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Democrat Jack Conway
has cut sharply into Repub-
lican Rand Paul’s once-com-
manding lead in Kentucky’s
U.S. Senaterace, movinginto
a statistical tie with a little
more than five weeks before
Election Day, according to
the latest Courier-Journal/
WHAS11 Bluegrass Poll.
The poll shows that Con-
way, the state’s attorney gen-
eral, is nowappealing to vot-
ers who say they are neutral
on the tea party — Paul’s
base of support.
AndConway is building a
significant lead among
women, who earlier were al-
most evenly split between
the two candidates.
According to the poll,
Paul leads Conway 49 per-
cent to 47 percent, with 4
percent undecided. That
lead is well within the poll’s
4percentagepoint marginof
error.
The poll, conducted by
SurveyUSA, questioned 611
likely voters Tuesday
through Thursday.
The previous Bluegrass
poll, released the first week
of September, showed Paul
leading Conway 55 percent
to 40 percent.
Jay Leve, SurveyUSA’s
chief executive officer, said
it’s hard to tell exactly what
the shift in the race means.
“Whether that is a result
of genuine tractionfor (Con-
way), secondthoughts about
his opponent, or a newly
raised consciousness among
voters who a month ago
werenot focusedonthecon-
test, I am not sure,” he said.
The Courier-Journal
Undecided
Asked of 611 likely
Kentucky voters.
Margin of sampling error
for this question 4
percentage points.
Source: Courier-
Journal/WHAS11
Bluegrass Poll conducted
by SurveyUSA.
If the election for the U.S. Senate were today, who would
you vote for? Republican Rand Paul or Democrat Jack
Conway?
Democrat
Jack Conway
47%
49%
Republican
Rand Paul
4% 4%
Conway
pulls even
with Paul
Democrat closes
a 15-point gap
Paul Conway
By Joseph Gerth
jgerth@courier-journal.com
The Courier-Journal
See POLL, A8, col. 1
LEXINGTON, Ky. — It was a
spectacle of bluegrass and opera,
cowgirls and ballet, Fresians and
thoroughbreds as equestrian ath-
letes from 58 countries converged
onLexingtonfor the start of the All-
tech FEI World Equestrian Games
on Saturday.
“Kentucky has a special place in
the equestrian world,” said Princess
Haya al Hussein, president of the
Federation Equestre Internationale,
who remembers that as a child she
thought of Kentuckyas “horseheav-
en.”
“Thank you Kentucky for wel-
comingus tohorseheaven,” shesaid
in opening the games.
The 2
1
⁄2-hour ceremony was
filledwithglitter andglitz, designed
to highlight the best of American
horsemanship.
“It makes me awfully proud,”
said Don Tressler of Versailles, who
has spent about six weeks working
to get the Kentucky Horse Park
ready for the games, which started
Saturday with reining competitions
and continues through Oct. 10.
“The people I’ve talked to are so
excited to be here,” Tressler said.
“They know bluegrass. They think
this area’s absolutely beautiful.”
As part of the ceremony, Louis-
villian and boxing legend Muham-
madAli was drivenintothe stadium
Horse
Country
Plenty of toe-tapping, hoof-pounding at opening ceremonies
By Matt Stone, The Courier-Journal
A thunderous roar went up as the American athletes entered the stadium at the opening ceremonies of the Alltech FEI
World Equestrian Games on Saturday night in Lexington. Cowboy hats and American flags also waved in the stands.
By Jessie Halladay
jhalladay@courier-journal.com
The Courier-Journal
See GAMES, A16, col. 1
MORE IN SPORTS
American team takes lead in reining
event. C18
Teams chasing Emirates in endurance
race. C1
SPECIAL ONLINE SOURCE
A Courier-Journal special website
highlights the games’ history, the
Lexington facilities, ticket information,
photos and videos, and more. Visit it at
www.courier-journal.com/weg
The vine’s turquoise, blue and lavender
berries stand out on a steamy summer
morning, making it clear why nurseries sell
it to climb trellises, provide privacy and at-
tract birds.
But a closer look shows this porcelain
berry vine at Cherokee Park is entwined
with a nearby bush, smothering it.
Brought toNorthAmerica as ornamental
in the19th century, porcelain berry is one of
hundreds of aggressive,
foreign plants remaking
the nation’s landscape, in-
cluding Kentucky and
Southern Indiana.
The porcelain berry
and some other non-na-
tive plants are still sold at
nurseries locally and on-
line. One of the most prev-
alent invasive plants, Asian bush honeysuc-
kle, is now a pariah at most nurseries.
The foreign plants eventually escape to
grow unchecked without natural predators,
stranglingor crowdingout nativeplants
and robbing them of sunlight and nu-
trients.
“Youcandrivedownalmost anyroad,
as you watch the vegetation on the road-
side ... most of the plants you look at out
your car window and see are not from
this country,” said Jeff Sole, director of
conservation programs for the Nature
Conservancy in Kentucky.
Across the country, government offi-
cials, representatives of industryandenvi-
Foreign plants, animals conquering native species
CLOSER
LOOK
A guide to
some of the
worst invasive
species. A18
Often imported with good intentions, they are taking over landscapes
By James Bruggers
jbruggers@courier-journal.com
The Courier-Journal
See INVADERS, A19, col. 1
SUNDAY
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FEATURES & TRAVEL | E1 FEATURES & TRAVEL | E1
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Congratulations, Christian Academy
of Louisville High School!
The U.S. Department of Education has recognized
Christian Academy of Louisville High School (CA) as
one of this year’s National Blue Ribbon Schools. Just
304 schools nationwide received the award, and CA
worked hard to achieve this goal. The Association of
Christian Schools International (ACSI) commends them
for a job well done! Chosen for their high performance,
Blue Ribbon Schools “are committed to achievement and
to ensuring that students learn and succeed. Their work
reflects the conviction that every child has promise
and must receive a quality education.”
—Arne Duncan, U.S. Secretary of Education
ACSI’s mission is to enable Christian educators and schools
worldwide to eectively prepare students for life. www.acsi.org
KY- THE COURIER-JOURNAL | SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 2010 | A19 FROM PAGE ONE & WORLD | courier-journal.com
ronmental advocates are
recognizing a problem that
many say is getting worse.
Some states have begun to
take on the challenge with
newlaws, policies and coun-
cils aimedat gettingcompet-
ing interests to talk to each
other.
The problemisn’t limited
to plants — fish and bugs
brought from other conti-
nents also have thrived and
multiplied out of control.
Asiancarp, brought tothe
United States in the 1970s to
eat algae in retention ponds,
are starting to edge out na-
tive fish in the Ohio River,
Lake Barkley and Kentucky
Lake.
And a new crop of alien
bugs, likelybrought toNorth
America along with import-
ed products, threatens to
devastate hemlock and ash
trees just as exotic fungi in
essence wiped out the
American chestnut and elm
trees years ago.
“The idea that a simple
insect like the emerald ash
borer can come into an area
and make a species go ex-
tinct (shows) we are talking
about important changes,”
said Ellen Jacquart, a bota-
nist and director of steward-
ship for the Nature Conser-
vancy in Indiana.
Across the U.S., econom-
ic and environmental dam-
age and the cost of fighting
out-of-control plants, ani-
mals and bugs total as much
as $120 billion annually, a
study by researchers at Cor-
nell University found in
2005. The studyincludedev-
erything fromcrop weeds to
feral pigs to forest pests to
pigeons, cats and rats.
Misguided efforts
Alien species have been
findingtheir waytoAmerica
since Europeans first settled
the continent. Often, the for-
eign plants, animals and
bugs get here as a result of
misguided efforts.
Kudzu, for example, was
for decades endorsed by the
federal government to pre-
vent soil erosion, but it’s now
known as “the vine that ate
the South” and subject to
eradication programs in
Kentucky, Indiana and else-
where.
And the Asian bush hon-
eysuckle, perhaps the most
pernicious invasive plant in
the area, was part of the
original plan for Louisville’s
Olmsted parks.
“Olmsted wanted dense
plantings to allow for a buff-
er from the outside world,”
said Liz DeHart, spokes-
woman for the Olmsted
Parks Conservancy in Louis-
ville. “Now we have discov-
ered what some of the nega-
tive effects are. It takes over
and prevents additional
growth of native trees.”
The conservancy is
spending $5 million in Cher-
okee and Seneca parks over
seven years to get rid of the
worst of the Asianbushhon-
eysuckle, whichineffect poi-
sons the soil around it so
other plants can’t grow. A
separate $235,000 project is
doing the same in Iroquois
Park, DeHart said.
Experts say that with hu-
mans traveling and shipping
goods more than ever, the
problem of invasive species
is getting worse worldwide.
“Everything is going ev-
erywhere,” said Joyce Ben-
der, who manages natural
areas for the Kentucky Na-
ture Preserves Commission
and is one of Kentucky’s top
experts on the subject. “We
have international transport
and movement of goods.
There are so many more op-
portunities for bringing in
species.”
Onceinvasiveplants get a
foothold, they typically re-
produce quickly and spread
through prolific numbers of
seeds, tubers or bulbs. Some
have seeds that stay viable in
the ground for many years,
making them difficult to kill
from one year to the next.
Some, if cut, will sprout mul-
tiple shoots fromtheir roots.
A popular home garden
plant — the burning bush,
with its flaming red fall foli-
age — has moved into for-
ests inKentuckyandIndiana
withthehelpof birds that eat
its many seeds and carry
them far and wide.
One 5-foot tall burning
bush plant can produce
6,000 seeds annually, said
Winston Dunwell, an exten-
sion specialist with the Uni-
versity of Kentucky. And
burning bush plants are
grown by the millions each
year for nurseries in the
United States, he added.
Like the bush honey-
suckle, the burning bush
takes over underneath the
trees’ canopies, replacing a
diverse collection of native
varieties that wildlife need
for survival, said Sole, of the
Nature Conservancy.
“It really reduces the bio-
diversity of the site,” he said.
Less invasive choices
Thereareefforts tocreate
less invasive substitutes for
some of the popular plants
— a nearly sterile variety of
the burning bush, for exam-
ple, was developed in Ken-
tucky. But that plant, called
the Rudy Haag, is not as
widely available as other va-
rieties, Dunwell said.
Thefederal government’s
Animal and Plant Health In-
spection Service also limits
certain “noxious weeds” en-
tering the U.S. or crossing
state lines. But the federal
list largelytargets plants that
threaten agriculture and
thosethat couldstill beerad-
icated because they haven’t
been widely distributed.
Both Kentucky and
Indiana also have programs
tostudyandcontrol invasive
species, but by most ac-
counts, neither is up to the
task of fighting a force of na-
ture.
“It’s very difficult towrap
one’s mindaroundthe scope
and challenge of the prob-
lem because it’s so big, and
we haven’t made lasting and
sustainable progress,” said
Dena Rae Garvue, horticul-
ture director at Bernheim
Arboretum and Research
Forest. “It’s going to take one
heck of an effort from mul-
tiple fronts.”
“The question is how
much should we do and at
what cost,” saidPat Haragan,
a Louisville botanist and au-
thor of “Weeds of Kentucky”
and a forthcoming report on
weeds in Louisville’s Olm-
sted parks.
Onabout 20acres ineast-
ern Jefferson County set
aside for Floyds Fork parks,
cutting and herbicides are
being used to get rid of the
honeysuckle and multiflora
rose, an Asian transplant
once promoted as a living
fence for livestock.
But it will likely take
three treatments and ongo-
ing maintenance, said natu-
ralist AlanNations, owner of
NativeScapes Inc., the busi-
ness doing the work at a cost
of about $500 an acre.
This summer a Native-
Scapes work crew of An-
drew Oost, Chris Chandler
and Neil Wilson were fight-
ing record temperatures, sti-
fling humidity, poison ivy,
mosquitoes and chiggers
along with the alien plants.
“It’s difficult but reward-
ing,” Oost said. “We’re creat-
ing an island of beauty in a
sea of whatever.”
Knowledge is a weapon
Kentucky and Indiana of-
ficials, along with private
groups, also are trying to ed-
ucate homeowners about
their choices when buying
plants.
BernheimForest and two
of its partners, for example,
have put out “least wanted”
posters drawing attention to
burningbushandother inva-
sive plants. The posters sug-
gest alternatives.
Bernheimis developing a
programto certify non-inva-
sive plants that, starting next
year, will likely carry the la-
bel “Bernheim Select” at
some local nurseries.
To help prevent the
spread of invasive aquatic
plants like hydrilla, which
was imported fromAfrica in
the 1950s for freshwater
aquariums, both Kentucky
and Indiana urge boaters to
clean their boats and motors
before moving between riv-
ers and lakes. In a lake or
pond, hydrilla can create a
mat so thick neither fish nor
boats can get through.
Indiana began aggressive
control of its first population
of hydrilla in 2006 at Lake
Manitou in Rochester, ban-
ning outside boats and ap-
plying herbicides. The lake
is open again to outside
boats andtheplant has effec-
tively been eliminated at a
cost of $1.3 million through
this year, said Phil Bloom, a
spokesman for the Indiana
Department of Natural Re-
sources.
Kentucky has just begun
small-scalecontrol of hydril-
la at several Eastern Ken-
tucky lakes and rivers.
“We will never be able to
eliminate it,” said Jeff Ross,
an assistant director of the
Kentucky Department of
Fish and Wildlife Resources,
saying the state has money
only to focus on swimming
and boat ramp areas.
“We will only be able to
try to educate the public on
how it spreads.”
Coordination needed
Kentucky needs a more
comprehensive and coordi-
nated approach to meet the
challenge, said Bender, of
the Kentucky Nature Pre-
serves Commission.
Different agencies each
try to control small numbers
of invasive plants. And none
of those restricted by state
statute are real threats to
natural areas, she said.
Some states — Michigan
and Massachusetts, for ex-
ample —and the city of Chi-
cago bar the sale of certain
invasive plants. Indiana bars
the sale of just two: multiflo-
ra rose and purple loostrife,
which chokes wetlands, said
Glen Nice, a weed science
professional with Purdue
University Extension.
“In Indiana, we’re a little
bit slow on this,” he said.
Kentucky doesn’t ban the
sale of any invasive plants.
“Here in Kentucky, when
you start to talk about trying
to regulate the sale of some-
thing, a lot of people get ner-
vous and upset,” Bender
said. “People feel like their
livelihoods may be threat-
ened.”
Indiana Gov. Mitch Dan-
iels last year established an
Indiana Invasive Species
Council. Jacquart, of the Na-
ture Conservancy in
Indiana, who pushed for the
council, saidit will be able to
recommend laws and regu-
lations based on the advice
of people close to the prob-
lem.
Rick Haggard, a board
member and past president
of the Indiana Nursery and
Landscape Association,
agreed that open lines of
communication are impor-
tant. But he said it would be
hard for him to give up sell-
ing certain popular plants,
like burning bush.
“Beforeyouput aplant on
a blacklist,” he said, “you
have to see what the eco-
nomic impact would be —
how many people are grow-
ing it, how much is in pro-
duction, and what would be
the (cost) of (ending) that
production.”
Ben Cecil, a board mem-
ber of the Kentucky Nursery
and Landscaping Associa-
tion, said an official council
to make recommendations
ontheissuecouldbehelpful,
although he echoed Hag-
gard’s concerns about a
blacklist.
“I wouldhavenoproblem
with it (a council) as long as
it was an open, fluid and ob-
jective process,” said Cecil,
an Elizabethtown grower,
tree farmer and nursery
owner.
The Kentucky associa-
tion has recently adopted a
code of conduct on invasive
plants that encourages the
development and sale of al-
ternatives. “This was our ef-
fort as an organization to
show that we are aware the
problemexists and we really
want to deal with it,” Cecil
said.
But he acknowledged
that members are not re-
quired to follow the code,
and that typically the “big
box” retailers are not mem-
bers.
Gov. Steve Beshear sup-
ports the idea of a work
group to address invasive
species, said his spokes-
woman, Kerri Richardson.
The issue has been “one of
serious contention in the
General Assembly in recent
years” and “we must bring
all parties together to find a
workable solution,” she said.
That could include re-
stricting the sale of some in-
vasive species, she said, “if
an environmentally respon-
sible consensus can be
reached.”
Legislation that would
have created an invasive
plant council was intro-
ducedintheGeneral Assem-
bly in 2003 and 2004 by for-
mer state Rep. Carolyn
Belcher, D-Owingsville, but
failed to get a vote on the
House floor.
“If we were able to have a
council,” Bender said, “we’d
have to discuss our issues in
a formal setting. Perhaps we
could come to terms on
these things.”
Reporter James Bruggers can be
reached at (502) 582-4645.
INVADERS | Idea of regulation makes many uneasy
Continued from A1
By Michael Hayman, The Courier-Journal
Andy Oost of NativeScapes Inc., sprays herbicide on invasive plants on the Cornell Tree
Plantation. Some species need to be dug up over several seasons.
Pat Haragan examines porcelain berry, an invasive vine that
was brought to this country for its beautiful berries.
UNITED NATIONS —
Palestinian President Mah-
moud Abbas said Saturday
there will be no peace deal
with Israel unless the Jew-
ish state stops settlement
construction in areas the
Palestinians claim for their
future state.
“Israel must choose be-
tween peace and the con-
tinuation of settlements,”
Abbas saidinhis address to
the U.N. General Assem-
bly’s annual ministerial
meeting.
Direct peace talks be-
tween Israel and the Pales-
tinians stalled only three
weeks after starting in
Washington in early Sep-
tember over the impending
endof a10-monthfreeze on
newIsraeli settlement con-
struction on land claimed
by the Palestinians.
Palestinian promise
Abbas reaffirmed the
Palestinian commitment to
try to reach a peace deal.
“We have decided to en-
ter into final status negotia-
tions. We will continue to
exert every effort to reach
an agreement for Palestini-
an-Israeli peace within one
year in accordance with
resolutions of international
legitimacy …and the vision
of the two-state solution,”
Abbas told ministers and
diplomats.
But with a Sunday dead-
line looming for Israel to
resume the contested
building, the Palestinians
are waiting for U.S. efforts
to break the impasse. Presi-
dent Barack Obama has in-
creasingly placed efforts to
resolve the conflict at the
center of his foreign policy,
but both Israeli and Pales-
tinian officials said a deal
was far from certain.
“Our demands for the
cessation of settlement ac-
tivities, the lifting of the
siege (of Gaza) and an end
to all other illegal Israel
policies and practices do
not constitute arbitrary
preconditions in the peace
process,” Abbas said.
These are past obliga-
tions that Israel is required
to implement, he said, and
Israel’s implementation
“will lead to the creation of
the necessary environment
for the success of the nego-
tiations.”
He said the Palestinians
and the wider Middle East
are continuously pushed
into“the corner of violence
and conflict” as a result of
Israel’s “mentality of ex-
pansion and domination.”
The Palestinian presi-
dent demanded an end to
Israel’s repeated flouting of
U.N. resolutions, its de-
struction of the historical
identity of Jerusalem, and
its blockade of the Gaza
Strip, whichhesaidhas cre-
ated massive suffering for
the people living there and
prevented reconstruction.
On the settlement dis-
pute, some in Israel have
proposed, for example, that
limited building will re-
sume but not the relatively
unfettered construction
that prevailedbefore the Is-
raeli moratorium.
Palestinians say it is es-
sential that Israel leave the
restrictions on settlement
construction in place.
Abbas has repeatedly
said that he will be forced
to walk away from the di-
rect negotiations if con-
struction resumes.
The Palestinians claim
all of the West Bank, home
to 300,000 Jewish settlers,
as part of a future state, and
say that by expanding set-
tlements, Israel is imposing
facts on the ground that
make it increasingly diffi-
cult to establish a viable
country.
At the same time, Israeli
Prime Minister Benjamin
Netanyahu faces heavy
pressurewithinhis pro-set-
tler governing coalition to
resume construction.
Hard-line elements in the
coalition could try to bring
down the government if
Netanyahu extends the set-
tlement slowdown.
West Bank showdown
Pro-settler activists
hauled bulldozers, cement
mixers and other construc-
tionequipment intothe Re-
vava settlement in the
northernWest BankonSat-
urday. Danny Danon, a pro-
settler lawmaker in Neta-
nyahu’s Likud Party, said
activists would lay the cor-
nerstone for a new neigh-
borhood today, the last day
of the slowdown, and
planned additional con-
struction Monday after the
restrictions formally end.
The Palestinians claim
East Jerusalem as the capi-
tal of a future state. They
also object to the separa-
tion barrier built by Israelis
betweentheWest Bankand
Israel toprevent deadlysui-
cide bombings. Some parts
of thebarrier cut intoPales-
tinian territory, leaving al-
most 10percent of the West
Bank on the Israeli side.
Abbas: Talks
hinge on end
to settlements
By Ali Akbar Dareini
Associated Press
Mary Altaffer/AP
President Mahmoud Abbas
threatens to break off talks.
Time: 09-25-2010 21:45 User: toksenda PubDate: 09-26-2010 Zone: KY Edition: 1 Page Name: A19 Color: Black
A18 | SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 2010 | THE COURIER-JOURNAL KY-
For more advice:
For advice on eradicating
invasive species, call the
University of Kentucky’s
Jefferson County Coopera-
tive Extension office at
569-2344 during business
hours.
Go to www.ca.uky.edu/
county for more contact
information. In Indiana, find
extension offices at
www.ag.purdue.edu/exten-
sion
UNWANTED UNWANTED
Courier-Journal photo illustra-
tions of bush honeysuckle,
winter creeper created from
multiple photos.
Eurasian water milfoil
What: Submersed aquatic plant
with feather-like leaves found in
lakes, reservoirs, ponds and low-
flow areas of streams.
Where it came from: From
Europe, it was first found in the
eastern U.S. in the 1940s, presum-
ably from dumping aquariums into
local waterways.
The problem: Forms dense mats
of underwater vegetation that
limits fishing, boating and swim-
ming and crowds out native
plants. Damages property values.
How to help: Boaters need to
fully clean their boats and trailer
before moving to another body of
water. Herbicides are also effec-
tive.
Tree of Heaven
What: Rapidly growing tree that resembles
sumac or hickories.
Where it came from: Brought to U.S. in
1740s by a Pennsylvania gardener. Many
cities planted it because it grows well in
poor soil.
The problem: Cloned thickets displace
natives, taking over fields and meadows.
Produces chemicals that keep other plants
away.
How to help: Cut and treat with herbi-
cides. Cutting alone produces multiple
sprouts that will spread.
Oriental bittersweet
What: Attractive, deciduous, twining and
climbing vine with prolific bright red seed
pods.
Where it came from: Imported to the U.S.
from China around 1860 as an ornamental.
The problem: Climbing vines to 60 feet
constrict and girdle stems of native shrubs
and trees and can also shade out natives.
How to help: Vines can be pulled by the
roots. Tougher plants can be cut just above
ground level and treated with an herbicide on
the stem. Plant alternatives such as American
bittersweet, crossvine or trumpet honeysuckle.
Purple loostrife
What: A perennial that grows up to 10 feet on
a woody stems with pink to purple flowers.
Where it came from: Brought to U.S. by
European settlers in early 1800s for gardens.
The problem: One stalk can produce 3
million seeds, which disperse easily by wind or
water to wetlands and stream banks. It
spreads fast and displaces native plants,
diminishing ecological value of wetlands --
essential for many kinds of wildlife.
How to help: Galerucella beetles feed on
purple loostrife. Consider instead Great Blue
lobelia or blazing star.
Winter creeper
What: An evergreen, woody vine
that invades forests throughout
the eastern United States.
Where it came from: Brought
to U.S. from Asia in early 1900s
as an ornamental ground cover
plant.
The problem: Dense ground
cover restricts native tree
seedlings from getting
established; vines can
smother and kill shrubs.
How to help: Cut the vines just
after the last killing frost and
apply herbicide to the stems.
Consider native ginger, Allegheny
spurge or mountain lover as
alternatives.
Emerald ash borer
What: Dark metallic green beetles,
about a half-inch long, that feed on ash
trees and kill them.
Where it came from: Native to Asia;
discovered in southeastern Michigan in
2002; Indiana in 2004; Kentucky in 2009.
The problem: Larvae destroy ash trees’
water and nutrient conducting tissue;
native ash trees have little or no resis-
tance. Killed tens of millions of ash trees
in Michigan alone.
How to help: Don’t transport ash
wood outside your county;
consider protecting your most
valuable ash trees with
pesticides if the beetles
are in your county.
Asian carp
What: Bighead and silver carp, known
for flying out of the water, are voracious
eaters of plant and animal plankton.
Where it came from: Brought to
the southern United States in
the 1970s to help fish
farms and waste-
water treatment
facilities remove
algae from reten-
tion ponds. Have migrat-
ed up the Mississippi River into
the Ohio River and some tributaries.
The problem: They may crowd out
more desirable native fish like sauger,
white bass, crappie and catfish.
How to help: Support state efforts to
encourage commercial fishing for the
carp.
Burning bush
What: Hardy shrub with bright red fall
foliage.
Where it came from: Imported in
the 1860s from Asia as an ornamental
plant.
The problem: Seeds, carried by birds,
sprout and dominate the forest layer
between the floor and the canopy.
How to help: If it’s in your yard, dig it
out by the roots or cut it down to a
stump and paint the cut with an
herbicide. Replace with strawberry-
bush, spice bush or winterberry holly.
Japanese stilt grass
What: Annual, sprawling grass with
lance-shaped leaves; can grow to 3
feet tall, with tender stalks of tiny
flowers.
Where it came from: Originally from
China, it was once used as packing
material for imported porcelain. First
identified in the U.S. in 1919 in Ten-
nessee.
The problem: Forms a dense mat,
crowding out natives.
How to help: Digging it out repeated-
ly over several years and herbicides
can help get it under control.
Garlic mustard
What: An herbaceous, biennial forb
that grows to four feet and invades
woodlands.
Where it came from: From Europe,
settlers brought it to New England in
the 1800s for medicinal use.
The problem: Produces chemicals
that prevent native plants from grow-
ing and shades out native wildflowers
in its dense stands.
How to help: Cut flowering plants by
hand or with string trimmer close to
the ground.
Bush honeysuckle
What: A multi-stemmed, upright,
deciduous shrub that grows to 15
feet with fragrant, white to yellow
tubular flowers and fleshy red
berries.
Where it came from: Native to
Asia and introduced into North
America in 1850s. It’s been planted
widely as an ornamental and for
wildlife food and cover.
The problem: Forms a dense
thicket that restricts native plant
growth; releases chemical in soil to
prevent other plants from growing.
How to help: Pull out younger
plants by the roots in the spring.
Cut older plants and immediately
apply a 20 percent glyphosate
dilution to the stem.
Look on
the Web:
៑invasive
speciesinfo.gov
៑invasive.org
៑se-eppc.org/ky
៑inpaws.org/invasive
plants in Indiana.html (with
spaces)
Photo credits: Warner Park Nature Center Archive, Warner Park Nature Center, Bugwood.org; Ted Bodner, Southern Weed Science Society, Bug-
wood.org; Jill M. Swearingen, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org; David Cappaert, Michigan State University, Bugwood.org; Michael Montgomery,
USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org; Michael Montgomery, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org; David J. Moorhead, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org;
David Cappaert, Michigan State University, Bugwood.org; Richard Webb, Self-employed horticulurist,Bugwood.org; USDA Forest Service - Region 8
Archive, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org; Daniel Herms, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org; James R. Allison, Georgia Department of Natural
Resources, Bugwood.org; David Cappaert, Michigan State University, Bugwood.org; Annemarie Smith, ODNR Division of Forestry, Bugwood.org; Chris
Evans, River to River CWMA, Bugwood.org.
Sources: Federal government agencies; state government agencies; universities; conservation groups.
THESE ARE SOME OF THE MOST DAMAGING ALIEN SPECIES IN KENTUCKY AND INDIANA:
A CLOSER LOOK
Hemlock wooly adelgid
What: Pest that attacks eastern hem-
lock trees.
Where it came from: Native to
Japan, it was first observed in North
America in the 1920s and was discov-
ered in Kentucky in 2002.
The problem: Feeding insects slow
shoot growth and cause needle loss,
which is followed by defoliation and
death. Has largely eliminated hemlock
from some many forests, reducing song
bird habitat.
How to help: Insecticidal soap or
horticultural oil can be applied in the
fall.
Time: 09-25-2010 19:15 User: toksenda PubDate: 09-26-2010 Zone: KY Edition: 1 Page Name: A18 Color: Cyan Magenta Yellow Black

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