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London, ,S,E-_ 7':HR,'~

Te.ll~ 0 t -2'61 9588,/9 t 79'

C t t ~ ontents

INTR[ODUCT10N" ~ . ~ ...... ~ . , ... , . Eli • '. , ~ • ~ • , e '.' •• "

CHA,PTER. I. OJtG ,At, " I'ZA n,ON ~ .' '. I' • • • • , _ r • ' • • '. -,

!1 •• •• i iI Ii ., I II! • !! !I • !I! i! II!!'

Arm,ored, Di visions , ,', . . .' . .' . " .. ~ ~ '. ~ ~ . . ii ~ ,,' '. ....,. ~ " '. ~ ~

:No 0,,,, Divisio;,D U oi ts. . ~ ~ , '. _ "

CHAPTER. II. T,ACTl'CS ' ...... ~ .• " . " ~ e , ~ , .... ~ ~ ,. " •• '. " " '.

[(Je nC':r aJ DDCtr,in~ ~ ~ . " ~ . " " " '. " . '. . . . ., · ., " ~ . " .' .. '" . ~ '"' ~ ~ ~ .. ,

Tanks i, Infant.ry Support .. ~ .... 'j, I !! •• ~ .. '1 ~ " " .' " _ ~ m ., riO '.' ' •• " ." ~ ~

.P:r.i,u'ciples of Infa n try Suppors ~ . " "' '. . . . " ~ . ~ .,' ... ~ . ~ ,i ~

Spec lal Tactical Si tua't ions. " . . II " • ~ ~ " "' "". ~ • • ' •• •• ,. i, ~ .. "

CHAPTER 111. E'Q;~I,P'ME'NT ~ ... " • , I, ••• , ~ .' " ~ " ., ;

" : ntroduction ~ . " ., " . " I' ~ '. •• • ~ ~ + " , ,', T,a nice ttes ~ " " . " . I, ~ I! " " .. ~ • • • .. • , ~ •

!! II!!' !II I!! ~

III Ii Iii iI

Ii iii ii

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III • I! Ii!

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II! II!! II.

I ' h" T'[ 1,_-

:'llg_""t _ , an.D ...... I ..... ' ... ' ... " "' , •• '. ~ • '" •

M,ed~lum Tanks. .. ~ ~ . . . . . . ., .. ~ .' " +

., ill .. I ~ III iii iii iI [II iii II Iii iii

Heavy T anks. '. . , '. .. .. ~ '" . . " . , . '" . ,. . '. ~ ,. ~ .

Arm'D,red Can" + ~ • .. .. • • • ~ , '. .. ~ • ~ • ,. • •

• Iii iii il ,Iii ,i iii iii II iii Ii til Ii tl ill • II Ii

irJi •• ilitill Ii ililli Ii·. iii II-I rl!l ~ Ihrii~lr~ i!i!!! ~l~ll ~ Iii II ,Ii •• II'

Fr,ont COYer: Emblem of Japanese: Tank Troops, on collar,s [0'£ blouses

Pag, vo

1 1 5

to 10 1:2 '14 18 23 23 ,26 3,2 S4 6$ 73 76

,IV

11:1"- .' ,,"

.' .'. ~I' .. '_' _.- _ ... ,"', _,- . ," ..

· .. 'tustratums

s, The armored di.visioD (man·lulu-)., .' . . . '. . " , ,. ~ ~ + ., '. ~ '. + .' • oj '. ~ .' , ~, • T. " '. " .' '. ~ 'ii ~

4- T1.,;,~ . ..;all~' ,~" tank- e-. "

iiK; iU!.LV' . . 1 .. • "

l~ 'I i I: '_ .... I,SlOB ,:':,' I ' un~1:, 1!1 II!! !! ! !! ! !I !I! II! !Io • • ill I! II II ri i I. Ii, • ., .. II • • •• Iol ,,," a, ... •• !l ,," "!!. a; !!. .. ~ 01. ~ !'" ~ • ~ Ii

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611 The cavalry brigade 'tank om,t" " ~ , " ~ , " ., , " , " . _ . ' " , r , , ~ , ~ , , n, ~ ~ • , m !! • • • " ~

"9i" TL..... "'.JIi d t - ank '. .

~, J!1iCI', ne'n', - "'.' .. ,- :" .. ,',

., - - ID __ '" J>e- e,n, - t. reglmentl!,. . . ' . , '. ~ . ~ I , I' 13 I, • ~ .' • " i '. ; .. I' • '" ~ ~ I, '~ I I!! • • ~ ~' 'I

18~ 'The inde,penden t 'tank regiment '" ,', ., ., . .. " , , ~ , ' ~, . ~ ~ ~ ~ , '. . ,; .' e .. ~ .. .' i '. 1I " .' '. ~ .'

'9'" M·_..:I\.r.!;,J.o2 (1 n ~it/l)' ..... ,_I.'anriio - S

':.'~ ,; ._IlJil.I~, .:;r ... .,_, ... ,_,=':.I~..:." i~~J"_l!LiL.C' 'r. _ • "II ~' II!I r. .' I! ~ r. !!' • '!II • II!I • 'I! [!II! II! II!I • !!II. II! ~ II! Ii !I • 'II II! '. !I I! Ell !I II !II II I! II •

'IO~ :Model 97 (1 937) ·tan.k!ette~L .' , '. ~ " ~ ~ .. '. ~ " , , . " , , ~ .. ' , ' .. ' .. , , " ~ . " , , '" . ' . ' .' , , ,

1 t . M'od.el 9'4 (1 9 .14) medium tanks dep:loyed ill. China. , , ~ ~ 0, , a, • , , .. ~ • ri • , ••• ,',

'itt Model '95 (,1.935) light tank uter' fng.a:giul U~ S, M4, medtum ·urn'kg .. " , ~ e •• ' • t3~ Rear view' of 'nvoJa.Panese Mooltl. 95 (1,935) l~S'h't tanks knocked out by U. Slo

M,4 me,dium' t:aIlkl DR Timiarl. 0; • ,i ~ II • " .' • ~ ... ' i ....... ' • ~ Ii ., • ~ • ~ '" I I " ~ •• ", • , .' • ' ,

t4~ F~t. view of 'Me MOO.el 9',5 (1935) lig:h t tanks. .' , , m , ' •• '. ,. • + a. • '.' • '. "' a. " " , , ••

'I. 5~ M~del 95 !( I 93.5) light tank dug in. t(l, face a beach. on n:niwe~Dk" ~ " .. ~ " " . . ,I

'1611, Tan~k D,omenlcla'tUr,c ~ ~ ~ ., . ., . . . . 1I • • '. I 'I .. I ., I " , • I ~ " '. • 'I 'I , " 'I " ~ • .. • ' .. , ' '!' .' " ~ .• +.

"·1·' '~.'I;II it) ,,:",::1[111" Inf· IiIIP O'·~t, ';""""""k-.. en T" .'l".m'· 9'11!'1 ,DI.. --.ni ..... ,D' hi ,i· b .. v 9'"'"l"...1 --q:-,....-~ iii, ~iC H'· 'E: P T!ij.j"i!!i.,."i 1~

.I. ~-!11 ~iUa ~ II lCli.t~I,III.!L4UI~ I!iJ.! I' J~J. 1iiII11lJ~-~ ."~'O _" '" ~I.~ 1;;I:l1~!lj t.Q," " : V.;J~I!..o-I~!~1 :ii' ,!,

1'7~b~ Front ,or ligbt tank :Ilhowilng effect OD U'OOi 'of' h~t, by lIE pro~iec.tllc", . 'I I' • I " ~:8., MotIf] '9'5 (193.;) light tan]: lmoc~ed ou.', on Pelellu .... , , . , ... , ~ '" ~ .. ~ . ' " .. , ,

tin, M" · ..... ..l--l ,on (: 1" ,O''l.i)', .", ... ,_1_,.,."..01-.-

_ YIr!, """ ~~ "'!7~ "_ ;"J6"" I 1~15J~I~~ ~ I! I'l 'r i' ~ 10. OIl, .. ~ ...... ,Iol ~ .. , ••••••• iii iii ,iI ii' Iii ill Ii It! !I • Eli! !! I! I!II 'II !I !!! !!l ~I .'

,20" ,Model 92 (t '9 32) tan1rette- with lh'acked ·ftaikr',·.. ~ " , '. ~ ;; '. , '. i! ~ '. ' , .. ~ , • • • .. r m .' 2'L Model '92 (1'932) tukettes cros~ing' Sinhan;g river. + ;; ••• " ~ ~ • , , " ., '" • , ,', ., " ~ " .'

,2_2~ Mode] 94 [(1914) tankettt! .. ,.'~ .~ ~ .. , , ;0 .. i , ., ~ I' , .' " ~ • , '!' ~ • '" , ~ ~ • " " " ., r , '. ' •• ' .. ~ ~ +

,21" '~l 9" ('1'93 j ') u:n~et1e., I. • '" ~ .. _ '" _ _ .' , T. ~ ~ , " - ~ , , " • • , • '. " ~ '. • , " ". " , " '" ~ ~ ,. "

24; ~~l 93 (~.9i3:3) ligtlJt 'tank" .' " , ~ " . " " ~ .,,' ,0, • " , ., .. ~ , • n' 0; " , •• ' '" ~ ••• ' .... ' • , .... ~ , ~

,25. Mooe] g:3 (i 933.:) light tan'k (im.proved) '" . . , "' " , . . . '. ;; ~ + • ,. , • , " , • ,~ • • , , ., ~ , '. 2,6~ Mode] 9'5 (1935) light tank:" :ri;s:'b't ~tde, . ,;, . ~ . , + ~ ~ " , ,. • • , " , '. ~ • ,. • , " ~ Il .' • I 'I I' , 2:7'~ Model. '9'5, (\'9'35) lilht tanlk:;, left side, ~ , . . ~ I, • " " .. ., , • ~ • , ". , • - .' • ,.'" " ~ ~ • , • ' '" , ,2,8~ :Mode], 95 (1 '9 35" Ugbt ta,n'k" right, uDn t 'view '. + ~ • , .' • , " • " .' • '. " , , ., ;0 .. .. ,. ~ • , • ;0 2 9 ~ :Mode,) '9,5, (1 '9'3:') Ught tall,k ~ leJt (r-oDt 'View I' • ' ~ " ~ I' , • ~ " • '. .' • • r. " , '. " ~ ~ '. '. ~ •• • r 30~ :M,odei 9S (1 9 3,51) ]~gh.t taDl~ Iront, view ~ ... , "' , . + .. ~ ~ ~ " " , , '" • • • .' • • I " II, , • '. '. ;0 ~ ,3'1. ~ M,ooe], '95 (1 !935) light tan.lk:) f\ear view. '" ., . ~ , . " " ~ P .' , • .. • ' " .' , r. " '" • '. ~ ;;, , '. ~ •• ~ " :3,2~ :Model. '9S (i.'935" light tank:" m,p ~i.e,w .. ' , .. ' .. ' ~ ~ .. , , , " '. ' .. ' · , ~ .. " , , " ... " ~ ~ .. ,3,l~ ,M,ode], '95 (i 9:35) light tan'k ~wiDg' suspendon. ii " ~ • I 'I I' • • 'j, , " ~ " ~ " ~ ,r. , , • • • m 3·4" Model. 95 (1 '9 35,) light bu~ k~ t1"3._ck ... a.qjiUs,d,]l:I' :D'U t ,aDd assembill~,.., . , , , ~ , ' '. ~ ~ ~

3,5,~ MOO~J 9S (t'g15.) lilght,tan_k, steering" ~embly r. " ~ ~ ., • • " ~ , , " • ;0 .. • ., .' I " " I' I , ~ •

316" Model 9[,5 (1,'9'35) ligbt tank tu,r.[fltt., 'Pho,tograph shows how ,8, knife blade

will j.am 'b:U;T~'t when, for.e.ed m,~o cn::~cc 'De'bNeen turret and tank body ~ 0, • " '37~ ,A, small, bl'kk Dr Mly hard, ,object will. jam the t-iUr.,ret of 't:be ,MDdel "5 (19:35"

H,bt tank 'wnen rurret is, twnedl 'ta' ov:erhaag' :bu,U of bm~k, .' " - - ,m , ~ ~ ;; " • , "

,]8:,. ,Model '95 (t'935.) light ,tank I S:ix""cylilndeTj in-line'l ai:r .. eookd. 'Di~~I, [m1g~'fit, 3,9. H_e,a,r' '~iew ·of' Model 95 (1,93.5) n~fh.t tmat 'show,wg flud oU :iUler tap" 'mo,'tor

1~ dl ..c,n""" d· :: ,.,n ....... _ 'bra ~i __ -

oU storag1e talliK an- iW.er Capl,~, '.J1I - , two[ 'rear ,IU.IU- - _ ~ ClIU,jg,.. '" " ;;; .. .' il ~ .. ~ ,'~,., "

,2 :3 4 ,S,

,!)

'6 l'

'51

10. 11 '18

19 ::U]I

22 2;4

25 25 26 27 27 28, 2,9 30 32, 3,:J;

,~-6 '36 3'7 3'1 ,38

38 ,39 ,42 4,,3

,;1'1 .,.~

44

.

,

,4·5 46

46

44,. 'R.£m" 'view of amrp'hi- ~~allS, 'tank kn.ocked Dot 'by' Mannie: artillery at Supan ~ .: .'

45 ~ '~11" view elf amphlblous tank ~ .' ~ '. i ~ ~ ii " '. " ,. ,!, '. 'i' •••• '" " '" ~ '"' ;, .' • '. ' ... ~ .' '.' -e ~ iI ~ ••

.4,6 ~ Ampbiibious tank. 'With how' ponton auaehed". ~ .. ~ .' .' '.' .' .' . ,~ ~ " ~ .' .' '. ,~ I, ~ • 'i' '. ~ ., ~ 47 ~ D~ng3(gemefi.t of bo\y PQ,n:ton of a:mpl1.i':bioUs mnk ... ,. ~ '" ~ .. ~ I ., " ,I '" ~ " ., • " ,i ~ I, '",

48,.. ,Ampbibi:ous, 'tanle ~g rear ponton attacbed II 11 ~ II 'I ' •• ' .' " " " ' •• ' ~ • " " ~ ., .' ' •• " F.

49. Section of rear pouWn uC amphiibioul tBJRk, '. . ~ ~ . "' ~ '. .' , ~ ~ ~ , e 0 '. , '. '.' • .' '. " ;; 4 .' .'

~o.~ JRi_ght 'frant v1'e'W' of' 'Modell :89,A (19,29) medium tank , "' ,;, ,0 " i ii ii ~ ;; ~ • , " ~ ....

5,1,,, 'Ri:ght rooflt view ,af ,l\-1odd, :8'9A (1~i29) medium 'tank ' .' ~ .. ' .. ~ " .. ~ .. '. " " ~ " ~

52. llimb!, fron,t Yie,w of Model 8,916 (1'929') medium tank" '. " . ' .. '" .. " " " ;; .. ; . " .' . ;; ,5' .. .: Lt;,ft&on'tt view 0'£ Model :B,9,A, (t '929) medium tank '. ~ . ,. ,. ~ ~ .. ,. " ~ " . 0; ~ ... " .. ~ .. ~ 5,4., Mooe'~ 94 (1'93-4,) medium ,tank;1 :rig,:ht :fl'Qnt 'vie'\Y" , ,I • ~ " " " ., • ~ 'I .' " ... ~, [I, '" '" ....

5· I!' Ii. ._...:II I in;!l, (~'1 n 3 AI)' d' 4 . k ~ "' "'th d" _,. h . 1.. ..

_ j .. .tV. .. iJiLft.le,,,"T. ':!,I'-' "'t,' lm· "lum I'an " uunt VJe,W ViI '." r;1.ver3 r D,ten open .' .' '" '" ~ '" ~'

56.. Model. '94 (1,934) medium, 'ta'nk;j< lll:ft side ~ .i '. .' .. " .. • " • " .... 'i ;. ~ "' • • .. ;. .' ., • .. .... ~ ... ' ,!,

IE" M· ..... ..J '1 n Jill (i 9"1.A) d~ = = 1\., ~ 'h .. d

J'l.. ;:_,ooe..!. :""'1'11 ~.j~',1 DIe_' iom tiUH" .fig_it :811 e -a , • ~ .. ~ ••• ii ii ~ ... , " i, ii 0; .. ~ .. i, ii ~ ii ~ ii ~ ,,.

58 .. M,odel 9,4 (\'93.4) medium tank, 'left front ~ ro ~ " ~ '" , • '. ' I" '. " ~ .. '" ",' ~ " .. " •• ' ~, .. " "

Sg,~ Mooc:~ 94 (19i34') medium tanks on ,a :r'o\ad in Chwa ~ ~ .' '.' -s ~ "' ~ " ,', '.' ~ "' ~ ii' '., <I' " "'

so. Top \:;ew or Mode'l 94 (1934) 'medium 'tank .•. ii, i, i 'i ;, ii " i, ,i ,i ,i ~ " ~ i, iii" ii •• i ,I,,, ~ .. litl' Mod~:~ 97 (1. 9,:;7) special :m~mum Wll:" 'wi.th ,e]l'OD,:g,8;'ted lurr.-et to' DlOUD:t,

lool-barx·e]led, 41',..mm tank pn ' .. ' .... ~ ~ ,;, ~ ,;; ~ '", ' .. ~ .. ~ '" . '.' ~, ,0 ~ '. ~ '.' '. '.' ~ '" ~ ii, .' '.' '.' '.' m

6!~1L. From,t ~iew Qt:' ,M,Gdel '9' (1'917) m~diUDl. tank + ~ ~ '. '. '.' '.' ,. ~ ~ ~ ~ .• ' .. ~ ., .' ••• ' ," ~. ", ~ " ., ~ 6,3~ F!romt, 'view ,of. Model'g, {t.~(~,7) medium tank 'with rurmt trained to [~ft .. ~ . ~

64,~ B.ig;h,t :fron:t, of ,Model, 97~ "1 ~!3,7) JDedilup} tiUlk '! '. • • " " ~ " ~ • '" '. " " ~ .' .' , .' '!! .. " " .. ~ ~ 65"" ·B.il'ht side of Miooel ~t] (,'ii,93'1) medium tank 3' " ~ ·1 '. .' 1I " ~ .. ", .' '" ~ ~ ~ .' • .' ," " ~ ~ ~ ~ .'

66;0, Left side lei M,ood, g, (t '9,37') ~'iU_l1ill tan'k,. ~ '" ," + ~ " ~ .' ,. , ....... ~ !' '. ~, ., ~ ,; ~ ,; ". ~ ii

6"~l", R:ig;ht dde of' Model 97' (,1,931) medimn ita'n't. ~ "' I, ~ .. ~ I' ,I " " [I 1I ~ " '. 1I '" " " .' I " '" .

68,., FI"iGD t view of Model 97 (19''1) medium tR_M ~, " ~ • ~ m "' ~ .' 'i' ,. ~ ~ r. 'i' ~, ii' ~ ii ~ r. 'r. 'r. ,', ii' 1I

iiC.,i1'IIl D' -, "'. r~' M" ' ...... .:l, - 'Ii 9" ·1' ('1'· ,n 3'7--:') - - . ..:U, ;i;~. 'L,

'Ui'J!!',.. ~i8!J'" VIeW' 0: '~" 1!XI~l!, ,"",~ '."._,::J:: ," c IIl.f;U1'Dm, 'P1'JrnX: ... '.' ~ ~ ~ ;0 '" ~ 0; ,I, " " ;; 0; " ii " ;; ., ,i, ,ii ~ ~ ...... ,~

, 0·- 'T 0; I' 'l.1 ....... ".tL ... 'I l'i/"'I' ("1n 37 ). . m" ~ - 1! ..

:,,: iii .: ,-op VieW OJ: J¥.1JbWC,· :l1 .. f.' . ~ .. , I -:it! ' ..... : ,I IJII!:'I. ·UDI, taD& .• II • I! II !II !I !I • II! III III !I !I! !II • [II II! ~ II I ••• !II lI! II I!

"Y"l .. Fmll't, view Qf Model 97' ('1937) mtdillim tank, ,dblabled, ,art Saipan ~ .... ii ~ ii, '.' ii' ~ .' 72i~ Tnn uo;mtml view of ,Mooel 91 (1,93,1) medium ,tan'k -disabl:ed at Siti~n!! ~, ;. ,; ~

'~r" . .. l~~.i&l

7"1. ,if\. i'J ,..__..;) ~ d ~ .. ~1:.. 1l...L.~· Ii ~-. d .... I

3 .. dilnma~ ar:mo~, car;, ,lll.'ft@- 'WI~~ fUUU'ei- iQl"es, mE' .rDaJ: u~a.ve "., ~, co co .. ~ ,io '.' .. ii '!' ,~ ..... ii,

"AI if!1_ - .~.~., . ,- - .·...ill .. - , ,lE!ijl;<"~'" ~,oz;,.L IILa'n,~ •• __ .... 1 ~';j;loi!i,oiI il"ft~ 'r.'''''~~ ' .... ,-.'11 ... ]

,''''lI'.. ..;l!,tu:n.Z;r.'a arm~u car, ,llJU.~,,""',iliili.ll.l H....J..;I§j','Lo'Y .~.'M.A.> ' 'lIOU~iilI' 1l1U'I' ",A.I;iI;, ,",a,II'''"' ,~ • ~ " ,~ ~, ~ • ,~ ,~ II< '"'

1.5" Model 192 (1.9'2) naval ~d ~,~ •. ii • '.' , ....... ;; ii, 'i 'i' '. '. ~ ... ' i' • '. m .. ;; ,~, ,; .. ~ 'ii ~ .. ~ ;;

1'16 EO MOO:.c:l 9,41 (i 9 34) tc8Ilk, gun" '" ~ ", '.' ~ .. !!3 '. ,,; .. .. ~ .. .' '.' '.' ,~ ~ !i ~ .. ~ .' ~ ;; • • ~ ~ ~ ii • ,i '. ~ ~ ~ ;; ~ ~ ;;;

77 n~,-. . "',.- ,-. ,.._~ .-.~" .:-~, , ,- iii"':. :-.~ ........ t ... -, 'I..,.'· .... ·.J'· ... I ,j!'i"..11 I,t t'i.'''1 A) 1',. - '. ',' A" -T" ,.., - -,-. " - dl ........

'.. ~HparJl.SiO!n UI amnlU.iIDlyOn, ,IIW- ~!Le ~VUJU.~,L ;;I'iIlJ \ _' ~J" ,;;J!,' ""mm" , 'c" '. ;gUD an -'- IL,I!~

"'9~ ,Miod_e1. 97 (11937) 7",,'~mm tank maMinl.l 1Jlm;o .. ~ .. ,I, ,. 0; " ~ • I, ,~ ~ •• 11 ~ ill ~ ,Ii ill' ~i ~ ~ • ~ "', .... , ~,

, .

liII'I, MI" '._ . ..1,'11 ,n"'J (fl n"l "'1)'" I!T' 1 ' .... , . 1:::a.Dk' .. [ . hi' .. ,. ~ - I· ! , .. 1!.. .1_,1i, " . ,.. . ,", ,.11 ... " .

U'"' ... , 'OlaeJl c;} l ,:,,~,7~ 11" " .. , -,Dlmd mBC1rDe gun W:h,g lI!Wl-f!lCi.O:pe UI ,PI3Cre '"I ,~ Il .....

81 M - '111 - - (, .. -, - -.) .. 1 7 __ '9\_ t...::__ " .. - - E~, ..JI , '.., '- ,odc~JI 9719'],7,., .• :'-mm. tw:m DmCw.m; gun lyj;tb, biped lor UK u: a grouu'u

lI,o"Ii' ,. iiIi ...... ..-I ..... '1 ,j!'i't··· ('t iI"IiI"'l."iI' til. 5 - ._. ".,..,;;;,1- - . - -:'11 '~, - _. -

'G~;;, t"V~~,::I .. 7~1.i O",.-mm. ~~, mac IDe gu;n," ' ... ,"' ~ ii ,i ~ " ,; ",. ~ .. ~ .. ~ ~" oi," " ;; .. ,I, ,", oi, '",

Pag6 ,47' 481 5.0 5·0 5~ ,$,1

l~ II!\ la~1

S2, ,53, Si3 56 56 57 ,57 ,60

6t ,~,

'2 6,2,

6!! ,63,

616 'I' '" ,1],8,

iC~ lUg

"

,~,n

'iI.'"

7 (!II

70 "I, 72, "'2; ,',4

'74 '7,5,

77'

"9 "9 79

80 IG

The ]apan1es,e have made only limited use of tanks UP] to' the pfle'sen

.. 1-' h · ~.. C" hi" h tb 1l-.~ It d •

tnne, n t _,leJr operations m v.mna, ~ owever, mey nave ![18: an opportunity

to utilize tanks much more extensively than elsewhere because of the character of the terrain 3'nd the large areas over which the fig,hting has occurred. As a mar er of fact, C,hi:mla has been the great proving ground for Japanese annored vehicles of' all types. ,_,'he J apa nesc also used light and medium tanks to some extent in the l\-ialayan' campaign and in the siege of Singapore, as well as in the Philippines, Burma, Guadalcanal, and, Papua, More recently, on 'Guam and Tinian, comparatively l,arge numbers of Jap,a.nes,e- tanks have 'been in action; on Saipan more than 80 were destroyed DlEU1Y by aerial and naval bombardment. b" 'ore they could be

moved from assembly areas~ ,

D,igUf,(t .r.~Jf:i.P(1.'r.u;5'e.' Model 95 (1935) light 'tl'nk- amb'ush;,d by lJrilijh t~OO!frJ OR. ,0 ,M al,aJd'll ftC)(ul i f1 1941'.. Note III II tu rret a rma m.t'nl~' ,: rea r 7 r.1-m m m-a chi. u., g''lln ( ,l.,.f.~' ) ,t'UI d; 3',7 "'mm· g;u,n ( rig h,t }~, 8.ti fJ~ s e il' '~7 ~ rf~1. R zi'1l._g ,t'h e ioN rret si,d,ewaYI.

VII

]'0 suitabl, terraln 'the tan! Is an ideal wea:pon for the favorri'te envelop: ment tacti!tI 0" the Ja"pan,ese~ A1.I~bo,ugh it is r' "l'!·Jy that their ann,o~d, units will, continue to be considered primari y a,s infantry SiU'pport weapoDs, the potentialities of 'tanks in, 'Wide encircling movements to cut enemy lines 0'" ,oommu,nications and to disQlrganize ,- ~s, rear areas hardly '" ",·U be overlooked, Equip,ment pra~baJlly will remain Inferior in com.pamon 'With

a," nn' ._'" 0' red Ii. ~~'h'" .• 1 "'·IA.~, 'I 'IIC!!~d' by th' I ,,po n;li- 'L.,~ 'm'~ ,. OO"·"C e: 'm-' " '!!:II 'I"n"li~'.&1~ b u t·, the stu . d 'V' of G'--' , A~ "jIj''IP.''I •

.:. ,! ,J! -c:1 7(i~:".' .. L'·~ ~,_".' ' "'" v 'L.J,'p;I; ' __ ' _:.. I.., U"Ii '!!!'.~~~"',,, :_ L L _. gI _ .:., _'" U! ,. , •••. t".dll..uiLIII;I.

and Un i ted. Nations designs is, :~lre]~,. to 'b'ring about importam .mOO'ification. in the constnlctio:n of Japa-ncse armored vehicles, Japane.se industry wlil be able to provide a \~],u'me of, p'rod,·g.ctiol,n~ which, although small in comparison with Un.ited :Nati.ons standards, will make possible the oo~- .. ~ mitment of t3),nk, units on a larger scale than hitherto hasl been encountered ..

A.l-. ,inform.a.tion in JAP'ANE,S:E 'TANK.S, ,ANDI 'TANK TAOTlCS is, believed aceueate as o,f 1. N:ov,ember 194.4"

I.n'Ji'II' "'&y.

CHAPTER I. Organization

Thus, far tanks usually have 'been employed by the Japanese, in inde ..

d iI h" h "",'ill..., d' .. f - · -

pen ent units wmcn are attache. '[[0 -m antry commands as operational

expediency dictates, This practice can ill": expected 'to continue, In view' of the. preponderant emphasis 01£ Japanese taeti ial doctrine U ,'Ion the decisive: role. of infantry both in offense and defense. Yet large tank. units exist in

: h J' A- d '1\... '.' ld f iO' ,j, ... " ..

t, e ... , ap"anlese .-.,rmy, anc there IS evic ence 0- an mcreasmg disposit on to

allocate them to higher echelon control,

A- d Di " "

__ r,mlo"re.-~J - .. ··IV1810DS

E ld '" di- that th J have ' tl !C'iC "d ' vie ence ind cates tnat t e .. apanese may nave both I-Ie I square" an u

the "triangul ar" types of armored divisions, The square-type divisio,n has a total estimated strength of 12,,550 officers and enlisted men and is equipped with a. total of [about 2,000 vehicles, inchiding 2:30 medium tanks and 170 light tanks,

Division headquarters has a total personnel of 500.. The division i~·1 organized in two brigades, each having two tank regiments. The strength lo,f a tank regiment is about 92'0.. The division also includC!3 a mechanized infantJ1 ~ g'"rnent with a strength of 2,,900~ Also. included is. a motorized artillery regiment of 1~,200 officers and. enlisted 1'1 en, The regiment is armed 'with '75-mm field guns and with l05' ... mm hewitzers, 15.0-m,m howitzers may also - e Included .. ,

Th dill ~ ~ 1 I b I' • d dO. d'" .. '.'

I ie square .·.·_~VDIOIl a. so las a~ numr er 011' umts um er dsrect '. nvision

control, There is. a. reconnaissance uni t and an engineer uni t, as well as an antitank unit. armed with 4·7-,rpm antitank ,guns and an antiairesaft unit

~ d ~ hill'!,!: .• rAiL'll! - . iii. d

eqmppe'-I Wit· I J'.J'''.lnm antiaircralt gunSI. ", macnme cannon unit, armed

with 2.0 -11m1 machine cannons, also is Included, in the division organization ..

Transport of supplies, ammunition, fuel, and other necessities is integT3't!fd, under' a trar sportation unit. The division also has a, maintenance unit ..

- h Ill' 'I!... 1.' f' di iii ,~ I 1..,_ ......

There lS evidence: that a, aeavier type 0,. square urvisron may atso lot In

existence, Strength of such a division would be in me. vicinity .of '14),000 officJe,1'S and, enlisted men, It 'would probably have a total of 45.0 tankJ", . including, heavy ". I-.,n-'· ',~

[ , .

The chief difference between the square and the: triangular' types of'

lann,o,red divisions is the fact that the latter is not Drga'niz-e,d into brigades b,ue ,has a tank, group comprising three tank regiments. 'The I,trength of

1

~I

~ .. :.

(

'2'~,'

, ,

~''''''' '~~ ~

I ~: ~

,__' =, 8

~~ t,'

~r:-,,~~, ~ ~~ . ._..

I;

I

-

,

t:j'

r-:I

0 0 s
,
~ r:.-
~ 'n e-
I I •
'. I , ~ ~

Q

S'

I;;.,

t:i:

'"

~

~

I

I' I I I , , I
I !II '. I I
Ii III '. I I
III I 1m I I
, I III I~ I
I I .1 II
I t I I [Ii
~ ~ ~I I' I
II I I :1 I • I[ I

II I •

, III

I ~I II

It I' f,

, . ,

, , .

II I I

11:\. ~ ....

&

,

,

liI'lIIIidio,

,~

II I

[ III

• II I Iii I I i I I • I I f I I II

the triangular division, would be from 1 0 ~.500 to :L 1,2.5'0. A triangular armored. division, recently identified was organized as fo,ll[Qws:

The three tank ,regimen.u-the chief components 01 the triangular armored division-s-are organized into a tank group, which has a total person n e I of a b ou t '2;; 950 offi cers a nd men an d is assi gn.e d. S 00 vehicles, Including about 2~O tanks. In addition to the tank group'~ there :~s, a mechanized infa .. ntrv unit with :2 ~aoo 'O.ffice.rs and enlisted men, The

'I!.F -

rnec Ita nized artillery unit of the tr fa ngul ar arm ored d ivision h as a strength

of 1; 2 0.0 with about 2.:2 U vehicles. Th C IT a lso are includ ed in. the di vi sion organization a reconnaissance unit with a strength [of 530; an. antitank unit armed with 4 7 -mm anti tank gUI1.s:~ an an tiaircraft un i t equ.i ppcd with .. 75 ... mm gltn~,;. a machine-cannon unit armed with 20 .. nun machine cannon; an enzineer regiment with a strenzth of ~ .~OJ;O:~ a transp •. ort unit with 1 .. '],00:

II(_.~. .~ __ {' ~ ,)

a. medical unit with 2',8j; a field hospital with 220.; and a maintenance 'unit

with a strength of 600~

.. i\RMOR'W DrV~JE:[Q'N tTr~anl5nl~l")

1 ru J':~OO 0&: H:M. ( 1. i' 8~O 'lj'~h~'

I

RG!{,.~ UMt (530)

hO me-.o tks '31 It tt~

IM~~h1M'R~ ti3~ 000] - g 1t tk.a

.Mu];! u.wt (('lOO}

OJ med tk~ 3.htk3

iJ;,A. en.Li U'i?5[~

·4. 7'&-M.rnl.. AA

.T.k Gp I (2j95iJ) .

I

~l~ ',Arty U~. I

'II ;f.),f'lI"I"I l~'I~~,J

[ 12 7~ .. ~ml fld g~ . 'l16 11,Jb,· ~m. :h.Qws

itT LlrJ.t

U10iO) i

1 Em; 4:,?",·m,11D, AT [

I

II

I

T:rans 'U'ult (llBO)

I[~ ............ """"""",~

'Med TJ['ii~.t

I (.:285)

,M ~fech. 'C,Dm'lwt Unit

~,~. :2,O-'m'~

HIJ. -I

._jlO:O~ .. " :med ·'t:':t3. . :3 l.t tks

1 -. :IT~ Regt'--i

I

O'·rg,a.nl'zat ion and s tren gth of tank regiments in the sq uare and triangular

, ,.. ~ .. . 1] - 'h- Th '11 b - f

armored divisions are vrr tua Jl.V· t. ie same, . > ere arso are a UUlU er It)'

, •••• . - . ~. - - III!

mdependcnt tank. regimen t~ in the J a.pa'n.ese. Army, Before the war tank

regirn ents had. three cornpan ies; at C·uadalca nal, however, a, four-company regim en twas idetltified,~ and sine e that time a nurnhe r of similar idientifi,cations have been reported. There are fivc"'oO'mp.any rcgi,ITI(:nts, too: it seems

.~. r . .

that the trend is to have five, .. com.pan·y regiments ,81S components ,0[' armored

divisions, Iwhile the:inde.penden:t tank regiments have three .. , or four-company srructure,

In a, 5¥e-oompany regiment, about l\rhj,ch full information has been

secured headquartl·.rs ,personnel, .agg;rtegated ·819i! [The .Ught tank co'm:pallY of the regiment ,bad, a, total, strength, 0'( :1 04, W'11illc each lo·f the four medium

. ...

tank eompanies h,ad 14,3't. There' was a maintenance unit, orl oompa·n.y~ of

.175~, 'The light ·tank oo,nlpany had 12 such vehicles, while each medium com,pan'y had 11 medium tanks and four .light tanks,

M' L

............ ~-------~ ~ ~ -~ - ~ - -., '-I. -, r-I ~= .. I--il:.....,_,. ...... ,-

" :3 1 2 I 4 ------ oJ I s 14

~-. '" 1.2, 1. 4: ~ ---- _ ----- -I 1.2 2,4 •. _--,

11. ·4 _n:r- 1 5 1 ,_, __ , 11- 4- .3.0.

11 4, ...... ".. J S ,__:U 4- 30

11 4 I 5 11 , 30

1.1 4 R. _-! 1 S' _ .,_' .. '"'!".. 11 4 3:0

2 l.fi -1 .

- - - - - ~ n c .. ~ ",,4 6 :2 - - ~ _ _ _ ., :3

............... -·~~I----r- I·~"'I __ .I~~-I-_ ~~llc~_ ..............

·R~.!lt .H.q, .................. ,_ U1 :2, ~U <45 99
, I Co, •. _ M ._= .... ~ " '2 :IS OJ WI)I
0' "

. Tn. 2 CO,. ______ ' .. '_ ,. 1 4l '9t 14]
No. :J 'CoL!!!!!! !!!!!! Ii iil iil ii lii_ i ~2! :19 9B ]141
.
.
No, , 'Co.· __ y ~.~==_ " :2- ·n 9t 'W4],
.N'o. -' ICO 4: 2 12 105 143
.,1. -.~_. __ .IiiM"" I
U' Unil (,oon_ S 3 210 141 ~.1.j
. ' iI'U11 6. I· ~O:

'1 162 !3, I

~

1 D[:NJS,IOIN TANK 11N"lT'

[7'18 offLes'rlS and. ,en11isted mien

\'r .'II~b· It T-- iI!II,_b c·- -'.~ .. ~.-"", . -....... ,:. '.1 I' e·:LU6:~)~ _:_m .... ~);lDJ)\EUlY

1 ,,:.:. I. I~-I;i!!.

10' . I .J,oi"fIl'h.. t'; n_ 't,...,."

..... ~ ... --~

·S platoons Train,

'M, ,.;Jl~ TiPIII_.ll ....

,e~~ I~'~ b.aJiA Company

(141 m'··Q''It''i)·''

I 'jv,u .l "

17 .mediu.m tanks,

2' n '\"'1

.~ .. lg~'~ tanks

,4 platoons

Train

liedillUll, T,Wlk C[Dmp,any ! t141 men" -", . '-_

l~ .medium tanks

2: light tanks

4 platoons

Tr,aio

• Combat . ~ ~. aIn (goO ,mall)

6 light tankSI

I .1.2 medium, tanks, 1 'ICO tr'· k

' lii 'I' .UC7S

II ~ ~ .' i

I T .iI:. 'It,., nrnn1"'f'n i '~"~.~~IY'r I

II

~,am;;' ~11l.me'nt

(1600) ,

I ...... T ... ·;.;dl.. R' ,~g1im· . ".,.,.,.. ...

~Ui. ~ ~1'":rIb~-"' ,_,~

id:!~ \U~J

I

Tank Regl~n~ftt 1(600)

I

l'fJfl. ... L_·i .. , O· c..~.!"'i;'Ii.n-. C!!'4i,~:et;,'1 U"" ,2:t

I_JI.. a:JIIll'l .. .!L y~ ,1i,)I.~;Uoty,.W

In some of the' stronger types of' triangular' .infa.ntIY divisions, in addition

to O\'!ii, 'r-"' .. ~ ... -.- " .. -n. .; ..... 1:- ·"'1'· .•.... I' '. '-, ~,.,. -' ta ""'1 k I '," .. it- .... f" ,'. ' ........... a to. 7"' '0'-"0"' -~.'-' .. , ·.-C.· i, -: .~ - .. ,,<,1 d·· .. ,_J 1-'" - ·th· .. ' "

I !U!' Q . econnrussance U.I1l '!II ,a.a,n, '. tun 11,;. 0 I a LJ!UU. c .. ' .. , men. lS 1 nc U., ·ell!.,. - . no·· ,C·[

typ ~,~, '. ···f' ,t-"":" . ,. . I.. di i~·· ',... _I th , '1 ,.' . '. '.' .' C '. • .• . ._ 'd~- '. 'f.'· '.-'.' -b· '" . .,. ;1.\ - .' -' .

OR }:10~ 0 ~:an.gu.I . .ar'VU]l.on.s" .n.am.e~.y . I ose co.m.pose. . (1 com .. ar Le;am~., ,8,

1 'l divi ~ k ~. h 1'· d th - i ~ A be

- ." '." ",' I '._ -. [ ,. i ". -.", .: ',' .. . . ':. .. .".' _. . . ..' . . . ,.... . . ',_. '._. '.","".:. .. ,- . - "Or _. _. • • • " I" - - .... - .: '. . - I, . . .. ' •

sma ier nwisson tan umt t 3-5," rep acec t e reconnaissance unit. ,,' number

'-'f=' tho' - .. 1" tt - " '*' . "-. - of ~.- nk -, .--," iit I ·h· " 1... . _. idei ·,ti.£:, ...11 ~I -h-' ... ,-, ,I .-,' ·d·· ·t"' ~111

o. . "e I a "" :,leI Ii y.pe 0" ILa '. um. -.S .. ave ueen. ],"Ie n ju.'f~u ~ .. oweve.r., .]lew ,,' ,Ie .alJJ!

are available,

"N'" ,,' n:··..;ii, ~ U' -;- ,Ii!"

'. '.1 1····"· I .", IiiIII! . '~ ... ' .~'. . [ r= II . .' 'I' I " :'~'" '.: I

.. on. ,I.VISmOn ruts

'. '11 1 bri d -k iii 'I.. II T'h- - 11 h

Several cava ry' mgade tank umts are .l1now:n t.o exist, - _ .ne total stren,gtl_1

of a unit of this type is approximately 3,30", and estimated armament Includes

3q~ .( .. _, C:i1"1)" lieht 't"· .. 'k- . "5~O:- "'"t!I.",,, ~-. ad carbir ".", ·,,·,· r id 1j ·'·.If· .: ~c E:- ich unit

.,) . or c£,,{, lLlg .. 1l. ,ans" ~ .s;: e- nu~~ all. , Citro lnes,,' a,n_ _c.' p.I.S·~.Q.ilS,. act unn

'L. II!... d ~ h ...... ," -) ~' r" !!l'n. )., l k 'I!'

nas a. headquarters wrth a tota perscnnei 10, 31y; two IgI11 tan ~ compames

each with a personnel Df .1 ,g,O; and a. train 'wiili an aggregate personnel 0 f 60 officers, and en~ist,~.d men, apportioned to ammunition and chemical war ... , fa,re materiel sections with .3. .. reserve of six .ligh·t tanks, Ea!ch constituent

. $00 oftb~€I"G rum. enJ1st.ed men I~~~~ •• J : 33 {~r 2'~ JJr.bt ~,

. :~50 rrtnea and -c;ublne:s lJl .' .'

tao men.

Am~un1t1Qll uill:D

111.,.···ul!a'JIJ:.LI~iIIi!!. ~\e mRted.e:Jl 6; ::re~' tl'i[,t.

5

cempan y to,t' the cavalry br,i,Etad.'e tank. unit has three light tank platoons, and,

- 'I!

a tram,

Independent Tank U ruts,

T,Le J" ~P( anese (,fllIs,o ha ve Independent .tank groups, ,A tank :~ou.'p," has. a

, _ _ I 1 ..,~ 1Ei1&. , .

tIQ'tal_ ~tr,c!\gth ~i ~~proxi~~at~iY~2,5QII) officers -and enlisted men and is com-

manded by a major ~~~~t}fa~ .• ?, ~~h-tank gIiOl,ll,P consists o,f a headquarters, three regiments l' and -a train. H,ead,q,'uarte;rs has a total personnel of 6, 1 ~ while each of the three constituent regiments has 600'" In addition t-o th'~81: uni (3 the re are a tan k signal. u nit, a tank g,rou,p engineer unit, and a main III tenance materiel depot, T!lC 't.W1};;, group is equipped with 10 li,g'ht tanks and 13~51 o.f the rned ium type t A'I though no' tond usive j:nfo rma cion is, aV3 Ilable, artillery units presumably would be Included or attached to the gro;u.p~

, ~ ~ , • ,ot: • .. '-'

J t i s possible tha t some . .g~' these tank groups were. used as 31 nucleus aroun d

W''L ~ ~'t: tri a! 'n V 'ill 1 Il;;!II r d·· 1" 'I"~; D: ~'lI"Il~ 'I,;U'a:ra. -r\~-n; zed

l~j ~J &1~Jl~' ~~" 1~~'I\~~n Iw,ll~ .',., y ~i>-JlU~'.i~ ':n'lbJ 1Ij:...r. • !ILII!: -o~' ... tI ~u. ~ ,~

~ ~ 1I""P1[IIiU"t' h n~ ~f1"d~~d· ent ta n ':-k" ''''''Dg-c-im-iDn'tco has b' iCi~'n renorted frn - m 5'10"0' t'n

~"IL~~ dl!.~ ,,_, __ vi &,. : .. ' I~F-~i.jj.,';·:"~ "IL, . 'a~, ' .. ~li".I.·'. II. I"I~~; _~'j ~~a~ ~· .. LJL..11 .&~J~.:. ·Il~'_;._ i" 1.~_lL.~, ",. .rt I Wi

IBOO,. One recently stud ied. was divid~ e~d ]rl'l:0 three companies and a. comba t train" Each campa'oj! had three medium lank platoons, equipped with five n,~"nk;, each; and a Ii,g,ht, tank platoon whic.h had four ]jght tanks, Total C ornpa ny tank stren.gth aggregated six light and 16 rnediu rn taflks~ The whole regiment had 21 li.s~ht tanks, 49 medium tanks, WId III reSCI'V'e of 6 :light and. l 5 me dium tanks,

Sometimes the light: tanks are assembled 'into one co,mp,ally', making a fourth or light tank ~omp\3ny.~

A va ri ant bas been reported with 700 officers ,flll.d enlisted. men, and a total of 60 tanks" The light tank co:tnpa,ny had ten tanks, while each

,DWEPBNDBNT TANX: amwlIBT 500 1.0, ,Bla off'l'c,e:rs ,atW emlsted. m.'en'

, ,21 Ught, tmka· plu 6 :reserve

4'9 ~ '~plus 15 r~8e",e

I

~UART!!BS : 1 m~ tk ,,"~'

3 'It,Um

II

'I'

li.fOil'fl;;nr· ;!(,'tM""'6U'i4,.I, I

, I

COMBAT

tmm:'

! f;g ~ i& li"IIf"'iI,TT A 'D", ~~,f'!I

I~~.,W~&~

:2 it tks

'''1 mC-,' ',.........:i, 4,11 ....

l.£ .-~:~

I

C'n .. '~AT 'UMrJLD' . I.

I TRAiN

nLA····~,""'t' j.F', . ..l!!;.~.;!I,'!I1 l-

S moo, tits:

P'LA' TOO" - ')1'-:

, .' I '

" . - ." - . '_ ," ," .. ",

I) med tks

· ..... T ilT·'O~1' r·~~,·· .~ ...

B m.'oo. 'tim,

. I ,PLJ.lTOQ.N II

'',It tks

6

- 'Ij'lJi.,1fi'n t;"'rrl Ec lID' ..' 'C'''L Tm T- A. 'itTV"' R': 'D'/"'i 1"1. ~~."rI!'Il"I"!i,

Jil~ lUI ,l.:.l~ . ' .. ~ ~ ~ , .n.J.'1,J'l!" _ ~ ,_~.u,Ji. G\l''!!!1 .L

Lt Tk Co ~l~O'1 ~

,,", ~ I

,I Hql(lQ) I

II

)d,ed T,k C'o 1(1121

H· {"Z-'6':-')'"

,-. q', :';,_,."

- I

-i~iiiiiiiii&...-~

1 Plat (',1'0).'

, I,

J

II

Iii

Train (42).

,PI, ~ (10)

III

11-

II

Mted Tk Co (112)1 Hq (26)1

I 'M1edl T,k C"o (,1.121)

~ Hq (:2,6)

II

T'iI""lil:!Jli'fJ"ij (':A! '] .... ). ,

i& ~,L~, "1

Plat (13)

-, - I

, ,

I 3d sec, l.Q) I 4'tb sec, 1(110~1

l(:ammurution see) I (fIl'el sec)

- ,I

, l,st see t13]1

, lfOrw'ard. sec,),

2d, sec, (1.5) (repair sec)

I

Mad Tk (4) I ,Med T,t (4)

,

,~--~~)

I )J[ed Tk (4,)

II

medium, tank co.mp~yw,a.s equipped with ten medium and tW'D light tanks, T,I,·ft remalning tanks w1ere assigned. to headquarters. units and the reserve,

A f ;I d ,- derr .. - . L~ h'" h if f' . 'j" -1:

_=onr-com,pany I '_! c,p.en' ent re,gl • n ent, about w icr In. ormation IS avai ..

able, had a total strength of 601.], with 75 authorized for headquarters, 90 to

. h JI'~ h k d 1 'I il h f" th . .J'! -

tne ug .. tt tan . company an: ::.:~ to eacn or t re i: iree medium tank. com-

Po'l.'fi.iI!DClI T- - b' . - )" ·.···1 EiI!, .,l, I tra "". " had .~ tot - '( _, ,._ .... , .. '-.' 1·· 'f 'lII10' O~· Th- . ,"'. ~-= .. j' - ...... ,.

r.u.lI!!..-Qi " . e ,rcglmen~alL ra1,n au a __ ._a, penonne 0, JIL., ;0 • e prlmalj

~-,: '., .. -.'l' "'. t " ··f· th '(' ." ,~- ,,' ',-,~ t .-. 1'- --I .' c" ... - d· - '1:],12 11"1 ah t ... ,' d 4.' 5" '. ·-·· ..... .JI·-'-I - , 't· ...... 1-.\ ...

armament o .. ae regimen compnsec ,~;JI .lLtg, I anc .... meamm ranss.

COlmplany 01 ganization

Each company, in addition to headquarters, had three platoons and a company' train, The platoon, in addition to the lieutenant in command, had three sections ; the train had tW'IO repair sections, an ammunition sectkn " and a fuel section,

The company was commanded by a captain and each of the three platoons was under a lieut·enant. There were also a warrant officer land 29 noneommissioned officers... Tile strength of the medium tank company 'was 112; in the light 'tan ~~ company it '\VaS only 90. The medium tank company was equipped \!\1'"ith two ligh.t tanks and ten medium tanks, There were fOtlf' radio, sets" lone lor the com.pany commander and one Ior each platoon leader's tank. It also had 151 trucks, two passenger cars, and lone motorcycle,

Armam,ent totals were:

Mode197 (193') 5,7-·mm. tank guniS; .-_~.~~. ~~~ ~~_~~ 10

,M'Ddc19f (.1934) 3, .. mm_ tank guns -.-'----==----~-==~-~___ 2'

-': odel 97 (),'9;,3 7) '1 " 7 -mm 'tank maehine gu ns -----~-~= ~ :2'8

M',ode138 (1'905) '6,.5~:mm carbines "'"--, ~_~ . ~__ i8;4

,Pis'loms _,_~ ~_~_ ~ __ , __ ~, __ , =~==~ -..~ .... ~= =~_______ 4

BaYOlmets __ ... _==~~__ ~ ~ . _ .. __ . __ ~, ~""'~ ~= i 0'

A ,i! th f '.. 'I' 'II' - h- nk oo:mpan,y In '," e .. our .. ·comp,a'ny regiment carries U1 rts train en,o,u,g .. i tar I .. '.

fUle) for seven days, A mS, .. day Iubricating oil supply is carried, while a four: ...

da 't"'Iri'111 f ... ~ d I b ,..,~ III Ior : ,- .. 1Ii l~~k ,..

Y sUPrY 0'_. gasonne anr ,U mcatmg 011 ror transport ve . cies .]1 JeWlse

normally is Included, Ordinary rations. suft'ic.ie:nt for five days. are carried, as well as a five-day supply of emerge -,c,y rations ..

T:ank'ette Companies

Tankettes are widely' 'u~ed by the Japanese Army' for reconnaissance as well as for other purposes. There are two types of indepe dent tankette

,- !@>''"'!III"'P . rding to JIO'p·'-;!!'!!I;n·.o,;m;,a design natio n t' ermed "armored vehicl

cDm,paml~s, ,~O"" - .1lJl.i~. .-' .,.101.1, \CI., . ,-";:I!IJ,,.. . _'_,I "JI.!!!, , _~ _ '.I .. " '. ~ " '.' C_...iL _I."" ... · . _. '_, " .. -.Ill . t:

"lip. d' '1· -h' d hi 1- .,' S" f kl

companies" ,aD'c_lg't 3_Dn'0f1e-·_ ve - c e cc~panJes:, .: 0' .1 ar 2:3, known,

the only distinetion between 'the tWOI types is in the model of tankette 'with which they are equipped,

The m,ganization. of the two types is the same, Each company' has ,3, headquarters with a. total 'personnel of 30, and is organlzed into 10 tr platoons each ·with ill. strength of nine. Eacll·,p,la.toon comprises four sections, each of

8

which is equipped with lone tankette and a light armored trailer, Total strength, of the eompany is. 12', of whic 55 are allotted 'to the company train. If the company is, equipped \vi"lh. a Type 98 (i 933) tankette, O.Jr' a later model, the strength of the company apparently is increased to 13itt A total Df 7 tankettes is allotted to the company,

It. is il1teresting to note the inclusion of' the tracked trailers wlllciJl may indica te that the units are used for tactical S11 pply purposes as well :L~ fo r combat and reconnaissance. Each platoon has an enlisted man specially trained in chemical warfare, while the personnel of the comp~,ny tram inclu.des a noncommissioned officer and two enlisted men with such u·;aining' ..

In, addition to independent tankette companies there are infantry group tankette comnanies - f .hich I"i" least nine ~''iiile:- kno '!ii .... 1l"'Y'ii to be o··p.o.ra· tive

,~.&~ 'i6,' . IlL IIL. .. tI. I~' _. _];II......t~", 0, \;\1 ~_l I JIi. a.~ c._' """.:<, r: ,._. .a...:._..".',yl!' &'.1. u.!",,- . , ''Ii.,: _&. .' ' ..

Companies of' this type have a lleadqu31rters with a total personnel of' 20~ There are three platoons, e~ch with a total strength of 10~ and a train 'w'ith trn authorized personnel of 30,~ Each platoon is organized into three

ill

S ec nons,

The total strength of the company is estimated at 80~ 'Ten tankr ttes are ano,tted, and s,upple.mC'n·~:r armament includes 50 rifles and carbines and

201 pisto Is"

19

CHAPTER II. Tactics

General Doctrine

Although the .AlIied. armies. have had relatively litt c experience with japane"e tank units in the current war, there is considerable evidence that the japanese will use: large_ armored units 'w.htmL the terrain permits their effective lOp eration, I t fila Y' 'be expe cted ~ also, that le sso ns learn ed from the European and North, African war theaters ,"~'in exercise an influence on their armored tac tics,

In combat with Allied forces the Ja,p'anese have utilized light and medium tanks, as well as tan kettes, in s u PP ort of infantry in, direct fron tal attacks, After 'the infantry reached their objective the tanks, were withdrawn without attempting to exploit the Iimited gains, III A1a]aya tanks were brought up wherever the infantry was unable to advance, The tanks normally attem pte d to Iorce a passage Ior the in fall try 'by a I ron tal assault ~ If this railed" 'the tanks were Sl;"D', ,against, the hostile fiank:S'i' On occasion, however, Japane.~,e tanks have attacked. 'by moving' directly down roads

lO

with, the infantry following in trucks, Unless effective road blocks were prepared 'by Allied forces" the tanks s truck at artillery and other installations as much as 8 'to 10 miles .in the rear of the main, Allied positions, When a road block, was encountered, fire from the tanks was 'used to ge,t .z1TOlU1,d the flanks by infiltration tactics. Only a very few operations have involved Allied tanks directly against J aprul,lf!.se armored vehicles,

Large Armored Formations

No large: commitments of japPJ]Ese ta .. nks have occurred thus far outside the Chinese theater. Tactical studies in a Ja",pan;(~sc ,anny tank. school .. however, give precise ins true tions for the employment of large armored formations, F or an attack on, a lightly held enemy posi tion, J apanese doctrine maintains that a minimum of 30 to 4.0 tanks are required, If the cnclu.y is in a strongly defended position, it ]S stated that: at least 60 will be needed, and this number 'wn] be incre ased to 100 in the even t hostile artillery shelling and aerial bombing are unusually heavy. The number 'Of 1::1 nks ass; gned to' regimen ts in, some cases, at Ieas t, has 'been, inereas ed,

.. : ...... : . ~": :: . "-._ - .

. .

with 15 being allo cared ItO a platoon in stead of ten as formerl y was the practice, Yet tanks W ould seem to be an, ideal 'V'r'~eap on, for the J apanese in the envelopment maneuvers that are so favored in their tactical doctrine and practice, \;V'here the terrain is favorable it can 'be. anticipated that 'th:cy' \t\~in utilize t81lUtS, in wid e encircling movements 'to cut hostile _lines of communications and strike at vital rear areas,

Japanc,~,c tactical doctrine stresses the utilization of. tanks in, 'what Is termed a "mobile mass," In operations in which. they are committed in,

11

such a, ,(,'a:sm1on tanks eenstitute the main fire element in what is essen tially an attempt to attain a decisive victery in one stroke, The Jap:Ulesle believe tha:t such 'tank tactics c-an be resorted 'to only in s uitable terrain and that the n,a:'ut,e of the ten,wD reany is the chief limitation, upon {he employment of large tank formations, In any event, tanks are committed as a "mobile mass" only at "a momentous, time and 'place when a, decision of the entire ,a'nJ],Y is, i; balance," If these conditions prevail, Japanese doctrine maintJl,in~ that 'tile I,QSS, of even the entire combat 'po~'Cr of' the tanks 'M,B be jus.tified in view' of the magnitude of the results achieved,

Inherent weaknesses and disadvantages or tanks are recognized by the:

J,a:p~n.e~e',., Yet the great advantages of tanks-c-high mobility, great offensive and fire powel"j as WICU, as the pow"er 'to crush and penetrate-e-cannct be found to a comparable degree in other -~"eapons) ann 'the Japallese

" ,i, L -h ~- '"ll be rl . -s b ...l ....... _,

r8co,gn'lzJ~u~at t, e tank 'WL,_· 'e used to an In,Cf\ea~lng extent 'lJ' modern

armies,

. t follows, 2u:cording to ,Japanese reasoning'} 'that when. the objective

'b~ to secure a, decision 'by armored operations alone tanks should not be commijted in a piecemeal fashion ~ and should never be 'used in a struggle or attrition. Atbest, tanks require' extensive maintenance facilities ; dam ..

d 1 ~ 'b 11 ~Jll b d - - ·11 . b th f'

,a"g,e ani oss In rom at norma ll'Y' wui I. e severe, an, :repl,acement bot .... ot

equipment and personnel is di"tlicumt.,

Ideally ~ tanks employed in ~~ mobile mass" should he directed aga.inst weak spots in. the enemy's Iines, accord i"ng to Japanese doc trine, W'ith the

'I iI I 'fE"'!l f anti k h ich th

eon stan tly 1 ncre aSJ.ll,g e lcmeney 0: an n tan .... gu,n s, \V '1 '. tri rea ten s 'to over-

balance compensating improvements In tank armor, the element of surprise be-comes e.ro,g'res'~ivel'Y more important. A Jap'anesJe_ tactical treatise S:ly,[j that, "'the essence of tank warfare is to 'take the ene'my by surprise and assault 'him suddenly with concentrated power." .. Antitank weapons, however, are considered intrinsically defensive; the Japan,ese believe tanks are the only ground weapon truly C,2i pable of effectiveJy oppo~jng tanks" The airplane is becoming fhe tank's greatest en.emy~ according to the Japa'nl~Be~ necessitating important changes in, the design of armored vehicles. Opportunities for plane-tank cooperatien, however, are most promising, and J apanese taycticallAlri!l:.in,gl~ speak almost ecsta ticaUy of the prospect 0'£ gainin g crushing victories with, huge tank forces operating' under the C()v1e.rage 0,£

'il'! iii, ... " '!Jjj"~,r on. f pl "'}n- - AI" [0 W·O~-J.!I, 1-~' Iy' I ." .llB " Ibt! ..

Tanks in Infantry Support

Despite J apanesc appreciation '0£' the potentialities of mass employment of' tanks, the i n Iantry support r-ole doubtless w,ill continue to be emphasized, alf;~ct;ing not only tank 'tactics, bu .. t also the design of tank, materiel, ,Al,;o 'th.ouJJh J ap,anese tanks, do :n.o;t compare unfavorably with armored vehicles used by the Allies, in their speed-weight ratios, they lose speed more ap':p(re"'" eiab,I~1' on c1foss""eou'ntry runs, Japanese tanks, aile bulkier in ,pEo'portio';' to

],2

,',

\\Jhen, t'he ,infantry attacks, imme,diate'Iy' after aitillezy preparatory fiFe" the

*,-11"" ~.-;/", ~'d' h-" I" ,-, '~' 1," ,,," ',' '-'f:-..::m ",' --~ ,- ,- 'd"'· r"- -, -u' ti '- th, .. , , "t- '" t'lI'] , ,,' ,t

Ilj,anJ1L!S Sil1JDUl!.l',,_. nave a ,~lne 0, oeparrure an " a ,Ju,WP'''OI]( nme rna -, "ilL nOI-,

interfere with the: consummation of 'the artillery plan or the full realiaation

f · iii ~... 1L Jl.'L • f Th ~- f"" f ~'..Ji~il ~1~11 c

0' rts potentrahties by the mtantry. : .t e ~nger' 0 - :'tl'ffiDJU,Y' arb .. j(ery nre

~"I] b - ..1II= "!'!I.g rd ed he- ~ 1!7iI, - if it become £ J ., ..... l. .._

Wl r ne UJl!Sr'~:.ur.- '~","w~V'~r, "'.1 necomes nece~:sary lor, apa:r.i:f',g.e tanxs IWI

h I def b!" iI , ,', .... L,,~ ';; .£!III t, 1 ... ~ h " d-)

overw . e m r. erense capatnhties OD,UR:; enemy's I-JU,anl(S 'Wnmc,_ -~ unex pectec ._ y

b 1 d- '1Afh "h';;' ill ~ h r,

rna Y' e. reveaiec. "" , acre t , .•. ere 19 no ,arb., ,ery 'prep a ran ll;n" 't 'e, tarnik:s,

o rdinarily initiate their attack immediately 1Ll pan ,the completion of the preparatory phase of the infantry attack,

T· ·11...- tt -' .·1.,,.. ..... - ~-- .. f:· - t"'''- -c " t, .. - _1,_- " - .'. ""'=,,--j; ...... d b'-" ,"-' ..... ~.,- '~- - ,~, " , , -

- aDK a a'C~j or In 'an irY a .L~8 g,upporu:;;! ,1' . aUAS, sometimes are

facilitated 'by the assignment of 'special e:ngin,eer parties to cooperate 'with . -,-"" red -ehicles Personnel of th ~!i:"~ enzineer partie ",-', '-, ial] t -~- d

,armo:re,~ VL .I,h_ ... ~,,' .. lL,. ;:nJ!' . .iLUiIA.,· y .. , ·,~O'-"~·. b .... ,,,-,,Lo ,,31 lesl, a.re e~,pecla JJy ,tame.·

~ - th ,t", , 'h- - ~ - '.' .. f d "C. " .. 1, .. '.1..: ..... =- 't- ~n 1'., t- -- =" - .- d nh - -ll-..-il- ..... cl - ,- --ill'-" h

m 11l.·. e uf C " InJ'q_u,es or ! '., _,emO~1~.IlJ1JJ[1"g ,iiLIl,I,l\. - ir3"PS an . 0 I . ~ =e [ oosta - es W n C '-,

could hinder the advance either of the tanks 0.1' of tank-su pported infantry iii;

In one observed instance an engineer p'arty consisted of a. leader and

til ....JI .. h ',' 2'2~ d f- '~I ~ Il~ d ~ h-

ve 'men> equ.lppien wrtr .1.,,'.~ poun.,~ ot exp~.osllves> a smoae rnsei larger~

" :,'" .. 1 .... , 'h'" ," " ,'i,,, ':" id , .... ,.. ;-~ t .,'~' E' ''', thl-' , ,. c~ " i -"'", 1" ",' id ""-,,, t, -: ", ~, ,+, c-" ",' ' .. ' , ", ~ ..,...::'-"...1

p~t,;:J\s~.s overs anc OUter I~OOllS!! ·0 __ ,per~onn.e an. eqtn.pmen ~ were carneo

on the outside of two tanks, These tanks stopped about 'EO 'yards £r0111. an obstacle to permit the men to dismount and unload their equipment As

hi ] Ii h d .. L k ~ d ,~ Ii b 50'

soon as t ~1~ was acr.nm,p :~S;J~~<~t.n.'e tanks re1Jl'f'e, , to a :P03If,io:n. about '''~

yards, to. the rear, and with tank-gun and machine-gun fire covered 'the

IQ!n' 'g- '1' IIl;iEJ,,,a v -p--'~' Trilhl j" 'l:Ji r'h,'· ..... h in I th p, m D~, i""" time 1... ~ ,d~- 'b4gu':"': n its d ern 'O-l111i tion , ",I:" B'v th ~~

l~_', -r--ll 'IL.-'lL-j, ... a.J_~J'1- "-Y_" ,,~~. __ "," t __ .~ _~ L~Q..!JJ ..• , __ ll, ,I·.L .f),a; ... !Lr..::. _" .. JL.t!ii u,,~ ... , .. _" J. W. . __ '~I!! l~ _" 11:1

, , __ 1.." h J t b - -I ,', - h - d'l ,- - - d - "]

techmque t :. e .. ,apa'nese exp1ec· -' 0 •• stac es to .e, __ estroye"·, prompt y",

Orders and Objectives

The J ap1a[)ICSlC Army lays stress u:po:n precise orders and ,clea;rly' sp'Ecified objectives in actions involving tank ... inJantry cooperation" If tanks are attached to an .in.fantry battalion they ,\!\rj,U be under the battalion cornmander's control, Co'm,pany commanders, nevertheless, are expected to maintain, H,~i~on, with 'the tank, commander to. facilitate effective cooperation and to expedite ,prompt exploitation b,y the infantry of such ,S uccesses 3;8 the tanks may achieve,

'he infantry battalion commander's orders to tbe tank unit under b:is control Include a statement ef h.is plan as a whole, Tank objeciti,ves, ar'e

;ro'P" ecif ed cl- a,i]ji""] V JIi"ii '""" d +:L.~ ob IIl't",O!Ij '""")- D.o::" 'W' 'h- ieh ·th-' ,," '.c.·v ;g 1I!"\C expected to rem - ii"'ioiFI~ 11~11 __ ,

.:) . IC. lllJ.lL.I! ... .:. : - .::}\",_"Q} I! J~' ~'"lI~.I,··..l ~.~-.~~ . .1 , . ~'" J dllL-.H !Ii ... i:I! .... ', ,.!IL~· I L j' a .... \oJ LA· I, 'l...!~ \...! I.,., ''\-I '[,!G.1:: I ,I~~'li!i) ~ .~

wis'e a,re d.esignat~d" A~5e:m])'I'Y ,areas" line of de.parture., ,and," H -bo,m ar'c 5tipnhlt'ed., 3'nd th,e me:th,ods the ucDks will u!'-c: in crosling th'e line (3,f t'hel:r infantry also. ;j~rre prescribed .. ,

'To en,ab.I'e th,e 'battal\ion :(jomma;nder to .assign o'bjectd,ves as, :pr,eci~ely M po-ss.ible_" c~om.'p"any oom'ma'nders fJ!re expected to in£on~n ,hjm about the nature a'nd, ]()ca;tion ,of prim ~ry tank, objectives, in, fron.t ,of their se.ctor5~ sum ,as an titat'nk gun$,~ nahlI',aI an,d ,artifi,r;l a~ obsta,-c'~e~,,; en,e;m y he,a;vy 'W'f,(lpo:nSt,,1 etc~,

If there' ,a:re no pri,fllary 't:mk ohjecti,v,es that, ,de'm a n,d imm.ed.:i:ate' attefrn:ion, or their location c.mrto!t be a5certain'f;d~ the tanks may be sent, against the

1.5

---my,4,' !IlII·n11, .. ,,.. 't;!l'ri..,an·· T'~p"i!lbn~,;:!~ ta nks areused in an attaCk, on :bo!tIle flanks ..

ene I ' Dao·.Do. " I.lL.!!..' - J'" llY-~a~ . --".' ". . . . . . " - '- . . - -. - ~

Ih' ,"~, b-- ~t··-talion com'mander" sends infantrv with them in a ooord'in,at-ed assault"

'1,~!~i!RJ~··.1 .... " .. ~., ... '.' .. 1,.1,,' .. ', ""--'--' ''''') .:-...... ,', i' - , .... ' -, -';

The infa:n,tty aIm are, assigned the t~, of lR,op:p,n,g 'u,p pockets of enemy

re!u'tance that survive the initial attatk~ These infan try' units assigned to cooperate wit'h the 'tanks! l),nDn,a.rlly are' drawn from the forward companies opposite the Ran!, or flanks a.gainst, wInch, the assault is made ..

In attacks on hostile flanks_; Japanes1e doctrine directs; the Infantry battal 'I· no com "- man d: er to con eentrate the J::1 __ p··· llfi"'liil.!N3I,1I'" un ." ,cl··· ex his. command ag" 'ainst

L~'ll'\.\I! [' '--' .~ ,_._,I,~ ,I, ~~ . V '\.iiV'~~~~~~,~., U. .' 11lTC ur~r~ . -.:_ ._',_ J j • _- - _. -. ',-, _-_ -- -

- - - - . -

enemy antitank \\~a~ns~ If necessary) details are, sent. forward to clear a

~ _. . - has anti ·llr.

passage for 'the ta;nk'$ through areas, where t'h~ en,emy nas antitank weapons

emplaoe,d or can be expected to have' them, J apa'n,'ese: doctrine emphasises the pri,Qciple that Infantry should cover the t_ ks and, 'protect: them against

. ',""III] .,.J~ =..l '" 'h ,Il

antitank fire, Yet their orders on, Gqad,a1cana._ directed ,Jn~t, t.e OpposIte,

procedure, There the 'tanks were sent again.8t hostile antitank we a.,pon s,

d h .. ] d - ".,_,.,Ni!:i;A

an every ven iere 'wai I_I esti UJ~ii'

, "

Details of J apanese tank tactics are avail able in several tactical treatises ..

The tank regiment when advancing, according to J ap,anes,e doctrine, will have a.. fr,o,nta,ge' oif 500 M ,5,50 yards. A patrol of tankettes is sent ahead f:or reconnaissance purposes" fon,owed by "a direct guard", consisting of a Ugh,t tank platoon u'tilbed to develop, ene'my positions preparatory to the assault, R,egim,'e:ntal headquarters Iollows the "direct guard." (advt1'nce guard,) f and after it comes a forward platoon of' light lor' medium tanks to deal with enemy antitank weapons that. may open fire, The main body then fo,lmows 'with the remainder of the company which furnishes the direct ,guard, and forward platoons, flanked on each side 'by a tank romp,any., .,. he: fourth company of a four-company regi1nent brings IIp the rear,

A, medium tank company on the march win form a column 915 yards long';' a Im.gh.t 'tan.1t company, one 0'-( 5:25 y:ard,5~ The platoons are drawn 'up in diamond, formation, and the company for,rns a diamond, of diamonds, In dJa:pl~y,m.n"g fo.r battle: three platoons ordinarily win draw up abreast, 'wit'h the fourth ju.s,t 'to; the rear of the center' of the line. In special eases, how ... everj, all platoons r:n,ay be deployed abreast.

If the depth 0,' the' enlemy position is estimated to be' approximately ']~425 yards" the Japanese assume that the 'position will 'be defended by at least 2 or 3, antitank ~,ns,) 6 heavy machine go,OS,1 5 mortars, and 9 to' 12 light machine guns;" The front of a Japanese regiment in. an attack on such a pruition will be ,550 'to 875 ,,',ard~j' and. a tank. c,o:mpiUlY will be a.ssIgn,ed to the support or each .infantry' battalion,

The attack is made 'by the tanks in three echelons. The 'fint echelon is, under the: d.i:rec.t eon trol of the tank regiment. commander ~ Its objective: D!

t . tab 1I'""-h . - - - -- 'f"_·- th - - dl, ,'" ;, [-. T"h' ...... 1. f- 'h· .......... L. I

J] estaensr a passag'e '_o"r '. ~_ e ,a~vaDClng mr antry ~ rne tanas 0, t -, IS ecne on

...

deal with enemy antitank ,guns and strong fire, points that have not 'been;

d . t d 'b . t !iJ'II r:.=~_ I-Th- -

,t~s' ,~u:~'.:,. :1' plrepara:oiry a~'b clleJly .lill~,..~,:!ose: that axe 'Ilot' llqui"d3,t~d by'

'the lnlt~al attack ~,ubse)quen,tly are mopped-up by the inf:mlryt, It should 'be noted that this procedure- iSI somewhat different than would, 'M the ICase

I - - - --_. . .. _ - .

jf a smaller number of ta¥s were: involved, I:n a small-scale employment

of _ tanks 't'OI su pport infantry, Japanese, doctrine assigns the liquidation of enemy an .. titank weapons to th,e infantry, rather than to the first tank echelon

'!i th ti ii, k b '. . -

,," . I _,._.",. " ":'. . " .. , .... -- ." :.," 1 'lIIl ,'. -. - [- I

,3."8 rs . e prac ace In an. attack )'1 a regiment OJ[' more of tanks,

, .

The second rank echelon is -under the control of the battalion commander

in. charge of 'the infantry assault wave, Tanks in. this, group :Iead and 'support ,the a, ttacking infantry, pinning down or. liqui.da'ung 'the enemy's automatic .... weapon personnel, The, third tank echelon remains in, reserve under regimental control, The reserves are held to exploit successes that may be wonby the first tv;'o echelons, If a break-through is made by the advance tanks and the infantry, the reserve tanks ''\i\riU proceed ,throu,gh

4- ,. ~'11.,,~ d- 1 j'b11 ,. Ii. L_ ,

It to s trlJ!il; as ' .: e:ep y as p08S1, .. 'Jle into 'UJ.e enemy's rea r a reas ~

Division -8 trength Attack

In an attack of division 8trengt~", Japanese doctrine states, thatthe front. will be about 2: ,'35, yards. Three tank, regiments with a total of ],55 tanks are employed, with 451 to' a regiment, ]5 to a ,complany, and 5 to a platoon, As in the case of an attack, on, a smaller scale, the a rmored vehicles are committed ln three echelons, Two in.fau·try qUnt!!Dbi ,ate deployed In the front. line, and one 'tank company is plac,ed ,consid}f'mb'lly in advance of each of them, The primary mission of 'this, Snt tank eehelen

. _.'-

is .. to neutralise enerny antitank weapons and :n;ron"gpoinu, Dot prev.iousl.y

destroyed 'by artillery fire and, to-clear a path ~or the second echelon, w,hi:ch comprises he major inCan,tcy assault un.i,ts in, a.d:clition, to the,·taub, assiped, '1.0 this echelon,

The second tank, echelon ;'$ de~plo,:ed imm,ediarely in front ,of 'the infantry, -irit.b one oo'm.p,uty in :fFont of each of the fo:ur ba:tta]lofts~; Ii: :~OVles .4-00 to 500 yards behind the first echelon, and its mis~ton' is, to cover and 'Iuppo',rt the .in:f·antry' assault with especial attention to the JiqlJ.tida,tjoD of enem

,~ 'If h ~,~ til' d - he- ~,

automatic weapons, ,~.' ~ t ,-.e sl.'lua~on w,arra~.ts~,:J_e! seeone ecn eion .. ma:,'

"l f ~,. h 'h- th.J!! A· ~ ,t' __ 11~ ot h- ld ,t

~, e'ap'" rog" t .. fOllg '.1 1_ 1 I, '_ unt~ . , ,.. regiment OJ[ 't:a;il&S 18 , .. eJL-, lD, reserve as

the ehlrd echelon under direct control of 'the ,division commander, :primarily for ,erp]~Oritatfon o,~ .. uch success tba.t the ,assault :mav ,ae.hiev1e!, .. It also m_a'Y' 'be used. '~o reinforce any aree req,uir.ing' IU,c,h aid, perhaps] 'by attachment 'to an ,ima'ntry unit"

W'h~n the support of the infantry by the 'tanks must 'be poeption.a]]y close, them are, some important modifications in, Japanese: armored taetlcs, The, tanks are' alloeated to two combat 'uni.'tts~ The- ::6rst com'W 'umt ill iHv.i'ded Into h~rt and right: lo(nnat-i!ons,~ each of whic'h is preceded 'il,' a

_._,.,- .... ,-,1· ... {,'.- l"nhtl- ...... , - '1:--..,- -,-,t~1:"7~dc te -~I,a,V,~'IO'-·p-- ,.,LA ,Aon,~ 'J"ir,(\~'~',t1j.Aft and ,...I _.. w' ".'; the pa ".-y, I)- 1!',&,il,1L ILdID.U U lJ1~ ,,vI U~ ~a. '_~Ull:~ "",,U,J.,;.;...,."''',1 ,r--:QiIi. _- v .. " Q;;Ii;!,l,.. W-I.1. . -~.

jfi- re n'f ·Lt.1!! an: :,. ti ~''''''''FIi'k'·: ·'UF.pQ'IllY1i (!'

I, _, Vi, ,rULI I '_ . ~JL _ _: T''' ~r'-~--iI!!ri!!I'

1,7

Bod! du~, right and left formations of the first combat unit consist of f:~u,;n~ platoons, drawn, up in two. columns, each of two. platoons, T~lle two front pmatoons advance with the Infantry; the two rear platoons are used to g"l;lmg' around the flanks o.r the two Ieading platoons to eng'age en-em,y antitank w'e-a,pons,a.s soon as the location of them is ascertained, A platoon of engineers fV'lmov~rs the first combat unit, ThJ~ second combat: unit Iron, .. sists or two 'tank platoons, assigned the mission of liquidating the enemy's automatic weapons W'" hich '1- survive the first echelon assault, and a rese rve

1£1O!bl!!, :_ ,tJ, iI,I,.:il _..... ' ,', ;,;II _" ,1:,Ui., "" ,~, ~ _. _ . -_ ' ,lL".-.lL -, . ';;:';;!J~ . '" '-. -_. , _ _ '1;;.-1) " -' ~ ..

- ,

The reserve may be used to provide necessary reinforcements 01" to exploit

success,

Special, Tactical Situations

... dt. dawn attack is really a night manecves fm" J a,pa(r:u:ese tanks, which normally 'will proceed to their line of departure under cover of darkness guided 'by' noncommissioned officers especially trained in, tank tac tics.

Th I t ji d · th mai h ~ h I I I,.o;rougll preparauon IS mace, with major E'II1P ,~,aS1S, upon. tne removar I) ~

'In at "'1'¥"":Jl O'I'Ij"'1 artif "';0;.:1 'I: ob . oi:"iI-~j:j""'~IiC->.!J' ~'O th jC'.I a' d' 'uo:'JJ nee 0' '-,f tl ae tan k \,j o r the p' rovi .... ;'~· .. n

JI ,i.lfJI,. 'LiL£ I~ '. ~ I~~~ . ,_J1lIllJJl·UrJ VI _", ~ 1rL4~.wl~iillIl L . _" I 1!W ... _ -T' -UilLlIL. ,~, ". J •••• u·· ~l,....w. -l,&~. ,'[ IV y' . ,~l!& u .

Fign rt I 2 .'~~Vod el .95 (193$) l':~~,h.l rank (Ifl,er rengagin,g U, SL ,_;iJd·t medi'Ur,~ ,ia'nks on the , .. 4gr.1 n.tl.=,Pi ti R'fJlf_d~ GUG m .1.1i<la.:tJll.

Fig'uTe ,1,1.-- ,ReI1T i}ie~'E) oj tioo J~!.p'~~rujJe M ode] 95 (1935} ,l~_ght tanks kr!'~ ek« d ,tt)'ul' b" U" S" M 4- 11:l e d:; 1-1 In t ari K,.'i 10 n T:l ni fI n. ,N ~ [,8' t J~I7; ~} (J od ~-n ~1'''.ill !'1ULdl'l1 i'M:'O'l!l b Q xes (nHi the' sooodet: carrie 11 buiU ·on the 'r,ear e'nd.

of facilities for their evasion. Arrangements .ar'e completed well in advance for 'the exact procedure to be followed when the Iapa-nlese tanks c '1 e ap, ,- froz' 'tile in fan trv line p rep_., aratorv to spearheading the a ttack,

,~ ~ , ~ , , -

Preparation for a night attack, according to Japanl:'~'~ principles, is even

more elaborate an d inclusive than it ,i~ for dawn at .acks, As, 'ma,ny as a platoon of tanks may 'be assigned to one infantry company for night attacks, Tank objective s will .in elude the heavv weapons 0,( the cnemys first line

~, -

of defense, obstacles, and flank defenses, T1J1Le obj ectives preferably are

designated SD as to permit the tanks to move to. their d eparture Iine by

d- 1" h 1- b ~ f ~11"" k thi ,;, d'

ay 19, rt, un ess enemy observanon tacrtmes maxe .:'.' HIi, inexpedient,

The Japanese fee: that pursuit affords the best npportunity to exploit

-.~ .

t hie a dvan tages of tan k s to the full, ~ t i~ consi d e re d nece 55 ary to arr a,:nge

maintenance and g,up.~.'p.·. lv facilities, carefullv so' that continuitv 0:£ pursuit

!' .. ~ l' . ,

m,ay be facilitated. Clear objectives should be selected, and la,paolesle

.. '1!.. - .. ~,.. -' d ", , - t·· .. ·d ," -. -, . -- ed .' .-- .' .. ~~ the . -..JI.,- . ,f.. I . . - . sibl

tank units are « rrectec Il..O p;rocee, ag,al.n,",1J. ~ ese as ulrecuy as possa.lll'e

- - d' I' - - f I - .. . p - - .~' - . h . . 1 d "11 - - . ... _. ~., -' . ~ . - d da -" . - - Me,

• ,",", ,. "",'" " ",.',"'.-, I ", ._"'. ",,,," 1 "'1 ., II .,. --'.- -." a "." I _" "-:- . ,

I e_ga r. . e'5:S 0 I asses ~ _, u rsUl t 5 __ OIl '.. ~ e unre flU!. ttlU,g an _ au a C~ ous,. ev en. II

only one tank survives tOI complete the mission.

'Tank operations, according to Japanese tactical .pl"inciples~1 are not con .... ducted with the pu:rpose of ,pl'e,ci,p,itatlng tank-versus-tank engagements.

:1'9

N h 11 '" .. .' d 1'1 ,i d ch b -

evert neress, m op .rations against a, modern, wel , .. equlppe._ army ,SU,!.·,· ~· .. at-

ties we regarded as inevitable, {Dr~, acoolrdin,g to the J a .. p~ nese 'v. iew ~ the tank. in, the last analysis is ,th.e only ground weapon capable of successfully oppn.ing tanks. Consequently, Japan,ese tank commanders are directed to

b . ~ w"' ~ b .) s- 1 d- hi '1

e In constant rea mess to engage In 'att e with enemy armorer ve : rcies i

Strive for Initiative

The most important necessity for success in tank-versus-tank engagements is the constant retention of the initiative, the J apanese be] ieve, Al eft fore·igh .. t, quick commands, firm determination, and, cohesive organiza ion. are the factor. that alf gedly will enable the J ap,a'=_ese tank commander to retain the initiative and thus ga.,in a decisive victory, japanese tank units are lex ,J~ted to, proceed on the assumption tha th ' .. Y ,enjoy su periority in a situration where quick decisions are' necessary and are directed to launch :i:m~e= diate attac.k~ against the flanks and rear 0.( the enemy's tank formation. Jap311ese armored unit: \\d11 fight in closely integrated and controlled maneuvers, attempting to destroy enemy vehicles in. detail. The fire of the J a panese tanks, according to prevailing doc trine, will be concen trated up on enemy command and leading tanks,

"Lo .. ···ng .. -'R·· a n Ig-'e R:·· aids'

-1 •. ,I L • -'. '. :~'. I " " -"_, 1_ .J

• I • '

Consi derable attention also is given in J apanese tank doctrines to what are termed "long ... ran,ge raids" which 11.1ay lead to meeting ei gag rnents. On a~loH,g range raid" the advance of the tank regiment is conducted on a front from 325 -0 550 yards, wide. A reconnaissance unit constitutes an advance force and ,j5, assigned the mission of seci ring all available informa ... tion in regard to t .. rrain, routes of advance, ener lly forces and ' heir disposi ...

Pigure l4,.~F ro n~' uiezn ot ivV A-I'nd,t,l 95 (/.935) UglL ,~'anks.~ T 11 ey ap pear t.o. have been Ii.i~: /Tom the rig/a fian k:

tions, and -all other intelligence d1.at may be of use to' the commander' 0.1.1' the advancing tank. regiment, A "direct g'1llard'Jl [advance guard] consistin.g of one tank platoon follows the reconnaissance unit, T-is unit. drives In lig)' it ,enCIIIY units that ma\Y' 'be . mcounten d or develops resistance which subsequently can be dealt with bty the main body,

Regimental headquarters fOUO\<\fS the udi-,"C,ct gual"d'~") and behind this group a tank company advances on a, front of fro:m 55 to 110 yards .. , he. field artillery attached to the tank regiment and t' .·Ie en,gineers unit fo'Uow in parallel columns behind ehc first. tank. co·mp'an.y'.. A tank company Is 0,0 each flank, abreast of the artillery and engineers columns. These com .. ' panies, in the event of a meeting enga,ge'.men.t" can sweep OUi·. a,gain.st the enemy flanks in an [envelopment maneuver, or they :may aid. the lead!'"--'g 'lank ,compa r ny in the speedy destruction of enemy obstacles and antitank weapons. The artillery provides direct fire: support, while the. engineers move ahead. to aid ill the eliminati on of obstacles,

Behind th • line formed 'by the tank companies, the artillery, and the' engine' rs come the infantry, usually motorjzed units.that can deploy quickly for either frontal assault or a holding Iron ·aJ. action and an envelopment 111 an euver,

A second echelon of tanks 'follows the infantry, rt j9 used as a reserve, committed as the tactical situation warran s after the: battle is bl~gun ~ As. in other types of at' aeks, the reserve tanks can be 'Used for ex .. ploitation of pen' trations of tile " nemy lines or to reinforce tank units that. may requir aid in the attorn plishrne nt of' their missions.

In contrast to the "long .. range raids" in.volving at least a tank regiment, similar J apan ese: tank units are employed on wha t are termed "raids" I[ These are undertaken, ofte n lpon the Tlflq u est of infantry commanders, to [cap' .ure terrain features of tactical importance, to confuse the enemy, or

d Ii j, k '"II b d d -h ~

to. cnver surprise attacks on. enemy art ,e.'rt"e.a quarters, [an, ot ner im-

portant installations, Heavy losses of tanks are anticipated on raids of' this nature which therefore should only be undertaken when the potentia] results

. c a(~' just i fy th e loss es that rna y be incurred.

The front of the advance on. such [opera. .ions .is, from 650 to 765 yuds, and tile depth of the fot mation ordjnarily will 'be from, ,44-0 to 1660 yards ~

. he: tanks arc allocated to 'two ,( 'combat units", The firs t combat unit, according to Japa.rn,es·, tank-training literature, is, ; ssigncd ·the. miss ion of liquidating ,enemy antitank l'\o"enpon s, whereas the primary objective of the second combat unit is the destruction or neutralization of hostile auto ...

Emphasis on Offense

Jap[anese tactical doctrine emphasizes the offensive almost exch.1.~'\1'ru)'~~ T- re d. fense is considered to be merely a passing phase in combat du- ing which the ..Japa:n. se 11lUSt assume t] I,e ignurrilnioU8 role of defense because 0.('

21

Figure' 1 j.,~Mo,del 9.~ (1'93'5) light l~lln,l dug in to [ace a bea,ch, on Bn;r,.we'tok. The re,veh?1e.nt is o Jun,]" tv tile 11f~(J.r su lhal the tank may ba,ck.' o"ut+

the "'," - ·h- 1 ""~ - . ~'" "', .' ,~!II t··, ' Lt, • ',IL," T"h" '··b'·',' '''' t " f" d,II, f .', .", b .,'.

, e. overwne mmg supertorrry 0 UlC cn.t;my," .rre 0 'Jec. Oil, e ense IS ee-

lieved to be the depletion of the enemy's strength until such time as the

, II • [Ii • k

apanese carl inmate a counterattacl ..

Since 'he tank is. predominantly an offensive weapon, this factor, take

Ii ~ .. ith h IJ ~ defensi ·

m conju ncnon witr tr e ,g,enera~, a panese views on uerensive tactics, ID'e ans

that practically no attention is pai.d 'to defensive tank tactics. - .n a defensive situation the tanks are '110 be employed for cotmterattack purJln&e~,. They are expected to deliver short, speedy assaults upon the de~ignated. objectives ill close cooperation with artillery, As soon as their mission is accomplished, according to " apanese d()(:trine, they will break off the engagement, .f enemy tanks are present in. superier numbers, 00 nterat .ack ..

_ .

,i J' ..... :Ii.." d .' th · ,I, W '}- .Ii. I .' , ~ k

1n.g. ap,anese tanks try to coon nnate i • elf action, wrt 1 t .. r err antitank-weapons

fire. In recent action the Ja ianesehave dug in their tanks and 'used them defensi' ely as. artillery (U;·, even as antitank 'w1eapo'rur.;".

IC':" ···H··A:······pirT,E··, R·· 1'11" E········,..·:··· .~--,.:-: : ; .. ( _.-.

'.::._'. 1_.,.',1.- _. _' .. 1:..<., _." _." .. q' .. U .. lp men .... ~

- - -

. .

The: first tanks used 'by the Japanese .anny were o:f European manufae-

t 1'1 ',...p B-=,,~ti" sh , ~ n d F' r ~n C·" h d e~' ;'gn-'~ .,., .. ,Are, ~ dop te d' a .. n d V"-,;:J, hicl oI;Io,ro nr od uced by-L ...

·LL.LIi_'ij - .J.M.i!'!I tiQ,..,.' ,.!t.=; __ . " . : Lilli,._:.: ,~I ·n'I.....-.Lc £.l_.!LI!.>.Ii~._ .. _~, .. J .. ~>_I.!.IL.~.~;;J! r U·_, .. JlU· ",

Vickers, C31nien -Lloyd, and. Rennault were used on. a small stale 'hy the japa'ne&e. armed .. forces until domestic manufacture' of armored vehicles was 'bl .c.gu' - . ~1IIi I"' n 1 '02,· :9: S·"~· · -}11i'"" e the i'" on ,r;].. . . "0' .' .. ·f the T· ", .f!.: t . 'p>.'O"" .. t' (2'; 7" ·S:·"·· t·· - 1f.,.. cr'

'~, u . . ; :::J':.' ,,'U_I'!.. !l.". .;..,V '~ LUU.'II 0 '_ . C ,flparLJl)e· . ,ac ~ ... -,' --_ep J[:Ulu

19:4'"·0''' \ IG: '.' ... _. -','.' tar k-' d·' .... , ..... '" ...... , .... tl·· ,. ha . be .. ·· .. ·· ...... ·d··· . ~, .... "11"'lib. 11 , to t.'h-"

""'-~)J' .,ennan rans :. e:ngns a,pparcny navc necn ma e avanaoic -0 me

Japan,esc; and since the Nomonhan incident of 1'93'9 on. the Mongolia" fan ich uria b .. o rd ~¥" Ci oviet c I~q'~ 'U1 'pc m ;;2;,n-·-·1 Iik ;Ell;W, ,,;Itl'e- h ,'OJ,<=' b een avail able for '~··'-ud, \1

.1'l'::1.!L& .. . . - .. a. .. .. ..'I!....1., il'v. ,'L... U:.·· !l .. :., .. L .Ji..] IL_' . ,ill;;, .. 1~.:'lI . !I:.~'!<,... .. ''':'.' . -~.i(.JI.. .• ~.'!L. I '.J!.Ii L! II:. ' }

'by japanese designers. Combat with the forces of the United Nations has, afforded another source for Ideas relative to the design of J a.pauese

k ""r'il.· ,"' '.' d h • t, forei .. ..' 1 1." k

tanks, ._, nere is 110 evidence, .. owever, that oreJl_gn pn,n(;'-l.pes ot tan __ '_:

construction .have' exercised a direct influence on Jap.W1;ese ,design"

Ja,p' anese tanks encountered thus; .fa.r have 'been inferior ·to those utilized

e "

1!..-.~ A" .. :!. - .. rd A····lt~-d' " z, ~. E' ~~,. .. :. --;. ·,·d· Ni th A" ·f:' .•...... T"h'- .. ' , , ' .

U'Y .. XIS ,an·.. .1lle .. arnnes In ,urople an..... ..··e ()fL i ,rIca,., 'elf d,rm.or

was too thin, although of good quality, and. insufficient attention had. been given to the utilization of deflection angles, In lnany cases reentrant ang··· les had. been formed and no effort apparently had been made to p- roteet

_. - - .. ,-' .. .. . - -, .. "..- - . -- .,...._ - .• i· . .. . -- --- ,_ _ - _ - -

tu 1-' et "',., .";'.' "'3 -. tll . t .~ = .. -'1 ~ .• ,t '" a' -., m'" •. - g' ..... splash I~· __ rre . rmgs or m n re _s agams ,I··Il} In, or S .. as '.

No, tanks en COUll tered, with the exception of a nc:g:lig.ibl c number of' heavy vehicles, have been armed with weapons heavier than 57 ... mm gu:n'3,,~

L' ... h k h 0''''' d one vari ii f h -M- ...1 ..... 1 9"'5' f 19- 95-') "lg', t tan, cs nave .. ) J -mm r 'm,; 3.'[}-. one vananon o ,t e 1 .ooer ';. I~.) j1

light tank was armed with a 4i'-mm gun." Machine ,gun,s are mounted both In front and rear, but it is] doubtful if the rear \t\.!~eapon can be foug:ht at the same time as the other armament, AU gUJtS, with the exception

of ·t'l. .~ .11'7'·',_· .-.' . '-, .' d the .-' .:., M···I···d,-'·,,;,l "1 '(·1ig····.411·)· ~3'~-'1 -'1 t>_l:. ,,,-- - '~' ,-

{)I · •• U: T. -fnm. gu." an _ .. te new ,_ O. _e ~~ Jl._ ._.Il ...•. I nun l~aUfi gun,; are

low-velocity weapons, It should be borne .in rnind, on. the other hand, that the development of hollow-charge ammunitlon to some degree will compensate for this disadvantage ..

Cw"W- ~p.,aoe is cramped iII models captured to date and no escap,e' doors

. , ... I li~ ,I' or. ••• - ." J - - - - - r _. -- - - - - , - - _. ... J I .. . . -

, .. -, h: "'" 'h ,; h , ._:: b .. '; - . ~', ':.;-", ... d .... ed Visibilitv h Ii!:!i '" been p' ,"00" -"'r' R.'. ad ~ A ,0,- I' co --;-

,or ._aII".C es . ave,·een Pl'IOVl !O...o- Ii " .iIi.~lI;,.Il . '1;07 ."""OJ. 'Ibo'!;..;-" ," to ! 'a!' Jilu ~q,uru,p

ment has been installed on. an extremely .m'Eag·er basis judged 'by the

.. , -'. ds · .. d of th . :.-- . ····-:1 i"""..J1 forces of .' , ... L .. , . '.;. :'. _: '.

stan am: s 0._ .. e armo ree . orces or o mer armies,

23'·

..

. '.

'("'jfi 'n. .1' A, 'RV A ii)o iI'l't' A 'II ,i!"~'NT r-oI7~[:I~lr~l: ",];. .ml.--..i·~~..l'~- .,1 __

, ~fISOR

~ ~~ri -L p" """1)'T

- _W£V, .t " V....:;';''

S:X'J?UIi. UST l{'lfFFLEA

, -1. b. T C'. n- 6';!"f! !:"

'_ ' ..... 1 #::11 1l-~'l..'.!I"t lI .. d.-!'

'!t::, ~ ~ 'Ii{ W" 'ETC!"~ L ,Q~,~_,_ , ,~~'

"DE'1"'T~""'1' ft- ....,.-' T '1[.;.111[;)"~' n' "A ..i,.~;4 ' :. ~,.)!'..Ll>! if-.;,'!'b,.~);

1

: i. .. . ... ,.,

~~lI'Nn~ iL""'lJl:"'~~_!!:. Y'~

.: _ .. , .......

Improved Models Expected

Despite -fhC8C deficiencies of' earlier models, the design of efficient modern tanks, even heavy types" is not beyond, the capabilities of the J apanese, rrh f il" ith th d "1 t' d G"_' d 11 d h h d

" I,ey are rami lal~' WII,.:, tr e •• ', ctai s 0'1 rna tern I -erman moe CJJ3 an . ave: rae

an n'pportunity to observe. American and British equipment, Limitations on the productive capacity of Japanese industry impose the necessity 'Of freezing tank models in order to attain a reasonably large: volume of ,pro,-, duct ion; N evertheless, it wou I d b,e u,nwi se to assume tha t the J a p,anese do :110t or win not have more effective armo-red, vehicles 'than those encountered to da te i,

!vEuch, heavier armor, or the addition of spaced armor to the 'present a rmor can be expected U1 newer models, To compare with European, and American standards, tile armor of light tanks sho uld be as, JlIUC~l us 40 .. mm thick: that of medium tanks, 7'5~lnrn" Heavy tanks would be expected to have armor 'up to lOO,,,'rum, in thickness, Heavier armor "in each ease l"{Ould be compensated, for normally 'by the installation of wider

tracks to reduce grou'nd 'p:re8'Su,n,:~,.. -

Equipment of medium tanks with a modern, :high=velor;ity gun of at least 75~,mm caliber would be imperative in any prngr;?otm of improving~ Ja:p,anese tank design, and the .installation of coaxially mounted machine guns I ike ... wise can ibe anticipated", Hu11s may be improved by a better employment

,?~':

_""r.

tank found on T~''71.i{HT. " :da.rulJ, ,:}ii.n.{Ti . .f)it.lg ,hil b,p an d 6ife',f;,t of ,H.P. P ro jec'lite ~

2f~

lid!!

Fi,git1tt ,1 B.~M 0 de! 95 (,/93.'·) Ug}~t tank: A:'1t.o~ke'd 0 u.t (1) Peleliu .l.d'au,a. it n anticir':raf~ 'mcth,t-nt" _g'un is m~'un,ted to]'n the· turret. T'ke erew ,w~s bur.n,e,d b" a {I'arne ihrotue« (vhiJ~ ,attempting to escape.

or deflection angles, and acceg'sory equipment will be augmented, particu .. Iarly by the installation of two-way radios, perhaps in every tank, Greater ,;:)1 ttention wi ll be paid to crew' c omf ort. Escape doors, perisc ope51,j im proved vision, gas-fume extraction equipmen t, better an tiaircraft armament, and, similar accessories probably 'will. be incorporated in, modernized models .. Continuance of high power-weight ratios may 'be expected, making possible high speed and, good cross .. country mobility,

J tank I "'8"- d ,~, I' ,- - din - h - ~ I - 'h·

--1;1-' .- ':.:JI"':I ,'~-:- _,. !II'--_, ~I [' r.- ,- ,-[ t .'.~ '-ill' -, ,"_. - ,.' -:- ," .. ' . " I ["..!!! " •

apanese tanks are e assmee into ,,'OUI. types ,9!CCOf_'_mg to t en W'e.lg t,

Th- ',' ', .. ', ta ·,,'k' ," 't-:I;- ',I "'hi,' '-h ' '"" .. 'h" 1 .. I, +'h "',' 5-1/,. tc ", ... li~, 1l t t: ',' 'k"" ',':10" rh " ,"I "

iese are .an ter es \V l!e welllg' ,I iess 'I!.. ian "T~_·ons~, ,J;l,g.UI ,~an:::s, \!\i'CJgc_lll,g

from 5 y~ to 1.1 tOO.8; medium, tanks. 'with a weight ra:ng'c from 1] to 22 tons ; an d h eavv tanks over 22 tons ~

~ "

'T' k ,.

- ankettes

The development of tankette models has been progressitve,~ In Chin,3, Jap,ancs'e tankettes were used Jn reconnaissance and cavalry roles and, when equipped w,i,th, tracked trailers, also were employed to carry supplies and ammunition.

The Model 92 (19132) tankette represents, p,ro'bab:Iy the earliest tankette model stln. commonly used, This vehicle has, the turret mounted to the

26

FiiZ'ure ,19.- }J 0 del 92 (193,2) l{l'!i!r.tJi. ie.

rear of the chassis, giving it a bout .. Iike appearanoe. Both welded and riveted construction are used throughout 'the hull. Suspem ion is fourpoint, with the usc of ben cranks resisted hy armored compression springs

27

lL·Ion- . EL n') (1- 11 "l2) 'I~A"NK~ ETTE

l.V. :._ ..... ,:. -I l--;J~ .'_ ;ij_,_/ , .. ~ ... ~.'.: .. - -t • .. 1 .. ,I ',~

1 P:/~r(!·x imate .s/-u:t:ijicat2: OriS

W' h' ~

_ i '." e]g t. . I I ,. • • ... "!!' • ~ • I !I 911 • I II I til" 5I..J' Ion I

.2. Leng th , . ~ * • • . - •. " ,.,.,.... 1 to feet :3 in ches,

3,. ·Wid.tb. .. '" ; .. , , ~ . , , , , . ~ ., ,.. S feet 3 inche~. 4. Height ~ . .. . . . ., ~ "",. ~ . ! ., • i 5 feet 4 ; nches ~

5 IC' 'I .... ara fr"To'C- i!:Ii 'II ':ll. 1L i ne II-.. i!'IiE'

III •.. 1111_ i:IJL .iI- ~.' "... I I • • I I .. • .. .. .. .. • -:= e til II r. .u. --'I •• tl! .'I!..r 1lJ;1~~.J

6.. Crew ~ ., ~ .. " , , . - - - .. 2 nlet 'r

7 .. Armor. , .. ~ " " . . . . . . .. ,. I, , • "., 6 to ~ 4-,mm (0.24 to' CL55 i.nc..h)~.

:8" Arrnament . . . . . , , .. . _ " , . " . .. .. ] 7 .. 1 1\.1 C· ball mou '. ted.

f1i, " ,,.;-............ ~ ~"

7;0 .nH.,lUJL umbllon.. ,. .. . ~ .. L ~ • • • , e ., • •

10. Engine, 4 cylindcr , '. ~II " , •••• ,

t ~.. 'Transrni s~ii[,)n... .. ~ ., + • ,. • • , , . . • _ _

'iI',' G d iI' Ii'

11., ... ,,, '.:, 'ro: -~n' co'n'I~Al'-" 1 ~ ••• , ••• , , , , ~ ~

13·. ¥iidth of track: r. " •• " • ~ r. , , , " '" ••• l4. 'T'~ack pitnh. " + ~ ••.••• , ,. _ ••

15 .. Diam, sprocket , " " " , , .. ~ .

16~ Dianl. bogie. whee! " , . ~ .

17 .. Diam, l'el~r idler '" " . , . _ .

'181l He~.bt to cen ter ,~if spc>oc.kt:!t. .. .

1 ~'9a,O rounU!s.

32 horsepowe r, gasoline.. 4, for\l'tl' ard, t reverse.

[], feet.

E: '. 'L

;J mc·uCS 0'

J inches, "l:l' h

z t 1 nc .if.'i~ ..

'I:.' h

1 ;i' 1 nc.~ 'CSm

1.S inches, .2 5 i nches,

1.. Speed i , • • • • ~ ~ • ,. • • . •. " ., .. • • ~ r.· 2, 5 miles per.. hour.

2 il Range 0.[ alcdlDD i • • • • • • • • • • •. ~. 1. 00 rni b~~~

,3" Gra:Jent .. ' .. , '" ~ , " .. ~ .'.. 27°,.

4·~ Obstacles.

Trench" .. " ~ .. 4 re.~1l: (il ~nc}u~s w·- dle ..

S~ep ' ,!'" ~ 'f ' , , 2 teet:' inch. high ..

Ford ~ m ~ 4' .• , • , i " i • • ~ ~ ~ ~. ." :2 feet deep,

,r12'·:O;

(' I

on each side, There are four rub ber .. tired bogie whee s in, pairs and two 1_ eturn rollers on each side, A f ront s procket drive is used, Tracks are the outside centcr-gwide type" The long, s oping s acis plate is a prominent identification feature, .ll Ijg,llt machine gun" hall-mounted in the turret, ~c tl ~ on IV;, a rmarnent .

.JIO,~ , , 11"., Ii' ~ ~, '" .

" Tankette Mod ,1 94 (1'934,) is basically the same 3S the parent Model 912~

The rear Idl .. er, however, b,3.S been replaced by 3\ trailing :idler and the front drive sprocke t has been lowered tOI 'L ompen sate for thi~~. Bell ... crank suspension with armored compression spring', is employed, as in the Mode I 92,

an the number of rubber ... ti['cd bogie wheels and return rollers is the same as in the earlier model, .I t is reported, however, that a Ford 4-,cylhl,d,er tractorer gine ]S used in the Model 94.

Specifica tions of the Model 97 (]93 7) tan kette 'vary considerably in reports from several combat theaters, A.s compared with the Model '94) thl" suspension remains unchanged. The hull, however, has been completely redesign ed, M,ore rOOIH. 113:::1, been provided ·il1 the turret to accommodate

h,e 37-mm gun, although a machine gun sometimes is mounted Instead of the tan k gun,. 'The die sign ofthe fron .. · plate is simpler dUUI in earlier models and deflection angles, have been improved, Significar .t armor is ~47' ill I thick,

Th · 1 h ..... L .... 1.... ..JI L iL ,,-'t. d '. .,

.. iere IS a .arge _ .atch on the turret top ano a hatch over lIJe(~'r],veirS

compartment which cannot: be opened when the turret is at rhe 12-o"clock position. There also i~ a hatch over the engine- corn par tment ,grille and a small hatch in the rear sllioping plat - of he engine compartment, There is a driver's visor, and III vision slit in the turret equipped with a, p otecto ...

- scone at about a 1 O~,r:llclock position, There is a small pistol 'port, in, the

29

re ar 0; th e turret .. are provided ..

he vel1itle is powered by at 4- cy1in er in-line, air-cooled Diesel engi '_ of 4~ horsepower, Engine specifications, however, indicate that' his engine might develop 1.05 horsepov er at 2:,000 revolutions P 'r minute,

,

'N' 1: ~t'· if' ~, irm of b

'" 0 raci rties or intercommunication ot crew members

M'ODEL 94 (1934) Ti\KK,ETTE

Appr{)xitnll'lt JP·f.ciji ca tions

1, ~ 'tV eight. " . . E , • • • • • , • , ' +. 3 ".4, tons ~

2, Len, th , . " u , , , ,. ,. • , • • • " •• 11, fee t,.,

3~ ~\lidlh .. , , . . . . . . _ , ' , ,_ ,5 fet:t 3 inches.

4. 'M-It;ight ~ ~ u , ;. 5 feet 4 Inches,

5~ Clearance , .. ' ,. 12 incjies,

6~ Crew ~ _ . e _ ; • __ , , • , •• " ,. ,:2. men.,

7~ . '[![](U - - _, _ , . __ • , • , ., 0, • , •• 4" 0 l.2-mm (0,..16 'to 0,,47 inch),

8. Armament .... ' , , ..... ,. 17 r7 }..1G+

.,:~ -

~ _ ,ra,ve,rse.....,..". _ _ _ _ _ . _

to A.' ~l·

III, • ..:-l;illlllUnl' llln ,. ~ , ...• , , , , ,.

I L Fuel ca pacity , . . . . " . . . . " .

~, ~n~ J'Ou'·' r

1. /~!80 rounds. 23,~ 3 gal.]ons~

1. Speed. . . . . ~ . . . . '. ~ ~ . e " • ~

2. R.tl'llge: uf action ... ~ ~ ~ . , , , ~

3'.'.- G d~

I ra. "_' sent. , . . . . . . . . e- • • • • •

4~ Obstacles :

Tre' ell. , , . " " - . - - . _ .. 4. 'e.,e'~ 16 inches w·ide ..

Step ~ ~ . . .. . . . . . . . . '. . " ; ,. N',o details ~ .

Ford" . . " " ~ ~ ., . . . ~ .' . . . '. ~. 2 feet deep,

26 nw.iles per ho ur.

"100 mi les (estimated) 'I

?7Q (also reported as 30°)..

30

t '. We1'elu.:t .... , . ;, .. ~ " . '. " + ' ..... ' • ~" ··tS rolliS~

2" Length ,., . ,. ~ . . . .. .. " h d, ,;, •• " ;;; , " • ,h,' 1.:2 'me't,

3111, W:id1tn. II Ii .' !ll ~ III II!!J "III ~ I! !!! • !II • [II • I! ! ! • P! I.

6,t;"'iil"·t-'·

I~~ _.!l1

4~ Height., " . .' .' " r. ~ ~ ,. .' • e .;5. " .. e- " .' '. '. 6, fee"t,

5 ~ Cl~lI' anc~, . ,', ~ ~ ~ . _, " " . . ,. ,. ~ ., " ., t,4- inches,

'ill ~W!lll [Iii Ii ill !i 'Ii ~ 'I' iii 'I! II!! !I! I •• 13 !I ~ II • II !II!! 2 m~ePll.

'1~ ~,. " " " ' .. ,. '. ~ ~ ., .' , .. , '. r. "' '. ,. ,. -4 to t2 .. mm, (0..16, to 0,.47 iDeh,) ..

8~ ,J\rn:uun:ent ~ . ~ ".. . . . ,m • '" r. • '" • • •• '13,7--, " m gun.

9. Ammu nition" _ _ , , ~ " ,. .. '" ~ . . . .. 96 rounds"

1;;'\ T" - '" ,-"' - - .,

IU i . r.arlSml SSJ. 0 11. iii Ii Ii ii III Ii 'Ii '.' '. iii Ii 13 of! tl! '.. ~

4 &"1"'M"'I!il!";o:I¥~ 1 '~.h!liii"'l:';I!i! _ ~v-~, '~~~J ,~u " ~ ~"~'!!W& ~I.I

1.1,. Stcen:ll"I ' ~ ~ ' .. , ~ ~ .' .' " , Drive maft brake,

12", Fuel CiiPilcity . ~ i, r. ... , , .' • ~ • • • •• 20 gallons (also reported 24 :g,aUons)~

1" Speed .. ~ , ..... ~ . ~ ~, . " ... ,; ~ ~ . ~ ~ 28 miles per' hom_.l.T.. .

2 ~ Gr,3(i'tent" " '. , ~ 'I' '. ~ to' • • , • • '. " " ~ ~I' 3ijlIJ (.aJso reportoo as :1 4,'0),

'2 '0'-' "b" . -i;,,,,. .. ii" '~

,;:iI~, ,-,.., . :5 ~.cIle:9 -s.

'T' u,

.. ,renC..Il,!Ib Ii Ii • • • ill 11 liil ill Ii .. iii i i • ill •

~;"-n,

l~~,FI! .I ••• !I ••• !I •• I!!I !!'l1ll~1I!! I! !III I!

...

The tentatively ideutified, Modem 9,8 (1.9381) tankette sometimes is con ... fused. with, t-he M:odel 97',,, It has a squat, rotmdcd ap~n;ara~ncej, aDd the turret is set centrally. ,A three-man crew ,is, carried, with, ,3, turret gunner

d- f' "" Ii dd: - " - h d II

,2.:0. __ '_,,,mnt gunner In a : inon 'to' 't' ·:e c I'IV1er~

Suspens ion:" - 1~ ~ b . ell !r- ank ·s·p .. Irmg- resisted with '£:'0. ur bogies : 'D" P-:'W' ""'I~ ~'Fi, ,t'Ii~i!ii,jfo 1L..,

-- .- I~ - '.~-'. -'- . g _ ....... _- ";';';';!!'!;'w'L , ' '-- .. ') ,.@;, ~4 __ "" ~il' .' 111., .!!!,' .' . ,'''','I!..;~ II . _'. _ . ~,~ V,IIi,,," '11;"..,...,1,1

side and a large' rear [Ii'],dler which abo, acts as a bogie. There are two return rollers on each side; the drive is 'OiC the front-sprocket type,

The vehicle mounts a ]3,;7'~,mm machine gun, in the turret: and a ligh,t

h ~ 'b bI '" '7' .. th b '11 ,A '1 d- '''',.,J_ ~ Ii;. 'b

mac me, gun, :pro.,a·· •. ,Y' ,II' -mm, W ne ,~UL'I ,rusa reportec ,15 S, meeei wl;,t

had a 3,'-m,m gun as itts only armament.

Addition,al specifica tions are ;

Lcn,gt.h = =' =._ = _ ='~._= ~ __ -~_~'""""- - _~,~ .... '- ~'= _ = _ = - = ~ _ r- .. _ '" l'~1 f eet 3 bu~'h~!L,

'Wi.d,'~b ~- -_---,-----_- -_-- -- -~ __ - - - _~ - , ~ 51 fee't 9 inehes.

H\eigbL,-,- -~~ -- -- =,- ~ ~ - --" - =,~ - = - - =. = - - - - - __ ~,- -,- -'-"-'0= 5 Ieet 4 in~-h,~~

W'd,ghL .,..===_""'..,._="""",_=,~_, , ,_=_____ 3 to 4 toM ..

8pee:d,-,------,~.~.=-= ~= ==~ =-=---- ,-- =-'= _'- -'-,- - - -_ ,_-"g 3,3 rr:l'ph, (miilX' .. ,) '.

l\.nnO~---------~,------ -- -----'------:-----'---~. Same as MOd)ffl 91~t

Fonl_~____ - ----~-- -- ---~-~,------ ------ 2 feet. 6 i,ru:h.'~"

T nre ~li ch., -= =,= = = = = .... =. - - = - - = - - - -, - -. - - - - -- -,_ ---,-,~ .... =,== 4; f eet 6 Inches, leU~ cl'ea,ran,C't"" ="'" ",",_ .... ',.... -"'" .... ' .... - - "" ,.,. ~,,,,, ............. .,. .... "- ..... "",-_,,,, - - _,,.. ... '- .1 .foo;t; l i.nch ,.

31.

Lili h T k 19,~_" "t - anxs

"

The Model 9S (193 3) is an earlv exam ple of the dr'v(~loprnrn t of the

. , ~

'Hgh.l~-tal1,k series, The 'bnx-, type h'1U n ,L, divided in to th ree corn partrnen ts.

,~L'!Jh- •. h f h-' . 1 L II-

'- '" - - , , , - , ~ " c_ ('t .' " ' , 1'1 - ~ -' , ,. ~ -l"" ruct ure

e cente r compartment 1.. the "8,,;,tlng COTI1.pal trnent, the ::SU,lJC' 1';. - " '. -.'

of which overhangs the tra r ks, The righ r- hand side of the" front of this

'-' u

com pSi rtrn r-n t ~ ~ ;f,"'"1!o_. ~'or']' .,--iI".\,_....J [orwa rd to' ,f;<-. .... m ..... ""1 ion son f, ..... r th ~,~ 'IL,... ~ U'~ "111'0' unt ed

, .'UlL ,cu; ~ ,i, , , ~... ~_ .... !I .... , , II l ,h ~ J I' I ' N; "':UI .' ~, 'II ~ ! (." ,,.., _.iI ,,,II. ~, , ~.I, "L i, J ,G.iLl ~ , ',' - - Jl..L. ,-

machin e gu n. In the forward com part 111.en t, the driver si "S on the If.\f t~ the

h . 1:1

,"_,1 ,- I - -- 1-' "-, - • f]i' I

eun ne I, on t e r]L~" r.

o .~

Suspension is by ~ix ~lHaH. rubber-tired bogie \-'I)I,)(~,~~~,~ mounted on three' scmielliptical sp'llin.g~ on each side. There arc three return roner~, on each, side, and drive is of the front -sprocket type. The track is center guide" The turret: 11l0lU1.tS one machine gu,n to the Iron L, ~L11d !SOUle pictures show a similar weapon mounted in the rear. Traverse of these weapons is 360 degrees, The turret is small, high" and, rounded, with sloping sides,

~··,;IjO"--' D" 'E'L (")., /1' '9fi!. 3)" 'LIG' ,- 'HT--' T-' \'l\TK

~V~~ . .. ..1 "":, .:-,'...;., t .. · j;_.. ..'., I. . l:~'1 ..

1.. W~ight. , . " , . , ...

7~8 tons.

2. eugt'm'II""" . , ... , . , ... , _ . , .. l-1 f t:t 8 inches.

:t, \~jd th. . . " . . " , . " ~ . .., " " ~ a, • " ,", .5 fe;e t 1. 'I i, n c h~ 's.

4 H eig h 1" . . . " .' .. • • , '. • • • ~ ~ .' " " ,!! 6 fcc ~.

5., CJeaF~nl{:c... " ~ . . ; , ~ , , , . , , ,. ~ 5, i Ot hes,

6. CF1f::\''l. , ..... " .. .a _ •• , •• " •• ,.. ,3 ,1I11f~n_,

BL !\ rrna.lfl ~n L .. ~ ~..,.. ~ ~ " " . ,

Up to 22: -111m (0. B 7 ,l nc h) (repol' Lt~'t:l.) .

1 J\1[~ light (hull) 1 ,~lU' Hghn (turret), leI utc h b rake,

to feet,

9. Ste ering , , , . . , , . . . , . . . " " . . . .

'10' I'Ge '!, -, " - --:- d " --' -" -, - ~ ,--,

, '~ .... to un . _ C(ln [ac [,. " ! ~ ~ '!' , • • • • • ! •

32

t 1. Engine n , • " ~ • ~ " • ~ +. • '. ,. 6--c.y i nder ,8 5 .. horsepower Mi'i:suhl~hi:..

1 2., Uoo.~ i ng.. . , . . . . . ~ . , , , " , ~ ~ . . " Air ,.

13 .. W'idth {JfrH:ck __ __ , . __ " 7'~ inches,

1. 4 ~ P]'[,ch of traek , - _ __ ._ ..... ,._ :3. ~ inches ..

:15,., OJ ~lm, of sprocket , i i, ~ • , m i " " 1 root (5. inches, 16~ Diam, of rear idler . , " .. _ .. 1 foot 3, inches. j[ '7. Heigh iii' of' 8 fn"~:Jckil [. c r: ]'r~' ~.I'- _ • , .. _ _ 1. foot :8 i nches ..

1I.rpr-IJXin7ntf maximum perjarman(l! '1 _ S per' d.. _ ,. . . . . . , . . . . , , , , , . , " 2:9 mil s· p. er hour. 2. Ohs ta -J' s:

r r rene h _ ._ _ .. _ . ._ _ _ .. . _ .,._ Step - "_. _ _ _ _ . . . . . .. a, • ,

Ford. . ,I ~ • • • • ~ • i ., • ~ iii , ,. ., .,

5 '~et":t R .j '[flU ~ he-s w :~'I :I.t . ~ 1 foot 6 inches high. 2, feet 8 inch es deep.

1.. ·Wei;lllt. ,. . r " • • - • - - - , _" 7 j~ tons.

2.. Length ~ " . , ' . , ... , . , . i • • • • •• 1. 4 Fc.ct 8 incites ..

3. \\tidth ... , __ . _ _ .. - - - - - .5 r.t~ t, 1. I. inchesi.

4. Height, ... - - - - - . , .. , . , .... ". 6 fe :'E~

5 or C,le.ar,:~tnce ~ ii " • ,. • ., • or " , , , , m m , .,.. 1.5 inches ..

,6,. Ore,\!. ' , , , .. - . - ~ ,. .. ~ _. .. 3 :men ..

7.. A·I!T.lu.Jr. , . , e - • - _ _ ~ • • • • • • • •• U.p to ,22 ... mm (O.87 in.c· -) (reported).

B .A.rmamcnt."". _ . ' . . . . . . . . .. 1 'j,7 -lorn. tank. gun) i . U:rtet MIG"

9 . Engine., .' . " , . . . - - - - - _. ,6 cy 1 i. ndcr, 8.51~h orse .. ·o\v.e r air -cook d

,M··tsubish~.

1 CI. Gl:-"OlU nd con 'Iact i ; , , • ~ ~ , .. • • • •.• "fee t 6 inc hes,

33

'ffi '~ W,' ':1' dth -f- track

l. JL!I' ."_ .. ~-_. v·, 'I!!!~L,g~-_'!I' !II !II II • '.' II' 'Ii 'I' Iii ~ ~ !II II! '!II

t2~ Track pitch; , ~ " . .' .' . '.' . . . ~ .' .' . ; W 3~ DI anl~ bogie W·11[!et";i., ~ • ~ ~ • ., • . • .

14. S,tet;rin,~. , . '" ii ,I, • • i, .' • , • , !I ~ .' ,. • ,

1.5., l?uel. , .' ., ,. . .' ,. . e • w e • - - e '. ~ •• - - _'

1'M inches, :3 ~ :im::hes~ '1 S inches ..

C1u tch brake,

r» 'I:::

~·,asoune.,;,

AjJpro'Xl~fl1'(J!.l m axim urn J.tr"lr;rmtlrtCt

_= .. j.:E:J

1. Speed, " " - ~ - - . . . '" - . - " - '" . - - - - 25 1"11 [Ie S p;f"'i"" bour,

2.. Itaoge 'of acdon , , . . . . . . ,i, • ~ • •• 120. miles,

3.. Obstacles:

T·rench.. n' •• • • ~ e- • • .' .' • ~ ~ • '. _ 5 fee" ,g inc hes wide:" ~

Step ~ ~ " , , , . . ., . . " ,J • ~ ~ • ••• '1 fflot () in ehes h.i.gh~

Ford ~ " . 'I 'I' • ~ " ;; • i i '. 'i' ii ;; i i. ,2; feet 1.0 inches deep ..

,Mod.cl 9-,4."- ,(, 19' 3','-4-' -) •..•

,. _" "_ '_" - ..•• j'

The '~l'odeJ 94 (1934) two-man li,ght tank shows, some pronounced variations from earlier designs. 'The hun is, constructed of-armor plate which reaches entirely around the vehicle and pro't'E'cts the interior from enemy fire" Both the turret and th.e suspension are: mounted Din the bull, Mudguards, suspension spring covers, the final drive c-overs, return rollers, and idle-r 'wll,leels :are a ttache d to the side plates of the h uTI ..

,An.nOor thickness has not been accurately ascertained ~ There: are: vision, slits to the right and left of the driving compartment; in front of the lever ... 'operated 'flap door of the driving compartment there is another 'vision. a.perture fitted with bullet-proof glass, There also ills a sighting and :firing aperture for a small-arms weapon~ In front of the hull is an access plate whlcl~ CRn be lifted. (or servicing 'tile diff erential and 'the engine ~ The back. plate 111:s0 has an entrance hatch door and a special fitting for stowage, Apertures in the floor plate for lu brica lion, of the engine and. transmission .are watertight, On the left of the to.P plate there' are air-cooling and, 'ex-

haust ope nings \vh ich, 0'-( necessi t.y ~ must be exposed,

Suspensi on of the vehicle is somewhat u n us ual, Pairs of bogie rollers are .carried at the ends of levers pivoted on the ends of bell cranks which in turn~ are pivoted in the hull structure" The vertical. anus of the bel] cranks are connected by rods 'to horisontal springs, The disc road wheels are of' two-piece, built-up construction, with rubber tires; the return rollers also are fitted. with rubber tires,

'The ,gun turret, which has a tapered cross-section, is mounted on a ball and race for q uick and. eas y rota tion and f orms a cover for the firing com .. partrnent, There' is, no rotation ,gea,r~l however. Th ... e mantlet for the

machine P"I]IIl"II, J~il1'l b 'a'] 'I m iounted and in two .p''''']; rts an d th :- . .a~ : 1:" i"], turret traverse

!i!& '" "'"'!L..I. ~'oo...I.;.!lLIL '.~ . 1_ ,~-, v'·' ,I .i ,IU~ .. 1_ U.w.~ ... ·- .' . ''in,. 'U : .11t.IbIJ. ~I; ~"" ,"._ _' ,\.....'.w.-~ 1I..:J' ~~ IL'IUIJ. . j,'L.... _.w. a', . :I." .aIL,.

lock. In addition to the entrance hatch there are two vision aple,r~res,;. a gun-sighting aperture, and an aerial mast opening, The iIlterioI" of the turret, as we 11 as the 111ue r surfaces of ·pla tes surrounding the driving and fighting compartments of' the. hull, are lined with asbestos to protect the

3,4

crew f rom e-ngiine BJl d sun heat. ball mounting.

The engine is a 4-cylinder~ in-line, air-cooled model, [It is, o:lid, fashioned in de~w,gn,~ having a~mong' other outmoded features a splash-type lubrication system, I t is believed that it can develop about 50 horsepower a, t 1 j 700 revolutions per minute. Maximum speed of the tank is estimated at. about

1· 6"~', t; ,~,:'~Iip!;! 'p:'e':ir h' our

,,;oJ .JLIrW"",.,. _' , "", ~

The Japanese light tank most frequently encountered in 'the combat thea ters to d ate is lith e Model 931 (1935) ~ There is reason to b eli eve that this vehicl e was, in Plh- od uctio n fro 111 1915 to 194:2 ~ an d evidence i nd i ca tes that the design. of J apancsc light tanks was, frozen to permit production of large numbers of this model,

Whi.le designed primarily to operate in soft, sp1ong}'" gro'u:nd~ the chassis and power plant of this tank are adequate for satisfactory performance in all types of, terrain where tanks normally can operate. High horsepowerweight ratio, high ,grlo'. nd clearance, and the cleat construction or' the track are factors that would insure good cross-country mobility. Fording is facilitated 'by the installation of leather gaskets on hatch covers which are 'be 1 O\V the :1 eve] 0 f the ai r-in ta k e I ouvres.

Workm,anslhip and design of the vehicle on the whole are ,good" 'The lavish use of aluminum and, light alloys, as we'll as the equally prodigal employment of self = aligning ball-bearings, are striking rea tures, The hull shows 'U nrnistakablc evidence of complete redesigning, It is, constructed over an angle-iron frame, with backing plates at the corners, The armor is Y2 in ch thi ck, ex ce pt on, the sloping portion from the fro:nt to the turret 'where it. is only Y1 inch. The 3.1"1110,( is not well distributed, however,

.. 1] I"' he f h tl 11 1 Th h 1'1

especia "f m the trout wnere ." aere are several reentrant an,g es, "e,e:1LL"

i~ lined with a layer of' woven, asbestos padding' which, although 'not co:" ... , si dercd effective protection against heat radiation, would provide some fire-proof protection for the crew",

The, suspension makes use of an Improved bell-crank de~ign, with resistance provided by armored suspension springs mounted horizontally o Vier'

h b ~ Tl hori ~ ~ ;0; b ~I- '. th Id b

1 e nogies. ., ne horizontal s,prin,gs _g,hleelt1er" track tension I. nan wou ,~ ~. e

~

afforded by 'Volute springs, although, crew and, equipment are more sub ..

jcct to jarring, and the fire platform is not very stable, There are four

bog _; ~ 'Il",·~'h·' ~~1'~ moi 'In' ted ~ n p. "'Jij ~ rs on .a. "J,;£I' h si d'", ',001 an ,d""C' t·_ 'tJ;.!iif"II '~.:!! turn rollers on ,!D.:3_e- h

" ':, ,!PC ,.,,. 'C~'='::! _ ~ III_J ~ , IL~', .II. '~ ~,I:, .::'! "-,J'", !l..,Iit]i.'L .. , , 0. . !L, la!" .... Vi! '!wi! "L ". ,II, -L'V L ... "':1' 'LJ' i. __ , .'!l,... __

s ide. Sus pensi on 'is, de~ign ed to insure constant contac t of the bogie wheels w,mth the g .. .round. irrespective of the nature of the terrain, Track pressure

,I .. , "

for it gross. weight of 9 tons is 9.9 pounds per square i.nch ..

'25'-'

J'

,36

37

•.

VJi:'(..t..I,

ii'it J~t ,;Lan L ;ii tl;, tI bit!! ,'" ,t •• , ,~,~, .;; '1l"2

39

l,d'~,el'" Is Vulnerable

Tile v,eIlic]le has a front drive sprocket, 21 inch'[$ in diameter, and a rear idl er of the same size, . 'he rear idler is held by a sin,gle bracket, and its design p ermits quick and. easy tightenii ,g of the track tension merely by employment of an B~inch crescent wrench, This idler an.d its mOlunting are withou t· oov -ring and therefore very vulnerabl e. Inde ed, there is a verifi d report t1'12·t a Australian infantryman crippled a Model 95 tank by a hit on the idler mounting with. a ,30.3 caliber rifle bullet,

A r-ounded turret with a ~q'uaF\e front is mounted on a medium high superstructure, The sides of the 5u,:p~r~'trueture protnHie over the top of the tracks, which are '0 inches, wide with a pitch of 4 inches. The turret is manu: ly operated by a 1 ver on the left side, The turre gu,nner', space is \l'l~ry era 111 pie d ~ a nd no S€3 t is provid ed, \~rlllcn the turret is in a position f-Olll] 0 5 0" clock} visibility to the right is VC~l poor, 'W.h.'en the turret is in a 1 to 3 o'clock position it overhangs the hull and easily can · be wedged and jammed, .A gap of from ~·i6 to 7~ inch between the turret and the hun, depending u.pon the position of the former, presents a po.int of great vulnerability, Ior when the gunner trai erses the' turret this slit is O.P ff to attack an aroun d ..

'The driver's hatch L 13 inches suuare and has a small door 16 inches square.. Boh horizontal and vertical vision slits arein the door', 'There is a peep hole, 2 inches in diameter on each side of the bow gUlil, Along the top portion of the turret are six, equally spaced vertical and horizontal slits \'Vh" ell offer Iimitcd visibility despite their number, The absence .oJ elass visor blocks makes these slits very vulnerable to machine gu. -u nand.

. ~

even rifle fire, The driver's slit is vulnerable to splash, from ordinary ,.SO

caliber rifle ammunition. Two air- vents in the engine compartment are. open to attack by Molo ov cocktails, and only "\0"0 quart .. size hand :I1r'(: extinguishers are avail a ble to the crew to cope wi th fires st arted in this fashion.

The vehicle is powered 'by a 6 ... cylinder, in .. line Diesel engine which develops l10 horsepower at .l,-4~OO revolutions per m inute and 200 to. 2'50 horsepower at 2,0010. The engine , as ample power and good acceleration but its sta ·ting is sh.Jl,ggish, . It is air-cooled wi til turbo impellers. Fuel i nject Ion system and oil pum ps, as well as startex and. genera tor, ar E of

l\10DEL- 95 (19.3.5) LIG·HT T~t\.NK

1 w' .~.

.. '. (;lgill ~ • _~ . .' • . . . • . • . • • • • • . • • •

2. Length, . . . . . .. . . .. - . - ! • e • • • •

3 W· ldrh

. " . . . .

'~ . If _ It 1_ 1I I II • • • I I "! e iii Ii • .1 ., I .. ~ ..

4L :' eight ~ ~ ~ .. ' .

5 r'!!11 ,- .;, ~~ -,

Ii ~! -a:J. aDe,e. ~ ., :;;: :. - - . ~ . II I I ,I II;; ~ !o !' !" _

1.0 tons (loaded). 14 feet .it inches, 6 feet 91 in{:hf"£. ..

7 feet.

1'-M '. h

"1 .!., - -: ,-:--.

, . :2 inc ,e.:i.

40

6. Crew. ,. . ,. . '.' ~ .. . '. " " . '. , . .. , . . . .. 3 men.

7, r\rffl(J:n"'. - ,- - -, - _.,., .. - ,_ - .. - ~ ~ 6, to 1,2=Hl'ffl (O~,24 to, 0,'1' Inch),

8. Armament. ... ;, .. " ..... ,I. ,. ~ ~ ;; ;; !" 1 ,3,7'-mm type 9q tank ,gun_" 2 7 .. 7~m.m rear turret ~fGJ 1 7~" ... mm huU MG,.

9. Ammuniti,on

'37,m,nnn" " !' ...... ~ • + • + ., ~ ~ ,. 130 rounds,

'l\'-1:'G'_'

",. I, ',-::

..... :If ~ ....... ~ .. ,I ... ;II ;a, ~ :. .. ~ + 'r -ii3 -iii i •

2 j 9 7 0 ,to'Ul!llc]s ..

1110 :horSfilJOW'er at 1. ~,4,OO RPM (240 t heoretically ind ]cated, H'P at 2'lOOO Rf'~l-.2:_based on reported engill'e specifj,cati,ons) .'

~ 1.. T:r. ansmissicn . .' " . " . , i • ,i • • • .. ., 4- speeds forwarfl~; l :r-~venH~ill

t 2~ Steering , " "' . ~ '. , ~ ~ ~ "' .'.' C_liutch brake,

1 010 Engine, .. ., '. , ., . , , . '" ,. . '. m ,m '" ~ " • •

13" '14"

'IS" 16 ..

~7" 1. 8,.

rs,

,Q,round confact, ., ." .. _ . ~ ~ ~ .'

W;,d.th of t[',ac.k _ . 'r ~ • • • _ _. ~ ~ • , Track 'p- ; tch

. "-I~~. ~. :1. L'\...·~ iii I. i Ii il • • ill • • • • • -.! .. ~ , ..

Diam, sprocket . , ~, 'I , • , ~ '! • • , •

Diam, 'b o,gie wheel _ . '~ . _ '" , . '. . e Di.fil]],~ n:~.ar' i d] er _ . . _ ~ ., _ _ ,. . , , ,

Height to center of sprocket'. . . ;

'7 f eet B inches .. n7t "' - 'I

7 /& 1.I1I1iC le:8 .•

''1' 3J. ~ ......... hes J;,'~ ,1 • .11..1'1;..., .IG.."':,.,

21 tnehcs, "2- II '.. -~,~,~ ~. ~."' ,!j; ~nCII"IA.--.:lt~

21. inches, .32 inches,

t " Speed , ~ .. , " " , . , , , , . , , _ _ , . ,'_ 28 miles per hour, .2.. Range of a.c tion , , , " , . ~ ,. . . . _ _. t 00 miles,

3, G:r,a,dic'nt 1 1 'I ..... 'I • 'I • ' ... ' ••• i' •• , 4()o."

4., '0 bs,f acles:

Trench, . . ., ., " " " " . ~ ~ . . , _ , _

IS tep , .' '. . II " I. 1 I, I, 1 • • i i • • • i •

Ford , .' '" . '. ~ .' " " , , '. '. . . . - . . .

6 feet wi de,

2 feet 8: inches hight.

3 e ,~," h .

teet :;; U1C . es deep.

THE Ll,Q'HT TANK '(:KENI~'" MAY' BE A F(nJR~I.H, V,AIU,A,'TION OF THE MODEL,95:;

l ~ '\V'cig'h t:. .' ~ .. .. " . .. . . . .. ,. " , , " 7.,7 tons ..

,z~ ,L cngrh , " '", . . . . , . '! • , ... ,.,' " '13 feet 6 inches ..

3·", Wi dth '. . . '" . '" . . " . . . ., . ., , , ,. '1 feet,

4,.. Helght , " ~ . ..", " _ . . . ., . .a, " " •• .5 feet ~'~ jj nf:'ht'.S~

§,~ G'r-oynd clear an,cc., I! ~ • • • i " 14, inches,

6", 'Cr~'\'V '. . . ,. ~ ~ .' , ;, - . " -e '. • • '. • '.. :3 men ..

7,.. Armament , ' '. . ., .' .' . ~ ~ ~ . . ., 1 ~ 7 ~mnl gITLU1J arul 1 M G _

8., Armor. , .. "' ~ . i, • ". , " ". , • • • •• 6~, to 1ol-mm (0,,24 to 0,,63 incl )..

9., Engine. .. " co • • I' !' • ' ... ~ • , • • '.. 14lU horsepower.

1 .. Speed I. ,. , ., .. '" • " •• ~ ,~ • ~ , • , , ~ .,

31. r.nHes. per hour, "-40.

~- 'Ii

? .. Gradient, .. , '. , ,; '. ~ ,", ..... ; " ~

3,.. Obstacles:

TF~:[lch. - - e , • ~ ., .. " " • " ~ _ • i' 6 feet 7 inc'tl.es, Wifh:~ Ford, ~ ., .. '" . ,. ~ ~ ~ a, ~ • , " ~ •• 2 feet 3 inches ,deep;o,

4--1

1_. "

42

;;;:

-...,; ..

- .....

~

~

-.

c

2:;

'~

,,,..,

.. ;:;

'-'":i ......" ....

'tt.

.C:,.

""-:;

-e '1;:.0

~iilliil

,...._

r: : ;(J' - •. " ")I! ~I ~ .~:;- ~ n. f" f ,~' q '? ~ \ ,1' L:., SJ. ,II:. • l -r , --.tVl' (") (): 1:. ~ ,"' •. ' \.,~.;)i . .1' y

43

,44

t:: - ......

~

"'ti ~

........

~

~

!I;;;f."~

'_

, -, "\;:;;
o """
-
"'-<:::;: :::..
'-"";-
""=
~ ILI;.;i
& ~
.. ' 1;0;
.,.,.
..... ~
....
!o-.. ....._
';;:;/: ~
~
'~ ~
c:. '~
-e ~'-
0. ...
I~
~, .......
I(:.;
P.;.
..... ...._ I;.._
~
, - """
""~ -,
"'-, I'~
:::oi! ~
.... , ,_,_
~- :....
,~I "'"
"'"
iZ:~ '_
~ -_,
~
....... - ....,;, "--

~ :::: ~-

~ ~I '~.

F'~g~U'T'f}, 37',.- . ..1 ,s;nU1U ~'r~ck ( 19'3:'))

r) b je,c;'t' ~vin jarn t ii,e turret G! t I~{j ,M~H:i e,l ,.9S t ~rne d t: () (NJ€ r'hat~g h ~ U of ~ ~ ~l~k.

,f~£gu.re 3,fJ,~Al 0 (lei ,9'5 (.19:35) U~h.~ tan k. Siii'~(;yUnd,tj'r, in-line i! air-c (J oled Di« tel engin.e ..

Figu re 3!),.~.R ear tlieuJ' of M odel 95 (193'5' light tank, s}l.owirtg fuel 02,~ .fUllr cap, motor oiJ storage tank ~n' d ,fitle'r calli" ,aruJ. .tw'o 1'l!"CI r idler brackets,

47

Dosch manufacture. The fuel capacity is. 2.3 ganons~ wjth six g.aBon-s in reserve,

The tank is quite maneuverable, despite the use of disc-clutch steering,

\' A:'"} 1 h 1 · 1] d h 1 f ". ~ ~. 1 ]' d ".

rv len a c utcl [ever is pu .. eo to a iar -way posrtion, tne c utcn IS _1S.=

r.ugagcd;; when pulled all the y,.ray back . ., the outside drum brake is set to permi t sharper tu rning I

A 37 .. mm tank gun is installed in the turret, which also mounts a .30

]·'L lich hi ,. h a. h Th' h n.o '~'.'1l..

ca j ner ,] g.::., t mac. I 1 n e gu n m t .' e ri g .. t rea r, . ere L~ an 01: .' er ,.:.J... cal '] oe r

machine gun forward in the ,-11d]~ The turret guns have a 12=degree. el evation, a ~. 6 -. degree depressio n 1 an d a t r ~ve rs e' (tota 1 ) of 45 de grees , Ammunition for the 37-fIun gun is carried in clips and racks in ·the figlTling COITlpa rtmen t; ammunition for the In a chine gun.s is carried in magazines under the forward rna-chine gun. and ill the fighting compartment.

A- T L-'!I!' 'h-I

nno[' , 010 .. 1 g' .. ' trt

I .:

Mention has been made or a number of vulnerable points in the design

'-' - d . -- - t T zti - .. ' of the 'k.k ·d-· .... ~ .g':: r.:::)' -It·, -1~' 'ht . '. '. ::.:!i;'!iil' ,~.~' •. ']"1 r·· . ,;l-I..~ , . ·d··",,·

[a.n. cons rue lon. 0, .. e .r.YJI..O_C.Il. ' ... I,. _ S . 19I1I. Mm.u.r, e~pccla ') un ILH.C UILl:i'""'

48

side ,0,£ the ~pon:son3, is perhaps its outstanding weakness, In actual. COI,n'bat, 75=·mm HE shells blew the turrets completely off several of these

_' l.

tanks, In another instance, a 75-mn1, A,P shell fired at a range of from

100 to 5100 yards entered the r'igh~ front of a Model 95 and carne out the rear, leavi ng' a hole one foot In dia meter all the 'way 'til rough, The external exh a us t manifold, the sus:p:cn sion mcchani srn, and the idler arc vulnerable to machine-gun fire, while the bogie wheels can be destroyed

b ~ ddt,;\ :I'~= .' 1: ~ d fi- .. ~ ~ '1 ~ ,

oy nan grena' e~,.,'l"· ru re n e rm tely an rmprovernent U pO'1J'l earlier models,

the Model 95 is considerably below the standard of the light tanks as used in United Nations armies"

Amphibious L-ight Tank

A, new 'type amphibious light tank recently found on Kwajalein Atoll. shows the most modem trends yet seen in Japanese armored vehi e:1 es. The hull, which is, not divided, into compartments, is larger and roomier than that 'Of the Model 95~ and bulkheads have belen eliminated. Armor ,pro~ tection is. slightly mer cased with the front and turret having Y:2 inch ; the sides, rear and, bottom, ::;13 inch; and the top o f both turret and hul I. Y4 inch, The tracks have been widened to. 12 inches, and the idler has. been super,~ ~ ed ed by a trail i ng i dler ~ Th e hull is wel de d throu g'h 0 u t and a] 1. reen tra ut angles - ave been eliminated. Machine-gun fire of ,30 caliber is effective only at the slits, but ,.50 caliber fire will penetrate the sides of the hull,

Suspension closely resembles that of the Model 94 and '~1ode197 tankettes except that the compression springs are mounted inside the vehicle, There are four bogies in pairs on each side mounted on a traverse even lever" The' real" trailing idl er serves as an additional bogie ~ The engine is a 6-cylin'de'r, air-cooled Diesel with no important new features distinguishing' it from that used in the Model 95~ Japanese ratings stale that the [and speed is, 2,3 miles per hour maximum and the speed in water 6 miles pcr hour" Fuel capacity is 55 ,gallm1s~

TIH~~ rou I id turre t is a new de sign cha rae te rized by consi dera bly increa se d diameter in comparison with earlier models, A Model 1 (1'941.) 37~mm tank gu,n" which is a modification of the Model '94 antitank gun; is mounted coaxially with a 7.,7, .. mrn machine gun.. These guns have a 360~degree tr averse, a ,,5 Y2 -degree eleva tion [j and, a, 11 Y2 .. degree depression, 'I 'hie 3J~:mm g':1J,n has a higher muzzle velocity' than the guns, at the same caliber

d " 1" . ...l l~ k _ T h ,; d:-~ d h ~ ,iii [2 '12 .t'

,U10UJlte _ in ear"_ler' :Ol,ou,f tanks. .. ests "ave indicate " t. at rt IS ~',~ ~ _ teet

per s econ d for }\P' she n that would pi free 1..8 inche s of armor a. t. normal impact.

The flotation equipment for 'using the tank in water is interesting. Pontons are attached to both bow and stern of the vehicle, These pan,lons con fo rIll to the shape of th'E tJ!uU and are attached by a series of pincer C:lW11pS controlled by a. handwheel inside the tank. The bow ponton, which is ill six sections .. has a volume of .22:0 cubic feet ~ t11(:: stern p.:.on'ton

~ .J.! !

49

1- _.-----

50

1111 ••• - - • : •• : - ..

F' iouse

, -~,~; ~

~

mes:

.51

in five sections, 1 rJ5 cubic feet. 'The rudders are situated in the stern ponions and are. operated fr0111 \vithin the hull ; the propellers are tilted to tl~c real' of the tank. 'To prevent entrance of water, all openings up to and incl u din ~r th c tu fret rin (_F arc 1 u bber seal cd,

,~. ~

j-\~1~)IIIE10 u S Lll~'I-Irl' rrr\~l'-

1. \Veight:

'I'ank (onlv) ... " " , . ' ... , "" 13 ton.:; (t."Stlrnatl.:d~ ..

'.

Pontuns (unl y) , .. , ' .. , , , .. ~ tons (est] matr-d ).

2" LC11gth:

"1' . - k .. 1 ~ 1- J: f t lID" h

. an' IOn. "IV j , •••• " ••• , . "" _.,;,;J ~ee Q U1C~ es.

... i'

V~~~ lh pon hJIlli .... , . " . 24 feet 7 inches,

3 _ \V:idth ,. " . . _ . . . _ " _, . , _ . ~ ., . . . _ _ 1) feet 2 inches.

. : : ~ . . . . . . . : :

.....

.. .. . ..

O.

-;

I •• :

o

~O

" o

. ..

. :: ...

: ~:

:: ...

...

::":.:

..

4·. Hetgh1c, ... ~ ,. ~ ~ ... 0 • " •••• ; ., 7 feet 6 inches,

5 .. [Ground clearance, . . . . . . e • • •• 14 inches.

6[", [Crew 0' • • , • • • • • • • • 0 0 0 0 0 ~ ~ • • •• ~5 men,

7.. Arn or :

Turret:

COd

;')1' rr:~, + .• .

13.2-mm (O~5.2 lnch), 6-mrn, ,( 0.24, inch] .

Top i • i i 'j ; ..... , ! 0 ••• " 0

HuH:

Front 0' • • • • - - • • • • • ,. _ 0 •

Sides Ii • I II Ii iii II "I tI i if :: I i

12-mm (0.47 inch). '9 .. mm (0.3[, inch). 8- III (0,32 1[CI1). 6~mm, (0 . .2,4 inch).

a~ "03"" I~·

Y • .J[",mm ~ ,~,,4- me 1)[,.

Rcar , ' , .. ,. _ .

Top., . . .. ...,.,.'......

Botto m. . . . . . i • • • i .. • •

53

B co ,A,;rm,ament. ~ ~ ; . , " " " " , , '. '" .' _ _ _ 1 ~ 3,7~nuil, l\r1' cui el 1. (1 941 ) in turTet~ 1-:'f',,7'-mm, l'viG' 'ooaxiaily mounted, 1-7.,7-mm ,MG' in, hull fOC\N'~:lTd.

g-, ~~ '., - - 6'- ... '!!.l, U n_ de r air- cooled D~ esel lr-e-~) 0 tJted to

.... r iii Lllgmif: Ii Ii iii Ii i ,iI· iii ill Ii • Ii 'tl !i! !P. I !! !!!! rIi i ~ + ~ J" ~ L

be iderrtical w ith t ha,t ],n the ~todel

.' 9,5 Imght tank),

1 to '. Fuel e~,p:;u~i t~{ " " , , , . . ., '" • , ;, .. ~ ,;'" 6 6. g-~Jlons (2. ta n k s) .

1. ~. ,n Suspension. . .' . . . . .. ~ ,. .. . . ~ " " .. :2 bogies on each. side of ve h lel~, Eng~e.~ consist of :2 w heels mounted on a tr ansverse even lever. R car' tr ailing idler serves as an additional bogie"

12 .. Track:

Length, overall .. " .' e • " '. '. •• 32 feet '1 inch,

GrOlU,nd !I:.:£)lltact. . . .. .. , , , " t i feet 1 Inch,

'\~i.dth iI " , 'I • .' • • • .'.. ' • , ' , " 1 foot.

A ] to L. c::,~ 1/ Q.<

" ,ng e 0 ,a"ppt"-Oa.cu e ~ ~ '" - - - - JU /4 ;,

13,. Vision apertures and pistol ports;

l-J:'ulL ., . .. ;, , , , , , . . , , ~ , , , ., 1--4 X I inch ~it :fbr drl vel".

1 ~4 x % i nch slit for h irll gunner"

4- pi::;tol ports, one 011 each quart,~,- or the hul].

TUIT,et ~ .... 0; ~ " ~ .... i, " " " <; ~ "" '.. ,2-3, .. 7 5 inch diameter vision ports, one

on each. side or 3,7 -rnrn gun,

2-4- X ~f ~r.H:'l'~ slits, one: 'On, each side of

~ ~

turret,

:; pistol ports, one at each side and on e at the rear.

8af'~ty glass, ~ -s • '. a. .' ii ~ ~, ~ ~ ,.' s h.fl tte r - proof blocks ar.e clamp ed over

a] 1 vision sli rs to proven t t; -: bull-ell: 51 plash' , or en trance of w ater ~ V,isi on pOI"l s are l)t'ODectr.d by 3,~:lnd.1i safety gl ass win-

...llof"i!~"1'ii!' lJJ. Lf. '1nii:i':l1

The oldest model medium tank which. has been employed, by the J apa, ...

" h '.' h S'9':'A (fl 92n" I" h ,. d h b

nese In. t .' e current war l~ tl e ";" .,' 0'· .' ,~o." ':-:J) ~ _ t IS C raractenzec I, Y a . ox-

shaped hull 'which has a short front plate with a d nor to th e right. Above the short fron~ plate is, a vertical front plate, through the right side of which protrudes a light machine gun~ ,A small cupola is hinged to the top of the turret,

The suspension has nine small bogie 'W':11OC.ls oneach side '""itJl the leading

on jDi~ ; nd ·ep~:;, II' d en tlv m '0' un t e d T h ere a- re ft,'~, riCO, r ',~ t 'U 111' rol 'I ers on e- '3 rob' - ,.::;; id ;A,

.. _._~1!J.i l~_ ..... >·· .~~" - ,\-i: "_ J .:._' _:_ . _ .... ·- .. !it ' •. 1 .... ~ . ".JL... .'~ "l...-- I. L.., .. 1.'-, : ·····,1" .Jl.~ U· 1 _~L· .:I. _" v

mounted along a girder, and, the vehicle is rear-sprocket driven, A proteceve skirting almost entirely covers the suspension, Power is furnished by at gasoline 'ftl,gin.e", The main armament is a 51'~J.n]11 lo\\"-veloci.ty gun moun ted, with, a 36 O-d eg;r'e e traverse, in, the turret, There .a]~HJ is a rearturret light machine ,gun~

'.

54

M-O' ····D· • ~L' ,8' '.', 9·:·· A···. (: 19'··2: '9')" "-.if P,D' '[U-, -"\:"" T A ',,"TK, .. "

I .'.... [ ", ~ _ .',. : IV J. ,l.:i ..' -: - _t~ .. l, i-u. ~ I. , •

1 ~ VV' eigh 11: ii .. ,. • • 'I' • • • , .• - ~ .. - - .. .. - ...- 13 tOIlS ~

",.

2~ Length ... - , . - , ... ~ - _. - , . .. ~ 9. feet 3 inches,

::t ~'idth .. " .. ~ . - - - . , .. , ~ 7 feet. 1 inch.

4. H~ ighJ, - ~ ~. . . . .. 8 fc.ct 6 inches.

5,. ,el arance" , .. , ~ - ., 19 'inches,

6. Cre 'ill. . . . , . _ M • • • , .. - • .- - • - • • •• £j lllell *

7,. Armor , ... , ., .- ~ .~ . ~ ..... i • " ~ " • ,I, I' 6 to 17 ... m'i1l (0,,24 to C.67 in.ch) , .abo reported as 1.7- to ,2,,5-mm (O~6'" to 0,.98 inch],

8. Armamen t. ~ ,. . . . . . . . . . .. - . , ". I 5.7- mm~, 1. h uU hlG ~ 1 rear 'turret 1\.1 G, .. 91, Ammu nHion. . . ., , - - - ~ ~ . . .. . .. 57 -mm tOO re u ads, S ... .t\A 2 t 7-45 rounds.

10- Eng~Ile .. '.' .. ,', , . , '1 1 • '! '. ~ • •• 13,6 brake horsepower,

11. _ Grru1nd. contact. ., " ~ . 12 feet ..

12", VVid-ch of track ... ~ __ . _ ~ ~ ~. '12 mches,

13. Track' p~tch~. i, ••••.•• I, •••• ~ ,. ~" 6 inches,

14' D sprocket 3P. in iches •.

~ e- ·'1,,:11\1... rear 0,'.4. ~;,._,. I .' 'F •• ' • , •• '.'. _.1 ~ U,CQ

1 5 . D'iam~ bogie whee I. " . . . . , - , -s - 9 inches,

16.. Diarn. Irout irlle-r. , .. ~ L , ~ ••• L ~ ,. •• 36 inches. I? Height to ("~n[er of idler ... " ~ .. 3.3 mc,ha~, "l Al ~ Fuel. . , . . . . . . ~ ,. . . '. . . . . . ~ ~ ~. O,M 0 line I

t. Speed. - . ~ - , - . ~ . . . - . .. - ~ - . , ~ ~ '15, mile s per hour ..

2- Range of action L , • , ••• '" •• , " ;, ,I + : ,00 miles ..

.3. Gradi n t. ij, t ,~ ~ • ~ .' • • • , " ' • • • • •• 34° ~

4:. 0 bstacles:

8 feet 3, inches wide.

2 f 9·· hes h ., h . ',eet. me - .. _' 'LIg .,"

3 feet 3, mches- ~p~

Step

~'d'L,.·', ••••• i,.1 " II 113. Ii I!! •• _I I' 11

Frd

- 0' . __ ! • II • • • .1 II! II! P. !' • • ~ .. IIIoi III .. I

The Model 89B (also sometimes r rported as Model 92 []9.9,2]) medium tank. differs from the Model 89A in that it has. a longer front which combines with. the driver's trent plate.' Also" the nn ret has been completely redesigned to include a new type of cupola, and a more satisfactory aper ... ture for mounting the S7-mm g .n_~ 'V.hite armament and armor thickness have remained the same, the 'gasoline engine of' the 89l\ has been replaced

b D" ..

':y a ,·l.e5f:, engine ..

PI .... u •• -

I

,~,

, . ,

','

.. -:"X-:y,.~. ~

-. -, ,_y!t~ ..

: :::: ..

.,.:~

";", .

.. ......... "!

56·~

! i i

!II -~. -_. -. -""-";" "I,. _. - .•

A ppraxim a te sp triji cati ons 1. ~ Weig:h.t + '. " ~ .. • • • • • • • • • • , • • • .,., 1.3 tons.

""il L' 'h 1 [J f et 'li' ,:h -,~

2,. , engt - '" " . ~ ' .... , .. , . ~ .' ~ . ' .. ~ - _ ,··'ee .:.; lllC e;j~,

3,~ 'Width. ~ ~ e __ " • ~ • , , , • '. ~ " - • - .' 7 feet 1 i'neli.

4,,, He ~,:ght, . . . " . ~ ~ . , - " . . ,. ., . , , ., :8 feet 6 lncbes, 5,. Clea.ran.r.:e ~ .. , , . ~ ., " . " , ~ ~ .' " ' .' 19 inches ..

·6.. Orew , iI " " ~ • " • • • ., ., '" • " • ~ ~ ~ , , "" -4 :men .

. , .. .Arm,or .. ii ii •• '. ,', '. ,. ~ " , ' , ... ~ , • " 6 to l1-nlffi, (0,24 to 0 ,67 inch), also reported as 17 to 2.5-'llll'm (0;,67 to,

O,9~ inch),

e,. Armament. ~ ,~ , '" '" . . .. . . ' . ~ !! • "" 1 5 7 -mm, 1 hll11 1\.1' G J 1. re at' turret.

1vl:G,.

in .... ,'~, - '"t_' .... fi 1:;"7}''''n-nm, 100 rounds, SA}\. 2~745 rounds,

:;.".. ~ ~mun,l 'I,b," • • • • • • • • .' • • , • • ,,~:J ~ _ " J

1,0.. Engine. . . . ~ . ~ ~ . . '" , ~ ~ .' . .' . . ~ ~ 120 fir ake horse pO\;\j'eL t t. 'Ground cent act, , . - , . . . . . " , . '. 12 feet ..

12", Wid. th o:E track '. .a, • , - " " ~ , , , ., ,', ~ ~

-- T k ~ -h

13~ . ~,-ra'c ' ,pitC'. .. ,. "' . . . , . . . . . . ~ . . ,

14.. Diam, rear sprocket. .. . " . '" " '" ~ ~

1~ D'" boei h- -1

J\~ ~ Ulrn..ogle We ee . '. '. , , . . . . . .

t 6~ :Heigllt to [;el1 tel" of id ler .' " ~ + • '.

12 inches, (5 inches,

:30 m<::iles+

l"I ~ 11- -

Y llllO .Lt:.':s ~

33 inches,

Approx£mat£ maximum perform ancs

~,~, Speed _ , . , ~ " ' " . ~ ., .. , . .. '1.5 miles per- hour ..

2 ~ Range 0:[ action: . .. " , ' . ~ ~ . '. ' .. '.' t 00 miles,

3 ~ Gradien t '. ,_ . , " -e • '. ~ • _ " • _ e. ,', _ _ •• 3o::r" +

Step. ' , .. ~' . ~ . _ 3 , 3, .' • ,',' 2 feet ? inches higb ~

FOl"'a ,. '" + + ~ e a '. ' •• ' .' .. e ~ +, 3 feet 3 inches deep,

Mod,el 914 (1'9,34)

The Model 94 (19:34) medium tank has, been, used extensively by the Japanese in. China, although it now is, considered obsolete, There arc a

number 0- ,f' resem blanc iI'il!,~, betw ee n this tank and M' od eolia B'··9·A· and 89- 'B-'" T--' ,..,h· .. ·I,j:il.

. 'l~, . ~ . t ·'.11 '-. ... .lj:-w '~,';I ... J..I. 'VI:' _ '1C. _" -," e ..;' .. ~, ~ .I(~,'" K . .;; ..... 11· .1, ..... . . ,~;S"~' "'.!OI.I··::· '. [' "_'. "-r.-

Model 94, however, has at long front plate with a door on the left" above which is Ul011l1J t ed t he II ull machine gun.,

Su spension is similar to tha t of the earlier models except that, while there are s tin nine 'bogie wheels 0'1.1 each side .. tilt: nurn bcr of return rollers has

J •

been. reduced, from, five to four, The girder upon which the return rollers

were: mounted in the B9 .. A, and 8gB models has 'been removed and, the skirting has been redesigned, The superstructure protrudes over the top of the bogie wheels which are almost completely hidden by the skirting, The

~ " . .

11 r 'I I d" ! th d I' l' ii'-1 h if 'II. b t ~ ~ - 1 th

tank 0" ten IS equippec ,"VI-, a urtcnmg tan w icn, -y mcreasmg Its .e-n,g_ i ~

improves its. performance in crossing trenches,

The armor is OA,,7 inches thick on the front; the turret is 0 .. 43 inches on the sides, It is reported without confirmation that armor thickness may

58'-"

.....

have 'been increased to 0.98 inches, The turret is more rounded than .in the earlier models and has sloping sides, The ,po'wer of the e:nS',ine has been increased to about 160 brake horsepower,

A, 37_ ... mrn tank. gJ.lill is mounted in the turret, and a machine gun on a ball ;mount is III stall ed in. the rear of the turret, There ,is another light machine gt.ln in, the. left front of the hull,

~IOD'EL 9~4 (1934) MED'IUM 'Tk'1K /Specifico.tio ns

'1 i \\'1' eight, , i, .. ~ ;, ; i , , • '. ~ • ~ + • + ,. ~,' 1 S tans ~

LL l.eng th (including ditching tail) ~ 23 feet,

,AI, Hei IT'h''''

~ ;-J.[ .....:0'· L·. .' !!! ~ ~ !P '" ~ !Po Ii' iii' .. !ill iii ii + '1- +. '1- 03 ;;;

5, Clearancev ; . ~ ,~ .. ~ Ii ,i '" ,~ .. .. +. '. '. , '. •

(l" C'::r.e.:w'.,., ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .. ,OJ .. ~ .. ,ii ii ~ • ,. , ,; -a ,i

7 'feet 1 inch,

S. Iee t 6 i riches. 1 9 inches.

4 men,

6 to 1,7 -mm (0,24 to (L67 inch],

S, Armaments

'Ii • '':!I I' 1 1 c;'7. ... rnm g: -;nr

.l'lj.'.1~,,[, , ~ " ~ ~ ...... ~ ., ~ ~ ~ ,I " " ' •• ~ J! ~ , ' , ,_U.!b;!i,I!

M'G. " 'I • iI •• 'I .. ' ... ~ II " I' .' • , ., 1 HulL l\1.G~

l rear tUlf'f'et ~f'G,

9,. Ammu ni ti on i ~ ; + • , '. , .. ~ ~ ~ + " ., 57 =mm 100 rou rids, SAA 2 . .., 50 [\0 unds ~

,. ~

10., :E ngi r]C- _ • , , " , • , • ~ ,I .. ., I I ,I ,I ,I ,I .... 1.60 brake horsep O\ver air-cooled Diesel,

11 ,', Ground contact. .' . ~ "' .. ' . " . " " . ~ ~ 1 ,2 feet,

12 \Vidth of tr.ack ,; . _ ' .... ,~ , I •• ' •• ,,~ 12 inches.

13" T l'a"cl pi, tch , . . '. , , .' _ , '. ,~ ~ ~ ., ., .. 6 inches.

14, Di a.m,. [car sprocket 4' t 'I I! I I' ~ ,! ,,~ 30 inches ..

1,S. Diam, front Idler , _ . " " " a, • • • • •• 36 inches ..

1.6, Din m,. bogie ~. hF.~J '. . ~ ~ ~ " , . " ;0. 9 inches I, 17,., I~]ei,ght to center of front idler. II 33, inches, ..

Appr.oximate. maxim um perform ance

1., Speed ,', " . , ... iii', ,E ~ ~ ~ ~ •• ' • , '. • •• 20 miles per hour,

2~ Range of action. ~ ., ~ .... " ~ .. " ~ ~ ii ii 100 miles,

3 ~ Gradi.e'lJ t , " . . . ~ ;; i + '. + '. '" ~ • e. , , .." 540

4,. 0 bst acles:

'Trench , .. .. " ,I, I I, ,I ,I II '" " ~ ,~ " I I 9 feet "vide ..

Step I I, , , I , 'I " " ~ " .' '. '", " ~ .. ~ .,.' 2 Ieet 9 i nches h~gh.,

Ford ~ + ' •• 0' " ~ ~ ' •• ' ., ~, ii ;0 ;0 ~ ~ ~ 0, 3 feet 3, inches deep,

Model 9,-' 7~--' (-] 9· .,- 3'-, 7- )',

~. , . ~ . .

Another japanese tank that has been encountered in several combat theaters" including Guadalcan a I and Burma, is the: Model 97 (1937)" It probably was produced in the period' 1937=,1940, and its design represents the incorporation of experience gained in, the Chinese operations, It is the first tank to be found equipped with, smoke projectors. Another inte re s, ti ng fe at ure is the in s ta l] a 'It] on of gl ass visor block S over vision, a pie rtures J correetina a serious deficiencv that existed in earlier models-

..Il- .i _...: . ~'..:':" 5 ~_ ," _1' _.: [I ': •.. '~ .. 'w' ••• ~. " ,~, " " •••••••• '" '", ••••••• _.'.

59

'"

~.

I'.!;:! .

. ....,.

it::;,

',,_

~'

~

' .. ~l

0...

--

"1-

~ :h ~

61

r!"'.r·~ I·/r·

Figure 5'B,~~i\lo del 94~ (1934) medium tank, fett [ro nt Ii Note exterio r t u rret m,ac hinegun I1l01fnt.

62

Figure 59,.-1,11 o del 94 (1934} medium tan. ~~J on a road in. C I:drLa.

63

Armor is, considerabl y thicker than in ea. rlie r med ium tank mode 1 ~,~ wi th l inch in f rant and, on the turret, and 0.86 inch. UIn. the sides ~ Backing pla tes arc used 'to reinforce the hull Joints and corners. The vehicle is quite vulnerable, however .. nO'l only 'be(A."1.11Se of the l';gh'tne~,~. of the armor in com ... parison with tanks of other armies 'but also because of the absence of' welded construction. 'Both hull and turret plates are assembled almost en tirel y by bol ts an d rivets ..

Suspension differs sharply Irom that of previous models. There arc six bogie wheels on each side, with the four central ones on each side paired, while each end bogie wheel is independently bell-crank mounted to the hun. "VI~u~n viewed from the side, all the wheels seem independently mounted, There are three return rollers en each side, with the center OD:e carrying only the inside half of the track, Drive is of the front-sprocket type ..

The rounded turret is set cen trall y; the hand ra il som etimes se-en aroun d it i!:;, not always installed." TIle main armament is a 57 -mrn tank gu~n, v .. .hich has a 20-degree traverse but no elevating IHe chanism, [TIle re is a T, 7 ~ mrn machine gun in the rear of the turret, and a similar weapon ~. installed in the front of the hull.

Power is provided by a Diesel, 1'2 -cylinder, V =type engine ~ - t is air-

co-oled, ,fUl~ valve-in-head, developing 170 horsepower n'! maximum output, Cylinder" head 3, and crankcase are made of cast aluminum, The fuel system is the high", pre~$ure type, with Bosch inj cctors place d directly over the pistons,

TWl} type~~ of ~teeri:ng are utilized, One is the clutch-brake type, similar to that on other J ,apan ese ta nks, which is u sed for skid turns, Extern al dry brake bands increase the sharpness of the turn after the clutch is, disengaged .. ,~4, form or epicyclic steering is used for normal turning movements. Clutches which are of the multiple-disc type have cast aluminum housings. 'T ransmission is of the convention al sliding -gear type, with five forward speif ds an d on e reverse.

M'ODEL 97 (193/) ~f.ED[Ul\t1 T .. ~NK

SjJt:cijic,at£o'ns by e xaminati r:],tt 1~ Weight. " ... ~ .. " " '. ~ " ... ,~ ~5 tons"

2; ~ Length. , . , . . . . . ~ _ , , ;, ; , ~ 1. 8 feet,

:1 ~ Width. . . " . ~ ~ e. ~ " '. • ,. a e • ". {f eet g inches.

4·" Height.. " ~ I. .. ~ • " ;. • • .. ~ • • •• 7 feet .s lnches. ~. 5., Clearance. . ,~ . ~ .... '! I " ~ I • ',, 16 mches I

16 .. Crew , oj ill I'! !" !P !Ii ii ill Ii'! ~ 'Ii ~ !I ill ~! [I .. 4 men'!l

'1'.. Armor I. ~ .. ~ .... ~ co ~ .. ~ ~ ~ ~ •• .8 to 2S-:m.In (0.,32 tu (t'9.s inch),.

'II! "" ..... ma- -- m - -t-- i' gl,~ .lU-:;" -_: I eq'._.~

M_alln .. ~ .. + ~ • a ~ ...... ~ ~ r. t ,57-mm ~(ode:i '97 gun." l-Illll. ~ ' .. '. ,I " '" ••• " ,. ,. ~, 1 7~7-mnl Model 97 MG·+ Rear Turret , .. .. ,. '., . " ~. 1 7,t ,,-,mIn h-to del 97 :Vf G.

£!A_ 1U£

9~. Arnmuni lion. .. " .. [! ~ ... ~ ~ ~ ;I 4 57 _'mLW 8 (I rounds HEr----40 rounds APU'S, .MG ?;),35.o rounds hall, 1 ,.350 A);"I ..

tO~. F~n:gi.ne ~ ~ .. ~ .. .. .. ~ ~ ,. + ~ + ;0 ~ .. ~ ]:2 eyl inder D.iesd ..

I L Hersepower , " ., ,I ~ ~" 1.5,0 (365 theoretically indicated HI? at 2,,000

1l.1:l'.r~/[ -bAs~'d. on reported engine speeifiea-

12~ 'Transm isSjn.n ., " . ~ ... ~ .. .. . ... + 4 speeds forward, 1. rev1crse-mgb low [',a.uge. 1..3·. Steering," I. ~ II ~ ~ I· " ~ •••• , ~ •• ". Clutch brake.

1,4. Ground contact '. ,. .' ~ " ~ I' "' • ~ 1,2 feet g Inches,

t 5 .. 'li'lidlth of track .. ~ ~ ... , .,~., ~ .' '. 13 :incbe.s.

16 ~ Track i-'i tch , . . . ,. ~ ~ . , . ; ..' S inches ..

17.. n i: ali]. (l'on t sprocket ~ . ,. ~.. 2:3 inches.

18.. Diam, rear idl e.r.. . . _, ,. . .. ,. 23, ·].]ltches+

19,! Dia.ml' bogie wheel ~ , ~ ~ '1 ,t 2.1 inches.

20~. Height to center of ap rocket 03 3274. i nches,

21 ... Fuel con!5unlptiotll ,. ,. " . s - •• 4- gallons per hour ..

~pp.ro.xitnate maximum ./J.er:/o'fm ance

i '. Sp eed , ~ " " ~ ., ; .. ~ .. . .. " ~ !i ~ !i ~ 25 miles pel' hour .. 2. Radius of action, . ,I, .~ " ., .!' ~ ,o. 1.00 miles,

,3.. Gradient: .. "., .... ~ " ~ ..... ,,~ 34,g, .. ,

4- Obstacles:

T rerllch ~ . ,. ~ . " . . .' ,~ .. ~. 8 feet 3 inches,

Step. ;0 ;; ;0 ~ ~ + .~ ;; ~ " " " ~.. 2 ket r) i nch.es 'n.] g:h~

F ord Il " ~ .. '. .. fI' .. .. .. lI, • • •• .3 feet 3 inches deep ..

MOldel 97 Modified

AA medium tank very similar to the Model 97 'was used. bl'Y the Japanese in the operations on Corregidor, With the exception of the turret and main armament it is the same as the Model 97.. The turret is modified to accommodate a higll'-.mlllZ~le-velocity gun believed to 'be of 47' .... mm caliber .. , .It also has, a rear turret machine gun, The long over-hanging rear' portion of the 'turret probably has been designed. to permit simultaneous firing of the tank and machine gung ...

Variations of Model 97 captured on Saipan had a much longer turret to accommodate a long-barreled &Iodel 1 (' 1941) 47··~mm ,guu... Another ca.p-' turcd Ileal" IUlphal likewise was armed with a 1·j .... rnm gll,n but did not. differ rna terially from the specifications lis ted in other lies peers.

H· T·· nk

eavy· r ·· ..... ·'· ., a'-- .. _S

, ,

Little :is known a bout J apa ne .. se heavy tanks, Th n 5 e reported have been characterized as. slow, clumsy, and lightly armored, The performance of none of them tltus far encountered is, sufficientlv effective to make them .

..

usable against modem vehicles of this type used by other armies, Produc-

tion of heavy tanks L~ not beyond the capabilities of Japan.e.~e industry, however, and in sui t able terrain satisfactory a rmored vehicles. of this type:

. -

1"11.ay be encountered,

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67

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front

of At odel !J 7 (1937) »2 edium 11. 1], lui "HU 11'( o ~J~ n. d , u Y. Til;} t. ,

t a rJ k.

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69

Fig1)..,·c 68'.-Fronl tll'tW' o] JJ..lodel 9i (1.937) mediurn. U;i1i.k~

70

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71

',' .: ..... '.' : :

72

The Model 97 (1. 9.31') heavy tank, about which considerable data has, been secured, 'weighs 32 tons and is 24 fret :5 inches long', 9 feel to inches 'wide, and 9 feet 6 inches ,high" ,A crew of six is, carried. Maximum road speed is reported to be '28 miles 'per hour, The trench is 7 feet; foro is

4. feet 2 inches, Maximum armor thickness is l +38 inches.

The suspension has a IU-shaped scissor articulation, There are six bogie wheels 0[1 each side arranged In pail's, with h,orizontal coiled spring resis tanc e ..

In addition to the large main turret which mounts a 75-mm gun and at least two machine gun3~ there are two auxiliary turrets forward, each of which m ounts a li ght machine ,g-un;o In addition to the 7.5 -mm gun the main armament may include a lighter- tank gun ..

Ar .m .- 0·. ····r'-·· ed C. ··"a--·· rs

:" - ~' _. - •••• - • -_" • '_' ", J _'.

A curious and somewhat ingen,iou:.:; Japanese armored vehicle, is the 1\fodel 9.3 (1933,) Sumida: sometimes called the "armored trolley car", since by changing 'wheel rims; it can he used either as a cat or an armored "trolley" on. railway lines, To change it from a rail to road vehicle, tile cat is raised by four built-in jacks. The flanged steel tires are removed and solid-rubber tires then are placed over the wheels} an operation taking 10 to' 20 minutes. The vehicle then can be driven off the rails onto the 1"0 ad, Substitution of the Hanged tires, for tubber tires adapts it (or ran use, 'Vhen traveling the set of tires not in 'use is, attached 'to the sides of the hull.

The engine is in front; and there is a round cupola en the van-shaped hull, Road speed is estimated at about 2:5 miles per hour, 'but on rails the vehicle can attain- a speed of about 40 miles per hour, Maximum armor thi CkIle-S.S is 0,.63 Inch, Tile c ar is armed with one or rno re he a ~r'l rnachin e ,g uns -' an d there are seven rifle sl its"

MO,-·D···,E,-'.-L.- -9-··3· ('1~?'3:·)···· '~'''·S-::-.U1\;1-· ID, AUAR-'M··· -0- -·-!'R,-'· rn C·-:A:-··R~·····

- . _ .. _ '7,J _ ... __ _., ,,.1-1., '""~ '_. . . , _ . '-.", -

A1Jfnox~·'lu2,fe ~pt!e{ficatiQns

'1- 'I" P' "'. h 7- 5 Ii:-

_ 4 'V'liel:g t ~ " .. , ,. ~ ~ ~ ,.:"., . '"ODS.,

2~ Len gth ;,. . . ~ i • • ; i • .. i, ;, ,', • ; i • ~;, 21. feet 6 inches,

,.., '~'AT·d h

..;). ,-, )}":- ·.t ~ Ii • ~ iii! I!!I !! II III ! • • !I I! I! !Il • !! II!! !I! • !II' '!

4- 1L.T~,' uhl-+- 9···.· fe ';P_' t: S,: l"'III"II~" hes..

, I!! .w.-~~ '~I.. !II ~ • • • !II .. rii "!i • !! e • ~ !! oi! ~ I'l • _ ~ ~,~",-,",_

5 ~ Gr'o lind ele aranoe- ~ . ~ " . e e • e • '.. 16, lllCl:tes.

9. Engine, , .' .' ~ .. ~ ..... ' ... ' .. '.' ..... 1 (~" F1:1el... ~ ~ . '" ," ., ,. .. ,. . . ,. _ ~ ,. " . , _ . _

6... Qew '!!! ~ .!I •.• "" '" ... fI.l .'" .. ;.! ~ ~ • Il III II ... m Il II III 6 men,

7! Arm amen t. ,I • , • • • • " ~ !' .' • • • " "'. 1 ,tv1 G meu,n ted in turret, Slits: fb,r

:dfl,e~, Or L'MG~.

Up 'to to-nun (~1.63 inch). ,40 horsepower ..

G !" asonne,

8., Armor ~ " . ,i ,i ~ '" .. • •• ., ; • i ii ~ ii " i .. ,;, •

Speed';

O '11.-

I nr' d:lJl.ISJ

On road

.: .. ', ~I : - .... g:_......: II

.- .' a

. .

37 miles, per hour '. 25 miles per hour,

<i. " ~~H:·: :

. ,

~ .

'-

.. ,

,'.'

PigMr,t! ·)',tl.~~~"S'U1ni'da"j ,fl.,,~~,~,(J''''ed C,f1~'1 fiue.d liJ'~'t'h ft(l'ng~'J .st.e~l tixes /01" rad tr,QrJe.l. }i(J,~~ tha:l iU~r) Gars Mt~,e b'ten ioup.,led' back ~o bQ.ck~, ptfmit#ng rapid m:ovtm ent !~R ti (her dirt:!; t-i M '"

74

,

The Model 9,2 .( 1.932) Osaka armored car is widely used 'by the J apanese,

It is believed' to be of Japan'e'se design and manufacture, utilizing a. standard Japan ese commercial ch ass is, I t is rubhe r tired with dual mounting on the rear wheels, It carries a crew of four lor five and is armed with two light machi ne gun s.

MODEL 92 (1932) '~OSi\'K,A):). AR,~10RED C,AR,

App roxim ate jPe.cijica'i~·()'lt;.~ 1 ~ W'e igh't, . . . , ' , . , . . . . .. " , , , . . '" 6.4 tons ..

2., Leng til ,. " , " , ' " " " " u • • • , , , , • ~ '" j[ 6 j[:~~ t 5 inche,i,.

,3,., V!l id th ~ . . . . . . .. . , . . . . . , . " . '" ~.. IS feet,

,4. Height , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8 feet B mcbes.

5 G" d 1

_. • ,["Oun' " c eara.nce . , .. . . . . . . . . .

'I: 1-'" 11

J1., :un: nes,

4- 'to 5 men, ,2 ~lGs~

8 to 1 t -rnrn (0; 32 to. 0.43 inch). 4 icylinde~r,~ 3 5 horsepower ~

G ascline,

Wa~.

6 C'

I -"' .••..•. '

!I! ,·:Iew I! II II !l !l I!!! l!!l !! ••• I] • I!! • !! • Iil ! !!II! ! !! !!

7 ~ Armamc In t ~ . . .' . " " . - . - . ~ . '. '. . .

,8;,+ A:rr.It]L,It]r.. _ . . . ., a, • • • • • "' • , • , • _ .. _

9'~ Engme. . '. . . . . , . . ~ " .. ' " . ~ " " ; ;

1 i'\ t.'" I

'Y!II' r ue .!!!". I! I! '. ' •• 1l!!!II!!!II!I' I! 'I "I! 'I!II!I!!II.' fI!II

11, 'COOH][1 g" ,. . . . . . . . '. - . . . . . ~ '" . " .

A ppr'tu:i:m ate maximum piiift;'ma:nc.(~ t. Speed ... " " '. , , ... ' .. , , . , .. , .... '31i' miles per hour,

2,. ,({ml,e of I,e tlon .e ,. _ , , , .' '. ~ _ '. ' •• '.' 1 S'O :miJ.e:s,~

N--· ir M'" d 1 ava ,_')'pe'" oc e 92

] 11 d ~ ., "1'1 1 ~

J apanese nava ~,a;n. i n.g parties, e spccia y those pl'"e]Jarlng to assume

garrison duties, often are landed with varying numbers of the Model 92, ( 1.932 ) na val ty P e arrnore d car ~ It h as six d,i sc w heel s, wh i c h are

~ .

pneumatic tired" and semielliptical springs. There are auxiliary wheels

just to the rear of the front wheels to prevent bellying when the vehicle is crossing rough t errai n. F au r light machine gU,[lS are instal'] ed ,

M'O!DEL 92. (1932) N~~ VAL .TltP'E ARlVIC>REf) (~AR

A pprox tin a It sJ;ec:,iji(;'atio ns

t W"-]l ""''0-'

_''!! ".', ,e'lg 'll ~ 0, _ ••••••• , " •• _, •••• ~ tG)11S,.

,2,., Length. ~ ~ ~ 0 •••••• " ,. ~ • , , ..... , 15 feet 9 'inches.

"2. 1I.~f,~:..-lt'" 5 e- f c cct 'Ii,1 m ches,

J.!ll '" ~U,I iii I. I! l~ '!! III !I II !, II •• !II • II .... !II I' 'I 'I III ., ~~ tit JL '"- ~ ~_,..,

4~ Heigru _ . _ , " _ _ _ _ _ .. , __ " , , , ~. 7 feet 6 'i'nchf".s.,

,5 ,0, Ground c le ill r an,De , . . • i i • • '. • ,. 1. 6, inches,

0" Crew . ~ .. I •• ' I •• ~ • I'l I' I m ~ .! : •• ~ .' •

4 men ..

r ",.if'.r'1I

.J .v J_ '\ :J'5i~,

8 to I t-mm «)~:12, to' 0.43, inch).

'7," Armame n t

'9. :Engi nc. . , , " . . . . , . ., ., " . . . . . .. '6-cy1 in der ~ 85 brake horsepower, '1 0,. CooUng _, _ . . _ . _ . , . _ _ _ . . . ,. " . .. W ale r ~

;.4Pl1f()X ima te m aximum perjor.tn ance Speed _ .. , ~ ,. " ... ~ .. ,~ ~ ., . ~ ., ., ... ,. .. 50 miles pet' hour,

Ar 0""1' a .m .ent

, ' l"". " ., J •

The main armament of J apanesc medium tanks usually is the Model 94 ('1934) ,37 -mm tank gun. It is, a short .. barreled, medium .. velocity gun primarily designed for antipersonnel usc. This factor, or course, 'was, in keeping with the former 1 a:panese policy of utilizing tanks mainly for ,in, ... Iantry support, There is also a Model 98 (1938) 37,,,mm tank gun, thus far found mounted only in a Ja.panF;.~e fighter plane. It is a single shot with a semiautomatic sliding-wedge breechblock, The barrel is 49-5 inches long and the chamber is of 'the same size as the Ylodel 94~ This model, like the 94, is a medium-muzzle-velocity weapon, Replacement of ](Hi\r= or rnerlium-rnuzzle-velocitv guns bv hizh-velocitv weapons seems 10 'be a rea ...

~ ~ I w ~ ~

sonably certain trend ill the modernization of J ~pancsc armored vehicles..·

There also EI,['\e 1·7 -mrri and s.'7-'~[lrn tank guns installed in, medium tanks

b . I' [ · k b h Th 47 b blv j hi h 1 .'

,ut itt c is snown about thcrn " ,C,·· -rnm .prona , .. y is a .. Jg",,-ve OClt.y

antitank piece that has 'been rnodificd for usc as tank armament. It js likely that thi s 'wlr.apon ,",\; .. j ~ [ be found ,"'Vi ~:h increasi ng Ireq ueTI(.y.

The Model 97 (1937) 57-nlm 'tank ,glln has a tube ,3 feet, 1~6 inches long.

The gu.n has a vertical sliding breechblock actuated by a hand-operated lever which is counterbalanced by' a breech-closing spring, Tl1e:I'C is no

76

elev2Joting mechanism but the gun is capable of a total traverse of20 degrees without turning the turret. Two recoil cylinders of equal size. arc installed in the cradle.

Figure 16'.=·,.l1oriel 94 {1'934} tank gun"

~ .

-:. "

':':', . ;',

....... " '::-.:.'

.. -: ;" ':i'Y' ('

. :: :.-,:;.~(~I

r ~ -.:; : I

III I

F-i ure 77 C'o.m .h---."-- ,~ ".- ." ' . iti. , , t -1- ~ , M-' ,_.;I :II njf ( ~ 11"""')1 !)..." - , ' ";IIT- - - J

g __ . _ -', ~- _- ' '~'.i'ar,~s.o n .01 .arn.m.u n,j., lon, 0 r ,~ue -, - .OU.e,lO.J!T . ~ ~ .. ~":t" .. ~, ~ ~lnm l':l gu.n ,f_nUt

the ,A-t,odei 94 (19.3'4) 3~7·'~n111. tank gU'n~ ,Let~ f,(JI rtgJ~t: AP-=;·flE la,na' llll' tou,nds f~f lh.« ~AT 15un:;' .AP-H E and H.E rounds [or the lank gt~n~

77

'10' "D' EL 94 (1- ~34) 1:"'" TA'N' K' G,oU"N

.l" "..::.,. 0 '., ......, '. :.r ':',' J l -,!\/[M " ,.' '. - .. _ ,}

Maxirrmrn d{"l'j;lre!1s~nn ..... , . , " , ",. ~ 2,O~'.

T rave.ree.. i, ~ " • • • • " , , • • " ., • • • • ,. ., •• 10° righ t, 100 left ~ VlitholU t. ro't ating tIne

turret,

Vertical sliding~ semiau tomatic in actio n" H"tdros,pring ..

A,P~' ,'F. , nd HF-,~

Cf:~Ji ber , ~ - e _ I, ;; ~ • " " " " ~ .' , , • • • • • - _ ,

~1 uZozJe 11 elocity , " .. ~ .

Maximum clcvation , " . " u , ~ .. " 'I' • ,I •

h hani

Breec : melt:: amsm , '" . . . '. . . . , , . . ~ .

R ecoi 'sys-; I"). , , , •••• , ••••• , •• , • ,

Amm !I_Ii

Un"ll'tIOIi:JJ ,. ,. • , • .. • " • • ,. • • • ~ a, • ~ ~ ~

37-'Olffi (1.,46 ineh) ~ .

",100 feet pel' secund (e5.tim,a 'cd;"

+240

_. .

1fODEL 97 (1937) 7.7~'J~~M TANK l\tIAC~HINE GUN

Ca1liber. . . . . ,. ~ . ~ . .. _ . ~ _ . . . , ~ ~ . , .. 7. 7,~nHn (0,303 inc h).,

Principle of operation .... " .... , , . ,. Gas, oper ate-d, fun autornatic IOlnly. Ty pe or feed. ~ . . ,. " . ~ . , , . . . , . . " ". Vertic al box.

'k..' ..

,~V aga Zlue c a'[p,flCl ty . . . . . . . . . _ _ . ~ _ _

'ulllgth lof barre" . '.' ... , ' .... I' , • , ~ ., I

1'0: '. 'II .rr.;rr; ... '::iIi 1 J" ","-"," J.li't~·

'. ", 'Ii! ~_IJ iP!!~ UI[J.·~Ji!jl 1[1 ... _ .... ~ ~ ~ + _ ' .. - ~ ~ • S' II I'

"IL"'.r ., 1\...

YVel.gllt ill II • I. I •• , 1 :I :I • III III ::. 1 1 :10 _ I, • __ e _ • 1

C)tclic rate of fire. ~ i , •• , •• ~ •

AJflllnunitiun .. _ ~ ~ ' , ,~ ~ ~ 'I' .' •

30 roun ds, 28 inche s,

...-116 ~ •• ,;'1,.. •.

'"'IiI, mene s~

34 pounds.

500 rounds: er rninute.

Fire s s pee ~al l\-Iod,e ~ 91~1 ri rnless,

M.: ... · O.·-.D .. ··ELj·.L.· 90.7,' (193-'''''' 57 'T A N'K', GU' N"

r . .... t ~ :'. ~,:MJd L', '.»': I .. T ....

o •

Char a cteristias

C'II"

all, .. r ... ,III II: • II •• .Ii 0&;, &: _ , .. .; -. -. '~ 'I' ~ :! ••• 1 II

t~~ ~ h'

)" 'Iii cmg .. 1: !I ! • II II I! !II II !I !II !Ii il I iI ,i iI iI iiI N !II !iii !iii • i! II

Length of tube ~ ~ . . _ _ . " . _ .. . _

Length of' chamber ~ _ . ~ ~ ~ . .. ,.

j[\" urn be r of I._ nds an ~ grooves ~ . . I • • :Ma . innrr II ~ength of re coi ~. .' . . .. . , .. Max irnum elevation ,. ~ . . _, , ~ ~ ~ '. . , . .

'"I ira. verse . . . .. . . . . . i • i .. • • • " " • • ,. ~ .,

Typ , 1))[ b echlslock ~ __ e _ , • __ •• ~ • Am muni tion , , e ; , • , • , • .. • " • .. • • , ,', "

78

57 -mm (2.24 inc hes) . 283 pounds.

:5 feet t.6 inc __ es. 5 .. 1 .inches.

2.0~

11 'ill ~ L ...

.Jl mcnes.

4~45°.

-

1 0·° right, t· '00 left, without r'o''''iI!!it''t''~,a ,~~." e .'

, ',"JI I tt;J.,~ , ,'"Iw"~ -ee '1m "~~"a. I~P;

turret.

'V ~. -I" IP ...::I!:_

. cr Ica sllw,ug Ii

011 ~y high explosive rounds., have been recovere d ~,O da te, 'They are characterlzed by .a! rather short cartn,dg'~ case,

L'~}" M' . . 'l ~ G> "

.. ' ..• I" ....., ..... " ."-". '.,' • " " .

, 19"- it .. ·.ac .11.11C " .. IU,n

{'

The light machine .gun almost invariablv installed in ]'aI1anese tanks is

. IL.:I I I

the lvfod,el 9 7 (] 93 7) 7.7 -rnm machine gun~ '1''1115 wea pon is ,gas opera ted

and air cooled, It is a shoulder-controlled weapon with a specially designed, stock and is fitted with conventional siglll~,," '''hen used for tank

P· 'u- rpn.C'.Ji!!iI·S '1.... - ' .• ,.;:iii" r~ r a '.,!Po ~ ,oCI f' c ...,;n; r» 'Ii! '~g" . h tor 1 I ~ 'p"O''!'' '~~r an de 3\0" ,_ d - .r. ..... rrree 'f eld "0" 'f

, .' i"o!'~"'" l' ..IU.II._.!!\i\ '!i ...... 'i- '1...,. ~ . II..!L,.,I ~-~, '''..!':.r.I.'!.~ , .. Ji,_ ,. ., .. , /2 _'" ""\ L. . . ~. " '. '!,.~D,l '!Ii... .ll.h .... ',', "

'vi, ew 115 Ulan y is fitted. To prevent in ju:ry to the ,gunn~-r" a heavy rubber

•••••••......... j ••• I," "," ","

,

! ,

.. . ,.

Fi'gufe 78.-,j_\lo,dsl 97 .( 1.(37) 1 . .7"tn.'ln tank machine gun,. w,Uh telescope and O,a11'ct ,gua r.d r« m(H);] d. '1' eleseope and tele !:co,P,e tJa;n].p 1l,'U] ill U '!it rat e'll ;, rl i he lo ~t.'er P(H t ,oj" the /J,hoto .

..

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e "." I

:." .... I

; ,I,

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• .:-0'8

. .;.:{:

N.

~

.... .. .. ~. I •• : •••

: <

" . .

, (

......•. ~. . ... :.

I ••• :.:. : .j~': .. ; .. :........... __ ...... _ :"~ .. >:'"W-:....:.. • .. ......

-J _. . ._ ..

. ,

............... ""u. :..:_

""g' /: .. ,

I"":

r ~ • '-.'

'. ::::~.r:-::-.y. ... ) ... -:-.' ',' .=-:-:

.. : c» ~~ I : :~ .~.. .::':

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: ... :

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.': . -:"If

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I ..... :

P~:gu re 81 ,.,-M ode! 97 (193'.7) 7."i"',mm t.ank machine g1tit witJ~ bi,pG:ti:' len USB' 1I~f,' a g r01.LTL,d ~'un~ Telesco 1M' ilnd magazino are in place.

,

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< :=-

~.

,

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. l .... ~~.~

.10 • I I

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..... . .........

• : ::- ~ : .1.= ;

.......

:-=_

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:--' .:

..

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,

"'".

I •• t ',',

ill Ii

eye-pad is attached to the rear of the telescope, The design is, similar '1.0

th .'- of M' , d "} '99' ii 1'9,'3' 'g') 7-', 7-' '-' 1 ~~-1L t -- -- -h ~ " , - " .', f:- "" ., ", , ': .. '

t, ,.'2i t O. 1- -0" f; . -, -, \' _ -,', e- ,.' s, , ... mm ,11.g1), , rnacr me gu,n,. an In antr y \'vea pon~

Th~ Mode], g]. (1913 'I) 6",5-'mm machine gun-actttally the l\lodel u , ]. 9~:2') 6.5=ffim infantry \l\ieapon modified for tank use by ,rernoval of the binod-c-also still mav be' encountered although it probably is 'bcing-- replaced

. 1·· .. ··· . ." -: . ,I _;L.,. _. , .' '_--" , "_,,, _. _ :." _~ ~',-: .1"._ .. _. ,"'JJ' ._l _ -.... '. _"", :_' ,_ .. _' " .:..,

by the Model 97 (1937) 7.7 -mm gun,

80

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