climate: This is an overall ³feeling´ that is conveyed by the physical layout. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. Transactions are exchanges of value. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. the way participants interact. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. For many years. Rather than strict rules and procedures. Typical examples are high product quality. In an efficient market organization. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. outputs and outcomes. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization¶s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. people are driven through vision.
and procedures. plaques. big-bang projects and development.strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. the jargon they use. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. etc. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. . the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. supportive way and may take on a parental role. norms. culture is like the DNA of an organization. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. systems and subsystems. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. In biological terms. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. thinking. rules. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. 7. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. but critical to shaping its behavior. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. 1993). and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. discovered. · Its rituals. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. although not necessarily documented. the way they dress etc. symbols. Rules. 1986). Martin and Meyerson. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. invisible to the naked eye.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan.
Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. For example. decisions. to denote organizational effectiveness. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. individually and collectively. intervening and end result. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management.Values: These are the social principles. business and leadership strategies. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. goals. 1. and behaviour. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. believing. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. communicating.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. from the basis of its policies and action. the personality of the organization). productivity. . skills. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management¶s policies. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. its core value are limited to a few in number. are often used interchangeably. also called as organizational success or growth. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. there are numerous variables. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization¶s social environment and evolve of behavior. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. various terms such as efficiency. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. Thus. organizational growth. profitability. Identifying. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. From this point of view. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. Though each individual¶s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. and what is right and what is wrong. Though an organization espouses a series of values. or standards held by members of an organization. there is often contradiction in various approaches. and doing.
At this point. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. building. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. and they tend to be longterm goals. the loyalties. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. and decision-making. 3. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of ±date. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. motivations. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. and a common history begins to be built.g. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. End ± result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. and earnings. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. performance goals. scrap loss. locating space. motivational. 2. and energy that will be required. obtaining patents. 4. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. communication. others are brought into the organization. attitudes. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. e. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. That is.2. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. According to Likert. For example. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: 1. costs. and perceptual cluster. is workable. is worth running some risks for. and is worth the investment of time. 7. However. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. . This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. incorporating.. and so on. money. 3. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity.
6. especially when making changes in rules and processes. if possible. Emotions. . Include employees in the culture change process. the geographic location. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. roles. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. Assess the current culture. age. 2. 1. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. take these losses early. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. attitudes. relationships. 4. 3. 7. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can¶t be done successfully?. or even customers may support the existing culture. These factors from the two cultures include the size.Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. 2. and history of two firms. habits. and whether products and/or services are involved. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. and patterns of daily behavior. The personal feelings. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. Structure. commitment. 5. powerful stakeholders such as unions. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. Make changes from the top down. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. Staffs. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. management. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. 3. the ³culture contract´ that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. Politics. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. In addition. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members.
Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective.goal approach. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. system-resource approach. 7. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. 9. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. ________cultures are outward looking. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. Market 3. 3. behavioural approach. 7.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Self Assessment Questions 1. Finally. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. Causal variables Answers to TQs: .6 Summary Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture.7 Terminal Questions 1. 2. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. 2. 7. Artifacts 2. and strategic constituencies approach. Stay the course by being persistent. 3.8.
1.3 Two Faces of Power 8.Power. Refer section 7.3 3.1 Introduction Objectives 8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8. Refer section 7. Politics and Organization Development Unit-08.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .7 Operating in a Political Environment 8. MU0002-Unit-08.2 2. Refer section 7.9 Summary 8.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8.10 Terminal Questions .2 Power Defined and Explored 8.Power.
power must be exercised. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related.actions and the decisions that precede them.¶ To have power is to be able to get desired things done. to effect outcomes.1 Introduction Power and politics. emotions. and behaviours of people. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid today." . but kinetic power is the act of doing so. indisputable facts of organizational life.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development. Objectives: After this studying this unit.´ Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD.8." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired. The French word µpouvoir¶ stands for both the noun µpower¶ and the verb µto be able.´ ³A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations. 8. and for change to occur in an organization. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations." ³Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. Potential power is the capacity to do so. · Explain theories about the sources of power. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8. In this unit.
influencing. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. and organizational activities. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. not the possession of power as such. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. political. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. Leading.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" ± positive and negative. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. 8. 8. hurting.Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one¶s way. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations." . power being the predominant mode. bestowed. and lead. the act or ability of influencing others." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. forcing. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. or positive. both positive and negative. for organizations to function. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. Crushing. financial. Power-in-action may take many forms. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society." A moment¶s reflection. and repression. confiscation. According to him. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. being exercised. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. selling. or acquired? In this unit. absolute power corrupts absolutely. technological. an authority or power dimension is required. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. spiritual. with collective. Without leadership (power) in medical. unsocialized need to dominate others. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. however. influence. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one¶s way in a social situation. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson¶s "Power-Dependence theory. In fact.
to give something valued by the other. Referent power ± power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to.· French and Raven¶s "Bases of Social Power. When the net balance for us is positive. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A¶s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B." · Salancik and Pfeffer¶s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. . 2. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. Coercive power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another." These authors suggested five sources. influence. we will terminate or alter the relationship." · Mintzberg¶s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. rewards) that are controlled by one party. The sociologist. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another." In other words. that is. Viewed in this light. 4. power. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. to give something negatively valued by the other. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. we will continue the exchange relationship. respect. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. information. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. of social power as follows: 1. and desired by the other. praise. Legitimate power ± power based on everyone¶s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. blame. attraction. or bases. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. P. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. goals. when the net balance for us is negative. that person has power over us. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. 5. rejection. that is. and so forth. 3. Expert power ± power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. Reward power ± power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. hate.
In this theory, power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals, units, or departments) most important for solving the organization¶s most critical problems. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. This theory, like the ones discussed previously, supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by- others-in this case, the special expertise needed for the organization¶s survival-have power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits, indeed, used by all who have it, to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources, through the placement of allies in key positions, and through the definition of organizational problems and policies." These authors view organizational power as a good thing, for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. This theory, "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players, called influencers, seek to control the organization¶s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power, coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. According to Mintzberg, the five possible bases of power are, first, control of a resource; second, control of a technical skill; and, third, control of a body of knowledge. All of these must be critical to the organization. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. In addition to a base of power, the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. An organization has many potential influencers, such as the board of directors, the managers, the top executives, the employees, the unions, suppliers, customers, regulators, and so forth. The important aspects of Mintzberg¶s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others, that power-in-action requires will and skill, and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In summary, these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar ± power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. The resources may be ability to reward and
punish, being in control of critical skills, knowledge, or information, the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined ³politics simply as the study of who gets what, when, and how´. ³Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices´. ³Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups´. ³Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means´. Thus, we view politics as a subset of power, treating it as informal power, illegitimate in nature. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power, but in this sense, formal power, the power vested in office, the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. Both relate to getting one¶s way-effectance. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. For our purposes, organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations; it is engaging in activities to get one¶s way. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities; the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics, like power, has two faces. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest; unsocialized needs to dominate others; a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win, you must lose-rather than win-win terms; and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy, surprise, holding hidden agendas, withholding information, deceiving. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others; viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible; engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing; a relative absence of the tactics of fighting; and a socialized need to lead, initiate, and influence others. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making, resource allocation, and conflict resolution processes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose; they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. In fact, one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation, conflict resolution, and choosing among alternative means and goals.
8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. Virtually, all OD interventions promote problem-solving, not politics, as a preferred way to get things accomplished. OD interventions increase problem-solving, collaboration, co-operation, fact-finding, and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. For example, OD interventions typically generate valid, public data about the organization¶s culture, processes, strengths, and weaknesses. Valid, public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations; rather, they enhance the positive face of power, thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy, it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme power-oriented situations. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power, but not with the negative face of power. Values such as trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first, problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations; second, power equalization, being one aspect of the positive face of power, increases the amount of power available to organization members, and by so doing adds power to the organization. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator, catalyst, problem solver, and educator. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. According to Chris Argyris, the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information, (2) to promote free, informed choice, and (3) to promote the client¶s internal commitment to the choices made. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner, his or her program, and his or her values, methods, and expertise. The OD consultant, like all consultants, provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors, as we discussed earlier. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. In summary, organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. This major strength of OD derives from the strategy of change, the technology, the values, and the roles of OD practitioners.
." 4. it will be strong externally. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program.8. What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. Success leads to credibility and stature. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. problem solving. coaching. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization).7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. and expertise. According to the framework of French and Raven. it will gain more power. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. both as a person and as a professional. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. in powerful places. 3. First. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. communicating. Skills such as listening. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. 6. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. 5. acceptability. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. and ability to gain organizational support. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization¶s decision makers). 2. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. experience. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). preferably multiple sponsorship.
Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. Rule Six: Mind your own business. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one¶s own or in others¶ political struggles. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. Rule Five: Mind your own business. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. OD programs should be results-oriented. not by getting involved in the answers. The OD program belongs to the manager. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. usually managers. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being managercentered. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. A valuable byproduct of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. not content. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. which is to be an expert on process. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. not the OD consultant. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one¶s power base.counseling. . Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. the manager will vigorously defend it. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. those issues vital to the organization¶s success. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization¶s powerholders. constructive social relationships. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues.
negotiations the nature of power and politics. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. 8. catalyst.Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. and personality characteristics. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. individual power derives from knowledge. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. We could propose more rules of thumb. viable. not power activist or power broker." which arouses defensive actions.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge · Expertise · Information · Tradition Others¶ Support y y Strategies for Success Playing It Straight · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Political access Staff support . Table 8. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. As shown in the figure. yet legitimate means of acquiring power.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. Networking is recognized as a potent. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight." and "going around the formal system. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others¶ legitimate "turf. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena." "using social networks. problem solver. and using contacts for information. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. and educator. others¶ support. the strategy and tactics of influence.
and relevance-how important one¶s task is in relation to organizational priorities. This practical. effort. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. Whetton and Cameron¶s model is shown in following figure. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. criticality-how important one¶s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. personal attraction. Indeed. even those of little power. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. ³One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. Personal power. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. and legitimacy. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what¶s expected of them. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. a person¶s power comes from two main sources. In this model. arises from expertise. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks´. personal power and position power. . in turn. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned.Personality y y y Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don¶t) use organization rules Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. visibility-how much one¶s work is seen by influential people.
actually using it to get things done is another. Power and politics are similar in nature. and (3) empowering others. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. and retribution. Retribution refers to coercion and threats. arise from known conditions." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people¶s inappropriate influence attempts. and are amenable to positive control. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. Usually reason is the preferred strategy. Whetton and Cameron suggest several means of resisting others¶ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. Concluding Comments: In this unit. collaborative work environment. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. and (6) build on success. Having power is one thing. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective." And.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. (2) provide a positive. Our suggestions for . 8. reciprocity.Fig. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. power-in-use is called influence. According to these authors.
Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. Harold Lasswell . Power and politics are similar in nature. Self Assessment Questions 1. Power can be either positive or negative. 2. Power 2. 2. ±±±±±±±± defined politics as the study of who gets what. arise from known conditions. 5. 8. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. 5. ±±±±±±±±±± is made up of Charisma. reputation and professional credibility. and how. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems.10 Terminal Questions 1. _____________ has identified two faces of power. ±±±±±± is the intentional influence over the beliefs. 3. McClelland 3. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. when. emotions or behaviour of people.using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. Define organization politics. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. and are amenable to positive control. Describe briefly various theories of power. Referent power 4. 4. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. when and how. 3.. 8. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 8. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ±±±± ±±±±±±±. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. 4.
2 Meaning and Definitions 9.6 Quality of Work Life Projects . Refer section 8.5 Quality Circles 9.1 Introduction Objectives 9.2 2.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 8.5 4. Personality Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 8.6 5. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9. Refer section 8.Refer section 8.4 Management By Objectives 9.5.4 3.3 Socio Technical Systems 9.
7 Parallel Learning Structures 9. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization. actions.9. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9.8 Total Quality Management 9. In this dynamic and fluid environment. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.10 Summary 9. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design.11 Terminal Questions 9. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. · Explain Total Quality Management. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. Objectives: After studying this unit. .12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9. · Explain Reengineering. organizational problems may repeat.
5. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. It endeavors to re-design the organization¶s structure. Cost is Low. This normally is a reasonable. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. Cummings.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. organization theory. Succession Doesn¶t Destroy Change Effort. and more critically. Greater Predictability. 2. 1988): Determining the environmental demands Creating a vision statement Educating organizational members . Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. From a benefit cost analysis. Basic reinforcement theories. Organization Acceptance of Change. The cost of structural change is generally ³front-end´ loaded. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. 1967. Rapidity of change. Pasmore.9. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. 9. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. Structure changes are normally ³institutionalized´ and less subject to this problem. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. 4. Downsizing associated with restructuring. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. It could involve the following steps (Foster. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. 3. In addition. 1976.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another.
´ The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: ³MBO is a result-centered. its features can be identified as follows: 1. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. its definitional aspect. physical. On the other hand. 2. non-specialist. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. Certain degree of overlapping is there. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. In fact. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and.´ Based on the definition of MBO. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. with objective orientation as its essence. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. Creating the change structure Conducting socio-technical analysis Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. therefore. As an approach to management. Since then. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of .4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). It is a particular way of thinking about management. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material.
MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques.management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. its subsystems and people. Questions. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. What business are we in?´ and what should be our business?´ provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. normally once a year. ³why does the organization exist?´. such as. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis. superiors and subordinates. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. 5. Similarly. in interaction with external factors. 4. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization. 3. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. Therefore. the clarity and balance of objectives. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. etc. delegation of authority. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. all the units or departments and individual manager. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities. its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. It works as an integrating device. Resource allocation. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. 6. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. This. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. and participation of the managers with accountability for results. enhancement of employee commitment and participation. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. The performance review is held regularly. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions.. Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. 1. (ii) long-range . Therefore. Therefore. including the corporate level. are determined on the basis of objectives.
(vi) financial and physical resources. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate¶s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by setting easily achievable objectives. a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. Therefore. 3. Therefore. Even though KRAs are most durable. 2. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. there should be matching between objectives and resources. 4. (ii) market standing. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization. this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. Setting Subordinates¶ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. (vii) manager performance. and (viii) public responsibility. Therefore. In turn. The process of objective setting begins with superior¶s proposed recommendations for his subordinate¶s objectives.and strategic objectives. (iv) productivity. there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. In fact. the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. By relating these to objectives. However. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization¶s health and the top management perspective for the future. with the experience gained over the period of time. By relating these to objectives. Sometimes. (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives. each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. (iii) innovation. Thereafter. what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). they also indicate the resource requirement. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability. If not. (v) worker performance. . (v) individual manager¶s objectives. resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. (iii) short-term organizational objectives. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully. 5. the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer.
It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process. Quality circle program consists of several circles. which consequently result into high level of task variety. on paper. this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s. appropriate feedback and employee discretion. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal. hierarchical structure. require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. Therefore.6. quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. · Make recommendations for improvement. or in people¶s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. what happens at each level may affect other levels also.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. 9. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. information.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. QWL programs. each having three to fifteen members. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London. and rewards. . Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power. knowledge. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. 9. but in its contemporary form. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization¶s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases. 9.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization. in general.
9. statistical quality control. such as cost. and speed. statistical process control.9.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches. It is also called continuous quality improvement. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. including the use of quality circles. It is very popular in USA in 1990s. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. service. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. eliminating. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. Reengineering is a top-down process. · Participative management.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization¶s activities around the concept of quality. provides relevant information to all employees. Self Assessment Questions . · Competitive benchmarking. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. self-managed teams and task forces. contemporary measures of performance. quality. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. and extensive use of employee participation. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures.
events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. 2. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement.11 Terminal Questions 1. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. Intervention 2. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training.1. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. actions. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. Drucker 3.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. 9.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. It is also called continuous quality improvement. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. 3. 9. Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. Quality circle Answers to TQs: . Explain Management By Objectives? 4. 9. From a benefit cost analysis. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. provides relevant information to all employees. actions.
5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10. Refer section 9.4 Causes for Resistance to Change.Refer section 9.3 Resistance to Change 10.1.5 4.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs . Refer section 9.2 Nature of Change 10. 10.2 3.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change.8 Terminal Questions 10.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .7 Summary 10.3 2. Self Assessment Questions 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10. MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10. Refer section 9.
· Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. Objectives: After studying this unit. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled . some parts of organization may be affected more.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. indirectly. organizational change may have the following features: 1. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. In this dynamic and fluid environment. and others. 10. organizational problems may repeat. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. 2. When change occurs in any part of the organization. and others. which are major ones. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. · Impact of change on future managers. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. job design and people. Organizational change is a continuous process. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. 3.10. However. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. some parts may be affected directly. structural arrangement. less. biological. Hence. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium.whether physical. Any change may effect the whole organization. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. may require special change efforts. Thus. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. Thus. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). or social.2 Nature of Change The term µchange¶ refers to an alteration in a system. others.
if we look minutely. more serious upsets may occur. Thus. Homeostasis implies selfcorrecting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. In fact.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. We shall take new workers at the new place. that is. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. ³The Pune plant is fully saturated. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. On this phenomenon.balloon. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. there are two sides of resistance. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. adjustment is fairly routine. because it produces identical symptoms. employees want to maintain a status quo. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. 10. but when a change is major or unusual.´ Resistance as Benefit: . People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. Similarly. Madhur Bajaj. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. it has stretched slightly.as cost and as benefit. In fact. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. it becomes indented at the point of contact. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. We wanted a new culture and new layout. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. In fact. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. If people resist to change. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. commented. so is the resistance to change. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). However. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. However.
On the one hand, resistance to change is costly affair, and on the other, it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. While on negative side, the reality lies in between. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Thus, resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: 1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Therefore, the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. These feelings, either real or emotional, may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic, psychological and social. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological, job security etc. precede over other needs. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques, technology, etc., whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them, they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India, it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely, reduce job options, and turn into technological unemployment. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match.
3. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes, bonus, etc. All these are well-established in the old system. Whenever there is change, people may feel that in the new system, they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Psychological Factors Psychological factors are based on people¶s emotions, sentiments and attitudes towards change. These are qualitative and, therefore, may be logical from people¶s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent¶s point of view. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness, status quo, lack of trust in change agent, low tolerance for change, and fear of unknown. 1. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego, people resist change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Thus, the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. 2. Status Quo: People want status quo. i.e. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore, everyone tries to avoid it. 3. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo, people may differ. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Therefore, these people resist any new idea. 4. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent, that is, the person who initiates change. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent, they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 5. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The change will bring results in future, which is always uncertain. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction, particularly social needs, through their mutual compatible interactions. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change, people resist it. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.
1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. When there is any change, their existing social interactions are likely to be changed, which people do not want. Therefore, they resist change. 2. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class, e.g., change initiated by managers affecting workers. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change, even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. For example, Sumantra Ghoshal, a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru, has commented as follows: ³Nothing fails like success; nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation, Caterpillar, Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles, all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called µThe Failure of Success¶. Strategies, values, resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés, dogmas, millstones and routines.´ This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought, these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes, stability of systems, resource limitations, sunk cost, and inter-organizational agreement. Some of these reasons are basic while others are byproducts of those. For example, first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. 1. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices, they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. 2. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. For example, a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules, prescribes rigid authority relationships, and institutes reward and punishment system. All these work in some circumstances. It a change is required in these aspects, the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system.
an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. Now.3. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. broad environmental scanning. 4. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. prospectors. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. This can be in the form of people also. Thus. those who wonder what happened. and reactors. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. forward-looking. 1. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. intensive planning. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment.´ This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. and has zeal for progress. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches.defenders. analyzers. centralized control. decentralized controls. In such a case. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. For example. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. 3. if any change is to be incorporated. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. 2. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. if the change is required. If it is risk-taking. 5. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. and commensurate expenses on other items also. Once the assets are acquired. building and training for its personnel. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. these can be used for specific period. innovative. For example. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. In this interaction process. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. . Resource Limitations: No doubt. Let us see what someone has said long back: ³There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. it will require resources to procure machine. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. if new technology is adopted. those who watch things happen. It depends more on the style of top management. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too.
we¶ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. adjusting to the new office layout. or the like. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won¶t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. When we are confronted with change. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. and so on. Habit Every day. developing a new lunchtime routine. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. For instance. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. immediate. finding a new parking place. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. you find a single route and you use it regularly. For analytical purpose. when you go to work or school. Otherwise. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment.4. or deferred. If for example. As human beings. some may fear they¶ll be unable to do so. They may. And people in general don¶t like the unknown. it means you¶re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. Therefore. we¶re creatures of habit. 10. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. therefore. they cannot survive. taking a new set of streets to work. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one¶s income. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. The same applies to employee. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. we all rely on habits. Organizational resistance . To cope with this complexity.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn¶t necessarily surface in standardized ways. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. Let¶s look at the sources of resistance. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. threatening to go on strike. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you¶re like most people. engaging in a work showdown. or programmed responses. Life is complex enough. Resistance can be overt. we don¶t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. implicit.
he¶s likely to resist. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. Will the change. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. They tend to be content with the way things are. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization¶s structure to match. group norms may act as a constraint. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. For example. for instance. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities ± such as training. and benefits administration ± has been resisted by many human resource departments. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. That is. 10. An individual union member. Formalization provides job description. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. for instance. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. development of pay plans.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. accountants work with marketers. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. The . Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. rules and procedures for employees to follow. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat.Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. You can¶t change one without affecting the others. For example. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. For example. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems.
When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. through group dynamics. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. the problems can be solved at the same level.ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. Stephen Robbins suggests that ³«« managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. Locavini observes that ³the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. at the level of individual and at the level of group. Therefore. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. that is. For this purpose. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. the following efforts can be taken: 1. Unless this problem is overcome properly. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. For example.´ Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. It implies explanation and then discussion of the proposed changes. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. In addition. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. However. 10.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people¶s resistance to change successfully. In many cases.´ The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. this is not a one-time action. People always have some . Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue ± not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. both at the formal and informal levels. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. typically by way of computer network links. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently.
4. to become effective. he expresses it through a group. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. sometimes. Getting opinions out in the open. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. more than one person is involved in the change. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: 1. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. is an important trust-building task. They must be taught new skills. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. its basic nature. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. People should be educated to become familiar with change. education must be a part of the manager¶s everyday activity on the job.ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. However. The same is true of problem-solving. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. As this process goes. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. . (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. 3. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. It grows slowly along with relationship. its process and working. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. and conferences. Thus. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. For this purpose. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. so that they are looked at and evaluated. Though each person interprets the change individually often. 2. (ii) In group. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. helped to change attitudes. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. the group itself should be the point of contact. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. and indoctrinated in new relationships. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. most of the times. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. meetings. as discussed earlier. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. However. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. Usually. Thus.
structural arrangement. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. Economic factors. benefits of change. 3. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing . Self Assessment Questions 1. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. sentiments and attitudes towards change. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. group resistance and vested interests. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization ± technology. 2. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. and sensitivity or T-group training. 2. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. __________ are based on people¶s emotions. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. and how members contribute. It purports how the results are. However. Resistance can be overt. Such training techniques include role playing. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. immediate. job design and people. social factors. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. 3. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided.Through the group contact. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. Research studies also support this aspect. mere participation may not help. many things about change can be made clear. implicit. For instance.7 Summary Change is inevitable. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. 10. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. psychodrama. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. psychological factors. or deferred.such aspects as the reasons for change.
. Jr.8 Terminal Questions 1. Reference: · Wendell L.management of Organization Change. at the level of individual and at the level of group. Organizational change 2. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. · Cummings & Worley. Thomson · Daft Richard L. Why do organizations resist change? 3. eighth edition. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. 10. Psychological factors 3. Refer section 10. New Delhi. Bell. P. Refer section 10. P. · Harigopal K. . through group dynamics. French and Cecil H. New Delhi. 10. both at the formal and informal levels. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. Principles and Practices. Jain. Organization Theory and Design. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. Thomson South Western.6. threatening to go on strike. Organization Development & Change. Explain the nature of change? 2.Response Books. Organization Development..complaints. Regal Publications New Delhi.4 3. that is.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. engaging in a work showdown.Singh. · J. Modern Organization Development and Change.2 2. Refer section 10. N. or the like. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels.
· L. F. Robbbins.kurims.jhu. · Stephens P. Prentice-Hall of India.umich. Management.pdf www.jp/~kyodo/kokyuroku/contents/pdf/1461-15.htm#anchor73776 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . New Delhi.fao.org/docrep/w7503e/w7503e05.pdf http://www. Ltd.wdi. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi. Educatiional Publishers. Management. Principles & Practice of Management.oup. Stoner and R.co. · Laxmi Devi.1lowry. Prentice-Hall of India.edu/cameronk/CULTURE%20BOOK-CHAPTER%201.uk/pdf/bt/fincham/Chapter15.com/opm/grtl/OLS/ols6. · T. New Delhi.managementhelp.co.umich. Ltd. · Stephen P.cfm http://www. Organizational Behaviour. Prentice-Hall India. N.pdf http://webuser.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp598. Organizational Behaviour. Sultan Chand & Sons. 12th edition.org/org_chng/org_chng.uk/search/article/634958/the-ceos-role-managing-change/ http://www. Prasad.htm www.html http://muse. Dhanpat Rai & Co. Robbins. E References y y y y y y y y y y y http://fds.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v005/5.managementtoday.ac.work911. Edward Freeman.· James A.com/www.pdf http://www.umd. Chhabra.com/articles/leadchange.bus. Organizational Development. .kyoto-u. Pvt.edu/groups/learning/wp8. New Delhi.lib.htm#TopOfPage http://www.oup. M.pdf http://www.humtech.
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