1600-1700 • Virginia Company, an English firm created the first permanent English colony – they planned to

make money by sending people to America to find gold /valuable resources and then ship back to England. • House of Burgesses the first European-type legislative body in the New World established by the Virginia company. • Powhatan notable Native American chieftain whose tribe had lived for centuries onVirginia. forced off their own land so settlers could use for agricultural purposes( tobacco) • Bacon’s Rebellion, the landless rebels wanted harsher action against the Native Americans so more land would be available to the colonists, rebellion was put down, and House of Burgesses passed laws to regulate slavery so poor white colonists would no longer side with slaves against rich white colonists. • Massachusetts settlement first New England colonies were established by the Puritans in Massachusetts. came for a better life and to practice religion as they saw fit. Puritans were not tolerant of other religious beliefs. • Rhode Island settlement Rhode Island was founded by MA religious dissenters who were more tolerant of different religious beliefs. • Half-Way Covenant puritan minister’s response to American born adults lacking a personal covenant (relationship) with God which prevented them from voting. It allowed partial church membership for the children and grandchildren of the original Puritans. • King Philip’s War (1675–1676) was an early and bloody conflict between English colonists and Native Americans where lots of Native Americans died making southern New England a English settlements. • Salem Witch Trials In the 1690s over 150 Massachusetts colonists accused of witchcraft were tried, 29 convicted, and 19 hanged. Causes- extreme religious faith, stress from a growing population’s bad relations with Native Americans, and the narrow opportunities for women and girls to participate in Puritan society.

• Mid-Atlantic Colonies • Pennsylvania founded by the religiously tolerant Quakers, led by William Penn. • New Amsterdam (New York) settled by the Dutch, who called it New Amsterdam. Renamed
New York in1664 when British conquered colony A diverse trade population kept religious tolerance alive. • Quebec first permanent French settlement in North America. France wanted to spread Catholism • Massachusetts Charter In 1686, the British king canceled the charter making it an independent colony to control trade between America and the colonies, by combining new England British colonies into a single territory governed from England. The colonists in this territory greatly disliked this centralized authority. In 1691, Massachusetts Bay became a royal colony.

1700-1760 • Mercantilism Earth had a limited supply of wealth in the natural resources( gold, silver), so to
become a stronger nation you acquired the most wealth. British wanted more land to keep other European powers • Trans-Atlantic Trade Parliament controlled trade with its American colonies and designed to keep colonies from competing against Britain. All goods must be shipped in British ships, and exported goods had to land first in Britain to pay taxes even if different destination and Certain goods could be exported to Britain only. • Growth of the African Population As tobacco and cash-crop farmers prospered and expanded the size of their farms, they didn’t have enough workers to plant, grow, and harvest the crops. so farmers turned to African slaves (“savages”) and the slave population increased from 0 in 1607 to thousands in 1700 mainly in the South (agricultural economy).

• Middle Passage sea voyage that carried Africans to North America because it was the middle portion
of a three-way voyage made by slave ships. First, British ships with rum, cloth, and other English goods sailed to Africa, where they were traded for Africans originally enslaved by other Africans, Then, the slaves would be transported to the New World where crew would buy tobacco /American goods from slave profits and send tobacco to Britain. • African American Culture slaves attempted to “make the best” it while living under the worst of circumstances with music, dance, basket-weaving, and pottery-making. • Benjamin Franklin America’s Founding Fathers. throughout his life, Franklin sought ways to improve himself (individualism) and rise in society (social mobility). author, philosopher, scientist, inventor, and politicians • Individualism Franklin sought ways to improve himself

• Social Mobility Franklin sought ways to rise in society • The Great Awakening Christian worship changed in the 1730s and 1740s in the northeast.
Ministers told each believer should seek his or her own personal and emotional relationship with God (not Puritan idea of congregations).Ministers preaching such sermons to enormous audiences, traveling from colony to colony to preach to anyone (all religions) who wanted to listen. Christianity grew but established churches lost members.

1760-1776 Causes of American Revolution • French and Indian War 1754 - Fought in North America from 1754–1763. The war mirrored the
Seven Years War in Europe (1756– 1763). English colonists and soldiers fought the French and their Native American allies for dominance in North America. England’s eventual victory brought England control of much disputed territory and eliminated the French as a threat to English dominance in the Americas. • 1763 Treaty of Paris Ended the Seven Years War in Europe and the parallel French and Indian War in North America. Under the treaty, Britain acquired all of Canada and almost all of the modern United States east of the Mississippi. • Proclamation of 1763 Forbid American from settling beyond Appalachian Mountains in an effort to limit their conflicts with Native Americans. • Stamp Act Issued by England in 1765. The Stamp Act required colonial Americans to buy special watermarked paper for newspapers and all legal documents. Violators faced juryless trials in vice-admiralty courts, as under the 1764 Sugar Act. The Stamp Act provoked the first organized response to British impositions. • Intolerable  Acts  A combination of the four Coercive Acts—meant to punish the colonists after the 1773 Boston Tea Party —and the unrelated Quebec Act. Passed in 1774, the Intolerable Acts were seen as the blueprints for a 19British plan to deny the Americans representative government and were the impetus for the convening of the First Continental Congress. • Sons of Liberty secret organization of American colonists opposed to British authority in MA and damaged British Gov property and homes trying to stop distribution of the stamped paper. • Daughters of Liberty protesting British rule in North America by weaving homespun fabric to make clothes and other goods so the colonists would not need to rely on British imports. • Committees of Correspondence planned First Continental Congress and first organization linking the colonies in their opposition to British rule. Formed because American patriots could not communicate publicly. One committee would exchange written communications with another committee within or between the colonies. • Thomas Paine Author of influential pamphlet Common Sense, which exhorted Americans to rise up in opposition to the British government and establish a new type of government based on Enlightenment ideals. Historians have cited the publication of this pamphlet as the event that finally sparked the Revolutionary War. Paine also wrote rational criticisms of religion, most famously in The Age of Reason (1794–1807).

Britain ceded Florida to Spain and certain African and Caribbean colonies to France. 1783-1800 Events and Ideas leading to adoption of US Consititution • U. Common Sense became so popular and influential that many historians credit it with dissolving the final barriers to the fight for independence. He used ideas of Locke and de Montesquieu to help convince readers that American independence was supported philosophers and thinkers. playing a key role in getting France to recognize the United States’ independence. • 1783 Treaty of Paris ended the American Revolutionary War. As the oldest delegate to the Constitutional Convention. US ambassador to France. patriot. and executive powers. Finally. As opposed to the Articles of Confederation. Washington led troops in snow to victory. Paine argued that the colonists should free themselves from British rule and establish an independent government based on Enlightenment ideals. • John Locke English philosopher whose writings were borrowed by Declaration of Independence • Charles de Montesquieu French political thinker whose legal arguments were borrowed by Declaration of Independence • George Washington Commander-in-Chief of Continental Army. a discussion of US’s unsuccessful attempts to get relief from Britain. Displaying extraordinary leadership. • Valley Forge 1777-78 Washington and 12. legislative. disease and lack of food made 4000 unable to fight. military and diplomatic aspects of American Revolution • Declaration of Independence most important documents in US history. Constitution The Constitution is the document that outlines the operation and central principles of American government. and his advice proved crucial in the drafting of the Constitution. • Crossing the Delaware River This victory proved Washington’s army could fight as well as an experienced European army. Franklin served as an ambassador to France during the Revolutionary War.• Common Sense Written by Thomas Paine in 1776. • Marquis de Lafayette Leader of French army and fleet who helped defeat Cornwalis and end war. though it purposely restricted the extent of these powers through a system of checks and balances. and started a training boot camp to make into professional military. French/ American armies. • Benjamin Franklin Inventor. (a war turning point ). On Xmas 1776. 1st part explains legal and philosophical reason for independence. Ends with only way for Americans to have their rights restored is to restore them themselves by declaring independence from Britain and controlling their own government. the other delegates admired his wisdom. 1776-1783 Ideology. which it replaced. US won independence from Great Britain and gained control of land stretching to the Mississippi River. convinced France to support US independence and agreed to wage war against Britain until US gained it. he reorganized army. Franklin has often been held up as the paradigm of Enlightenment thought in Colonial America because of his fascination with—and contributions to—the fields of science and philosophy.000 men spent 6 cold months here.Franklin. Jefferson wrote first draft in simple direct language and revised after input from Adams and Franklin. and a French fleet. Part 2 gives examples of British violating colonist rights.S. Written at the . They crossed the Delaware to stage surprise attack on fort occupied by Hessian mercenaries fighting for the British. secured equipment/supplies. Cornwallis was attacked Virginia by Lafayette. but Washington made remainder go thru boot camp turning the Continental Army into a capable and self-assured infantry. • French Alliance (military) turning point in the war . • Battle of Yorktown Cornwalis surrendered at Yorktown after Lafayette attacked ending the war. Now Britain faced war on 2 continents and pulled troops out of America to fight in Europe. • General Charles Cornwallis head of British army in US Succeed in moving war to south to separate colonies from Northern revolutionary forces. the Constitution created a strong central government with broad judicial. and statesman.

Ex.Constitutional Convention. gov couldn’t fix economy. southern states wanted to count slaves and North resisted. the Constitution gave each branch of government a way to check and balance the power of the other branches. and establish national currency. • Checks and Balances To safeguard against an abuse of power. • James Madison To counter anti-federalist claims. • Alexander Hamilton To counter anti-federalist claims. • Limited Government power divided by state and national that guaranteed citizens rights • Executive Branch power of the executive branch was shared with legislative and judicial branches. a group of influential people were against it because they believed the government was too powerful by restricting state powers and wanted rights guaranteed to the states as well as citizen. Federalists believed in a strong central government at the expense of state powers and were staunch supporters of the Constitution during the ratification process. The Federalists entered into decline after the election of Thomas Jefferson to the presidency and disappeared as a political party after the the Hartford Convention. Failed. Compromised with 3/5 rulecount three-fifths of their slaves as population. and punishments . • Federalists Led by Alexander Hamilton. Powers were divided in two ways within the new government. • Articles of Confederation Written during Revolutionary war. Led to stronger central government(federalism). st 1 Amendment: freedom of religion. 2nd Amendment: right to possess firearms 3rd Amendment: government may not require house soldiers during peacetime 4th Amendment: Protects from unreasonable searches and seizures 5th Amendment: no one deprived of life. he and Hamilton wrote series of articles The Federalist papers. speech. With no tax power. Shays& 1000 farmers tried to seize a MA federal. • Anti-Federalists states had to accept consitution. at the close of the War of 1812. inability to tax.president’s power to veto laws passed by Congress. the Constitution was ratified by the states in 1789. Power divided between national and state governments and the power of the executive branch was shared with legislative and judicial branches. • Slavery 3/5 rule last controversial issue at Constitutional Convention Since population affects representation. press. fines. but set precedent for mob rule. and the Supreme Court can rule that a bill unconstitutional. They remained a political force throughout the first thirty or so years of the United States. or property without legal due process 6th Amendment: right to a trial by jury in criminal cases 7th Amendment: right to trial by jury in most civil cases 8th Amendment: Prohibits excessive bails. • States’ Rights anti-Federalists argued Constitution failed to include a statement of states’ rights and individuals’ rights • Bill of Rights Created by Madison to address anti-federalists and could be added after ratification. liberty. it reflected American’s fear of powerful national government and gave states more power (causing conflict between states) Created a gov with no executive branch. • The Federalist Papers supported ratification of the Constitution and explained the intent behind its major provisions written by Madison and Hamilton. writers of the Constitution created a limited government with power divided to state and national gov and citizens guaranteed rights. Established a national legislature to which representatives were elected based on a state’s population and senate with compromise called for with equal representation. legislature can override a presidential veto of a bill. Also agreed to continuation of slave trade for 20 years and Northern states returning runaway slaves • Separation of Powers To reassure people’s fear of powerful government. • Great Compromise helped “save” the Constitution by settling the dispute between states with large populations and states with small ones. • Shays’s Rebellion Having too much personal debt because of states’ Rev War debts. Madison and he wrote series of articles The Federalist papers. the right to petition gov. regulate commerce.

• Lewis and Clark Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to explore Louisiana and the western lands all the way to the Pacific Ocean. In exchange Britain forgave many pre-Revolutionary debts and dropped trade restrictions. Jefferson/his supporters criticized adams. • Whiskey Rebellion After Washington persuaded Congress to pass liquor taxes to pay the states’ war debt. ------------------------Alexander Hamilton Thomas Jefferson Issues: Loose interpretation of Constitution Strict interpretation of Constitution Strong power held by national gov Limited power shared by states & localities Government led by educated elite Government led by virtuous farmers/tradesmen Fear of mob rule Fear of over-powerful government Industrial economy Agricultural economy Paying off national & state debts Paying off national debt only National bank constitutional National bank unconstitutional Trade with Great Britain Trade with France Tarrifs pro manufacturers supported farmers’ issues Support: John Adams New England & middle states Bankers Clergy Landowners Lawyers. as farmers (they were used to making liquor from excess crops of grain to make it easier to transport and exchange) were frightened and attacked federal tax collectors. wrote descriptions and collected samples of unfamiliar animals and plants. Manufacturers Merchants James Madison Southern states & rural areas Farmers Trades people Urban immigrants 1800-1835 New Republic through Reconstruction • Northwest Ordinance Defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. Congress passed laws increasing citizenship requirements to cut off Jefferson’s support base and tried to stop criticism by limiting the speech and press rights of Jefferson’s followers. Thomas Jefferson his Secretary of State and Alexander Hamilton his Secretary of Treasury. Napoleon agreed to sell not only New Orleans to the United States but also the entire Louisiana Territory for $15 million. As a result.9th Amendment: rights not mentioned in the Constitution belong to the people 10th Amendment: powers not given to the national government belong to states or to the people • President Washington first president of the United States. Over 16-months Lewis and Clark charted the trails west.he supported non-intervention in Europe and avoided siding with France against Great Britain. the United States nearly doubled in geographic area. his administration was plagued by conflicts with France and Great Britain criplling the economy. Washington and militia put down rebellion demonstrating his constitutional authority to enforce law and that if Americans did not like a law. (see chart below) • Factions Opposing sides in politics (political parties) • John Adams 1796 election was a close bitter contest between Adams and Jefferson with Adams winning. The ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. suspected . • Political Parties Jefferson believed national government must limit its power to those areas described by the Constitution. the way to change it was to petition Congress peacefully. outraged by impressment -American sailors from captured merchant ships forced to serve in British navy. armed violence broke out west of the Appalachians. mapped rivers and mountain ranges. while Hamilton wanted to expand government power to increase economic stability. • Louisiana Purchase Jefferson sent Monroe to France to negotiate the purchase of port city of New Orleans. and recorded facts and figures about the various Native American tribes and customs west of the Mississippi River. • War of 1812 Causes were objected British trade restrictions on US to France.

including women’s suffrage.Lots of artisans and crafts workers and banking and commercial activities made it main US city. Turnpike for barges where inaccessible by road and lowered transportation costs. unless battles took place in the New World. and wished to drive the British out of North America altogether by conquering Canada Results were end of all U. He introduced manufacturing identical parts so only the broken part would need replacing allowing semiskilled workers to mass-produce mechanical products. 1800s. O’Sullivan first coined the phrase “manifest destiny” in 1845. They could not vote (suffrage) and often lacked legal custody of their own children. foreign policy to which America still holds today. broken machine was discarded/replaced because parts were handmade by skilled workers to fit only that mechanism. altering the quality of work for many people. • New York City Capital of US Until 1790. established America’s army and navy as worthy opponents of any European military forces. The discovery of gold and other valuable resources. If so. • Interchangeable Parts Pre-industrialization. 3. Most men and women believed this was proper. The desire of most Americans to own their own land. Women played an important role • Abolitionism Slavery should be abolished and it should not be allowed in new states. city. • Public School Reform All children required to attend free schools supported by taxpayers and staffed by trained teachers. • Eli Whitney invented cotton gin and interchangeable musket parts • Cotton Gin a machine that removes seeds from the cotton to make thread and fabric 1793 Gin reduced cotton processing costs increasing profits. word manifest means “obvious. Journalist John L. and heightened nationalist sentiments • Erie Canal Opened in 1825 it connected from Lake Erie (great lakes) to the Hudson River ( Atlantic ocean). Increased the size of Protestant religious organizations and their influence in western and rural sections of the country. Delegates adopted a declaration of women’s independence. Made slavery and its expansion an important political issue. Muskets. President Monroe warned the European nations not to meddle in the politics of North and South America. Trade grew with Erie Canal. opened up western New York and west to increased settlement and united new regions with colonies. Established education as a right and as a state and local issue • Women’s Suffrage Women’s rights were few in the early 1800s. The belief that the United States was destined to stretch across North America (Manifest Destiny). • Elizabeth Cady Stanton outspoken advocate for women’s full rights of citizenship. NYC outpaced Philadelphia as the largest U. • Monroe Doctrine defined an aspect of U. .regional and national impact • Industrial Revolution the stage of the 19th century when power. she organized the Seneca Falls Conference • Seneca Falls Conference In 1848. When a group planned to help each other recapture American colonies. 2.driven machines operated by semiskilled or unskilled workers replaced hand tools operated by skilled laborers. Women played an important role.” and word destiny means “fate. Event that . And used unskilled slaves for free labor in south. civic development turned it into economic center based on city block grid By 1835. US would view such battles as hostile actions against US 1800-1860 Economic Growth in early 19th century.S.S. including voting rights and parental and custody rights.British support of Native Americans militarily to prevent settling lands west of the Appalachian. as he wrote of “our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of our continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty. Monroe said would prevent and US would remain neutral in wars between European nations and their American colonies. In 1823. Part of increase in US infrastructure. 363 miles after eight years of digging by immigrant laborers. • Manifest Destiny the idea that the United States would naturally occupy the territory between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans.S. Stanton started America’s first women’s rights convention in NY.” The belief of many Americans in the mid-nineteenth century that it was the nation’s destiny and duty to expand and conquer the West. • Temperance Movement People should drink less alcohol or alcohol should be outlawed altogether.” • Motivations for America’s westward growth: 1. military hostility with Great Britain.

60 whites killed. • Nullification Crisis when southern states (SC) sought to nullify tax (helped northerners. most notably nullification. Calhoun clashed with Jackson over many issues.S. women. as John Quincy Adams’s vice president. and culture. starteda campaign to abolish slavery and to grant no financial compensation to slave-owners. and Turner was captured. Respecting common man. this region was ceded to the United States as a part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Missouri as a slave state. • Missouri Compromise of 1820 Missouri constitution proposed to allow slavery but this would upset equal number of pro and anti slavery states. Native Americans. So Congress passed the Missouri Compromise. it was their duty to expand all the way to the Pacific Ocean to remake all of North America 1800-1860 Relationship between North-South division and westward expansion • Abolitionism Although by 1820 racial discrimination remained. Prominent abolitionists included African Americans. A firm believer in states’ rights. • John C. and then as Andrew Jackson’s vice president for one term. other nations because Americans shared Protestant religion and English language. worked for Garrison and traveled widely. of the US. • Grimke Sisters Sarah and Angelina. hurt plantation oweners) Congress passed on European manufactured goods and refused to pay. • William Lloyd Garrison a writer and editor. During the conflict. • Wilmot Proviso During the Mexican-American War. To prevent uprisings. New Mexico voters would determine slave position. ancestry. sought to broaden public participation in government. so it expanded suffrage (voting rights) to include all adult white males. Seeing 1831 solar eclipse as a message from God. not to the US as a whole (southerners) • States’ Rights the idea that states have certain rights and political powers separate from those held by the federal government that the federal government may not violate. was an important white abolitionist who founded regional/ national abolitionist societies and published an antislavery newspaper that printed graphic stories of the bad treatment received by slaves. not just landowners. • Mexican-American War 1845 US took Texas into the Union and set its sights on the Mexican territories of New Mexico and California. • Nat Turner’s Rebellion African American preacher believed his mission was to free his people from slavery. One of causes of civil wr. and a weaker Congress. •all citizens would be required to apprehend runaway slaves and return them to their owners. Maine entered Union as a free state. slavery had largely ended in the North. white leaders passed new laws to limit the activities of slaves and to strengthen the institution of slavery. were southern women who lectured publicly throughout the northern states about the evils of slavery they had seen growing up on a plantation. Those who failed to do so would be fined or imprisoned. politicians should be allowed to appoint their followers to government jobs as a way of limiting power of elite groups. Their opponents were afraid that if each state could decide which federal laws to obey the US would divide/war. whites. and immigrants. • Frederick Douglass a former slave. and slavery would be prohibited in the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase except for Missouri. tried. and executed. California admitted as a free state. or section. and women. Congress again debated whether slavery would be allowed in New Mexico and California if these territories were acquired from Mexico in antislavery proposal that did not pass • Compromise of 1850 establish New Mexico from the part of Texas. men. Manifest destiny • American Nationalism believed in Manifest Destiny and that their nation was different than/superior to. U.marks the beginning of organized efforts by women to gain equal rights • Jacksonian Democracy sought a stronger presidency and executive branch. the United States occupied much of northern Mexico. Calhoun Political figure throughout the Era of Good Feelings and the Age of Jackson. Calhoun served as James Monroe’s secretary of war. • Sectionalism loyalty southern region. When the United States eventually won the war. giving eloquent speeches on behalf of equality for African Americans. he led slave rebellions on 4 VA plantations. annexation of Texas and other factors led to war in 1846. Their public careers began when Garrison published a letter from Angelina in his newspaper. .

This made a proslavery doctrine. which required human labor and depended on slavery.S.the slave trade abolished in the District of Columbia. exports. corn. It stipulated the admission of California as a free state. food.S. which repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and gave the settlers in all new territories the right to decide for themselves whether theirs would be a free or slave state. including slaves. Douglas. Ready capacity to transport troops and their supplies. he led a group of white and black men in a raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry. The compromise. Designed by Henry Clay and pushed through Congress by Stephen A. The Compromise of 1850 aimed to resolve sectional conflict over the distribution of slave-holding versus free states.S. railroad network.S. Civil War. and tobacco. Brown’s plan was to deliver the weapons and ammunition to slaves to use in uprising Against proslavery government officials. industrial output. exports. Georgia. rice.Key Events. from being taken away without due process. generous resources to produce weapons/military supplies---. Virginia. Alabama.S. Florida. etc. industrial output.S. Louisiana.Nebraska Act. They seized federal weapons killing seven people. minimal resources to produce many weapons/military supplies --=machines began reducing the need for agricultural workers. food. ---66% of U. Lincoln’s eloquent and forceful performance in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858 earned him the Republican nomination for president . favored high tariffs on imported foreign goods to protect northern industries and workers’ jobs ----food More than twice as much as the South produced---. without federal restrictions on slavery. inefficient railway transport system. however. population. 1% slave. and Brown was captured by U. railroad network. And convicted of treason against the state of Virginia and executed by hanging. could become a citizen of the United States or sue in federal court.S. In 1859. • Abraham  Lincoln  Republican -­‐  elected president in 1860. population. 33% slave. the continuance of slavery but abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia.S. popular sovereignty (rule by the people). president He never considered the Confederacy a separate country. etc. proved incapable of stemming controversy over slavery’s expansion. favored low (or no) tariffs on imported goods to keep the prices of manufactured goods more affordable---Food Less than half as much as the North produced 29% of U. • Popular Sovereignty gave the settlers in all new territories the right to decide for themselves whether theirs would be a free or a slave state. the territories were Kansas and Nebraska. (failed to resolve compromise) • Dred  Scott  Decision  In 1857.S.  believed preservation of the United States (the “Union”) was the most important task for any U. Southern Economy Agriculture ----29% of U. Arkansas. North Carolina. Poor capacity to transport troops and their supplies. South Carolina voted to US followed by Mississippi.S. lots of free people--92% of U. stated he only wished to restrict the spread of slavery not abolish it. Promoted 13th Amendment to Constitution President of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865. whether slave or free. and Tennessee––seceded to join the Confederacy. • John  Brown  John Brown.   differences North vs South Northern Economy Industry and trade --71% of U. But the depended on cash crops such as cotton. New Mexico and Utah. and then Texas. but the raid failed. When asked for large volunteer army to preserve the Union. and a more effective Fugitive Slave Law. fought slavery with violence and killing.Many citizens worked for someone else and owned no property. issues and individuals • Kansas-­Nebraska  Act  This time.--. more states––Virginia. the law of the United States. but slavery still ok. the division of the remainder of the Mexican cession into two separate territories. 99% free. 67% free. The decision further argued that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because it violated the Fifth Amendment’s protection of property. and Congress approved the Kansas. efficient railway transport system.34% of U.71% of U. too few free men to assemble an army---8% of U. the Supreme Court ruled that no black.

with over 26.000 were killed.\ • Siege  of  Vicksburg  May-July 1863––Grant laid siege to Vicksburg MS. After a seven-week siege. as many as 51. Lee was a brilliant strategist. • Emancipation  Proclamation  Lincoln emancipated (freed) all slaves held in the Confederate states. He began planning for a lenient Reconstruction in 1863. serving from 1869 to 1877 and presiding over the decline of Reconstruction.000 people were killed in the battle there. Davis was elected president of the Confederacy shortly after its formation. Neither side won a victory. • Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Abraham Lincoln was reelected president in 1864. otherwise.Accepted surrender of all Confederate armies in Carolinas. Lee’s failure to win it encouraged Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. the whites would have to do. and bridges along their path. It was the deadliest one-day battle in American history. where he was met by Union troops at Gettysburg. but was assassinated before it could be fully implemented. Lincoln expressed sorrow that the states had not been able to resolve their differences peacefully.in 1860. Lincoln’s primary goal during and after the Civil War was to restore the Union. • Robert E. In a three-day battle. Georgia. and for all Union forces during the last year of the war. • Habeas  Corpus  Suspended during civil war -the legal rule that anyone imprisoned must be taken before a judge to determine if the prisoner is being legally held in custody. Encouraging slaves to flee north would hurt the southern war effort. Louisiana. commander. The occasion was the dedication of a military cemetery at the Gettysburg battlefield four months after 51. for six weeks before capturing this vitally important center of Confederate manufacturing and railway traffic. and Florida • Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson west point Won First Battle of Bull Run Fought under Confederate Gen. was the turning point of the war. Then Lincoln convinced the people that the United States was one indivisible nation. Lee at Antietam and Second Bull Run. Lee The commanding general of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia during the Civil War.  Grant  Commanding general of western Union forces for much of the war. paving the way for the Civil War. Union victory over the Confederacy was certain. Grant achieved one of the Union’s major strategic goals: He gained control of the Mississippi River. Lee failed to show Britain and France they should assist the Confederacy. Georgia. and the North knew it would win. This Union victory. • Battle  for  Atlanta  July-September 1864––Sherman besieged Atlanta. His victory in the election precipitated the secession of the first southern states. ended Confederate ability to fight . and Texas were cut off from the Confederacy. . because the army that controlled its high ground over a bend in the Mississippi River would control traffic on the whole river. • Jefferson  Davis  Former secretary of war.Died in battle • Battle  of  Antietam  September 1862––Lee fought the war’s first major battle on northern soil. and fighter. • Battle  of  Gettysburg  April 1863––Lee marched north to PA. and Americans foresaw an end to slavery. Many historians believe that the Confederacy held out as long as it did only because of Lee’s skill and the loyalty of his troops. Davis was never able to garner adequate public support and faced great difficulties in uniting the Confederate states under one central authority. Sherman burned Atlanta to the ground. Now the South knew it would lose the war. and he gave up attempts to invade the Union or show northerners that the Union troops could not win the war. roads. • Gettysburg  Address  In November 1863. • Ulysses  S. destroying the railways. he urged reconstruction of the South as an indivisible nation of citizens who would no longer profitfrom taking their earnings from the labor of unpaid slaves. It was the deadliest battle of the American Civil War. A moderate Republican.000 casualties. Instead of boasting about that victory. His administration was marred by corruption. but he thought news of the proclamation would reach southern slaves and encourage them to flee to the North. Confederate troops and supplies in Arkansas. Lincoln did not expect Confederate slaveholders to free their slaves.• William Tecumseh Sherman west point Destroyed Atlanta. and then marched to the Atlantic Ocean.. Grant later became the nation’s eighteenth president. Lincoln believed one reason southern whites were free to join the Confederate Army was because slaves were doing war work that. coupled with the Union victory at Gettysburg.

• Freedmen’s  Bureau  Congress created it to help African Americans to make the transition to freedom. • Ku  Klux  Klan  (KKK)  founded by veterans of the Confederate Army fight against Reconstruction. • scalawags Southerners who cooperated with the African Americans and carpetbaggers • Andrew  Johnson’s  Impeachment  Radical Republicans impeached Johnson when he ignored laws they had passed to limit presidential powers – but really passed these laws to stop Johnson from curbing their hostile treatment of former Confederate states and their leaders. While it did help some former slaves acquire land unclaimed by its pre-war owners. 1865-1914 • Railroad  Industry  The federal government granted vast areas of western land to railroad owners so they would lay train track connecting the eastern and western states. In turn. Some white southerners formed secret societies that used murder. and medical-care facilities. • Transcontinental  Railroad  the first transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869. the railroads had a great impact on the steel industry. • Radical  Republican  Reconstruction  To remedy the northern Radical Republicans’ outrage. • Black  Codes  all former slave states enacted them . guaranteed that no citizen could be deprived of his/her rights without due process • 15th  Amendment  removed restrictions on voting based on race. The railroad companies contributed to the development of the West by selling low-cost parcels of their western land for farming They earned money by transporting the settlers west and the goods east. jobs.laws written to control the lives of freed slaves in ways slaveholders had formerly controlled their lives. or ever having been a slave. • Chinese  Laborers  . Including African Americans in creation of southern state governments • 13th  Amendment  abolished slavery and involuntary servitude in the United States • 14th  Amendment  defined U. Congress forced the southern states to reapply for admission to the Union and to take steps to secure the rights of the newly freed slaves.Not convicted -not removed from office merely because he held political opinions unpopular among politicians who had the power to impeach him. Some southern leaders urged the Klan to step down because Federal troops would stay in the South as long as African Americans needed protection from it. steel producers developed cheap.S. railroad owners relied mainly on them.  financial. • carpetbaggers Northerners who came to the South to help the former slaves and to make money. • Big  Business  –  oil. used to complete this heavy work. and other threatening actions as a means of controlling freed African Americans and pressuring them not to vote. Black Codes deprived voting rights to freed slaves and allowed plantation owners to take advantage of black workers in ways that made it seem slavery had not been abolished. Congress did not grant land or the absolute right to own land to all freed slaves.Reconstruction • Presidential Reconstruction begun by Lincoln and carried out by Johnson echoed the words of Lincoln’s second Inaugural Address.S. it helped former slaves solve everyday problems by providing food. clothing. A former slave and two ministers founded it for the education of African American men in the fields of ministry and education. citizens over the age of 21 • Morehouse  College  founded in Atlanta in 1867 as the Augusta Institute. The purpose was to readmit the southern states to the Union as quickly as possible. These low-cost methods enabled more industries to afford the steel companies’ products. efficient methods for the mass production of steel rails. medicine. and by the beginning of the .work was dangerous (explosives). arson. granted the right to vote to all male U.   • Steel  Industry  railroads were the biggest customers for the steel industry because thousands of miles of steel track were laid.  manufacturing  -­  acquired enormous financial wealth which they used to dominate and control many aspects of American cultural and political life. citizenship as including all persons born in the US including African Americans. To supply their biggest customers. which urged no revenge on former Confederate supporters. color.

and unsafe workplaces.S.S. as a consequence of these practices big business became the target of government reform movements at the state and national levels. A gun was fired––nobody knows by whom––and U. motion pictures.  and  finally  agreed  to  settle  on  a  reservation. Rockefeller. spoke English. several hundred of his people fled to an area of South Dakota called Wounded Knee. • Thomas  Edison  &  Electric  Light  Bulb  &  Phonograph He invented the lightbulb. • Ellis  Island  The U. This ended the Native Americans’ long conflict against Americans settling Native American lands. • Monopolies  Standard Oil thus became a monopoly––a single company that controlled virtually all the U. no vacations. or AFL. led his people to a brief exile  in  Canada.S. when the Pullman railcar factory near Chicago fired almost half its workforce and cut wages by 25% to 50%. 1865-1914 • Sitting  Bull  The Sioux leader. the Sioux signed a treaty with the U. a system for distributing electrical power.  Rockefeller  & Standard  Oil  Company  &  Trusts  Oil companies grew swiftly in this period. Rail traffic west of Chicago came to a halt.S. The Pullman company responded by hiring new workers but they were attacked by strikers when they attempted to go to work. government welcomed the wealthy among these new immigrants but forced poorer people to pass health and welfare tests at government reception centers such as the Ellis Island Immigrant Station located in New York Harbor. when gold was discovered there. U.  Edison’s inventions eliminated much manual labor that had been associated with everyday household activities and improved Americans’ quality of life. often were Jewish or Catholic. who refused to sell it. • John  D. its workers went on strike. President Grover Cleveland sent the U. • Samuel  Gompers  He was president of the AFL from 1886 to 1894 and from 1895 to his death in 1924. workers banded together in labor unions to demand better pay and working conditions. the government tried to buy the land from the Sioux. then fought U. . soldiers went there to confiscate weapons from the Sioux. Sitting Bull. many of the new immigrants came from eastern and southern Europe.20th century. Rockefeller also gained control of most other oil companies and created what is called a trust. most notably the Standard Oil Company founded by John D. Then the labor unions banded together for even more power to change the ways employers ran their businesses.S. and many other technologies powered by electricity. • American  Federation  of  Labor  Unskilled laborers were subject to low wages. Army troops. Standard Oil was the most famous big business of the era.S. • Pullman Strike In 1894. was led by Samuel Gompers. and usually spoke no English. oil production and distribution. and greater control over how they carried out their workplace responsibilities. Big business and the U. Because individual workers had little power to change the way an employer ran a business.  For example. and arrived with the government’s welcome. the phonograph. In contrast. His goal was to use strikes (work stoppages) to convince employers to give workers shorter work days. • Wounded  Knee  After Sitting Bull died. government both feared labor unions were a menace to America’s capitalist economy. better working conditions. long workdays. were typically Protestant. higher wages. government promising “no white person or persons shall be permitted to settle upon or occupy” Sioux territory in the Dakotas but. They differed from earlier immigrant groups who mostly came from northern and western Europe. In the decades after the Civil War. Leaders of the railroad industry convinced the government to declare the situation illegal. more and more Europeans immigrated to America. Army to restore peace. The American Federation of Labor.S. killing more than 300 Sioux.S soldiers then opened machine-gun fire.

This allows citizens to control who serves in government. • Direct  Election  of  Senators  Another Progressive reform was the direct election of senators. Sinclair told the story of European immigrants working in Chicago’s meatpacking industry. These were called Jim Crow laws (after a character in an old minstrel song) and resulted in inferior education. health care. the settlement house.S. legal rights. The Progressives favored the adoption of an amendment to the Constitution that gave voters the right to elect their U.S. the English language. . They supported increased government regulation of business and industry. This prevents government officials from ignoring the desires of citizens. Tarbell exposed political corruption in New York. • Ida  Tarbell  In a series of magazine articles. The book exposed the poor labor practices and unsanitary conditions that produced contaminated food. Progressive election reforms helped to increase ordinary citizens’ direct control of government in these ways. • Referendum  When enough citizens support an initiative. This also prevents government officials from ignoring the desires of citizens. Congress was pressured to pass laws to regulate the meatpacking industry and to require meat packers to produce food that was safe to consume. to the United States. • Recall  Citizens may remove public officials from office before their terms expire by organizing a recall election. schools.  Ferguson  Under the “separate but equal” doctrine. and other cities. Her findings angered the public and contributed to the government’s decision to break up the Standard Oil Trust. basic medical care. and other topics important to low-income urban residents. • Initiative  Supporters of any new law may collect voters’ signatures on an initiative to force a public vote on the issue. and other social issues. Constitution. Hull House was a social service agency that provided trained workers to help recent immigrants and working-class citizens learn about home economics. • Hull  House  Jane Addams brought a British idea. • Jim  Crow  Laws that enforced segregation by discriminating against and suppressing black people. • Upton  Sinclair  The Jungle. Under the U. These journalists were called muckrakers. • Muckrakers  Many reforms came about after journalists investigated and exposed political corruption.1865-1914 Progressive Reforms The Progressives supported new ideas and policies they believed would improve people’s lives. when she established Hull House in Chicago. child labor. and parks. hospitals. senators. slum conditions. and policies to conserve natural resources. They succeeded in their efforts with the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. the Court ruled racial segregation was legal in public accommodations such as railroad cars. Chicago. The Progressives also opposed political bosses and had scorn for citizens’ lack of control over them. the government must present the issue to the public as a referendum on which the public may vote.S. and transportation systems for African Americans. efforts to protect consumers and workers. each state’s legislature elected that state’s U. and criticized Standard Oil Company’s unfair business practices. Their efforts to improve living conditions for the poor in cities led to more and better libraries. senators. Southern and border states passed segregation laws that required separate public and private facilities for African Americans. • Plessy  v. and famous among them were Upton Sinclair and Ida Tarbell.

S. The war lasted about three years.S.S.S. 1865-1914 • Anti-immigrant Sentiment & Chinese Exclusion Act In the 1880s. the U. • Spanish-American War In 1898. He announced to the world that the United States had the right to intervene in Latin American countries in economic crisis. which it did in 1882. and out of Puerto Rico. Better known today as the NAACP. The Panama Canal was the biggest engineering project of the era. trade and American lives. the Philippines was a U. which became an independent country. a Spanish colony.S.S.S. The Spanish were driven out of Cuba. in 1899. some Americans were eager to spread democracy into Latin America and other world regions. • Panama Canal America now controlled territory in the Atlantic and in the Pacific Oceans. . killing most of the people on board. Seeking a faster sea route from the Atlantic to the Pacific than the voyage around the tip of South America. territory until 1946 • Roosevelt Corollary President Roosevelt feared European countries would take advantage of this Instability in central America to gain power and influence in the region. Ferguson. In the end.German feelings among Americans. Asian Americans faced anti-immigrant sentiment because they accepted low wages for jobs whites had held. in 1917 Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. Neutrality When World War I began in Europe in 1914. When the Panama Canal opened in 1914. However.• NAACP One group the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to seek full civil rights for African Americans. This led to a crisis between the United States and Germany that was only resolved when Germany agreed to abandon unrestricted submarine warfare that endangered U. whether or not a European power planned to intervene. President Woodrow Wilson was determined to guarantee U. • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare In 1915 the luxury liner Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine. the U.S. President James Monroe’s original doctrine had been to get involved in other American countries affairs only when needed to end the intervention of a European power. citizens. They encouraged Congress to pass the Chinese Exclusion Act. including more than 100 U. leading to a “war fever” that also encouraged the U.000 miles. This angered the white workers. • Philippine-American War After the Spanish-American War. • American  Expansion  In the last decades of the 19th century. employers lowered the pay for all workers. 1930s-1960s • U. which became an American territory.S. This policy is called the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.000 miles to 6. This heightened tension led to the U. a voyage from San Francisco to New York was cut from 14. The war lasted less than four months. Other Americans argued that American expansion was not the best way to spread America’s democratic traditions. Supporters of American expansion were eager to gain U. thereby banning all future Chinese immigration. military was ordered to keep the Philippines as an American territory which caused the Philippine-American War broke out. neutrality and keep the United States out of the WW1. territory in Latin America. the United States went to war with Spain after the Spanish refused to grant independence to rebels fighting a revolutionary war in Cuba. this group still keeps its original name in honor of the people who founded it to help overturn Plessy v.S. creating great anti. decision to enter the war. In contrast. government built a shipping canal across the narrow Central American country of Panama. government to seek a military solution to the Cuban war for independence.

Debs During the war. • 18th Amendment Americans’ anti-German feelings led to a campaign to outlaw beer and other alcoholic beverages. Many people supported such laws although they violated the spirit of the First Amendment. Other factors were two ideas: One of the ideas was that people born in America were superior to immigrants. there is no private ownership. tired of living under the repression that was common in the South. was helped by the country’s gratitude for women’s economic contributions during the war. labor leader Eugene V. Isolationists in the Senate believed that by joining the League the United States would become involved in future conflicts in Europe and elsewhere.” • 19th Amendment Ratification of the 19th Amendment. which gave women the right to vote. but throughout the nation. The Espionage Act of 1917 made it a crime to communicate any information that would interfere with U. was convicted for hindering military recruiting by making a speech against it. this conservative reaction against immigrants resulted in the passage of legislation that set limits on the number of immigrants who could come from each country. • Jazz Jazz combined themes and note patterns developed by enslaved African Americans with the syncopated rhythms worked out by musicians in New Orleans and elsewhere in the South. he was sentenced to 10 years in prison. popular entertainment such as radio and the movies attracted millions of loyal fans and helped create the first media stars. The women had filled jobs in factories that the war created after men volunteered and were drafted into military service. a new political ideology called communism grew out of the more moderate socialism. Under communism. It was an original . established the Soviet Union. all property is owned by the state. This fear led to the government pursuing suspected communists and socialists. The other was that America should keep its traditional culture intact. One point called for the creation of an international peacekeeping organization called the League of Nations. 1908. Conservatives often disapproved of what they viewed as the immoral influence of these forms of entertainment but were unable to reduce their popularity. the Socialist Party presidential candidate in 1904. Wilson supported this law to silence critics and pacifists. Communism was based on a single-party government ruled by a dictator. • Red Scare In 1919.• Great Migration WWI created jobs in northeastern and midwestern cities. and called for a worldwide revolution to destroy capitalism. anti-Jewish. and 1912. and anti-Catholic sentiments contributed to the popularity of a revived Ku Klux Klan. The United States never joined the League of Nations. people in the United States began to fear communists. or transportation of intoxicating liquors. This movement of African Americans was called the Great Migration. African Americans. sale.S. • Espionage Act & Eugene V. which prohibited “the manufacture. This fear of international communism was called the Red Scare because red was the color of the communist flag. laws were passed that prohibited people from speaking out against it. • Immigration Restrictions The Red Scare was one factor that led to new restrictions on immigration. after communist revolutionaries known as Bolsheviks overthrew the czar in Russia. Congress passed the 18th Amendment. • Fourteen Points & League of Nations Before the United States entered the war. Debs. Ultimately. Culture 1930s – 1960s • Communism & Socialism In the late 1800s and early 1900s.The next year. not just in the South. • Radio & Movies During the 1920s. moved to the North by the thousands and established themselves in ethnically distinct and culturally rich neighborhoods. This campaign well suited the Progressive Era’s opposition to saloons. Wilson had given a speech in which he described Fourteen Points he felt were key to avoiding future wars. military operations or aid its enemies. Anti-immigrant.

The stocks themselves became the collateral for the loan. not just a plaything for the wealthy. and led to countless injuries. The Model T was designed to be produced in great volume on assembly lines so the cost of each car would be low enough for common people to afford.000 residents migrated west from the dust bowl toward California during the 1930s and 1940s. who wrote hundreds of songs during his career. was also on the rise in New York City. by October 1929. driving down their prices and causing a stock market crash. including “God Bless America” and “White Christmas. another musical movement. but also names the group of music writers and publishers who worked there. including the installment plan and buying on credit. Missouri. • Tin Pan Alley & Irving Berlin While the Harlem Renaissance was occurring. Industry. These methods encouraged consumers to buy more than they could afford and to go into debt. This caused some investors to panic and sell their stocks. trade. Economy 1930s – 1960s • Stock Market Crash New methods of buying products. This was made possible by an industrial process called mass production. • Louis Armstrong Trumpet player Louis Armstrong. and farming decreased sharply. • Harlem Renaissance During the 1920s. and houses. economy was beginning to show signs of slowing down. • Hoovervilles . tax revenues. when a severe drought and fierce winds led to violent dust storms that destroyed farmland. Business profits. too. • Langston Hughes The movement’s best-known poet was Langston Hughes. and personal incomes did. The name “Tin Pan Alley” is deceiving because it does not just refer to an actual place in Manhattan. Worst of all. logging. machinery. This was called buying on margin. Rising stock prices and the ability of ordinary people to buy stock on credit increased investment in the stock market and inflated the price of stocks above their actual value. the stock market crash triggered other economic weaknesses and plunged the United States into the Great Depression––a severe economic recession in the 1930s that affected all the world’s industrialized nations and the countries that exported raw materials to them. sometimes called “Satchmo. Texas. Stockholders feared the economy was ending a period of prosperity and entering a period of recession. • Dust Bowl The name given to the southern Great Plains region (Arkansas. other people panicked and sold their stock as well. • Henry Ford Mass production was popularized by Henry Ford during the manufacture of his Ford Model T. banks loaned people money to buy stock with very little money down. mining. As more people sold their stock. • Great Depression In turn. Roughly 800. One of the most famous was Irving Berlin.” became known while playing with the Creole Jazz Band and later became one of the biggest stars of jazz music because of his sense of rhythm and his improvisational skills. a wave of creativity washed over Harlem. Then. construction.American art form and became very popular in the 1920s. and Oklahoma) during the 1930s. the U. Tin Pan Alley.S. This is known as the Harlem Renaissance.” • Mass Production Another development of the 1920s was the emergence of the automobile as a true replacement for the horse. celebrating African American culture through words and song. who wrote about the lives of workingclass African Americans and sometimes set his words to the tempo of jazz or blues. became popular during the 1920s.

the proposal was an obvious attempt to dilute the power of the older. conservative justices. cities in the early 1930s. and large redistribution measures. The TVA worked to develop energy production sites and conserve resources in the Tennessee Valley.Communities of destitute Americans living in shanties and makeshift shacks. and opponents of nuclear power.. • Neutrality Acts Passed by Congress between 1935 and 1937. 1. 1930s – 1960s • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Part of FDR’s New Deal. but eventually faced heavy criticism from environmentalists. The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 provided a framework for collective bargaining. • Court Packing Bill A court reform bill proposed by FDR in 1937. • Wagner Act Popularly known as the Wagner Act. She was interested in humanitarian causes and social progress. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was hesitant to organize industrial unionism. The Second New Deal was characterized by greater government spending and increased numbers of work relief programs. she was also instrumental in convincing Roosevelt to appoint more women to government positions. • Huey Long A Senator from Louisiana and one of the most vocal critics of FDR’s New Deal. providing a stark reminder of Herbert Hoover’s failure to alleviate the poverty of the Great Depression. Social Security provides benefits to the elderly and disabled. These benefits are subsidized by income tax withholdings. out of World War II. industrial workers began to unionize. The acts made arms sales to warring countries illegal and forbade American citizens to travel aboard the ships of belligerent nations in an effort to keep the U.S. The act demonstrated FDR’s support for labor needs and unionization • Industrial Unionism After passage of the Wagner Act. It granted workers the right to join unions and bargain. because it was committed to craft-based workers such as carpenters and railroad engineers. Long’s liberal “Share Our Wealth” program proposed a 100 percent tax on all income over $1 million. The . Though he claimed the measure was offered in concern for the workload of the older justices. It was designed to allow the president to appoint an additional Supreme Court justice for each current justice over the age of seventy. Old-age insurance for retirees aged 65 or older and their spouses. His passionate orations won him as many followers as enemies: he was assassinated in September of 1935 at the capitol building in Baton Rouge. the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) was created to represent industrial workers who felt they were not being represented by the AFL. • Social Security Act Established by the Social Security Act of August 1935. up to a maximum of six appointments. advocates of energy conservation. and was very vocal about them during her husband’s time in the White House. was very influential in her own right. Hoovervilles sprung up around most major U. It pumped money into the economy and completed a number of major projects. Aid for the disabled and for families with dependent children paid by the federal government and administered by the states • Eleanor Roosevelt President Roosevelt’s wife. The AFL and CIO clashed on and off before merging in 1955 to become the AFL-CIO that exists today. The most lasting measure of the Second New Deal was the creation of the Social Security system. paid half by the employee and half by the employer 2. She traveled all over the United States to observe social conditions so she could keep the president informed as to the state of the nation. Eleanor. • Second New Deal Created in 1935 after FDR’s first New Deal began to crumble in the face of opposition and antagonistic Supreme Court rulings.S. Unemployment compensation paid by a federal tax on employers and administered by the states 3. As a consequence. and forbade employers from discriminating against unions. As a supporter of women’s activism.

an American refueling station for ships and airplanes. and coffee. The Japanese tried to trap and sink America’s remaining aircraft carriers and then take the Midway Atoll. to protest discrimination in the military and in industry. A. the founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.S. War 1930s – 1960s • A. Roosevelt ordered all people of Japanese ancestry be moved from California and parts of Washington. The following day the U. and Arizona to rural prison camps.. One way average Americans helped the war effort was through wartime conservation. 1942 ––Six months after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. • Internment Camps One effect of America’s entry into the war was alarm about the loyalty of Japanese Americans: 120.Senate voted against the proposal later that year. newspaper. Philip Randolph In 1941. each household received a “c book” with coupons to be used when buying scarce items such as meat. Although most of the people imprisoned in these internment camps were Japanese Americans.400 American lives. Workers would carpool to work or ride bicycles to save gasoline and rubber. Navy won a sea battle against the Japanese Navy that was a turning point in World War II. five million men volunteered for military service but more were needed to fight a total war. as well as hundreds of Native Americans from Alaska. at the time. • Mobilization After Pearl Harbor. 1941. the war industry needed more raw materials.S. People participated in nationwide drives to collect scrap iron.000 Japanese Americans lived in the United States. summoned Randolph to the White House and asked him to call off the march. Philip Randolph. afraid the march might cause unrest among whites. • Pearl Harbor An American naval base in Hawaii that was bombed by Japan on December 7. Oregon. formally entered World War II. • Wartime Conservation & Rationing As time went on. • Battle of Midway June 4-7. proposed a march on Washington. Roosevelt issued an executive order calling on employers and labor unions to cease discrimination in hiring practices in industries related to defense. the U. most of them on the West Coast. The Selective Service System expanded the draft. sugar. but the United States destroyed four Japanese aircraft carriers while only losing one American carrier. As a result of Roosevelt’s actions.C. He called on African Americans from all over the United States to come to Washington and join him. rags. D. was a huge morale boost . The act allowed the president to lend or lease supplies to any nation deemed “vital to the defense of the United States. When Randolph refused.” such as Britain. Lend-lease was extended to Russia in November 1941 after Germany invaded Russia. In the name of national security. Another way Americans conserved on the home front was through the mandatory government rationing system. This kept the Japanese from capturing Midway. tin cans. Under this system. and was a key move in support of the Allied cause before the U. helping slow the New Deal to a standstill. Many historians argue that the proposed bill resulted in a loss of credibility for FDR. there were also small numbers of German Americans and Italian Americans imprisoned under the same law. The surprise attack resulted in the loss of more than 2. and ten million more men joined the ranks of the American Armed Forces. This victory is regarded as the most important naval engagement of the Pacific Campaign of the war and. Gas rationing was also used to help save gasoline for military  use • Lend-Lease Passed in March 1941. officially entering World War II. President Roosevelt. the march was cancelled. Fears of spies and sabotage led to prejudice and sometimes violence against Japanese Americans.S. and even cooking grease to recycle and use in war production. declared war against Japan. as well as many aircraft and sea vessels.

New Mexico. while a third attacked German forces north of Berlin.000 men crossing the English Channel in 6.S. On September 2. but fighting continued outside the city until the war ended on May 8. The city’s defenders surrendered on May 2. He would use a brand new weapon that no one had ever seen before. From the French beaches. It remains the largest seaborne invasion in history with over 156. 1944. They knew Japan still had a huge army that would defend every inch of the homeland. 1945. and World War II was finally over. The German troops occupying France were caught almost completely by surprise and. • Atom Bomb & Los Alamos Allied leaders planning the war against Japan knew that once they had defeated the Japanese Navy in the Pacific Ocean they would still have to invade Japan itself to end the war. Congress had appropriated some $17 billion for the Marshall Plan.939 vessels. Two Soviet Army groups attacked Berlin from the east and south. By 1952. he and many of his followers committed suicide. • Battle of Berlin April-May 1945––The fall of Berlin was one of the final battles of the European Theater during World War II. American and British forces pushed east to Germany.080 trying to defend it. The Japanese Navy never recovered from  this  defeat. before it ended. the Japanese surrendered. The project’s code name was “The Manhattan Project. that called for the prevention of further Soviet expansion by any means. at the start of the Cold War. Containment soon evolved into a justification for U. would support people anywhere in the world facing “attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. The bombs were dropped on Japan in early August 1945.  enabling  the  United  States  to  take  the   war  to  Japan • D-Day June 6. • Containment A policy established during Truman’s presidency. The American government had developed two atomic bombs in a secret laboratory in Los Alamos.” The Truman Doctrine . 1944––D-Day was the code name for the first day of Operation Overlord. while the Germans lost 458.S. global involvement against communism • Truman Doctrine In March 1947. the Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied France. The Soviets lost 81.for America. Adolf Hitler was in Berlin during the battle and. government hoped that this plan would prevent further communist expansion by eliminating economic insecurity and political instability in Europe. the invasion went almost exactly according to plan. President Truman decided there was only one way to avoid an invasion of Japan and still defeat them.116 men taking the city. the atomic bomb. and both sides could possibly lose millions of people in the process. Much of the continued fighting was due to the Germans trying to move westward so they could surrender to the Americans or British instead of to the Soviets.S. although the Allies met heavy resistance in small areas. and the Western European economy had largely recovered. Truman proclaimed before Congress that the U. The U. It was one of the bloodiest battles in history.” • Allied  Powers   • China • France • Great Britain • Soviet Union • United States • Axis  Powers • Germany • Italy • Japan 1930s – 1960s • Marshall Plan A four-year plan (begun in 1948) to provide American aid for the economic reconstruction of Europe. This marked the beginning of victory for the Allies in Europe. on June 6.

The month-long attack led the American public to believe that victory in Vietnam was unattainable. the Chinese attacked. The United States sent its troops to force the communists back to North Korea and drove them across the border. had American support. Armed Forces.S.S. . • Korean War  On June 24. • Cuban Missile Crisis In 1962. Without asking for a declaration of war. and the United States was forced to give fiftythree million dollars’ worth of food and supplies to Cuba for release of the captives. the United States turned against Castro. The term derives from the actions of Senator Joseph McCarthy. government learned that Soviet missile bases were being constructed in Cuba. battled communist North Vietnam and a military organization called the Viet Cong. suspended all elections. supported by the United States.S. The U. • Tet Offensive A general offensive launched throughout South Vietnam by the Vietcong and North Vietnamese on January 31.-backed Cuban exiles to invade Cuba and overthrow Fidel Castro’s communist government in April 1961. who led an intense campaign against alleged subversives during this period. 1950. troops as part of a United Nations “police action. invaded the Republic of Korea. Fidel Castro led the Cuban Revolution. The democratic government of South Vietnam. troops from the Soviet-supported People’s Democratic Republic of Korea. killing many thousands of American troops.committed the U. • Chinese Civil War new Chinese communist government that had recently won the Chinese Civil War. Truman committed U.S. it lasted until the early 1970s.S. When the Americans reached the border between North Korea and China. known as South Korea.500 Cuban exiles armed and trained by the CIA tried to stage an invasion at Cuba’s Bay of Pigs.S. U. However. President John F.S forces set up a naval blockade. Combat began when communist troops invaded South Korea. troops then followed the enemy into North Korea in an effort to eliminate communism from the Korean peninsula. they did cause widespread devastation. the first day of the Tet. • Cuban Revolution & Bay of Pigs In 1956. known as North Korea.” The Korean War was 21conducted by predominantly American forces under the command of General Douglas MacArthur. or Vietnamese New Year. Although the forces did not succeed in capturing the cities. 1. preventing Soviet ships from reaching Cuba without inspection. in the early 1960s. • Bay of Pigs A failed attempt by U. • Vietnam War The Vietnam War was a struggle for control of Vietnam. to a role of global policeman. communism would spread throughout Southeast Asia and perhaps beyond.S. The small force was crushed by Castro after President Kennedy refused to involve the U. the United States became involved in the 1950s by providing economic and limited military aid. when an armistice restored the prewar border between North and South Korea. U. policymakers believed that if Vietnam came to be ruled by a communist government. Twelve hundred of the invaders were captured. a year after the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion. After a stressful waiting period during which nuclear war seemed imminent. Limited fighting continued until June 1953. In 1961. at first. the U.S. forcing the Americans back to South Korea. Then.S. 1968. Kennedy demanded that the USSR stop shipping military equipment to Cuba and remove the bases. Soviet Premier Khrushchev backed down and began dismantling the bases in return for a U. • McCarthyism The extreme anticommunism in American politics and society during the early 1950s. U. when he allied himself with the Soviet Union. and named himself president for life. Castro became prime minister of Cuba early in 1957 and. While the conflict originally began during the French colonial rule in the region. involvement began to increase. promise not to invade Cuba.

and cellular phones gave a few Americans a glimpse of the technologies that someday would connect everyone to each other regardless of where they were and would become as common as typewriters and public phone booths were in the 1970s.1945 -1970 • Baby Boom Nickname for the 1950s.S. The Kennedy/ Nixon debates changed the shape of American politics. Although Nixon was more knowledgeable about foreign policy and other topics. 1957. TV reporters showed helmeted police officers from Birmingham. African Americans played professional baseball with the Negro League. when economic prosperity caused U. spraying African American children who had been walking in a protest march with high-pressure fire hoses. • Kennedy/ Nixon Presidential Debates In the 1960 national election campaign. TV news coverage of the civil rights movement helped many Americans turn their sympathies toward ending racial segregation and persuaded Kennedy that new laws were the only way to end the racial violence and give African Americans the civil rights they were demanding. allowing people to stay in contact regardless of distance. launched by the USSR on October 4. Kennedy’s performance in the debate helped him win the presidency. Robinson was the National League’s most valuable player in 1949 and the first African American in the Baseball Hall of Fame. were built. and then clubbing them. Seventy million people tuned in. or freeways. Americans who might never have attended a civil rights demonstration saw and heard them on their TVs in the 1960s. They needed cars and increased car ownership meant more roads were needed. early versions of today’s personal computers. Civil Rights 1945 -1970 • Jackie Robinson was the first African American to play for a major league baseball team in the United States. • Personal Computer & Cellular Telephone In addition to the television. population to swell from 150 million to 180 million. Alabama. so Congress passed the Interstate Highway Act. other post-War advances in technology brought Americans closer together than ever before. • Interstate Highway Act Because the new suburbs were outside the limits of large cities. Until this time. the Brooklyn Dodgers. . and USSR—Americans were jealous of Soviet technological 37skill and afraid that the same rockets that launched Sputnik could be used to deliver nuclear warheads anywhere on the globe. Kennedy looked and spoke more forcefully because he had been coached by television producers. where William Levitt’s Levittown was the first master-planned community in America. The launch prompted the space race between the U. the Kennedy/ Nixon presidential debates were the first ones ever shown on TV. In all. • Levittown The first example of a suburb was on New York’s Long Island. In 1963.000 miles of new expressways. It was a record-size public works project. authorizing the construction of a national network of highways to connect every major city in America. setting police dogs to attack them.S. By the 1970s. This led to the complete integration of baseball and other professional sports. • TV News Coverage of Civil Rights Movement TV newscasts also changed the shape of American culture. there was little public transportation available for the suburban residents. Telephone lines covered the country. • Sputnik I The first artificial satellite to orbit the earth. 41. the Internet.

restroom. Truman ordered the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 1945 -1970 • Warren Court During most of the 1950s and 1960s. Board of Education A 1954 landmark Supreme Court decision that reversed the “separate but equal” segregationist doctrine established by the 1896 Plessy v. Texas. • Brown v. Supreme Court was headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren. government would live on. King explained why victims of segregation. Truman attempted to extend the New Deal policies of his predecessor in what he called the Fair Deal. the police questioned him without telling him he had the right to speak with an attorney and the right to stay silent. at the time of his arrest.• Harry Truman Succeeded FDR as president after FDR’s death in April 1945. • Assassination of President Kennedy The assassination of President Kennedy in Dallas. became famous for issuing landmark decisions.C. In his letter. • Martin Luther King. • Voting Rights Act of 1965 Passed in 1965. Jr. who was convicted and imprisoned after signing a confession although. . It allowed all citizens the right to enter any park. the Warren Court issued another of its landmark decisions. to action against the threat of Soviet aggression in Europe during the Cold War. such as declaring that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional in Brown v. although the president could be killed.000 people at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington. • Miranda v. The assassination showed Americans just how strong their government was because. and public building in the United States. in November 1963 was a tragic event with a twofold political impact. and he proved instrumental in committing the U. I Have a Dream. 1965––The Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed the requirement for would-be voters in the United States to take literacy tests to register to vote because this requirement was judged as unfair to minorities. Ferguson decision. to over 250. Jr. The Voting Rights Act guaranteed all Americans the right to vote and allowed the federal government to intervene in elections in order to ensure that minorities could vote. Miranda v. violent attacks. while demonstrating against racial segregation. Later the same year. The Court ruled that separate facilities were inherently unequal and ordered public schools to desegregate nationwide.. religion. library. and all public accommodations. D. Truman served until 1953. Arizona In 1963. Board of Education. employment. Alabama. theater. the U. & Letter from Birmingham Jail & I Have a Dream 1963––Martin Luther King. This decision was characteristic of the Supreme Court rulings under liberal Chief Justice Earl Warren. as it was known. that the right of free speech protects students who wear armbands as an antiwar protest on school grounds. national origin. 1. In this speech. King asked for peace and racial harmony. The case involved a man named Ernesto Miranda. Arizona: Police must inform suspects of their constitutional rights at the time of arrest. and murder found it difficult to wait for those injustices to end. and gender.S. King delivered his most famous speech. The act provided money to pay for programs to register voters in areas with large numbers of unregistered minorities. In jail he wrote his Letter from Birmingham Jail to address fears white religious leaders had that he was moving too fast toward desegregation. At home. • Civil Rights Act of 1964 Passed in 1964.S.  This law prohibited discrimination based on race.S. and it gave the Department of Justice the right to oversee the voting laws in certain districts that had used tactics such as literacy tests or poll taxes to limit voting. and that all states must obey all decisions of the Supreme Court. was arrested in Birmingham. the act outlawed discrimination in education. the U. The Warren Court. that the Constitution includes the right to privacy. The Miranda decision strengthened Americans’ individual rights.

and other ministers and Civil Rights leaders Founded by African American college students with $800 received from the SCLC Goal To carry on nonviolent crusades against the evils of second-class citizenship To speed up changes mandated by Brown v. • 1968 Democratic National August––The Democratic National Convention in Chicago is remembered as a scene where police armed with clubs and tear gas violently beat antiwar protesters on live TV. • Assassination of Martin Luther King. the political capital to force his domestic legislative package through Congress. He was running for President when killed on the same night he won the California and South Dakota presidential primaries. in hope they could influence Congress to pass voting rights act . President Johnson summed up his vision for America in the phrase the Great Society.. despite pleas for calm from such prominent leaders as Senator Robert F. One week after King’s death. white adults African American and white college students. Lyndon Johnson. • Assassination of Robert F. which launched Johnson’s “War on Poverty. The assassination gave the new president. no whites Original Philosophy Nonviolence Nonviolence Later Philosophy Same as original philosophy Militancy and violence. 12 American air bases. His programs to make the United States a great society would give all Americans a better standard of living and greater opportunities regardless of their background. Jr. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1968 that prevented discrimination in housing. which had claimed the enemy was near defeat. • Medicare The Medicare program is an important legacy of the Great Society as are • Tet Offensive January––Vietcong fighters launched the Tet Offensive during the Vietnam War. “Black Power” and African-American pride • Sit-Ins Sit-ins at segregated lunch counters all across the South. Board of Education • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Two civil rights groups prominent in the struggle for African American rights in the Sixties were The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). and the U. 1945 -1970 • Southern  Christian  Leadership  Conference  (SCLC) Two civil rights groups prominent in the struggle for African American rights in the Sixties were The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Founding Founded by Martin Luther King. disheartened many people who shared Kennedy’s desires for social reform and opposition to the Vietnam War. which outlawed segregation in American schools and other public places. Kennedy. Kennedy. April––The assassination of Martin Luther King. Jr. who was then running for president. Kennedy June––The assassination of Robert F. This included the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964.S. but later it became all-African American organization Later Membership Same as original membership African Americans only. Jr. following soon after King’s assassination. included whites at first.” and the Civil Rights Act of 1964. registering African Americans to vote. • Great Society During a 1964 speech. caused riots in over 100 cities across America. Later Original Membership Average African American adults. embassy in South Vietnam.. Many Americans started wondering if the American form of government could tolerate dissent. Many Americans turned against the war and against the Johnson administration.2. attacking over 100 South Vietnamese towns.

Later. • Richard M. and demonstrations. some protesters became more radical. This contract gave farm workers higher wages and other benefits for which they had been protesting through the Sixties. NOW’s goals included equality in employment. • Women’s Movement & National Organization of Women (NOW) The National Organization of Women was founded in 1966 to promote equal rights and opportunities for America’s women. going to prison rather than going to Vietnam. Their leader was César Chávez.and second-trimester abortions in the United States. Wade The 1973 Supreme Court case that legalized most first. As founder of the United Farm Workers movement. the Republicans nominated Senator Barry Goldwater for president. In both of these. including sit-ins. NOW had its origins in the civil rights and anti-war movements of the early 1960s. 1974. and improved relations with the nation’s communist enemies. In 1965. Many antiwar groups started on college campuses to urge the government to end selective service (the draft) and to bring home all American troops from Vietnam. which was a sign of the rising power of America’s conservative movement. and even fleeing to Canada. • Earth Day The first Earth Day was celebrated in 1970. an American of Mexican descent who grew up picking crops in California with his family. he started a nationwide boycott of California grapes. gradually pulled troops out of Vietnam. Earth Day is still celebrated each year. . Chávez believed in nonviolent methods to achieve his goals. or lack of opportunity. making Social Security voluntary. women felt sidelined by the men who led organizations like SNCC and anti-Vietnam War groups.000 schools and 2. President Nixon created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set limits on pollution. Roe v. burning their draft cards. Goldwater believed the federal government should not try to fix social and economic problems such as poverty. forcing grape growers to negotiate a contract with the United Farm Workers in 1970. marches. Goldwater lost the election to President Johnson. They used many of the same tactics as groups fighting for civil rights.• Freedom Rides Freedom Rides on interstate buses to determine if southern states would enforce laws against segregation in public transportation • Anti-Vietnam War Movement Americans against the war in Vietnam became more vocal in their opposition. He resigned from office after being implicated in the Watergate scandal. and the passage of the Equal Rights • United Farm Workers Movement & César Chávez Latinos also protested to gain civil rights in the 1960s. discrimination. Nixon Republican.000 colleges organized events to raise awareness of environmental issues. a 1962 book about pesticides by Rachel Carson. conduct environmental research. • Environmental Movement Protecting the environment became important to many Americans • Silent Spring & Rachel Carson Silent Spring. and getting more involved in Vietnam. His conservative proposals included selling the Tennessee Valley Authority. • Conservative Movement & Barry Goldwater 1964. and assist state and local governments clean up polluted sites. This book led to the Water Quality Act of 1965. served as president from 1969 until his resignation on August 9. Nixon oversaw a moderately conservative domestic program. Wade represented a major victory for the women’s rights movement. when almost every communityacross America and over 10. Since 1968 • Roe v. who said more American involvement in Vietnam would not solve the problems there. • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Also in 1970. political and social equality. exposed dangers to the environment.

had organized the operation from within the White House. On June 17.  fell  apart  when   Sadat  was  assassinated  by  Islamic  fundamentalists  in  1981. 1974. • Camp David Accords Negotiaged  by  President  Carter. Carter is best known for his commitment to human rights. There was no proof that Ronald Reagan was aware of North’s actions. but racial quotas cannot be used. • Iranian Revolution & Iranian Hostage Crisis In 1978. 1972. • Watergate Scandal The name of a hotel in Washington. burglars broke into Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate hotel to wiretap the phones.  however. president from 1981 to 1989. a member of the National Security Council. This was the first time there had been a signed peace agreement between Middle Eastern nations. and severe tension in the Middle East. Ford pardoned Nixon and pushed a conservative domestic policy. Bakke 1978––Ruled race can be used when considering applicants to colleges.S. and trade agreements and to take advantage of a 10-year standoff between China and the Soviet Union. that has come to signify one of the greatest scandals in American history. • Iran-Contra Scandal A series of investigations in 1987 exposed evidence that the U. until the captives were released after the election of Ronald Reagan as president.S.  on  March  26.  1979. He visited to seek scientific. Reagan believed that the prosperity of a rich upper class would “trickle down” to the poor. In the ensuing investigation. The Court barred the use of quota systems in college admissions but expanded Americans’ civil rights by giving constitutional protection to affirmative action programs that give equal access to minorities. he faced an oil crisis. embassy in Iran and took 52 Americans captive. Reagan initiated major tax cuts and a massive military buildup. Faced with near-certain impeachment. but was little more than a caretaker of the White House until his defeat in the election of 1976. and it nurtured anti-Americanism among Muslims around the world. Ford took over the presidency after the Watergate scandal forced Nixon to resign on August 9.\ • Gerald Ford Vice president to Nixon after Spiro Agnew.  Menachem   Begin. . Nixon resigned the presidency on August 9. Nixon hoped to win the Chinese to his side in case he had future negotiations with the Soviets. it became clear that Nixon had known of the break-in and had participated in a cover-up attempt. angry Iranian revolutionaries invaded the U. D. had been selling arms to the antiAmerican government in Iran and using the profits from these sales to secretly and illegally finance the Contras in Nicaragua.  The  treaty. cultural. 1974. Nixon’s visit to China in 1971 was one of the successes.) Oliver North. • Reaganomics Ronald Reagan’s economic philosophy which held that a that a capitalist system free from taxation and government involvement would be most productive. The Iranian Hostage Crisis lasted 444 days. It was later discovered that these burglars had been employed by Nixon’s Committee to Re-elect the President (CREEP).  Anwar  el-­‐Sadat.  the  Camp  David  Accords  were  signed  by  Israel’s  leader. • Jimmy Carter Democratic president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. • Richard Nixon Richard Nixon’s presidency was one of great successes and criminal scandals. (The Contras were a rebel group fighting against the communist-linked Sandinista regime in Nicaragua.C. • Ronald Reagan Republican. His presidency revolved around two goals: economic prosperity and victory in the Cold War. When Carter let the shah enter the United States for medical treatment. the Iranian Revolution replaced a shah (king) friendly to America with a Muslim religious leader unfriendly to America. During his term in office. a weak economy.• Regents of University of California v. • Nixon’s Visit to China Richard Nixon’s presidency was one of great successes and criminal scandals.  and  Egypt’s  leader.

S. Clinton served as president from 1993 to 2001. al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden escaped. allowing Clinton to remain in office and finish his second term. history to suffer impeachment. • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Passed by a narrow margin in Congress in November 1993. • Impeachment of Bill Clinton Clinton also became the second president in U. In the 2000 election. No WMD were found before Hussein was captured. another of Bush’s responses to the 9/11 terrorist attacks was his authorizing Operation Enduring Freedom. Polls showed the race would be close. the U. but when American voters cast ballots for president. on a path to democratic government. facing the Republican governor of Texas. into the international economy.S. American and British troops invaded Iraq in Operation Iraqi Freedom. forces searched for the weapons of mass destruction (WMD) that Bush feared Hussein had and could supply to terrorists for use against the United States. for which he built aninternational coalition to fight the al-Qaeda network and other terrorist groups. • Operation Iraqi Freedom In March 2003. Gore won the national popular vote by over 500.. • Electoral College The presidential election of 2000 saw Clinton’s vice president. during a period of intense partisanship in the U. Al Gore. representatives and senators.• Collapse of Soviet Union The collapse of the Soviet Union was Reagan’s biggest success in international policy. NAFTA removed trade barriers between Canada. President Bill Clinton championed this and other efforts to integrate the U. Clinton denied the charges and the Senate then acquitted him. Americans are voting for members of the Electoral College representing each candidate.S. Five of those states now comprise Russia.S. who ran as a third-party candidate.S. That country’s Taliban government was harboring the al-Qaeda leadership. went into hiding while U. Iraq’s president. and Mexico.S. vice president to Ronald Reagan and president of the United States from 1989 to 1993. and the other ten are independent countries. • Bill Clinton A Democrat. (Georgia had thirteen electors in 2000: eleven representatives and two senators). Bush Republican.S. . George W. The House of Representatives charged him with perjury and obstruction of justice. • Operation Enduring Freedom In October 2001. the invasion of Afghanistan by the U. His presidency was marked by economic recession and U. Each state is assigned “electors” in equal number to its total amount of U. Bush won by receiving 271 votes in the Electoral College to Gore’s 266.S.000 of the 105 million votes cast.S. • George W. The allied forces quickly defeated the Taliban government and destroyed the al-Qaeda network in Afghanistan. Clinton’s few major domestic and international successes were overshadowed by the sex scandal that led to his impeachment and eventual acquittal. but these reforms got out of the leader’s control and eventually led to the breakup of the 15 states that were the Soviet Union. involvement in the Gulf War.R. • War on Terrorism The invasion of Afghanistan was part of Bush’s larger war on terrorism.S. military and allied forces. and it turned out to be one of the closest elections in American history. the national popular vote has no legal significance. The charges were based on accusations of improper use of money from a real estate deal and allegations he had lied under oath about an improper relationship with a White House intern. Bush. however. government. The Soviet Union’s last leader set up policies allowing freedom of speech and of the press and other reforms putting the U. as well as consumer advocate Ralph Nader. He was convicted of crimes against humanity and executed in 2006. Rather. Saddam Hussein.

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