'Ashura

,

An

Early

Muslim

Fast*

By

Suliman

Bashear,

Jerusalem

1.

Introduction:

The ars who

Fast

of

'äshürä albeit institution

has

drawn briefly,

the noted

attention its being

of an on

several early the ofthe

modem practice tenth day Muslim which suggested

schol¬ which (hence calen¬ explicitly that of Atone¬ Tishri.' shall notes will be it

usually, the

preceded the dar, point was ment) The not which reviewed pür upon made day is be name together to the

of Rarruujün. ofthe first month

Occuring (Muharram)

"'äshürä") with being the

numerous by of on the

traditional Jews, the tenth of the most Jewish ofthe

statements Islamists Kippür first fast Hebrew Fast make

its

practiced equivalent occurs

Muslim also and

(Day month, in

which origins

development here. relevance ofthis upon from that We

Atonement

Judaism passing which nature And,

investigated have some course agreed passages possibility

may, to study. by the

however, the Muslim Above students Ezekiel originally all,

a few

material the initial

in the not

oi Kip¬ drawing note was the

of

Judaism. and Zechariah,

certain of the

Leviticus, it was

a day

of inaugurating

* I would lem ' Das for E.g., Leben

like

to thank the

prof. English

D.

Shulman paper.

of the

Hebrew

University

of Jerusa¬

correcting A. Geigeb: und die Münster n.l;

of this /sZaw. Mohammad.

Jwcteim Lehre 1892, W. The Muir: Arab and York des 1/55; The

Madras Berlin

1898, 1869,

26, 3/53,

n. 1; A. Sprenger: n. 1; H. des 1963, 1981, Qurans. 1912, 19; A. Oxford Grimme: Leipzig 191-2; I. Gold¬ Katsh: 1980, Muham¬ Wensinck, Leiden 1974, Anrudi which of Tishri

Mohammed. 1909, J. ziher: goliouth: Judaism 30; mad. 1/705; 47-8 led and him the deirislam. B. Lewis: New and 1/179, Wellhausen:

Th. Life

Nöldeke: of Muhammad. and and its Law.

Geschichte Fall. London 1966, 42; Beirut 1905, M.

Edinburgh

Kingdom, Theology the 1954, Rise 128,

Introduction Mohammed in Islam. The

to Islamic New Arabs and

Princeton

14; D. S. Mar¬ 247;

of Islam. London E.I.^ but s.v. [eds.]:

n. 1; H. A. R. Gibb:

Islam. Rodinson: by L. A. J. E.L

in History. 159. J. cited See Also

York the Müano

1980, Gibb sources

"'Äshürä'" with between ordered

H. A. R.

H. Kramers therein; 1/431, where the the

The Shorter some

compare he conducted

Caetani: calculations the tenth

1905-26, sceptic of Muharram

to being tenth

conceming which

coincidence Prophet

to

fast.

282

Suliman

Bashear

Temple the sion, ing,

or

its

purification rather than to have passage, even

occuring, the first

variably, Hebrew a day

on month.^

the

first From

or

the

tenth an not occa¬

of

seventh, which there is one's instances New the basis

such and into

seems a clear soul,

been

of joyful in and to the

celebration Talmud, suckling be the

fast¬ and a few the

attested for pregnant also stated

fasting In after

afflicting other Hebrew On Islamists renunciation Muhammad hope other ity that that

women.^ tenth day

Kippür Year.* of some

was

Muslim above

traditional drew for the measuring To make are: by the this an

statements conclusion the and that

on

'äshürä, its

a few

mentioned was and the

adoption/ between issues we The possibil¬ times, whether its it after it was the an for the isnäd dif¬ of

a barometer the Jews

relationships other related contribution. the

of Medina. will here

present to be

enquiry addressed was practiced

additional conceming

matters such

reports Arabs

a fast with by the

in pre-lslamic the question

connection was being fasted extensive analysis ferent 'äshüof ordained

Judeo-Christian as the practices on will these help to well

heritage, as its day beliefs. we

Muhammad by Ramadän,

subsequent or days In shall on

position which

abrogated and other traditional which currents rä, not

exact and issues give

related lore

investigating conduct dating and

hopefully and only views in early

a historical emergence for the

relevant Islam but

to the also

development generations

subsequent

Muslim

scholars.

2.

The

Pre-lslamic

Heritage:

The a wide practice ordained shall Muslim and

notion range of its review scholars position

that of

the

'äshürä

fast One

was group it

not

a Muslim says stated

novelty that that In what it

is carried was the a jähili Prophet

by

traditions. In until traditions to support in

simply was was also instituted. to the views

Quraysh. fasting these

another, Ramadän and their early

follows were the used nature

we by

point difierent Islam.

way

they

concerning

of

'äshürä

2.1. tice

Roughly is carried

speaking, by

the statements

idea

that usually

the

'äshürä attributed 4/233-4. 119(a),

fast to

was 'Ä'isha

a jähili and

prac¬ Ibn

^ Encyclopaedia ^ Babylonian thoth 18(b). ^ Rosh Hashana

Biblica. Talmud,

Jerusalem Pesahim 54(b),

1962,

Shabbath

Nedarim

80(b),

Keri-

18(a),

Ta'anith

5(a),

Yebamoth

49(b),

Berakoth

12(b).

'Äshürä,

An

Early

Muslim

Fast

283

'Umar. isnäd The (d. her ant his tion." With of

However, each of

a them

close

examination reveals of the some 'Ä'isha

of

their

exact

wording

and

the

interesting tradition source d. 93-104 one does is there H.).^

nuances. is 'Urwa an is?iäd b. al-Zubayr leading this 'Urwa to vari¬ by

main

transmittor H.). Jäbir similar (d. Only b. in Zayd

91-101 through is very son

one

isolated (Basran, to H.)

However, from for special

in content 145-7

a certain and hence

transmitted not call

Hishäm

atten¬

minor

variations Quraysh When until Ramadän he

the in the came

Hishäm Jähiliyya, to

tradition and he Then ^ämahu is Zuhri One of the

says

that

people himself to was shä'a do

of

the used

Jähiliyya/v&T., to fast 'äshürä. it only other

Prophet

Medina

continued 'äshürä

so left

and and

ordained became The dition, that that the was the it

was (fa-man from two

instituted. shä'a 'Urwa

voluntary main transmittor splits used

wa-man (d. 124 with and

tarakah).' whose statement other end says with tra¬

H.) the the

however, Prophet was observed that

into to as

variants. the in fasting the and one

opens 'äshürä, Both voluntary

order a fast was notice left

Jähiliyya. became variant,

variants after

saying revealed.*

'äshürä We also

Ramadän from Zuhri

that

transmitted

^ Al-Rabi' " Except although there ' (d. riyya, Ihn 255 326; 83,

b. for 'äshürä

Habib the

al-Azdi:

al-Jämi'

al-8ahih. with fast . . wa-läkin Muwa{(a'. 101; H.): H.,

Cairo which

1349

H.,

1/62. namely that 'azim). Shäfi'i Ms. 1979, Därimi Zähi¬ 3/55; (d. 2/ majmü' (d. 211 1382 Beirut H.): H., n.d., Ibn Mushkil Beirut alJämi'

clearly for

editorial only its fasting (d. Shayba 2/23; 1931, Ms. 4/289; Abü 179 Beirut

comment (

it ends, was

became reward Mälik

a voluntary

after

Ramadän fi siyämihi Cairo 1951,

instituted,

is a great Compare: 204 H.): majmü'61, Hanbai H.): (d. Sunan.

thawäbun 1/299;

B. Anas al-IJadilh. Abi

H.): (d. 235

Ikhtiläf 241 Cairo Sahih. Beirut

1985, 1313 Däwüd idem 6(b), (d. 2/250, al-Athär 1975, Ibn 1982, (d. 676 al-Sunan

Hadith 6/29-30, H.):

al-Jahdari, Bombay 50, Sunan. Ms. 162;

3; Ibn H.):

Musannaf.

Musnad.

Cairo

n.d., Cairo

(d. 275 Shamä'il, 15(a); 219 5/155; Mecca 3/283; ffibbän al-Kubrä. 206; H.): (d. Ibn H.):

Beirutn.d.,

Tirmidhi: 75; al-Dhuhah: Bukhäri: Tabari

3/285; private, Humaydi

Zähiriyya, Beirut Sahih. H., 1/209-11; H.): Sahih.

Fawä'id, 1983, Saliih. (d. 3lÖ H.): Beirut H.), Sahih. 1333 (d. al-Ttibär 7/200; 6/383-4; Cairo Diyärbakri: Samarqandi 'Abd al-Razzäq

'Abd Muslim:

al-Razzäq

Musannaf 1/102; 3/146; Khuzayma al-Athär 1987, Häzimi al-Ufül. dhab). 1347 Qäri: 1314 H., Jam' H., (d. 5/253;

Musnad. 1404

1981, Tahdhib Beirut H., 3/87; H.): Halab Nawawi Tarikh 1318 (d. H., 373

(d. 311 Haydarabad Bayhaqi 584 H.): 1951, 1344 al-Wasä'il. 6/345;

Tahäwi (d. 354

(d. 321 H.): (d. 1986,

458

Beirut al-Athir

4/288; H.): al-Muhadh-

606

Cairo Cairo 4/204-5;

al-Mujmü' 1255 Cairo H.): (d. Beirut Ibn 911 1283

(Sharh Nayl H., H.): n.d., Hanbal

H.,

al-Shawkäni 2/104; H.): Humaydi

al-Awtär 1/360; al-Durr. 130-1. 6/248;

Cairo 'Ali alCairo

al-Khamis. Suyüti Tanbih.

*' Compare:

4/288;

1/102;

Bu-

284

Suliman

Bashear

by that

Yünus Zuhri

(b.

Yazid

al-Ayli abandoned

1, d.

159 'äshürä

H.),

ends (qäla

with Yünus: oecurs

the

latter's

statement al-Zuhri variant trans¬ was ßhi alwas lä

never Another

wa-käna in the that

yada'uhu).^ mitted a day ka'ba)}'' transmitted of Yazid since in ete." ofthe (Medinese, d. 150 Jurayj others. who 147 H.), b. from in which

noteworthy by Muhammad was and Mälik (Egyptian, the and the

addition b. Abi covered Zuhri, (Medinese, d. same Prophet's 128 the

Zuhri the

Haf§a. (wa-käna 'Urwa d. H.). elements

It

says

'äshürä tustaru tradition

Ka'ba Hishäm

yawmun <101-5 It calls of 'Ä'isha H.) for on no

Besides by Abi

'Iräk Ilabib

b.

the

authority com¬ of

special fasting before

ment 'äshürä dän, One Näfi' nese, (d. Ibn and

it only the

reiterates

Quraysh's of it

Jähiliyya

ordaining

Rama¬

main d. H.), al-Walid (d. 150

transmittors 117-20 Layth b. H.), that that b. Kathir Sa'id 'äshürä it was to as he b. H.)

of Ibn on the

'Umar's authorities

tradition

was

his

mawlä, (Medi¬

of 'Ubaydulläh d. Müsä 174-5 b. 'Uqba d. 'Umar/var. in the H.), (d. Ibn

Sa'd (d. 'Abd was a day fast

(Egyptian, 151 H.),

Ishäq H.), H.) to the

141 167-8

al-'Aziz mentioned observed or break said used it.

(Damascene, to as In Ibn a fast one after fast on

It says said the

Prophet, but ulläh another that gave the

Jähiliyya of 'Ubayd¬ while before

people Prophet says

freedom is quoted that

variant Ramadan, that

having himself

this to

explicitly was ordained.'^ of Näfi' on 'Äshürä

day

month

Other used not

variants to fast

make unless

a point

of adding

that with

Ibn another

'Umar fast

himself of his.

it coincided

khäri Sharh Räzi: 1985,

2/150, Ma'äni Fawä'id. 2/994.

5/154; al-Athär Beirut

Muslim Beirut 1989,

3/147; 1979, 2/188;

Tabari 4/47; Ibn

1/209; Bayhaqi al-Ja'd

Tahäwi: 4/288, (d. 230

MushkilS/ST; 290; H.): Tammäm Musnad.

idem, alKuweit

" Tabari, Ibn "

ibid. Hanbal, 3/147; Abü Ms. 6/244. Tabari al-Jahm Zähiriyya, Abü Ibn Ibn 207; CaAro Qutlübughä in the See: with variants al-Rabi' Tammäm Khuzayma al-Athir 159; 1988, (d. 879 1984, Bombay Compare 1/211; al-Bähih: majmü' Däwüd 3/284; 7/201; Nawawi 7/361 H.): also with al-Qäri, Mushkil Ms. 144; Ibn Tahäwi: Shawkäni 6/384; (ed. 'Awalial-Layth Ishäq, Ibn Sa'id al-Räzi, Hanbal Ibn Mäja; 2/104. 3/87 Zähiriyya, Abi Shayba Sunan. Ibn and Sharh majmü' 3/55; Cairo Hajar 4/75. 83, Shäfi'i 1952, al-Hay1/ 5;

Muslim Compare:

Tahäwi: IJadith, 105, 2/326;

Hadith 102; 253-4; thami: idem, Ibn 553;Tabari

Ibn

'Umar, 1/208-9;

Hanbal al-Häzimi al-Siyäm^

3/147-8;

Sharht/76; 4/205; Bayhaqi:

IbnHibbän5/ Sunan no. Jidda 4/289-90; Suyüti: 1987, al-Walid majmü' 2/22-3; 75. b. 93, Mus-

Shu'ab

al-Imän. Ibn

Beirut

1990,

3778);

Z>Mrr6/345: This Kathir 84 (and and

b. Sa'd. b. 'Abd Ms. 2/4;

occurs Ayyüb. compare

of Ibn Min 2/188);

al-'Aziz, Zähiriyya, Därimi

Fawä'id

'Ashurä, Note a may also be of 'äshürä, made Ibn of one, 'Umar, said: "it

An on

Early the

Muslim authority only states extolled

Fast of Zayd that by b. the people Muhammad, latter, ofthe

285

descendant about

which was

when Jähi¬

asked liyya."'* Another Sälim

a day

recorded (d. 105-8 H.)

transmission on the (d. tradition oi Jähiliyya, authority 150 H.).

from

Ibn ofthe

'Umar latter's

is

one

by

his 'Umar the

son, b. ori¬ as a

nephew, of it reiterates

Muhammad ginal fast core by the

al-'Asqaläni of Näfi"s people and 'äshürä; it."'^ to the tradition 'Umar the Prophet then II notion

One says Another

variant that

which etc. to may

'äshürä one drops the it

was this saying: and

observed introductory "this

statement day may of

simply whoever

attributes wishes

the fast

Prophet during

is the wishes

whoever

break

Support an the butes the etc.'« Another covering transmitted 100 nese used used H.) d. to to on isolated chain: to

that

'äshürä It ^

was was

a. jähili

practice by

can Zuhri

be

found through It attri¬ 'äshürä

in

of Mu'äwiya. (d. the God 101 H.)

transmitted b. to us 'Abdullah fast on fasting the

Ibrähim "we used

b. Qäri?. day of

saying: ordained

in . . ."

Jähiliyya;

upon

the

of Ramadan

isolated the Ka'ba, from the

tradition in Zayd which b.

describes the by al-Zinäd on that

a certain Prophet his son was

festivity also

connected involved. (Medinese, b. Dhakwän, It d.

with was 99-

Thäbit of Abü

Khärija

authority H.). It says

('Abdulläh day the

Medi¬

130-2 dance consult of yadüru

that

Abyssinians We also b. leam

(al-Habasha) that on the the the people exact year lunar

(taqlisu) a Jew that fi day,

in front and, after

ofthe his it used

Prophet. death, to hint

Zayd circulate ofthe

Thäbit throughout

occurrence (wa-käna and The shürä Muslim the matter solar notion before

since

al-sana)

— a clear

need

to

adjust

calendars." of & jähili Islam do origin not seem only 105-7 and to the have Prophet's aroused late From sources it we practices serious quote leam that, concerning concern to 'älater on asked

scholars. by

Actually, 'Ikrima (d.

a few H.).

a comment when

lim

3/147-8;

Tabari

1/208-9, 4/205.

218-9;

Baybaqi

4/290;

Iläzimi

206;

Ibn

al-Athir

7/201;

Shawkäni Tarsüsi Compare: (d.

273 Bukhäri

H.):

Musnad 2/250; al-Kabir.

Ibn Muslim Baghdad

'Umar. 3/148;

Beirut Ibn 1983,

1973, Khuzayma

36. 3/290; Tabaräni

(d.

360

H.):

al-Mu'jam 19/347. 5/138;

12/203.

Tabaräni " rut Tabaräni 1983, 3/187.

Haythami

(d. 807

H.):

Majma'

al-Zawä'id.

Cairo

and

Bei¬

286

Suliman

Bashear

about atone that ancient he took

it, for

the

latter which

said

that they

Quraysh had that and basis festivity they committed Quraysh that of

used

to

fast

on

that

day We the it from

in

order leam as

to

a sin

in the had the Prophet it was

jähiliyya.

also fast them to

Qurtubi Abrahamic the

suggested practice On and the the which

inherited took also 'äshürä ancient

an like view the al-

Hajj. fasting

this, of

suggested by covering

Quraysh's Ka'ba shar' as

extolling from

something

inherited

religion

(min

al-sälif).'^

2.2. tian Mecca. two and the feast fast; the Hajari during

A

group

of

other heritage such

traditions rather traditions were usually was Abü often Hurayra was before

connect than enjoyed not the

'äshürä jäJiili some

with practice

the of

Judeo-Chris¬ Quraysh the and first

prophetic Though centuries, their Prophet of so, chain:

circulation in classical One of them

during hadith

they authenticity through

included

codexes to "it used is a to by aldied

questioned. the saying

attributes 'äshürä:

concerning a day the it was 194-5 H.)

a Prophet fast on

who

you/var., Abü (Kufan, b. al-Aswad,

prophets transmitted

it yourselves". b. Abü

From al-Fudayl ('Amr

Hurayra d.

Muhammad <-

Ibrähim who

(Kufan) Mu'äwiya's traditions

'Iyäd

a Damascene

reign).'* specified with forgiveness however, the (d. tradition has It is actually probably chains: 117-8 on H.), that the 'äshürä. to name As Adam these Ibn of one or as and notions Jurayj <more 'Abd the Judeo-Christian al-Razzäq landing were a man One though the tafsir not <of the we hear of

Some prophets oftwo Noah.^" carried Ma'mar that through Quran the

in connection themes: We back God's notice, beyond

early

Ark

traditionally 'Ikrima, to and think

•<- Qatäda Qatäda Ma'mar, 11/44.^'

respectively. fasting, in

is inclined not genre to

Noah's originated of some

necessarily conceming add that, as

importance

Ibn Ibn

Hajar Abi H.):

(d. Shayba

852

H.):

Fath and

al-Bäri.

Cah-o (d. 292 1/490; 2/57; vol. (d. H.)

1319

H.,

4/176; quoted Kunüz Ihn

al-Qäri by:

2/104. Haythami Suyüti margin (d. in of the 5/

3/55 al-Astär al-^aghir. 2/10; (ed.

Bazzär 1979, 1954, 1983, See Daylami

Musnad,

(d. 807 911 the Ibn H.):

Kashf of Suyüti 3/360 Beirut

Beirut Cairo al-Muttaqi 1/293.

idem, Kanz 8, no. H.):

Majma', al-'Ummäl, al-§iyäm al-Firdaws.

3/185; in the Hajar: 157, Beirut

al-Jämi'

al-Manäwi: 24232);

al-Haqä'iq, al-Mafälib quoting 1986,

margin Hanbal,

al-Hindi: also

Damascus

al-'Aliya. Musnad 530.

1987.

Haythami: 509

of Bsu^i

b. Makhlad;

Musannaf, 104; and compare no. 24256. ^' Compare

op.

cit. with

4/290-1. Samarqandi

See

also 130,

Haythami: al-Muttaqi.

Majnm'S/lS8; Ed. Damascus

al-Qäri 1983, vol.

2/ 8,

with

Tabari:

Tafsir.

Cairo

1330

H.,

12/29;

Zamakhshari

(d. 528

'Aahürä, brought was should attributed yijäzi From 'Asäkir al-Ghafür, day Noah by fasting fast" to context. Tabari, and as well we as also Tabari's today to the Noah. Prophet Tafsir, should We this

An

Early tradition his see

Muslim

Fast the whoever this which statement also puts saying was "whoever breaking was it

287

attributes fast that and

complete shall in

below literature

often in the

hadith

Abü leam

al-Shaykh of a tradition Sa'id b. which

(d.

369 by which in as

H.), 'Abd

Tabaräni, al-'Aziz b. on a sign here, as of God's Jonah, Abraham

Ibn 'Abd that of this for¬ the

Daylami son fasted to of the with

companion all We the notice, moulded

Zayd, were that

adds the it Ark occurs such

that as

beasts

gratitude notion giveness splitting and cated also The 'äshürä Hanbal mar tive <the by was

God.^^ sometimes

however, with to the other people and

elements of the the birth was of them

not of the Son most

just sea

to

Adam for the On that

but sons the

city

of Israel this it, 102-3 to early was was though H.)"

of both considered noted

of Mary. sources by of also leam

whole, bring (d.

tradition few

fabri¬ that it was

reported notions occur we

Mujähid God's in that while two the the

forgiveness relatively former latter

Adam sources.

and

Abraham's From the the 'Eal

birth of

on Ibn Ma'¬

reported brought by

through al-Kisä'i

chain:

Qatäda, to

in a long traditions

narra¬ through

attributed

Ka'b

al-Aljbär.^*

Intwo

prophetical

H.): Kashshäf. 1/435. Compare: quoting Haythami: (d. 427 Madärilc general heavily certain 597 n.d, 110; Icirat H.): 6/296; hbn H.): Ibn

Cairo

1354

H.,

2/218;

Baydäwi:

Anwär

al-Tamü.

Lipsiae

1846,

Tabari, 'Asäkir; Majma' Qi^a^

ibid; al-Muttaqi 3/188,

Suyüti: quoting

al-La'älial-Ma^ü'a. quoting 59; The ofthe Qutb element was Basran Abü M.K; al-Din Tabaräni's

Beirut al-Shaykh's Daylami al-Qastalläni

1975, 1/223;

2/116-7, al-Thawäb; Tha'labi (d. 686 H.): in a (d. 2/ Tadlialof are: and

3/360-1, 1985, 44-5.

'Arä'is. Cairo called with called Medina (d. Bombay 1379 3/285. by H., the

Beirut n. d., al-Surad names Abü 748

al-Maräm. and a bird associated companion Mawdü'ät. Dhahabi Hajar: Cairo Sahih al-Manähi Lisän.

of fasting forwarded successor

'äshürä Qays See:

hy beasts traditions and Medina La'äli, H.):

in particular, Ghali?/'Alit,

by two Ibn Suyüti: (d. 986 H.): some by in the Ibn

b. 'Abbäd al-Jawzi Baghdad.

respectively. Baghdädi: Cairo H., 1963, (d. quoted 6/59; Shark were Mu'jam 4/137;

1966, H.): 1342 97-8;

2/204; Mizän. 1331 H.,

Tärilch al-Fattani 1250 by al-Tirmidki, al-Saktäba

Haydarabad Ibn sources

al-Mawdü'ät.

118;Shawkäni 'Arabi: that

al- Fawä'id margin Qäni' of these

Majmü'a. Tirmidhi: Kitäb Abü "

Other

al-Hakim

al-Tirmidhi,

Nu'aym's E. g., Ibn

Ifilya. 'Arabi, ibid; al-Kinäni al-Häkim: (d. 963 H.) : Tanzik al-Skan'a. where it was Beirut also 1979, stated

2/150. Compare also with that 'Isä was born on it. " Ibn Hanbal: 'Ilal.

Mustadrak2/59S,

Beirut

and

Riyad

1988,

2/588;

Kisä'i:

(^a^

al-Anbiyä'.

288

Suliman

Bashear

Abü eral phets. Zinäd (d. 110-7

Hurayra others The

and

Ibn

'Abbäs, with

these the the H.) ('Abd •<- the

two names

elements of other

are

moulded

with

sev¬ pro¬

connected first is bom d. <Abü

Judeo-Christian al-Rahmän 'Abdulläh b. b. Abi

by 174

isnäd: <his

. . . 'Abd father, b. The

al-

(Medinese, 130-2 H.) H.) <-

Dhakwän d. is: ^

al-A'raj HurajTa Habib (d. were and

al-Rahmän Prophet. <H.) •<Ibrähim Ibn

Hurmuz, isnäd al-^ä'igh ofthe

Medinese, second 187 Prophet. of their God urges ahlikum which God from H.)

. . . Habib Mäymün Both Ibn tent, ordained lims and gave let from his the fasts God mended and and that to then Adam, Noah be Abi the

b. Abi b. Mihrän

al-Kharä'iti 116-7 considered Habib one b. Abi opens the their its an tenth

(d. the

'Abbäs (mawdü') respectively. the statement

•<-

traditions al-Zinäd Abü to fast abundant proceeds lifted out ofthe

fabricated Habib, with of

because As for that It also 'alä

the con¬ has

Hurayra on 'äshürä, wdth to Idris Ark,

Muharram. (wa-wassi'ü

Mus¬ fihi) for¬ fire,

families merits

count to

being: place, tawrät prison, out to

the

day

on

elevated the from let and Jonah forgave

rescued Moses,

Ibrähim ransomed retumed ofthe of Jonah. it is the first

revealed Joseph

Ismä'il to whale, Jacob split

sacrifice, sight, sea on for lifted the

released Job's sons

restored ofthe the belly people years, the its to

trials, of Israel an

Whoever day are that

it is granted and only the one's on to needy hand colours for 'aynahu a whole tilka which that the to

atonement first it but water, the eyelids head rain also to

of forty fell to give of an wdth kohl (man from spend

created not

it the fast on with over his

sky. night

People

recom¬ to the are feed sick told suffer lam brings them the that He the

in prayer, to visit we shall not 'äshürä

provide pass

alms, orphan. on

wash, Moreover,

whoever

that

day

ophthalmia tarmad some are seas. lifted day of the

year al-sanata do not

thereafter kullahä)}^ appear the in

iktahala Finally,

yawma Ibn sources. the on

al-Jawzi Among mountains, 'äshürä; and on it,

elements notions His Christ seat,

most

later earth, Jibril kingdom

God pen,

created the granted plates

Heavens, and Angel his

heaven,

Solomon occur.^"

too,

resurrection

would

Leiden 102.

1922,

130;cf.

also

Nuwayri

(d. 733

H.):

Nihäyat

al-Arab.

Cairo

1938,13/

Suyüti: Cairo n.d., Diyärbakri 96-7. 2" Ibn

La 'äZi 2/109-10, 12-4; 1/360-1; al-Kinäni Laknawi Mawdü'ät

Ibn 2/150-1. (d.

al-Siddiq Compare 1304 H.):

al-Ghumäri: also al-Athär with

Hadiyyat Shawkäni: al-Marfü'a.

al-Sugharä'. Fawä'idQl Beirut 1984, ;

al-Jawzi:

2/199-202.

'Äshürä,

An

Early

Muslim

Fast

289

The in a few

tradition details. worshipping recommended in which

of

Ibn

'Abbäs it opens

is with seventy

similar the

in

substance that

and the to Then

diverges fast count comes of of

only 'äshürä good

After

statement

equals deeds graph rä. occur Jawzi settled that nabiyyu biographer for two the The

God for 'Umar

for

years, to do on

it proceeds that day. God's most the that God more on here and of ones

the

Muslims the to tradition

a para¬ 'äshü¬ which Ibn aland notion allate 'Äshürä 'äshürä,

asks answer

Prophet this counts including are But was told

about

preference the elements which only Paradise is the

Prophet's in Abü Hurayra's Added in

brings. Adam Prophet yawma

to that

this

we day.

created striking 'äshürä that the

it on

probably also bom note

Muhammad 'äshürä).^' quotes on One

(wa-wulida relatively FaqläHl birth on

may

Mughultäy traditions

Ibn

'Asäkir

Bayhaqi's or

Muhammad's

conception

respectively.^* To which the cessor additional bom Noah, conclude are this attributed Ibn b. notions Ibrähim, Fätima, started David; killed Fir'awn, people of Paradise freed her for to build review, by note another may late 'Abdulläh (d. by Ismä'il, Hasan the and Ka'ba; the following the The all the also God tree these 110 H.) traditions Ishäq, Husayn. Joseph's people Moses, On also sira b. and be taken of that Ibn similar of traditions to suc¬ The were 'Isä, and and and

source, Saläm, probably are

Diyärbakri, the too.^* 'äshürä Yünus, Abraham forgiven

companions Wahb

Mas'üd,

"Abbäs, others

Munabbih bom

that: Yahyä, it, too,

on

Muhammad, Isma"'!! so was

brothers of Lot were on 'Äd, the it. God granted also leam etc. Buräq

were

Namrüd Goliath.

perished, Also, the Qärün,

swallowed day: Shaddäd and the

David b. 'Äd,

perished 'Amäliqa, Tübä, on

that

Hämän,

Thamüd and

the

unbelieving angels Abraham, took Joseph Abraham

of Ibrähim. — were from a Ichalil Zulaykha,

female to and day are

created

betrothed Häjar that Above to on

Sarah her that we

tyrant on

of Harrän, 'äshürä. spoke to We

married

Moses,

all

" Ibn Suyüti:

Compare: al-Jawzi La'äli by

Ibn 2/202-3; 2/108-9; Abü

Hibbän

(d. Kinäni

354

H.):

al-Majrühin. 1/209-10; Fattani (and 118; Ibn

Halab Hajar: Diyärbakri

1402 Lisän

H., 1/360,

1/365-6; 2/169-70; quoting

Dhababi:

Mizän 2/149; al-Samarqandi

al-Tanbih 129-30);

al-Layth 94-5. al-Zahr about (d. was 1/361 118 with

compare

with

Samarqandi's

Laknawi

2* Mughultäy: one 'Amr Compare where the which speaks however name b. Shu'ayb

al-Bäsim, the H.) Ibn wrongly quoting Prophet's down 'Asäkir: given

Ms. to his as

Leiden, conception grandfather

Or.

370, is bom

fols. by

71(a), a family b. 'Amr

72(b). isnäd

The oi

'Abduhäh ed. b. Bahr Shu'ayb. al-'Ulüm.

b. al-'A?. 1/397,

Tärikh.

FaesimUe Shu'ayb

'Ammän

1988,

Diyärbakri

a work

entitled

290

Suliman

Bashear

told

that

not to

only him, day.

was he

Muhammad married Khadija,

bom

on and

'äshürä Fätima

but and

that her

Jibril sons,

first were

appeared bom on

this

3.

The

Jews

of

Medina:

Bits rä, with tion. leaves Jewish ties on

and

pieces above, Jews the doubt in whole,

of the

traditional in the the

Judeo-Christian context

discourse of Muhammad's

on

'äshü¬

reviewed the On no

re-appear Medina the over extensive the of fasting

encounter or this renuncia¬ encounter about the

questions material

of its which of Muslim

adoption cover

conceming not what only follows

awareness but also

scholars certain this material

origins it. In

accomplishing of

festivi¬ will be

a close

examination

conducted.

3.1. about arrival tian niscent comes

Two the in prophets

parallel Prophet's Medina. with 'Abbäs

traditions enquiry The whose former names

of of

Ibn the opens 'äshürä reviewed

'Abbäs Jews with

and conceming listing

Abü

Hurayra 'äshürä after

speak his

several in

Judeo-Chris¬ a way remi¬ Then Medina was and was 135 102 H.) H.). that about Moses Moses Prophet — and that b. 'Awf this on ala

was

connected previous of the

of Ibn the

's tradition on the on it.

in the enquiry

chapter. Jews that is my this of that brother tradition (d. (d. statement enquired God and saved hence the day

paragraph their fasting

Prophet's And, when

conceming day I have transmitted and The the the from and said: ordered tradition the Azdi.'" authority Muqätil tradition on which more

they said:

explained "Moses 'Abbäs H.) <-

Moses right by b. two to

fasted, him chains: (d. Hurayra some that than

Muhammad you." Ibn 150 Jurayj H.) in its Jews it who was on to Moses fast". by the From

Ibn (d. 150

'Atä'

Sulaymän of Abu

•>- Pahhäk tum opens on in

b. Muzähim with 'äshürä, which the

Prophet matter Pharoah, Noah "I

passed and was Noah's on more companions

by

fasted a day al-Jüdi

told Ai'k

landed

mountain Then, to we are on

fasted have his was

it in gratitude right to to

God. and

told, this leam

fasting Ilanbal

From Kufan century

Ibn

we Shubayl Habib

transmitted ofthe mid-second

successor Basran,

b.

'Abdullah

Ibn thami:

Banbal: al-Siyäm

Musnad 157-8;

2/359-60. Ibn al-Siddiq

See

also:

Haythami: Hadiyyat

Majma' 27.

3/184;

Hay¬

al-Ghumäri:

'Aahürä, More all the widely circulated

An

Early

Muslim tradition

Fast of Ibn only the latter of Moses only by H.). the his 'Abbäs about which the

291

is another elements and

drops

Judeo-Christian with 'äshürä the to Jews

speaks where

Prophet's that the they drown¬

encounter fast ing ter and on

of

Medina God's (d. him 95

explain and

commemorate b. Jubayr and from b. the Iyäs,

rescue H.) is the reported d. is that latter 123-31 in

of Pharoah. ofthis Abü tradition; Bishr between "and his ahaqqu

Sa'id

recorded his son, One

transmit¬ 'Abdullah noteworthy the is is Prophet directed also the the over

it was

(Ja'far

Wäsiti,

difference says: to

two

versions while "antum 'äshürä in

former response There God

bi-müsä", saying: of describing against being

the awlä as

companions, variance of Israel as

bi-müsä". in Moses which

slight sons

a day which

rescued

one

in

was

victorious

Pharoah.^' Only similar ed. in one isolated tradition, the bearing Prophet the hand, and his the and name the Jews of Ibn 'Umar, was record¬ Moses traditions feast on it; bears by but the all the and a

encounter this Pharoah.'^ state and without of Abü H.) <brought that that the

between was done On 'äshürä Prophet

of Medina

However,

without the was other extolled ordered the Medina through (Kufan, source

elements there

of rescuing are several a to One Qays H.).'' was fast of them

drowning which Jews, that name d. 120

considered

followers

mentioning Müsä Täriq by al-Ash'ari b. Shihäb

context. the d. isnäd: 82-4 isnäd,

b. Muslim Only such in one

(Kufan, isolated by

variant,

a late

without

statement

" Hanbal Därimi

Tayälisi 1/291, 2/22;

(d. 204 majmü' 310, Abü 61,

H.) : Musnad. 171; 'Abd 2/326; 1/152; Abü 1/212-3 1/1281); Hibbän: (no. al-Athir Ibn al-Qäri 6/344. 4/290 3/55; Ihn 7/201; Nayl context with Ibn Hibbän: Suyüti; 4/205. was 336, 340;

Beirut al-Razzäq

1986, 2/251, Mäja

342; 5/211-2,

al- Arba'ün Ihn al-Harbi Abi 239; Musnad. idem, 3/286; (d. 510 (d. 762 12/50; H.): H.):

li-l-Farräwi, Shayba Muslim (d. 285 Tärikh. Tahäwi: Sharh Na^-b Nayl 130; 3/56; 3/148-50; H.): Cairo

Ms. Ibn Gharib 1986, 1967, Sunan

Zähiriyya,

4/288-9; 1/552; (d. 307 compare Khuzayma

Bukhäri Ihn and Ibn Sahih 3776);

Däwüd 1985, Tahdhib edition, Ihn

al-Hadith. 4/440-1; 2/417 88 and 4/283; Beirut Beirut Baghdädi Durr 1/69, 'Abd Ibn Tahäwi: 4/289; 1/604; where

Mecca Tabari: (European Sharh idem, 1980, n.d., 4/15;

Ya'lä

H.): with

Damascus

Mushkil^/ al-Sunna. al-Räya. 4/205; Suyüti:

5/254; 7/202; Muttaqi Humaydi

Tabaräni Zayla'i 3/360; 1/239;

Bayhaqi:

Shu'ab 6/333-4; 2/454-5;

7/359

Baghawi

2/105; 1/360;

Shawkäni: Samarqandi

9/4-6; 96,

Diyärbakri 3/335,

al-Razzäq Abi Shayba al-Athir Medina

the Hanbal SoÄt/j

isnäd: 4/409; 5/255;

'Ubaydulläh Bukhäri Daylami al-Kabir however,

<2/250; 3/213; Facsimhe with following

Näfi'. Muslim Bayhaqi: ed. note. Cairo Ya'lä 3/150; Sunan 1978, 13/316,

Sharh4/7&; Ihn the Shawkäni:

al-Jämi' Compare, stated, and

Abü

see

the

292

Suliman

Bashear

the

Prophet

put reported

in

the from

context Qays the b. context used their then to

of

Medina.'* by

Note §adaqa not

also b.

that Abi

in

another the people a feast

variant, whole of and tihim). Abü sources splitting any sira

Muslim

Tmrän, The it

affair

was we their

put are wives

in told,

of Khaybar, to fast on and 'äshürä, signs

Medina. considered

Khaybar, made The Ya'lä as

wear said

jewels his (d.

(huliyyahum fast on quoted speaks Medina to classify it

wa-shäräyourselves. by about or two late God's indeed the

Prophet and having sea Ibn

followers: 410 of Anas H.)

Mardawayh a tradition but

are which

brought to Moses,

the context;

without makes above.

mentioning it possible From the on it H.).'" Prophet used context. (Muhammad to

a fact lore it seems

which

it under isnäd informa¬ b. Abän

Judeo-Christian tion Raqäshi From ers to provided, (a

reviewed that the

meagre was Yazid

authority d. 110-20 that the any the Jews other

al-

Basran

ascetic of Jäbir

qä^^, we leam that or ■<- Abü

a tradition fast on 'äshürä

ordered do It that; was b.

his but

follow¬ again

sajring Medina

without from Makki, Finally, (yawm magicians 'Abbäs Kurayb Jäbir

mentioning by 126 a group al-zina), and (by b. Ibn H.).''

transmitted Muslim al-

Lahi'a

al-Zubayr

d.

of three say that people b. and Ibn Abi

traditions on to it Moses fast on

call

'äshürä was

"the

day over reported

of omament" Pharoah's from 'Umar Ibn I (by

victorious were b. any

urge

it.

They

al-Qäsim Sa'd)

Ayyüb 'Umar,

<without

Sa'id

Jubayr),'* isnäd?^

3.2. form which

An of

indirect controversies was not with, However,

reference over recommended. made the

to

the the

Jewish exact We day shall or is

origins of soon any the

of

'äshürä month

comes Muharram that

in the on such

fasting is start 'ShR. day,

see, sira

however, context. derived possibility

reference To root fasting

within term Arab could

Medina "'äshürä"

philologically raise the of

from that, This is

the as so, a

lexicographers also be the

'äshürä

ninth

Muharram.

»* Al-Muttaqi Muslim '° 1/69. Haythami:

3/360. 3/150; Majma' Ibn al-Athir 3/188; 7/201. Muttaqi 3/360. Compare also with Suyüti: Durr

Ibn thami: Abü Ihn 4/303.

Hanbal Majma' Ya'lä

3/340; 3/185. 5/21. and

Tabaräni:

Awsaf.

Riyä(J

1987,

3/236;

cf

also

Hay¬

Mardawayh

Daylami,

cf

Muttaqi

3/360-1.

See

also

Suyüti:

Durr

'Äshürä, they is an explain, Arabian because use of the denoting

An

Early

Muslim ofthe of

Fast phrase "'ishr to water al-wird'which on the

293

existence the leading

camels

ninth

day.*« The H.) But earliest we are authority told, seems the general 'Abbäs reference to took to named it from lie of a group conceming for his this notion is Layth b. Sa'd (d. 175

who, the

contemporary in religious hadith heavily of

al-Khalil traditionalism; commentators associated 'äshürä on the

b. Ahmad. a fact and with ninth the of

problem by in of Ibn

originally lexicographers, of traditions the

revealed scholars name

fasting

Muharram.*' One lä, of these b. traditions 'Umayr next al-täsi'). of Abü that year.*^ Ghatafan the was (d. year, We transmitted H.). from According fast on the Ibn to 'Abbäs it, the by Prophet fla'in the Prophet 'ishtu his maw¬ said: ilä died from the Pro¬ that

'Abdullah I live lä'a^ümanna the 'Abbäs before Jews whole end

110-7

"should qäbil before Ibn phet, both the

until

I would are From b. Tarif told,

ninth" that

however, version,

another al-Murri,

transmitted leam was that wamed

by

we

making and issue Christians in

above-mentioned extolled light of 'äshürä; differing

statement an from element them.*'

which

presents

the

*" Al-Khalil 249; Mu'jam. 1345 H.): *' Tafsir 1293 idem, margin 90; 43-4; al-Jawzi: *^ Some proof that al-Naysätrüri, 1/224-5; (d. 403 7/205-6; 469; 105; " Ma'älim Muttaqi Shawkäni: Suyüti: Tabrizi: H.): Ibn Ghalaf H., Lisän. Baghawi Gharib H., 3/509; al-Majmü' Azhari Cairo 2/343;

b.

Ahmad H.): H., 1308 Sida: H.,

(d. 4/326;

175

H.): Cairo Ibn

Kitäb 1964, Cairo Zabidi:

al-'Ayn. 1/409-10; (d. 321 1958, Täj.

Baghdad Ibn H.): 1/219; Cairo Cairo Jamhara. Ibn 1306 1319 Irshäd

1980, Färis

1/245-6, (d. 395 H.): 711

(d. 370 1369 Ibn

Tahdhib.

Durayd

Haydarabad Man?ür H., 3/400. 4/175; al-Säri. al-Wajiz, 1965, (d. 388 1/155; idem, Cairo inthe 1/189H.): Ibn Madärik (d.

al-Muhkam. 5/245-6; Hajar:

Cairo

6/338-9; al-Ifadith. Nawawi: e/S8S; (d. 620 Majmü'

Ibn

Fath n.d.,

al-Bäri.. 167; in the H.): al-Athir: Riyäd 103; Qutb Cairo 2/96;

H.,

Beirut Sharh al-Räfi'i &/4Q9; H.):

Qastalläni: margin al-'Aziz, al-Nihäya. 1980, 1/376; al-Din n.d., al-Qäri note See Abi Ibn 69; Fath

Muslim, (d. 623 Ibn 1987, al-Mughir. 1985, in the fasted

of QastaUäni Sharh Cairo al-Busti al-Qastalläni: al-Harbi 2/104. present also: Shayba Sharh 2/395; 24226, idem, this al-Säbi' 3/58; 4/11-8; Ibn

5/129-30;

of Nawawi, Qudäma Ibn al-$iddiq Gharib of the the Ms. Muslim al-Minhäj Ibn Hajar: 3/360 al-Muhaddithin.

al-Muqni'.

Damascus al-Ghumari: al-Hadith. scholars Zähiriyya, 3/151; Ibn Fi Shu'ab al-Talkhi? (ed. Durr Halab Damascus Bayhaqi: 6/340; al-Ma^äbih. 1933, Ibn Beirut cited actually

previous the 40, tenth. 273; Beirut in the vol. Sunan4/281;

tradition Min Ibn

as Fawä'id Hanbal Jämi'

a

Prophet

majmü'

Mäja_l/552-3; al-Imän. al-Ifabir, 1983, al-Ja'd Beirut 2/132;

Tahäwi: 1979, margin 8, nos.

al-Hahmi Majmü' al-Qäri 6/ 2/ (no. H.): Abü

al-Athir:

of Nawawi's 24253); Shu'ab al-Busti Muslim

Nayl4/208. Mishkät

7/369-70 (d. 388

3785-7);

2/1010. 1961, Baghawi 1/636; 6/340; 3/151;

al-Sunan.

294

Suliman

Bashear

Associated from tion. while are fast how From 'Ammär lä of Yahyä is the ninth. Abü that among (d. On the this

with

the

name

of Ibn heritage

'Abbäs, finds who its

the

trend

to

disconnect in he another met Ibn Ibn

Islam tradi¬ 'Abbäs we and this to was

Judeo-Christian al-Hakam at Zamzam him to b.

expression how 'äshürä.

It is by sitting told, on

al-A'raj and count ninth Ibn asked

describes him the To about beginning the

'Abbäs,

instructed the moming

from day. 'Abbäs

of Muharram whether the century Abü Ibn

of the fasted, a,s well

question in second and by

Muhammad al-Hakam, b. Abi

answered early

afiirmative.** figures like maw¬ 'äshürä from Prophet as

as

other

'Ammär,

a certain we hear

al-Haytham of statements

Sulaymän, that

b. Ya'mar, On Hurayra 'äshürä the 101-2 other Ibrähim is the

'Abbäs

other and the

hand, even Ibn

several 'Abbäs

traditions himself quote

transmitted the

'Ä'isha, saying From Pahhak ninth.

tenth.*" which to al-Basri came have (d. held 110 after that H.), (b. b. tenth.*' this issue Ilanbal But was Ibn 'Abbäs, 'äshürä 'Ikrima, al-Qäsim and the so Ishäq current strong was Sa'id ?) as b. only the b. well Rä-

generation H.) hand, is reported Hasan

al-Musayyib, as later scholars

(al-Nakha'i Mälik to hold from be found. b. that Anas,

?), Muhammad Ahmad the on

like

hawayh, at

continued

it was

aimed that a

disconnecting had

Islam to

Judaism

compromise

Däwüd 7/205-6; Shawkäni ** Ibn of "lis' Zähiriyya, Däwüd' Sahih i7; al-Qäri Abü Abi 1983, Hilya *" J.S131, *'

2/327;

Tabari:

Tahdhib

1/213-4; 6/383; Zayla'i

Bayhaqi 2/455;

4/287;

Ibn

al-Athir: al-8iyäm

Jämi' 159;

Nawawi: 4/207-8. Abi Shayba

al-Majmü'

Haythami:

3/58; instead 141; 2/394; Baghawi

'Abd of Ihn Sahih, Ibn

al-Razzäq "tis'"); Hanbal 3/286; Hazm Ibn Hadith

4/288 1/239, Ihn (d. 456 al-Athir:

(with 246-7,

a clear b. Müsä 280; 3/291;

copyist al-Ashyab,

mistake Ms. Abü 7/ Hibbän: n.d., 2/455;

wa-'ishrin" mqjmü'dl, 2/327; 5/257;

al-Qäsim Khuzayma H.):

Muslim

3/151; Ibn Beirut Zayla'i

Tirmidhi: al-Halimi 4/287;

al-Muh,allä. Jämi' 7/206;

Bayhaqi 1/106.

6/338;

Yüsuf 3/59; 8, no.

(d.

182

B..) : Kitäb

al-Athär. 2/132; J.S.

Cairo

1355

H.,

176; 3/360 2/10;

al-Jahdari (ed. Abü

3; Ibn Damascus Nu'aym:

Shayba vol. 9/322. Compare 2/57 and

al-Busti: 24233-4);

Ma'älim Suyüti:

al-Muttaqi and Manäwi

2/57

'Abd Kashf to Manäwi

al-Razzäq 1/492 'Ä'isha Ibn cf and 2/10, the Abi Ibn Irshäd

4/288 idem, quoting saying Shayba Hajar: 3/509;

with: Majma'

Tirmidhi: 1/189; Only is the Tirmidhi 1/293; Nayl it

^oÄi/j one

3/286-7; 3/360; source,

Bazzär, Suyüti: Samarqandi

cf.

Haythami: attributes Abü

al-Muttaqi ninth. 3/286-7; Nawawi: 4/208.

Däraqutni. that 3/58-9; al-Mafälib Shawkäni:

Yüsuf

176;

Musaddad Shark Muslim

b.

Musarhad: 5/129-30;

Musnad, QastaUäni:

'Äshürä, This century. Ibn ever, Ibn the It Sirin when 'Abbäs ninth is typical be comes century Ibn (khälifü same without 'Atä' 126 The dition certain one an H.) fast, day last which mawlä before and H.).^" stage in the b. Ibn one one same.^^ ninth and and it — the (d. 'Abbäs al-yahüd) statement being Sufyän was attributed b. 'Uyayna new trend seems Tabari 110 H.) we used to

An have

Early made about

Muslim itself a unique the 'äshürä him

Fast felt around the which on the turn says tenth.

295 of the that How¬ . . .) that to fast on both

From (d.

leam to

tradition fast

keep reminded

people had and said

frequently that it was

(fa-aktharüfa-qälü then he started

the

ninth,

tenth.** in the development with form Däwüd *the and of b. the of Muslim name of tradition 133 urging a day from the (d. Prophet, 198 H.) ^ before Ibn H.) <none tradition other circulated his father to a day in that than such Ibn towards <differ after his a com¬ 'Abbas. midgrand¬ the

promise This second father, Jews The i.e. ^ (d.

connected in the by

a family 'Ah (d.

Prophet, fast reported to

Muslims and 'Abbäs by two

from 'äshürä.*^

a mawqüf Ibn b. Abi

form, Jurayj Yazid

chains:

Ubaydulläh

development al-Hajjäj 'Abbäs day early

of this (Basran, d. to for we also the to from liked"

issue 160

is exemplified H.) the transmitted latter used

by

a tra¬ from to fast a

Shu'ba of and From

according after 'äshürä

which fear leam idea have Ibn

of missing that of

it (makhäfata Täwüs the root we (d. 101-6 'äshürä the that con¬ ninth

yafütah).^' used on to both of a day do

source Eventually, tenth Layth. ninth

the

keeping

the

seems For, — "is H.) is

stmck 'Uyayna

during hear

generation fasting temporary, and tenth.

al-Khalil before

(yustahabb). as saying: "it

Another is the

Ibn

Wahb

198

quoted

*» Tabari: *" nad. zayma Nawawi: 4/287; Ibn cf

Tahdhib

1/218. 1/241; al-A.<itär Tahdhib Muttaqi (no. Ibn Hazm 7/372 4/287; Ibn Hajar: Ibn idem, 1/215; 3789); al-Ja'd 7/17-8; Fadä'il Taliäwib: 3/360; Tammäm 2/886; Tammäm 6/470; (nos. Ihn 3787, 1/217; al-Sahäba idem, Humaydi 2/189. Ibn Hanbal: 2/190; al-Athir: 3790); Ibn Hajar: Ibn Jämi' Suyüti: Fadä'ü 'Arabi: 7/206; i>un2/985; Sharh Bay¬ 6/345. 6/469. Majma' Sharh 4/78; 1/227; 2/985; 1/188-9; Daylami Bayhaqi: Bazzär: Ibn Mus¬ Khu¬ 2/393; Sunan

Hanbal: Haythami:

Musnad Ka.'ihf Tabari: 6/383; Shu'ab

1/492-3;

3/290-1; al-Majmü' idem, 'Abd

al-Razzäq Tahdhib 3/284; 4/281; Shayba Shayba Tahdhib 1/217;

Tabari: al-Tirmidhi haqi:

al-Talkhis 7/371

Sunan Ibn Ibn Abi Abi

idem, 3/59; 3/58. 1/217;

Shu'ab Tabari:

Tahdhib

al-Talkhis

Tabari:

Halimi

4/394.

296

Suliman

Bashear

4.

An

Ordinace

Becomes

Voluntary:

It is agreed rä. ed, they In these To a lesser

by

Muslim extent they

scholars also

that agree sunna

the that, to

Prophet after be was liked ever

did

indeed was

fast

'äshü¬ institut¬ What (fard).

Ramadän

'äshürä do what not

became agree

a voluntary upon we and shall the is whether examine way it

(mvstahabba). an ordinance relevant scholars.

'äshürä the was

follows questions

traditional used by

material subsequent

to

4.1. and Ibn mitted when From

Traditions order Zubayr, by dealing 'Ali we others Jäbir the

which to do

simply so, are

state

that

the

Prophet from 'Ä'isha, 'Ä'isha

used

to 'Ali,

fast Abü

'äshürä Müsä, is trans¬ by us

transmitted others •<'Urwa of b. fasting 'Ubayda too. and

and chain

possibly Zuhri

The was on

tradition tackled in d. ca. the 120

partially

with hear Abü

the through 'Abd

notion Sa'd al-Rahmän (Kufan, al-Zubayr

'äshürä (Kufan,

Jähiliyya.^* H.) (b. b. «his

father-in-law, b. Abi Ishäq we the learn Prophet or heard

al-Sulami.From d. 160-2 H.) people by. Kufa to to do the 126 were b.

Isrä'il Thuwayr to fast Jäbir during fast it.'" chain: H.).^* attributed Sa'd, Zähir to b. 'äshürä reported 'Uthmän's 'äsÄwrä On

Yünus Abi Fäsaid his reign the order *-

al-Subay'i, that had were Müsä done from (M. that Jäbir b. Ibn

khita that mother and

ordered too.®" mosque urging Mazyada of

and that

done in

so the

father Abü

al-Ash'ari and b. Muslim less the

people others through d.

because such Ibn an Lahi'a

Prophet we Abü hear

had also

ordered 'Abdulläh

al-Zubayr sayings, traditions

al-Makki, circulated, names

Similar phet by

though bearing

the

Pro¬

of Qays

al-Aswad

Besides Ms. Muqri' al-Hadith. Ptibär Fi Ibn thami: and Suyüti: Ibn 3/184; 1/215; Nu'aym: Ibn Tahäwi: °* Ibn Zähiriyya,

the

sources majmü' Ms. 1985,

cited 117, 101;

in notes 15; Därimi

8-10,:

bove, 'Ashar 105, Ibn Mäja

see Min

also: Fawä'id

Fawä'id Abi 204 205. cf

al-Abnüsi, Bakr H.): (d. 584): b. alIkhtiläf al-

al-Thälith majmü' 2/22; Min Musnad. 3/184; Durr cf and 1/190.

al-Isbahäni, Beirut al-Näsdch Hanbal Kashf J.S. Hanbal quoting Tahäwi: Hilya Hanbal SharhA/lQ; Hanbal Ibn 8/73.

Zähirij'ya,

185;

Shäfi'i 1/552;

(d. 1985,

Häzimi

wa-l-Mansükh 1/129; idem, 2/118; 4/5-6; Hanbal, Sharh 4/76; Bazzär: Majma' idem, Bazzär, Bazzär

al-Athär. Medina and

Halab 1988, compare

2/213-4; with

also

Hay¬

1/490;

Tirmidhi

3/284-5

Haythami: and Tabaräni's compare

Kashf M.K. with

1/492; too;

idem, Tabari: ibid

Majma' Tahdhib and Abü

Tirmidhi,

4/415;

Musaddad: Awsaf,

Musnad, 3/295; Awsat cf 3/236.

cf also

Ibn

Hajar:

Matälib

1/293;

Tabaräni: 3/348;

Haythami:

Majma'3/186.

Tabaräni:

'Äshürä, and taken statements tions. Sufyän Abü added: order Other wiya that ing thing matter."' semantical of 'äshürä and The b. 'Ammär. "but nor Abü at Sharik.** face value which one 'Uyayna From when forbid cases Abü are Sa'id by On since often Qays <the

An whole,

Early

Muslim

Fast such within sayings the additions in point. (Kufan, it [= we the leam Prophet] It was d. context and must not

297

however, reported commentary is a case

be

they include b. Sa'd

are

of longer clarifica¬ by H.) al-Qäsim did neither <-

reported lOO-I that

al-Qäsim the source was fast], isolated

b. Mukhaymara which revealed and we traditions Through a prophetical do brings he

Ramadän us [to

it"."" bearing Sa'id saying b. the names of Mu'ä¬ we the to on is the simply fasting leam fast¬ any¬ this a

a few

al-Khudri.

al-Musayyib which ordered

Mu'äwiya of 'äshürä: else that As

transmitted a notion has for the been that

stands

in with

complete the Sa'id Prophet name

contradiction of Mu'äwiya it to order

associated of

tradition as not it reads: do it

Abü "The

al-Khudri, used

absurdity but did

[himself?].""^

4.2. within

Numerous different to of his

traditions context. him day" the In

bring one

the group, "whoever

Prophet's such has an

order order eaten

to

fast

on

'äshürä by

is supplemented shall fast/complete baqiyyata

attributing the mih). With Muhammad H.),"' mawlä Salama of minor rest

saying:

(. . . man

akala

fa-l-ya^m/yutimma

yaw-

variations, b. Sayfi b. Yazid

such (transmitted

traditions from him only d.

were by by

brought Sha'bi, the

in Kufan,

the

names d. 103-10 century

of

al-Akwa' b. Abi

(reported 'Ubayd,

mid-second Hind/ Asmä'

his,

146

H.!),"*

b.

Ilä-

Ibn Ibid,

Abi 3/57.

Shayba

3/55-7;

cf

also

Ibn

Hajar:

Matälib

1/293.

Tabaräni: 3/186-7. Abü From tradition Prophet ever, Hajjäj notes (d. Ibn 284-5; kil 3/89; Zawä'id Baghdädi "* 'Awäli Ya'lä, by used that 160 Abi Nasä'i: Ibn Sahih 4/276. Sa'id not

M.K.,

19/357,

384-5;

idem,

Awsat,

cf

Haythami:

Majma'

cf b.

Ibn

Hajar: H.): on 'Ilal.

Mapälib Riyäd <who it was Hanbal 4/192; and 1351 The Sa'd

1/293 1986, compiler reported only

and 4/369

Haythami: we learn Waqqäs of this tradition one Mäja by which important

Majma' of a very says

3/186. isolated that the how¬ b. al-

Däraqutni

(d. 385 to fast

al-Musayyib 'äshürä. people that Ibn 1987, 5/252 Medina of the

b. Abi

work, Shu'ba latter. "Hrmidhi Tahäwi: al-Zam'än Jämi the

some H.)

this a mursal Ibn

from

believed 3/54-5; Cairo Sahih. Hibbän.

Shayba Suruin. Hibbän: Ibn

4/388; Ibn cf H.

1/552;

3/ Eä

Khuzayma Haythami: 232-3; Ibn

3/289; Mawärid al-Athir:

Mush¬ 7/204;

al-Imäm

al-Jawhari,

Ms.

Zähiriyya,

majmü'

67,

160;

Kitäb

al-Arba'in

298

Suliman

Bashear

ritha, lama Qatäda),"" by Yahyä

'Abdulläh/'Abd al-Khuzä'i Ba'ja b. Ibn Abi 'Abbäs only by mawlä Mu'awwadh Ruzayna," to fast" recall etc., b. "from

al-Rahmän his uncle" al-Juhani d.

b./Abü ('an

al-Minhäl 'ammihi), "from Majza'a his father" b.

b.

Salama/Masby

(transmitted (transmitted Zähir Abü (transmitted named Qaz'a)," b. Dhakwän),'^ "from Hurayra

'Abdulläh Kathir,

129-32),"' only Abü Sa'id from

his

father","* (transmitted by an

(transmitted Shubayl),'" and

by

'Ikrima),"*

al-Khudri Basra, by

only al-

Umayyad bint bint

successor (transmitted

Rubayyi' Amina It is

only Habbäb.'*

Khälid

and that which

a

certain the

needless his

statement key one

"whoever in all these

has variants,

eaten

shall occurs

complete

is the

li-1-Qädiri, Bukhäri 4/192; 3/529 Ghayyäth); 7/203; Ibn

Ms. 2/251;

Zähiriyya, Mushm

majmü' 3/152; 3/290;

59,192; Ibn Hibbän al-Häkim

Ibn (d. wrongly

Hanbal 5/252-3; 405 H.), stated

4/47-8, Tirmidhi Mustadrak. as b.

50;

Därimi 3/284; Beirut

2/22; Nasä'i 1986, b. On al-Athir

Khuzayma the Bayhaqi 2/454; name

(where Zayla'i

of

Yazid Abü 3/360;

was Nu'aym and

Abi al-Qäri Tahdhib.

'Abdulläh Ibn 2/105. Haydara¬

4/288; Muttaqi

8/390; Yazid see

Baghawi Nayl4:/205; Ibn Hajar:

6/335;

Shawkäni:

the long time span bad 1325, 4/150-2, Hadith 231); 78; 5; 3/88; Tabaräni: " 7/203; " 185. " Ibn Ibn ibn Bukhäri: Bazzär, idem, cf M.K. Hanbal 3/284-5; Ibn Abi Sa'd 'Affän

between Salama 11/349. ft. Muslim H.): al-Kabir Kashf Ibn idem, 367-8, (d. 327 alSaffär Tabaqät.

(d. Leiden

219 1908,

H.), 1968, Majma' cf also Häkim 2/327;

Ms.

Zähiriyya, Ibn 3/185; Hanbal Tirmidhi Tahäwi:

majmü' 3/484, 3/284-

40, 4/

(d. 230 al-Tärikh Haythami: Sharh

4/2/50; 8/238-9;

Haydarabad 1/491; Hibbän Awsat 409; H.): Abü 'Tal. cf idem, 5/252; 3/269; Däwüd idem, Beirut

Mushkil 233;

4/73; 22/207; 5/29,

Haythami: 3/529. al-Busti: Ibn 1/261. 1/491

Mawärid

Ma'

älim

2/132; Jämi'

Tirmidhi

Tahäwi: Hätim 4/466-7;

Mushkil3/88;

Sharh4/13; 1985, Kashf

al-Athir:

Hanbal

Bazzär,

Haythami:

and

Majma'

3/

Bazzär, Ibn Ibn

cf

Haythami: 1/232; 2/359; 3/88; Tahdhib

Majma' Haythami: Haythami: Tabaräni: 8/377. Muslim Ibn 2/454; Sunan Hibbän 4/288; Musnad

3/185-6; Majma' Majma' Awsaf,

Tahäwi: 3/184-5, 3/184. cf Haythami:

Mushkil 187;

3/88-9. 3/284.

Hanbal Hanbal

Tirmidhi

" Qaz'a '2 288; Jämi'

Tahäwi: PC Ibn Ibn Hanbal

Mushkil Hajar:

Majma'

3/186.

On

6/359-60; Shark Bayhaqi: b. Abi 4/73; Zayla'i

3/152; 5/253; idem, and

Tirmidhi Baghawi 158; Sku'ab Abü 3/288-9; Ya'lä:

3/284; Muttaqi 7/360-1 Musnad Haythami:

Ibn 3/360; (no.

Khuzayma Ibn 377). cf al-Athir: al-Ghumäri:

3/

Tahäwi: 7/203-4; 27;

6/334-5;

Haythami

Hadiyyat

Al-Härith Ibn Hajar: Haythami Abü thami: 158; Ya'lä:

Usäma: Ibn Awsat cf Ibn

13/92; Majma'

also

Matälib

1/293; Tabaräni: Musnad,

Khuzayma 3/270. Hajar:

3/186;

Matälib ibid.

1/29^};

Tabaräni:

M. K.,

cf

Hay¬

Majma'

3/186;

al-Ghumari,

'Äshürä,

An

Early

Muslim

Fast

299

en ing

bloc on

in

a tradition We 'Ali's to the and also own

which, notice

as

noted that in i.e. in

above, a few not

speaks early from form like

about sources

Noah's the same or who lived

fast¬ was even in

'äshürä. as

reported attributed the män 'Atä' whom Qadid, call fasting Bint drank To 'äshürä back this doubt. in lat«

statement, only second al-Ba^ri, divergencies make this

the by Humayd

Prophet,'® people b. Sa'id the to

Prophet early Hasan Some Prophet people they on seem 'äshürä,

a mursal

first

centuries, Ma'bad

'Abd b.

al-Rah¬ Jubayr, to Aslam, Others (e.g., the and eat but

al-yimyari, and did Ahl attention Zuhri.'" the

al-Qurashi, center around (e.g.

question: Banü etc.).

statement? 'Awäli, a certain with the

al-'Arüd, as

ofthe to be raised

village, issues

loaded by

halakhic tradition

of children Ruzayna water the or could

of al-Rubayyi' who did etc.). half we a day shall that in not

the

question start his by

whether fast later on

somebody mid-day whether fast may its at say the at

'äshürä, fasting outset, this

question proves the that

raised it was

scholars

on

a voluntary One casts

come putting serious

concluding in such

section. a context

stage elements

tradition

"historical"

4.3. ceded with

Several Ramadan certain

traditions and variations, al-nabiyy). Dhü al-Hijja/var. certain of were

mention abrogated by It an un that

'äshürä by named he

among it. One wife used (or nine to

other of of fast days) etc." them the on

fasts is Prophet 'äshürä by

which Haf^a fan

pre¬ or, ba'^

azwäj/nisä' with every that appears (counted ordaining ditions We was also mid

says the

together days noting month of

ninth and

of it, It is

three worth each

month, the fasting in

Mondays 'äshürä

Thursdays, with with which, three the on

together

days phrase the

from "ayyäm

te/s»r days) the fast

works of Quran

in connection 2/184 This b. forwarded of

ma'düdät" about tra¬ 'Atä'.

whole, form

speaks of exegetical

of Ramadän. to the the Mu'ädh idea

comes Jabal, here Ibn

in the

leading notice

back that by

'Abbäs, is that such

Qatäda a form

and

of fasting

abrogated

revelation

Ramadän.'^

Ibn Abu 176-7; Tabaräni; " Sharh 12/469,

Abi

Shayba (d.

3/58; 150 H.):

Tabari: Musnad. 291;

Tahdhib Cairo Ibn 158. 6/287-8, Abi

1/216. 1327 Shayba H., 22; 3/57; Abü Yüsuf; al-Äthär

Banifa M.K.

'Abd

al-Razzäq 20/342; hbn Suyüti:

4/286-7, Haythami 5/271, 2/118;

ffadith

al-Jahdari3;

Compare: 4/76; 476. Muqätü

Hanbal J.S-

423;

Nasä'i

4/205, Abü

220-1; Ya'lä:

Tahäwi: Musnad

Ibn

al-Athir:

Järni'

7/206;

(d.

150

H.):

Tafsir,

Ms.

Istanbül,

III

Ahmet

74/1,

fol.

28(a);

300

Suliman

Bashear

The of b. (b. (b. tions, day enquiry, but left Other way. and neither b. d. Abi ?).*» The Rarruujmi that the that of Ibn

notion Mas'üd

of abrogation conceming d. 98 Kufan, by other, H.)

is carried 'äshürä. «d. less b. 96 'Abd H.) It

also was

by

a tradition reported b. matemal chains. 'Abdulläh but he With

on either Yazid,

the by by

position 'Umära Ibrähim 'Alqama varia¬ on To to the his fast,

'UmajT Yazid Qays), it says

(Kufan, al-Nakh'i, or else that

al-Rahmän <his

uncle, minor

circulated Qays visited him that revealed.'* food the

al-Ash'ath The latter assured

b. Mas'üd abstained. used indeed

'äshürä. Ibn it

offered him was the

Mas'üd after

Prophet

Ramcujün confirm b. to Samura, fast

traditions One, by Jäbir people that nor

notion says that but

of abrogation the when transmitted ^ Ja'far Prophet Ramadän by b.

but used

in

a less to order, ordained

drastic urge he

commit did

'äshürä; it. d.

was the Abi

forbade (Kufan,

It was 125 H.)

chain: Thawr

Ash'ath (Kufan,

al-Sha'thä'

idea

that was was were

keeping ordained kept divinely as is

the

'äshürä in and

fast

was

not of given However,

forbidden Qays before we not b.

even Sa'd. Ramadan are also It

after says and told

clearer

a tradition were

'äshürä zakät in

a fast ordained ordinances continued

alms for

people. the old

spite and traditions,

of

the people

new

ones them.*' 'Ä'isha,

were

categorically

forbidden Two after and

to b. 'Amr

fulfil and the of either

by

'Ä'idh by

state fast

explicitly became

that,

being people

abrogated were given

Ramadan, choice

'äshürä fasting

voluntary it ^. . .

the

or

breaking

Tabari: Zamakhshari Bayän. '"

Tafsir, Beirut Compare: Mushm 1/206-7;

3/414; (d. 528 1961, Ibn

Zajjäj H.): 2/115; Abi Shayba

(d. 311 Kashshäf Baydäwi: 3/56-7; Ya'lä Mushkil

H.): Cairo

Ma'äni 1354 Anwär Ibn 9/107;

al-(jur'dn. H., 1/112; al-Tamü.

Beirut Tabarsi: Lipsiae 455;

1988, 1846, Bukhäri: 88-9,

1/253; al1/101. Sahih Tabari: 216, Bayhaqi

Majma'

Hanbal Ihn Tabaräni: 2/114;

1/424, Khuzayma M.K. idem,

5/145-5; Tahdhib 222, 239-40,

3/148-9; Tahäwi: idem, 207; Ibn M.S.

Abu

3/283-4; 10/86, 3/269;

3/86; 1981, 7/202-3;

268;

Beirut

/Iwsa^ Nayl

4/288-9; Häzuni 'Ilal 5/206-9. Tayälisi 3/149; Bayhaqi " Tabari: 4/288; 168; Ms. M.K. majmü' 106;

al-Athir

Shawkäni:

4/205;

Däraqutni:

Ibn

Abi 1/211;

Shayba Tahäwi: 7/202; 4/421-2, 31, Tabari: al-Athir

3/55-6; Mushkil Zayla'i 6/6; 144; Tahdhib 7/204;

Ihn 2/455. al-Thälith Hadith

Hanbal 3/87;

5/96,

105;

Muslim

Tahdhib Ibn Ibn 103, 18/349;

Tabaräni:

M. K. 2/212;

al-Athir Hanbal 25; Ibn

Tayälisi

Min Abi 'Amr

Iladith

Abi Mushkil

al-'Abbäs Ms. 3/85;

al-Aßamm, Zähiriyya, Tabaräni:

Zähiriyya,

majmü'

b. al-Sammäk,

1/211-3; Muttaqi

Tahäwi: 3/361.

'Äshürä,

An

Early

Muslim

Fast

301

man 'Ammär dän But form

shä'a b. was the of a

^äma Yäsir

wa-man says merely

shä'a that

affar.)}^ 'äshürä

And was

a not

less

circulated after

one Rama-

by

ordained

revealed.*' main widely b. Abi Ibn resistance circulated Yazid 'Abbäs sought notice Ramadän tradition the of name Medina of its himself, to fast on that that to abolishing tradition (Meccan, testified and in being will be d. that 'äshürä of 126 he Ibn H.). knew altogether 'Abbäs It says no 'äshürä 'äshürä it.*® is it, to the one exclusively addressed Challenging while so to break that fast¬ "who¬ as con¬ comes transmitted that, other and was when day or asked month in the by

'Ubaydulläh about which We alone The nected the the ing ever well." As such, 'äshürä, the cannot without last with people knowledge on 'äshürä

Prophet but

preferred one early

except source with here to

Rarruujmi?* mentioned

mentioned considered According last

of Mu'äwiya. during scholars, said it may his he that do so

Mu'äwiya Mecca. Prophet,

pilgrimage that not whoever an

confirmed it was

ordinance wants

wants

and

it may

this 'äshürä The b. 'Abd

tradition by main way

represents of saying of b. 'Awf it

the that is

last it was Zuhri

phase never

in

the an

current ordinance took it and from

of to

abandoning begin yumayd with.

circulator

who d.

usually 105

al-Rahmän

(Medinese,

H.)*"

only

Al-Rabi' dhib 1/219-20; Tabari: 'Abd Ibn 151; Sharh 1987, idem, 1961, Majma' idem, Tabaräni: Shäfi'i: Mälik sion Razzäq Ibn Tahäwi: 24; Ibn Abi Zähiriyya, Nasä'i 4/75; 76-7, Kif äyat 1/636; 3/186; Shu'ab

Min

Fawä'id

al-Räzi, M.K.

Ms. 18/19-20;

Zähiriyya,

majmu'

93, Majma'

83;

Tabari: S/ISI.

Tah-

Tabaräni: Tahdhib 1/211; 4/287; Zähirij^ya, 67, Ibn 164; 6/333;

Haythami: Majma' 3/188. al-Juz'

Haythami: Ibn Ibn Abi Hanbal 3/287; al-Din H.): 1987, 7/204-5; Shawkäni: Öiyä' 656 Cairo Jämi' 157; 3779-80); Shayba 61,

al-Razzäq §abir, Ms. 4/204; Baghawi al-Mundhiri majmü'

3/58; 127; 313;

al-Awwal 2/251; 1/214-5;

Min

Ifadith Ms. 3/ Cairo 278; Beirut Tahäwi:

majmü'

'Awäli

al-Imäm Bukhäri Tahdhib Fadä'il Mishkät Madärik Bayhaqi: Suyüti:

al-Jawhari, Muslim

1/222,

Khuzayma (d.

Tabari: al-Maqdisi: 48; 'Tabrizi: QastaUäni: Nayl 4/204;

al-A'mäl. Cairo al-Masäbih. 42; Sunan Durr n.d.,

al-Targhib

wa-l-Tarhib.

al-Muta'abbid. Ibn al-Athir: (no. Haythami 7/363-4 3/348. 102. (d. (d. Humaydi 4/95-6, 97-8; Abü 4/77; ^loi^i/t 179 189

Haythami: 4/28Q; %/344;

Humaydi

1/226-7;

Awsat, Rhtiläf b. Anas

H.): H.).

Muwaffa'. Beirut H.):

Cairo n.d.,

1951,

1/299

(see Ikhtiläf Cairo

also 102; 1382

the

reeen¬ 'Abd 2/273; 67, majal-

of al-Shaybäni 4/286; Sharh Hibbän: Hanbal

131); Beirut

Shäfi'i: and Ms.

(d. 219 Bukhäri Ja'far

Musnad. 2/250-1;

H.,

Muslim IJadith, Kitäb

3/149;

Nasä'i

4/204-5; majmü'

al-Massisi: Naysäbüri:

Zähiriyya, Ms.

5/255;

al-Arba'in,

Zähiriyya,

302

Suliman

Bashear

once also stated suf/'Amr does of

from reported as

al-Sä'ib by b. b.

b. the

Yazid chain:

(d.

86-100 Yahyä b.

H.).*'

In

two

early (sometimes

sources

it was wrongly

'Abdulläh b.

Muhammad/b. Yüsuf The

'Abd remarkable

al-Rahmän) difference

Sayli

<this to

'Umar latter the

b.

Yü-

is that his challenge

variant scholars

not Median,

mention or such a tradition even

Mu'äwiya's his

pilgrimage, invocation albeit *of outside 'Abdulläh through Muhammad H.) the

Prophet's the b. Khälid b. context 'Amr b. b.

authority.** of Medina, al-'Äs.** Other (wrongly and source, through how¬ is con¬ iso¬

Invoking veyed lated stated Jäbir ever, by

authority, of 'Urwa were al-Muhäjir) (Basran, d.

transmissions as b. is b. Zayd not Abi

made from 93-104

al-Muhäjir

Maslama

whose

traditional

specified.*"

5.

Controversial

Merits

and

Positions:

It

is

but

natural conceming

to

expect a Islam. not only day

to the The

come position main

across of

numerous which had which fasting

controversial undergone such and successors, contro¬ extolling etc., its the examined. fasting tradi¬ a

statements sharp versies 'äshürä on or the change arose but matter,

in early centred also on the was on the

issues the by and avoided. related

around

upon taken day or other

Prophet's companions, the degree In

positions of that be sought and

merits to

to

which follows

celebration material

what

tional

these

issues

will

be

5.1. (d. ing

In 93-100 of

a tradition H.), Abü

whose Bakr

isnäd and the (d.

does 'Umar same 179

not are

go

beyond said to to however, says, day

Sa'id have 'Umar

b. ordered

al-Musayyib the made not sent [so] fast fast¬ by specify to aland a

'äshürä?' of Mälik "I was Hishäm

Attributing b. told" [saying] Anas

position who,

is does 'Umar

statement his sources. b.

H.)

(balaghani), : tomorrow

Malik is the

"that of

Härith

'äshürä,

mü' Häzimi 4/205;

22,

51-2; 207; Basavia Ibn

Baybaqi al-Athir (d. only 277 in

4/90; 7/205; H.): Tabaräni: 4/290-1; 19/313. al-Kinäni: respectively. 1/218.

Tabaräni: Zayla'i al-Ma'rifa M.K. Ihn Abi

M.K. 2/455; wa-1-Tärikh. 19/316-7. Shayba

19/327-9; Muttaqi 3/360; Beirut

Baghawi 1981,

6/336-7; Nayl 1/367-8.

Shawkäni:

Occuring ** 'Abd

al-Razzäq M.K. al-Qäsim 1/62, Tahdhib

3/57.

8» Tabaräni: ®" See: Rabi' *' b. Tabari: Abü Habib,

Ifadith,

Ms.

Zähiriyya,

majmü'iA,

185

and

al-

'Äshürä,

An

Early

Muslim

Fast

303

command leam Jurayj al-Härith, Of most Ishäq quoted sä early Ishäq vely.*® al-Thawri woman 'Ali were the that (d.

your the 150

folks same H.)

to

fast

[it]."*^

From was b.

two traditionally

other

early reported

sources by grandson

we Ibn of

information 'Abd d. ca. al-Malik 120 'Ali as ordering d. the for 128-9

Abi

Bakr

(the

great

Medinese, other

H.).*' and to Abü fast Müsä 'äshürä. al-Aswad companions, the was fasting reported and Abü circulation Khalifa) 'Ä'isha is the are still one alive" <of al-Ash'ari In b. are the ones of Abü 74 Abü In same H.) is

companions, reported Kufan, that most similar of all noted position

heavily (al-Subay'i, as the source, and There (d. named ordered to

a tradition Yazid 'Ali (d. and

H.),

sajdng ones a a certain is

Prophet's ordering of from 'Ali

Mü¬ one Abü

'äshürä.^* by the Bishr, by

al-Shaybäni more H.) bint the tradition Fulayt Dajäja. 'äshürä from

al-Härith with a limited Aflat that said: who b.

respecti¬ Sufyän

one

161 Jasra keep

(poss. It says fast among the those

a successor was with told the that best

when "he

knowledge a'lamu We man have

ofthe baqiya already abrogated on b. to the

sunna

(. . . huwa

bi-l-sunna)?^ dealt by One which were the reported Mas'üd used with the reported One may (Kufan, that the prayer Sha'bi not to too, fast any position add d. only and here 103-10 voluntary the of Ibn two Mas'üd less H.) that

'ashüräw&s ed uncle, Mas'üd According besides rä.'' tradtions Qays used to

Ramadän. by Sha'bi says forenoon by

circulat¬ from things his Ibn fast.*' that, 'äshü¬

him. 'Abbäd do

'äshürä testifies day but

second, Ibn

'Alqama other

Ramaxjän,

Mälik Ibn al-Athir: 'Abd The latter Rahmän to fast that " Shayba 1/216; al-Jawzi: also 'Ali Ibn the

b. Anas: Jämi' al-Razzäq source, b. al-Qäsim This, meant 168, Abu cf

Muwatfa' 7/204; 4/287 3/57, brings (Medinese, however, is Ibn

(ed. Muttaqi and,

Cairo) 3/361. with

1/299,

cf. also

Tabari:

Tahdhib

1/217;

a slight H.)

variation, by Shu'ba says mistake which

Ibn (d.

Abi 160 that

Shayba H.) 'Umar used see

3/56. alnot

also d.

a tradition 126-131 not 'Umar. a copiest's

«- 'Abd

'äshürä. one

is clearly 'Umar, Ibn Hajar: idem, 2/7-8, b. Jubayr

as we shall

below

Tayälisi 3/56; Bayhaqi:

also

Matälib 24; 'Abd Shu'ab quoting and

1/292; al-Razzäq 7/366-7 Ibn Täwüs

Ibn

al-Ja'd 4/287; (no. (d. 385 fasting 3784).

2/912; Tabari: See H.) 'äshürä. who

Ibn also

Abi Ibn

Ja'far «Mwa» Beirut

al-Massisi, 4/286-7; 1986, Sa'id

Tahdhib noted

Tabsira. b. Abi

Shähin for

al-Husayn, Shayba Tahdhib 41. M.K, Tahdhib cf

3/56-8. 1/216; Muhibb al-Din: Dhakhä'ir al-'Uqbä, Ms. Zähiriyya,

Tabari: general 4808, Tabaräni: Tabari:

Haythami:

Majma'

3/188.

1/217.

304

Suliman

Bashear

A family scendant latter started ed of as the Actually, fasting the day 'Umar same mad."" used to once his it forms day

tradition of the forgot fast on part of the 'äshürä only is Ibn

by

'Abd

al-Rahmän 'Abd al-Rahmän but

b.

Humayd b. when to say, 'Awf, he

(d.

137

H.), how

a de¬ the it, he

companion to the fast

describes remembered

on

'äshürä,

forenoon.** debate not.

Needless whether

this

tradition to fast

is load¬ only part

of the or

it is

accepted

companion 'Umar.

who It must brought

is reported be in recalled his name was 'umara Shu'ba

to that on added

have to

refrained some variants being "and And b. Ibn

from of a fast Ibn the

'äshürä above-noted in the used was

traditions Jähiliyya, not to fast a it" in tradition from to successor al-Subay'i fasting fast on 'Ubayd <?) we

'äshürä saying:

supplement (wa-käna a tradition of Näfi', on 'äshürä

note ibnu of

lä ya^muh)}"" <we while al-Qäsim leam he that was

confirmed From a

Muham¬ 'Umar

however, only as 'Umayr b. al-Pasan to al-Mubärak ordinance than b. we leam an act (d. Yazid,

refrain

travelling.'"^ was was report¬ done by

Recommending ed the Hishäm fast H.), his (käna al-Hasan tum did being kept fasting II, is it not from chain: (b. the

'äshürä b. al-Aswad

of repentance 68 H.). noted al-Ba^ri b. This

above."" liked Fadäla the (d. 'Ikrima, an

From 'äshürä 164-5 in

'Urwa yu'jibuhu)."'* even

leam According

that

considered any 'Abd About when

it as fast

an

(farina)."'^ Ramadän al-Qäsim that the used to he as

consider

other

ordinance, said refrain caliph, on it.'"* to

'ösMrä have from 'Umar

included.'"* as on a fast.'"' it even

al-Rahmän Zuhri

is simply did not

travelling.'"* as one

Finally, who

Umayyad fast

positively

reported

5.2. revealed

A

certain through

dimension the various

of

the

changing and

positions rewards with

towards which

'äshürä its fasting

is

merits

Ibid. '"" '"' '"" '"' '"♦ '"* this '»« "" See chapter 2.1., Musnad, 4/290. 1/218; 3/57. however, that 'äshürä is called yaurm 'äshiq all along Ibn al-Ja'd 2/913. above. cf. Ihn Hajar: Matälib 1/293.

Musaddad: 'Abd Tabari: Ibn Abi al-Razzäq

Tahdhib Shayba

Al-Jahdari work. Ibn Ihn Tabari Abi Abi

3. Note,

Shayba Shayba 1/218;

3/57. 3/56; QastaUäni: Sirat 'Umar Tabari: Madärik b. 'Abd TahdhO) 44; 1/219. Bayhaqi: Beirut SAm 'ai 1984, 7/380 211. (no. 3798).

'"*

Ibn

al-Jawzi:

al-'Aziz.

'Äshürä,

An

Early

Muslim

Fast

305

and while

celebration reviewing the

were the traditions

connected. Judeo-Christian of Ibn acts

This

issue lore

was

partially it,

touched above. which worshipping

upon Recall equated God

conceming Abü with it, Hurayra with

especially its for In One, reward freeing another the fasting, seventy

'Abbäs connected

and

among or forty of b.

other years. other Zayd, on believers the

a number by Jäbir for 10 fasting Arab

traditions attributes 'äshürä (ht.: authenticity b. Abi equals from

such to

merits Ibn 'Abbäs atonement the was reward for

were the

noted sa3ang 60 of

separately. that the and In of on one,

an

for sons

months Ismä'il)."" because who fasts

among of which

tradition, for equated it,

questioned for years.'" the Prophet would tradition needy his one

authority was authority 'Abbäs reward brings (ifiäry the of

Habib with

Habib,

the God attributes fasts Finally, provision tradition

'äshürä whose Ibn the 'Abbäs breaking

worshipping specified, whoever angels."^ of occurs urging in the above. enjoyed gives the additonal of Abü From (d. 100-10 the the

60 to

A third

was saying 10 the

not that

through be granted of with name on Ibn fastthe

on

'äshürä another for the

thousand element which lore,

bearing

Judeo-Christian By states past 'arafa ily was through (d. (d. 126 102-3 far, that year, offers associated attributed Harmala H.), the

noted which

notion fasting on

widest reward that to

circulation of an

is

one

which for one of

'äshürä with for an

atonement on As such the

often

collated

element year Qatäda Abü H.),

fasting come.

day

atonement with to the the b.

it is heav¬ whom transmitted al-Makki Mujähid too."* it

name Prophet. Iyäs

al-An^äri Qatäda Abü (d. it

through was

al-Zubayr possibly al-Dab'i)

'Abdulläh H.) and Abü

b. Ma'bad al-Khalil

al-Zimmäni (§älib b. Abi

?) and

Maryam

""

Al-Rabi' Ibn

b.

Habib

1/61-2. (d. 507 96. H.): Asnä Ma'rifat al-Mafalib. al-Tadhkira. Beirut Beirut 1319 H., 1985, 210. 220; al-

al-Qaysaräni (d. 1276

Hüt

al-Bayrüti Sbawkäni: Daylami "* Al-Abnüsi 3; Hibbän: Ibn Ibn 1987, 97;

H.):

al-Fawä'id 3/569. 14; Ahädith Abi Sahih, 102; Bayhaqi: Shayba 5/256-7: Ibn Khuzayma

Abi 3/58;

al-Zubayr, Ibn al-Busti Abü

Ms. Ya'lä, (d.

Zäbiriyya, 5/295, cf 388 7/17; Shu'ab Ibn H.): Ibn 304,

majmü'53, 307-8, Matälib Hajar: Ghatat 'Arabi: 365 6/379; 1985, 1/231; Durr

18-19; 310-11; 1/294-5; al-Tir3781Hajar:

alIbn

Jahdari Humayd Ibn Damascus

Hanbal

3/288; Hazm: Sunan4/283;

al-Muhaddithin. Sharli (nos. Ibn 135;

al—Muhallä idem, 2/78; 1320 Däraqutni Nawawi:

midhi3/285-6; 2, 3844); al-Talkhif al-Khaßä'if 1/205; Ibn 6/468-9;

7/346-8, Beirut idem,

al-Mundhiri: al-Kubrä. Abi Hätim

al-Targhib Suyüti: Haydarabad 1/241;

al-Majmü'

al-Akhbär

al-Mutawätira. H., 2/208; 2/106.

idem,

Humaydi

306

Suliman

Bashear

In an

a few enquiry

sourees by choose the

such a to man

a statement conceming the enquiry reward circulated probably as one reward and

of the other

Prophet forms year's

comes of

as fasting."®

an

answer Others, for 'äshürä at all.""

to

however, without The the What reported phet."*

bring of on

of one without 'äshürä

atonement 'arafa was Sa'id same b. Jubayr,

element notion by a

mentioning and of 'arafa Abü the Sa'id

same Prophet is

the

for

attributed al-Khudri."'

to

less

tradition is made that by

more by an

interesting early source

statement not the

was Pro¬

5.3.

More

controversial with their family

was families on 'äshürä, attributed Abü

the on

tradition 'äshürä (lit.:

which whoever him

urges

people provides

to

be

abundant dantly rest back for ofhis to Ibn

abun¬ for leading Jäbir b. the

his year).

God to

will the

provide Prophet Abü Sa'id

abundantly chains

It was

through

Mas'üd,""

Hurayra,'^"

al-Khudri,'^'

"■^ See Tabrizi

especially: Zayla'i

Ibn

Hanbal

5/296-7;

Bayhaqi

4/286;

Diyä'

al-Din

76;

1/637; "Abd

2/455. 4/285-6; hbn Mäja 1/553; Kifäyat and Tirmidhi 48; 3/284-5; QastaUäni: 3/189, the Hahmi Madärik latter 2/ 42. work

al-Razzäq al-Athir: cf. Yüsuf Jämi'

395;

Ibn

7/205;

Mundhiri: Kashf 1/493

Bazzär, quoting Abü

Haythami: Awsat 177. M.K. 1402 Mizän Ibn Qayyim La'äli (d. Kashf Tabaräni, 7/376-7 b. Müsä 214-5, (d. 431; Ibn Shu'ab cf Shu'ab, 118; 29 10/94, al-Kabir H., too.

Majma'

Tabaräni's

Tabaräni: 322 2/203; Shu'ab 1970, al-Bayrüti 'Ajlüni Hadiyyat also this (d. H.): al-IM'afä' Halab Dhahabi: al-Imän. 111-3; 227; 1162 33, last Majrühin.

cf 3/97;

also Ibn Ibn

Haythami: 1985, Hajar: idem, 3/252; Lisän al-Qaysaräni (d. 751 Durr

Majma' Ibn 237; H.): Ibn

3/189; Hibbän (d. quoting al-Jawzi:

al-'Uqayh 354 H.): Mawdü'ät Bayhaqi's

(d. al-

Beirut 4/326;

6/212, al-Manär 6/345; H., and

al-Jawziyya 2/111; 902): al-Khafä'. 'Uqayli, (no. 3792).

al-Munif. 118; 1956,

Beirut al-Hüt 431; alSee

Suyüti: Sakhäwi H.): quoting souree, al-Qäsim 2/203; H., al-Shaybäni Sakhäwi quoting Bayhaqi: Awsat, Bayhaqi's Fattani Hadiyyat 1307

Fattani Cairo 2/283-4; Bayhaqi's

al-Maqäsid Beirut Ibn

al-Hasana. 1351 'Adiyy

al-Ghumäri: Shu'ab.

Hadith Jawzi: thira. Ibn Fattani Hadiyyat rikh Cairo al-Dubay' 118; 31, Iijbahän; Tabaräni's Mvsnada,nd al-Dubay' 99; Ghumäri:

al-Ashyab, quoting 944 'Ajlüni 7/378 Haythami: cf 'Ajlüni Suyüti: 2/283; Ihn

Ms. Bayhaqi's

Zähiriyya, 2/79; Suyüti: Shu'ab; at-Tayyib. Shawkäni:

majmü' idem, Cairo Fawä'id and Abü

61, La'äli

145;

Ibn

al-

Mawdü'ät

Mundhiri:

Targhib H.): al-Kämil (no.

al-Durar 1347 99;

al-Munta2/111-3; H., 171; Tä¬ Ghumäri:

Tamyiz

2/283;

'Adiyy's

Fi al-fbi'afä' 3795). 3/189;

Nu'aym's

Majma' Durar2l4-5

Ishäq and 431; Musnad,

b.

Rähawayh's 11-3; Ibn Fawä'id al-Tir-

La'äli2/\ Shawkäni: al-Hakim

171;

Sakhäwi

quoting

Rähawayh's

'Ashüra, 'Abdulläh,'^^ too.'^® On lars is to true, the rule was whole out it seems the deemed of 'Alqama) was 'Abdulläh, The a man Ibn But authority not Ibn 'Umar,'"

An

Early

Muslim and, in

Fast a mawqüf form to

307

Anas'^*

'Umar,

always ofthis

to

have tradition. of chain: "very

been

easy Ibn

for

Muslim version, al-Shuddakh, Ibrähim jiddan). transmittor,

scho¬ it

authenticity fabricated it was (through

Mas'üd's b. <((}a'if

because the

Haysam A'mash weak" his

whose Nakha'i Hurayra's Sulaymän known" as Jäbir (isnäd Ibn plied tion from also form thiqät), Musayyib, 'Abdulläh later Some this Imän they 'Abd coming

transmission ?) <-

(alAbü

considered

tradition b. (majhül). from Abi

questioned was on

because considered Abü hadith was Sa'id's

immediate by Ibn

al-Jawzi was The line

as condemned leading as

"un¬

version

of "deniable"

(munkar). by al-Zubayr, "good"

to

through dd'if).

al-Munkadir the other line was

considered Abü for shart and being

Bayhaqi as

"weak" by

through noted ('alä Afräd Mälik by

brought

al-Barr's the reported we that 'Umar except from the for learn the criteria

Istidhkär,

because Ibn 'Umar's Ruwat

it com¬ tradi¬ Mälik, note was

with was where taken from

of Muslim in Däraqutni's ofthe same chain: was an

muslim). al-Khatib's

•<- Näli'.'^" Ibn 'Abd men" of al-Jawzi its last

However, al-Barr (bi-sanadin link, Sa'id in

reported iswöd the

a mawqüf rijäluhu b. alb.

"through doubting

of reliable hearing Ibn

'Umar. immediate noted late gave that scholars weight each

Although transmittor he was who to of its

considered Hurayra, Ibn Hibbän's the view as

Sulaymän "unknown", Thiqät.

from included commented

Abü in

scholars of the

upon reported

controversy in his Shu'ab

over alweak, al-Fadl

tradition that gain

Bayhaqi's lines

though strength

of transmission together. Another

is individually scholar, Abü

if considered

midhi's Shu'ab '^^ tani, '^' 2/283; '2* '^^ Fattani nos. '2" was

Nawädir 3/377-8 Suyüti: hy 'Ajlüni Däraqutni's Ghumäri: Shawkäni: Ibn 24258-9 Cf quoted Suyüti: as 'Abd and

äl-Ußül, (no. Z)ttrar214-5; Ibn "Abd Sakhäwi, Afräd, Hadiyyat Fawä'id al-Barr, ibids. vol. La'äli ruling: 12, and cf 3794).

Baybaqi's

Shu'ab

and

Tabaräni's

Awsaf;

Baybaqi:

idem, al-Barr; ibids; cf 99. Suyüti: 35,

La'äli2/\ Ghumäri: Bayhaqi: Durar

11-2, Hadiyyat Shu'ab 214-5; al-Khatib's,

quoting 7/375 La'äli

Bayhaqi's Ibn (no. 2/111-2 'An 3791).

Shu'ab al-Dubay',

and Fat¬

al-Istidhkar

10, 20;

and

and Mälik.

'Ajlüni

quoting

al-Ruwdt

Ghumäri: Compare no. 35200.) and yathbut

Hadiyyat also with

38, Muttaqi

Suyüti (ed.

Durar Damascus,

and

La'äli, vol. 8,

'Ajlüni,

2/113-4 "wa-lä

Ghumäri: 'an mälik".

Hadiyyat

35-6,

where

al-Khatib

308

Suliman

Bashear

al-'Iräqi, Abü an Hurayra earlier A closer reveal "no from d. ca.

was

quoted is "good"

as

saying (hasan), Nä^ir information sources on Ibrähim in a

in his relying al-Salämi on and this b.

Amäli in

that this (d.

at respect

least on

the the

tradition opinion

of of

scholar, look at

Ibn more earlier statement which

550 late

H.).'^' flare of controversy 'Uqayli says true may that apart (Kufan, the also asked "it Ibn latter <leam in Ja'far that the is Häni' by Ibn baseless" (d. 275 mawdü'ät Ibn Tay¬

this aspects.

more prophetical something 120 cited who this lahu)P' asked

of its

Already be b.

issue

could

considered al-Muntashir Besides

Muhammad form".'^* was (d. we are we heard (d. 280 told, leam it and 198 We to tried it years his said money", ibna scholar, +Ibrähim

H.)

reported above,

mursal tradition

sources miyya about a?la also it was 167 used H.) to

Ibrähim's Harb The an earlier whether b.

noted H.) has

adds

that

al-Kirmäni latter, source he 'Uyayna

Hanbal (lä H.) that (d.

statement. From Ibn Hanbal by Ibrähim highly him for Sufyän b. of and the

said: that the H.)

confirmed al-Ahmar Ibn

reported <think from S. B.] Ibn some 'Uyayna, (thumma fa-sakat)}'' the

al-Muntashir."" Ibn to last al-Muntashir, add: fifty "we to sixty

also

'Uyayna he

believe

tradition abundantly but the have isnäd mercy

circulated in 'äshürä

[i. e. providing and saw nothing that may Hanbal

bles¬ of

sedness." it on silent tän, has Ibn

Hanbal, weakness; [it qultu: Finally, chain of is]

however, and the ayä when

expressed Ibn Häni'

opinion "God Ibn 'uyayna, Ibn b.

government's raJiima another allähu early

remained al-sul233 H.), and

darähimu Ma'in (d.

confirms

Ja'far

al-Atimar

al-Muntashir

Bayhaqi: 2/106; Zarkashi 'Uqayh Ibn

Shu'ab (d. 3/252.

7/379. 794 H.):

See

also

Ghumäri: Beirut

Hadiyyat 1986,

3-4,15; 188;

al-Qäri: Laknawi

Jam' 100-1.

al-Tadhkira.

Taymij^a:

Ahädith Beirut 1986, Masä'il 1985, 189. al-Imäm

al-Qus^ä^. 340-1 and

Beirut compare

1972, with

99.

See

also

al-Qäri: H.):

alaZ-

Asrär al-Marfü'a. Ghummäz. Beirut Ibn märi: di's also from shir Häni":

Samhüdi

(d. 911

Ahmad.

Beirut

1400

H.,

1/136. al-U^ül,

See

also

Ghu¬

Hadiyyat Tanbih, Suyüti. Ja'far was Ibn

31, Bayhaqi La'äli al-Ahmar

quoting and 2/113), as stated well as

al-Bakim 'Uqayh; where as Ibn and

al-Tirmidhi's compare was with Shädhän

Nawädir Bayhaqi's stated 130, also Tanbih

Samarqan¬ 3/379, reported al-Munta¬ cf. it

Shu'ab to where have Ibn

Samarqandi's Maysara. however, 1/418-9, Hanbal Ibn with

wrongly Häni', (d. 266 was

1/137. H.). brought

Compare, Delhi 1988, with

Masä'il only

al-Imäm the that he

Ahmad was

by "reliable

his

son, and

Sälih

where

mursalform

of Ibn

al-Muntashir trustworthy".

commenting

'Äshürä,

An

Early

Muslim

Fast

309

adds

the

note

that

Ibn

'Uyayna

has

counterfeited

it

(dallasahu)

from

Ibn

al-Muntashir."^

5.4. mends promise iktahala

Not

less colouring that yauma

controversial the whoever 'äshürä from Ibn by eyelids does

is

the

prophetical kohl on the suffer tarmad

tradition day of

which 'äshürä, ophthalmia abadan). •<- Pahhäk,"' or <through Muhammad Following

recom¬ with the (man It was and Ismä'il b. Ibn

with that will

never lam

from 'aynahu

bi-l-ithmid 'Abbäs either by Abü the

transmitted from b. Abü

chain:

Juwaybir ■<- al-A'raj

Hurayra b. 'Alqama almost Qays

al-Zinäd b. b. Qays 'Abd reiterate

Ma'mar b.

•<- Muhammad «all Abü our Salama later and the that difficult of Ibn second Ismä'il to sources Bayhaqi's line b. reject al-Jawzi,

al-Habati al-Rahmän."* the that Abü was Hurayra's first it." was On line the

'Amr al-Jawzi, who Ibn ed

opinion Pahhäk

of

al-Häkim, never met reject¬ it

rejected 'Abbäs. on the to

Juwaybir, As grounds have in the been words has for and the for

comment leading Ma'mar Abü its to

Hurayra, unreliable. tradition "has level again

it was However,

seems because, name other kim, It says

altogether thiqät in whose an¬ al-Hä¬ scholars. from the (lam qatalatu

somebody reason Bayhaqi that but 'an

probably this al-Jawzi of iktihäl

concealed tradition and on reiterated 'äshürä made

of content from later

rejecting Ibn notion

quoted by was several not killers

reported

Prophet yurwa al-hv^oyn

is a detested ramli 'alayhi l-lähi

innovation (^) ßhi atharun,

by

the

of Husajni

wa-hwa

bid'a

ibtada'ahä

al-saläm).

"2

Yabyä Bayhaqi:

b.

Ma'in Shu'ab 340-1; Ibn 88-9; 98; 1399 idem,

(d. 7/379

233

H.): (no. Jam' 111-3; 118; 159;

Tarikh. 3797), 2/106; Sakhäwi idem, Ibn Laknawi

Mecca cf. also idem, Ibn

1979,

1/291. Mawdü'ät Halab La'äli idem, al-Hüt 1969, 2/204; 141;

al-Jawzi:

al-Qäri: Zayla'i idem, bä'. Cairo J.S.

aZ-^«rär 2/455; 2/166; 1987, Fawä'id Beirut 26, that left Ibn the is given. the Ark at water

idem,

al-Ma^nü'. Suyüti: 157;

Qayyim Fattani Zarkashi H., another Tha'labi: of Noah hence, 'äshürä. Mawdü'ät, 2/89;

403-4; Z>Mn-6/345; 97;

2/110-1; 200;

aM>uror209;

al-Amrhi-l-Ittial-Bayrüti Silsilat al-AI}ädith with <was because with idem, b. kept

al-Dubay'

Shawkäni: al-T>a'ifa. Hadiyyat Jubayr, namely looking they

al-Albäni: 95; b. but

Ghumäri: line, Qa^a? and through 59, his were

al-Mughir 'Uthmän an ordered additional

compare

where In eyes and, on

Khuthaym element out them

Sa'id

forwarded, they ithmidwhen

people

blackened to colour

they

al-Jawzi: Zayla'i also

ibid;

Ibn

al-Najjar: Fattani, Muttaqi

Tärikh, Laknawi (ed.

through and

Ibn

Marda¬ ibids. vol. 12

wayh, Compare no.

cf 35199).

2/456, with

Suyüti's Jam',

La'äli, ibid;

Shawkäni, 1983,

al-Qäri:

Damascus

310

Suliman

Bashear

To course

this, on

some iktihäl, ikhtujläh) 'äshürä

late

scholars washing handshaking

add and

that,

on

the

whole, oneself and (umür other

the

traditional

dis¬ iddihän,

perfuming (mußäfaha)

(ightisäl, forms

tatayyvb, tion On on the

of celebra¬ mubtada'a). black, bodies par¬ (wa-lsuggested special in order the

are hand,

"deniable the reported and "great

innovations" acts by the cuts

munkara räfi(}a their

other

Shi'i on

of wearing heads 'azima). the is Sunna" even and Both

roaming were ties also were

around, condemned branded mubtadi'atän except for

mourning as as

making deniables" and 'an all of

(munkarät outlaws al-sunna). the 'äshürä on that hadiths were day to from It

"innovators khärijatän

tä'ifatän that, prayers, to

the

one and the

on the

fasting, merits mourning

conceming fabricated commemorate

celebrations

counter-balance of a

Shi'i

martyrdom To Husayn however, conceming day quick that far of the glance Husayn from being conduct would the

Husayn."® full carry existence investigation us beyond of gross date also available on on the the into scope the of historicity this in killed, even year soon study. the of the One killing may note, reports not that only the A idea was third even¬ tradi¬ tradi¬ of

discrepancies which month material he was or

traditional

the week at was

exact but the

including of reveal

incident. that 61 early which earliest of two the H.,

would the the as a tenth

killed established it

a Friday, troughout existed Of

of Muharram, and even

second strong to dating be

centuries, tually tional tions. d. 156

though emerged Shi'i One, H.) was of Wäqidi Ma'shar

certainly

current the made b. Sa'id H.). H.

victorious."" position reported towards by Wäqidi b. month it, that Ibn d. who 256-8

relevance note 207 H.)

'äshürä, (d. Ka'b

may

•<- Aflah (d. 117-20 year that killed also he

(Medinese, It says the that com¬

<-

Muhammad killed who which From b. b. Yahyä, Bukayr in the rejects says

al-Qurazi of Safar ofthe leam was we reported that

Husayn ment of Abü of

61

From the

we

also Husayn

prefers on 'äshürä, that

tradition the tenth

Muharram."'

'Asäkir H.) held

leam from

al-Dhuhali contempo¬

(Muhammad rary, not Yahyä Muharram.""

Wäqidi's was killed

also

Husajm

in

Safar,

Compare: Masnü'; Ibn Compare: 3/237; 114-5, 1/143. Ibn 117; 'Abd

Ibn al-Dubay'; Ihn Isfahäni:

al-Jawzi: Ghumäri: 'Asäkir Maqätil.

Mawdü'ät; Hadiyyat; Ibn 1942, n.d.,

Suyüti: and

al-Amr; al-Albäni:

al-Qäri: ibids. Manäqib.

Asrär

and

5/90-1; 'Iqd. Cairo Beirut

Shahräshüb: 1/381; 78-9; Basawi

Najaf 3/98, cf.

1955, 103,

Rabbihi:

Tabaräni:

M.K. 3/324,

Baghdädi

Ibn Ibid,

'Asäkir 5/91.

5/90.

See

also

Basawi,

cf

Baghdädi,

ibid.

'Äshürä,

An

Early

Muslim

Fast

311

On ties from rejection Najaba swers Imäms, We

this against the

background fasting mid-second is expressed 1) b. to his (d. al-Bäqir the and

it is worth celebrating to by early

noting 'äshürä third

that

invoking is made The b. it by earliest 'Ali

the

Shi'i

authori¬ who lived such <the sixth an¬ Shi'i

people form

century. of al-Hasan In by

of

a tradition

al-Washshä' reports and H.), that what al-Sädiq verily a sunna b. fasting beaten 'Ali,

(Najiyya given al-Bäqir that by is the a bid'a".

al-Härith about H.)

al-'Attär. 'äshürä and is al-gädiq limited

Najaba the fifth 148 stating [fasting] asked "it or al-Husayn is

enquiry 114-8

(d. to and reporter added: revealed killing

respectively. it is is "a fast

notice

's position of we as no family them clear traditions his are

abandoned doned gave day except God's What firmed b. diq of The Zurära merely Ibn

revelation Then,

Ramadan told, the but was by

aban¬ who a

same

answer which ofthe be to other Abän that (the longer, and the on on be

father's,

conceming the prayers seems by two and sunna

scripture of Ziyäd both.""* shift towards with al-Malik. keeps title informative of too, hence, realised As tradition, earth and and the all for his new the

may

the isnäd: The the

mid-second Zayd

century al-Narsi and suffer his <-

is

con¬

'Ubayd

<-

'Abd whoever

former 'äshürä b.

is short fast Abihi) the In he Ibn it, says, Mujäna will and

in it al-Sä¬ the family.'" of later wams was 'Umar Husayn Husayn of grief to Ibn no fate

warns

Murjäna latter is

pejorative more moulding the ninth and — as the to they Iraqis. this

of Ziyäd and

clearly

product al-§ädiq Husayn and to in which

elaboration against besieged, b. was was to the Sa'd,

elements. in which, enemies, that 'äshürä, we are no

fasting

outnumbered were glad from according

reinforcement the told day that and of Syria,

expected killed people the is

it is a day a day etc., of joy and

of heavens, family

believers

Murjäna, fasting What implied al-Husayn rä is

of Ziyäd

people

hence

allowed.'*' seems to be a rejection by <by and people the his the a third father. family of the tradition It explicitly of Abü of caliphal in families fasting Sufyän authority as well as notion of reported says to a thankful from that thank to fasting al-Sädiq fasting God them. by 'äshü¬ for We the are this al-näsu

here, b.

is confirmed Ghundar adopted

a sunna

killing also day told and

of Husayn that

passage them their

followed joy to

celebrating bihim

introducing

(. . . wa-iqtadä

'^^ '*» '*'

Kulayni Ibid, Ibid;

(d. 4/147. of also

328-9

H.):

al-Käß.

Teheran

1377

H.,

4/146.

Majlisi

(d.

1111

H.):

Bihär

al-Anwär.

Beirut

1983,

45/95.

312

Suliman

Bashear

jami'an wa-ahlihim The ('Ali at this b.

lidhälik,

fa-lidhälik . . .)}*^ is H.) rejection a position Zurära.

ya^ümünahu

wa-yudkhilüna

'alä

'iyälätihim

al-farafy same Müsä, stage, standard; position d. Shi'i 203

reported in a tradition

from

the

eighth b.

Shi'i 'Tsä.'"" has

Imäm, It seems an of from the

al-Ridä that, estab¬

of Ja'far on by the initial gives it attributes 'äshürä the

of fasting exempUfied

become

lished by

circulation passage

a tradition period of to

Hurayz to that

Overlooking it simply which

al-Bäqir fasting

of al-Sädiq, and 'arafa

a random to

Shi'i both

prohibition Imäms.'**

'äshürä

6.

Scholars'

Positions

and

Concluding

Notes:

It is unanimously rä fast as a beloved that reviewed practice Did it was what these The fasting available scholars. existence . . .) on other as he the Ramadän abrogated, an and

agreed sunna

by

later

Sunni

scholars not on an the ofthis a voluntary it not, it as to review

to

consider

the (farida).

'äshü¬ The

(rmistahabba), to were: it be debated the a farida it or origins or did

ordinance basis fast of and fast and to the

questions material Muslims outset? case In on

continued above it? Was

traditional did from extent? and early the In why?

why right

abrogate should attempt the use

what or not, main

Muslims will scholars the origins in the to have first be

keep made made of

a fast the

follows issues question on it by material Actually of two matter. to

positions cited above. for by by the

ofthe 'äshürä

traditions and fully the

conceming early and only different One its does Jewish in the similar former left that Muslims seems Tabari

reasons

place

is not

tackled

been the

somewhat question

avoided by (ikhtalafa Arabian state that after his the pointing

Sunni to the

addresses among this Tabari He state (tarakah). Prophet wa-lam be an to ordinance desert

views says that

scholars was a jöAiYi does only also In neither yanha so it could not notes that

ahlu fast

al-'ilm and the

points usually put

origins. cases. view

preference traditions was the lat¬ its cases, wished (man shä'a

which instituted ter view

forward the Tabari Prophet notes ya'mur

Ramadän with nor In

'äshürä the

conjunction ordered 'anhu). that

forbade both

fasting however, could ^ämah

ßam

bi-^awmihi ceased whoever to

'äshürä keep it and

"whoever likewise"

wished

wa-man Majhsi Kulayni 45/95-6

sha'a

tarakah).'*^ quoting cf also Tüsi's Majhsi Amäli. 45/94-5.

4/146-7; 4/146. Ikhtiläf

'** '**

Kulayni Tabari:

1/205-6.

'Ashurä,

An

Early

Muslim

Fast

313

Tabari the till that the believe aware fully He Prophet the

also

points persisted ofhis

to

the in

existence fasting on ma4ä actually the Prophet On

of an 'äshürä

opposite and urged His

view his

which umma

says to opinion justified

that do so is by to

day

death

(hattä was

li-sabilihi). an assigmnent and the early

personal (nadb),

such wage that ofthe avoided understood

persistence (thawäb) 'äshürä information (kariha) this as which

Muslims hand, Tabari others full to

continued was too clearly detest-

would

bring. that Ibn

other and

'Umar a fact

possibly that implied

its

practicing, a need to answers of the to "some not mean to

abrogation. practice

give a

support

a jähili

without To rather we leam all

having intents,

necessarily Tabari's tackling Tyäd

tahrim}*^ more of a harmonizing a few late nature sources in early held revealed the were noted, (musta¬ inten¬ soon an

are

than that One, 'äshürä another, fasting

a serious Qädi represented remained associated on this

problem. two currents

From which

pointed by an

existed al-salaf), was

Islam. that and tional extinct ijmä' habb)}*'' Of rary not lam the the of affect

predecessors" even name after

(ba'4 Ramadan 'Umar, detested

ordinance the We

with day.

of Ibn leam and,

also

that as as Ibn

both 'Abd

views al-Barr practice

(inqarada emerged

al-qawlu around

bi-dhälika)

considering

'äshürä

a beloved

earlier Tabari,

hadith may be

scholars, noted for

Ibn

Khuzayma, that which fadila).'*' scholars' to him, it sought can the that be first it was as

who instituting

was

a contempo¬ Ramadän a virtue this is close positions, acted 'äshürä kept through it.'** the (d. by did (ay, to

holding of 'ö^Mrä baqiya ofthe

a complete aw yusqat

abrogation wa-innamä by own of but, to Tirmidhi days. 'Ä'isha still, undermine an (d. reduced and Ibn ordinance 189 to H.) the

remained And, (ahi these implying grace discemed place. so until fast turn, Abü (fadl)

yunsakh summary

given in tradition his

al-'ilm) scholars that

apparently upon was the not

According and people presented who 'äshürä in held status (d. from 241

obligatory attempts whether it Shaybäni then H.) it was

Earlier debate 150 H.)

was

Hanifa

and and (d.

abrogated (tatawwu'). forwarded

Ramadän Shäfi'i the view

of a voluntary H.), in their

204

Hanbal right

that

voluntary

the

outset.'®"

It is probably

not

'" '*' '*'

Ibid, Ibn Ibn

1/220-1. Hajar: Khuzayma 3/286. Muwatta' 13; Shäfi'i: Mälik Ikhtiläf as reported 103; from Häzimi him 208; by M. b. al-Basan QastaUäni 3/510. al-Shay¬ Fath 4/175-6; 3/284-5. Nawawi: Sharh 5/121.

Tirmidhi Compare: bäni, op. cit.,

314

Suliman

Bashear

surprising Hanbalites specifically upon ment, by the 'Ä'isha the wishes The quoted than Prophet Ramadän schools the choice lam The course sioned more which plete tance 'ösMrä.'®" accomplish partial voluntary.'®' which speaks one; one you" they Ramadän}^' Shäfi'ites and Jähiliyya may

to for the

see their

that

the position

main is

"prooP none other "and

sought than its fasting

by

the

Shäfi'ites tradition, not to been ordained this

and

Mu'äwiya's was

explicit yuktab 'äshürä The in other

statement 'alaykum could not

(wa-lam said,

ßiyämuh). even be said

According to have especially are was the kept said "... two as

state¬

abrogated by some of of day whoever in

traditions of such say came a that the

forwarded position 'äshürä Prophet

support 'Umar when it„ which which

variants a fast and

Ibn and leave

Islam

(. . . wa-man Abü Hanifa in the of — i. e., support very choice the

shä'a and the

tarakah)}^^ subsequent position, 'Ä'isha and Hanafites belong Ibn to 'Umar, 'äshürä which reasoning before wäjiban the quoted that, qabla [later] dhälika, are more the after other by

traditions to have category. gives was present is not the

put

forward In one,

of their same by

freedom

(takhyir) very it. been same The

conceming tradition main

revealed as having

abrogated "has it today" not

Hanafites could yasihh second the (käna interesting quote his of the ones

that: be right

obligatory lam yakun

(law

al-takhyir group in of

al-yawm).'^' traditions the Prophet etc., put forward is said to on by the Hanafites ordered, But and shall are commis¬ probably others, of

which

have 'äshürä.'^*

ya'mur, are Prophet Note only

yata'ahad) the traditions as saying:

fasting of Salama,

al-Rubayyi' has eaten comment to in such ßhi) that to such no a other case,

"whoever Ibn Khuzayma's applies that (yastawi for him

fast/com¬ that day those who make was only accep¬ except who a

day".'®® fasting Tahäwi, a full

especially part in his fast which of tum, are the

day notes

day

equal proves variant children

those fasting bint

a notion As for the

specific

of al-Rubayyi' to fast on that

Mu'awwadh, Tahäwi says

about

forcing

day,

Compare: 510; '"^ position Nawawi: Nawawi, of Abü Nawawi: '" ''® '=« '®' Ibid. Nawawi: Ibn See

Ibn Sharh himself

Khuzayma 5/120. a Shäfi'ite,

3/286;

Shawkäni:

Nayl

4/205;

Qastalläni

3/

confirms

that

part

ofthe

Shäfi'ites

accept

the

Banifa. al-Majmü' also Tahäwi: 6/383-4. Sharh 6/383-4. 4/75.

al-Majmü' 3/290. 3/89.

Khuzayma Mushkil

Tahäwi:

'Äshürä,

An

Early

Muslim

Fast

315

that ren

this

is unacceptable al-ßibyän to right of him, even of the the the not have from

because ghayr been the

worshipping muta'abhidin)}^' inclined As such, he

is not

ordained

on

child¬

(. . . li-anna Tahäwi seems day

strongly outset.

to

consider be to

'äshürä considered abandon fasting

as as 'äshü¬ against

a a

voluntary representative rä. the For

may trend

gradually reports Jews' an

predominating conceming saying that the God

Prophet's saved 'alä as the

background a choice, Also bear hence, the the must

Moses

on

'äshürä, lä al-

indicate fard)'^' (kafära) and,

ordinance which of thankfulness it a

(. . . fa-dhälika uphold to 'äshürä God act.'"" for

al-ikhtiyär an victory

traditions notion consider

atonement of Moses

voluntary

*

*

*

Taken issues which Ramadan. (1)

together, tackled arise To

the above

traditional reflect the more

material than of

and anjdihing giving the

scholarly else up

debate the

over

the

complexities in favour of

throughout recapitulate, 'äshürä traditional colouring covering festivities, seems

process one to have reports (iktihäl), Ka'ba, those may

'äshürä

make been not on

following a day

points: of fasting. Some

Initially, of the

only dancing

Muslim the eyes the especially

(taqlis), abundant of with

decoration (tawsi'a) and archaic the

(zina), especially Jewish Temple. (2) Viewed ing

being reminiscent connected

are

certain inaugurating

as

such, of

this 'äshürä roots

may being on

draw & jähili the

closer

the

two on may

apparently the say one that, hand, as

conflict¬ and it occurs in¬ its

notions

practice One also to

Judeo-Christian here, fluences (3) The as a material fast and century the term in

other. refers

"Jähiliyya"

clear

Judeo-Christian

pre-Islam. reviewed celebrated too, with above not almost part leaves only all in no in the it. doubt the first that but 'äshürä throughout companions the influence only ordained within the growing went fast sira and was kept the and need handpre¬

second successors to

prominent However,

reportedly Islam promoting

taking from this Ramadan

discoimect with the

Judeo-Christian as of the

in-hand senting

adoption/abrogation

'äshürä

frame-

Tahäwi: Ibid 4/76;

Sharh idem, Sharh

4/74. Mushkil 4/77. 3/88.

Tahäwi:

316

Suliman

Bashear

work this dition earlier one with Drawing mulate is

of rising

the

Prophet's current 'Abbäs, a second inclined to was

relations expressed our investigation

with through

the

Jews the

in widely this For

Medina. circulated attempt the same

Though tra¬ to be no

of Ibn than also

proves product. the prophets material

century believe ancient

literary that

reason, 'äshürä older to one. for¬ sira

connecting the laboured the Hijäzi

the

Judeo-Christian upon Islam's it, scholars position

is actually century within

from towards

the

second 'äshürä

framework. (4) Conceming conclusions widespread festivities selves.'®' which of the cannot use which On viewed and We to the and did may can other his not also with the different be during were other as final. the factional One early may Abbasid encouraged there of grief, forms this is the positions cautiously period by rising towards note, of the 'äshürä, however, forms them¬ opposition the murder inno¬ our the of

certain Abbasids

possibly hand, a day all note its that

Shi'ite it with as

'äshürä rejected only

connected of festivities stands in namely

Husayn

Umayyad

vations. tion of 'Ali tury, One figures ed.

complete that early the

contradic¬ positions cen¬

traditional descendants

testimonies, down differ from to al-Bäqir those was departure one

in the of the ofthe from main

second

basically add whose that name

Sunni early was

current. Muslim associat¬

Mu'äwiya the

main 'äshürä

'" second 'äshürä,

Note

especially Caliph,

the

unique al-Mansür,

information received

brought allegiance

by Basawi (büyi'a)

1/117, on the

that day

the of

Abbasid 136 H.

Traditional

Crafts

and

Modem

Industry

in

Qajar

Iran

By

Willem

Floor,

Bethesda,

Md

"In

Persia

there are

are by no

no

statistics, means

nevertheless uninstructive" J.

the

economic

phenomena

Rabino

I.

Introduction

The This also data

dominant was in are the not not way only

sector

of

the in force

economy the was

in distribution

Qajar

Iran of the

was

agriculture. but exact ofthe in part ofthe the viz.

reflected labor

population, Although about were 90% engaged for 85% whilst activities, estimated production, force of the had economy, at

the

gainfully that Probably

employed. around all 1800 of them

available lived in the

it is estimated rural as the was well 1860s engaged employed In force under Conversely, services, labor force conclude total it be labor had is in 1908 was areas. as in

population agricultural of their total remaining handicrafts that so only that time. labor

activities Around force 15% and 70% during by some was

non-agricultural estimated that

production at least

it was in

agricultural non-agricultural the Iranian

production, urban govemment in agricultural agricultural sectors in

services. ofthe the labor period 20%.' and of the however, in the Nor Iran is no of may was doubt

engaged study the the other

de¬

creased mainly where One share sation handicrafts Although decline

industry the may size not,

increased concemed. from force as this an

importance,

least

alleged increase the decline

increase ofthe of

in

the

of industry of Iran. that there as a

industriali¬ traditional

concluded

from a process

experiencing that traditional of not

of deindustrialisation. suffered market this that, by for we alone economic min European example, lack prove the it. proand

industries Iranian from nature. contention, insight in

result goods,

penetration one may

the

machine-made Iran basic became statistical it

conclude in a some

increasingly data is to

agricultural argue to such show

However, let the

Nevertheless,

possible

' in pp.

See Late

on

the

question Persia,

of demography 1870-1906. In:

G.

Gilbar: and

Demographic African Studies

Developments 3 (1976),

Qajar

Asian

125-56.