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Holy Harlots: Prostitute Saints in Medieval Legend Author(s): Ruth Mazo Karras Source: Journal of the History of Sexuality, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Jul., 1990), pp. 3-32 Published by: University of Texas Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3704459 . Accessed: 26/03/2011 15:38
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Legend Holy Harlots:Prostitute Saintsin Medieval
RUTH MAZO KARRAS
Department History of Uxiversity Pennsytvania of
had attraction for THES N E who became saintalways a certain I NR a presentedparadox, Chrisa for medieval Christians. sanctified A prostitute pleasure within even marriage tianity rejected positive any aspects sexual of Nevertheless, andconsidered outside sex marriage moreabominable. even andforgiveness: Christianitywas areligionofconversion,repentance, but to (Mark Christ "came to callthe righteous, sinners repentance" not the that 2:17).Saints hadbeensinners who embodied message corlfession, the of who contrition, penance and couldwipeaway worst sins,andsaints 1 hadbeenprostitutes embodied mostdramatically. it saints its calendar. to By Thelatemedieval church added penitent few the process the thirteenth century, papacy the controlled canonization for tightlyandstressed life of heroic a virtueas one of the requirements whocame holiness in life, to late sanctity. Although there werestillsaints saints evenafewwhohadledlivesof sexual mostcontemporary in the sin,2 orders laypeople or of central lateMiddle and Ageswereeither religious in
Seminar the University of Portionsof this article werepresented the MedievalFaculty to on StudiesatWestern of Pennsylvania, Twent the ,v-fourth International Conference Medieval on MichiganUniversity, Kalamazoo, May 1989, andthe conference "TheCultof the Saints andiransformation," Center Medifor in the MiddleAgesandEarly Renaissance: Formation of October eval andEarlyRenaissance Studies,StateUniversity New Yorkat Binghamton, John Boswell, Elaine Beretz, and 1989. I thank the participants these presentations, at Christopher Karras, valuable for suggestions. Society Medieval in E?wrope (Chicago, lSee JamesA. Brundage, Law,Sex and Christian On themeof penitent 1987), on official churchattitudestowardsexualbehavior. the general des MediumAevum saints,see Erhard Dorn)Der sundiBe Heili,ge derLegende Mittelalters, in Philologische Studien,10 (Munich,1967). mistress. 2Margaret Cortona,for example, a nobleman's of was
[JournaloftheHistoryofSexualityl990,vol. 1] l,no. 1990 byThe University Chicago. rightsreserved1043-4070/90/0101-0002$01.00 of All
RUTH MAZO KARRAS
virtuous TheGolden life. Le,gend Jacobus Voragine, mostpopular of de the hagiographical compendium before after advent printing, both and the of emphasized virtuethrough entire the livesof contemporary saints.3 This didnot wipepenitent saints thehagiographical butit meant off map, that theprostitutes others were and who venerated thosewhose were liveswere setin thedistant past. Theprime example ofthe prostitute wasMary saint Magdalen, probably the mostpopular saint(after VirginMary) allof medieval the in Europe. Five other prostitutesaints also appeared prominently medieval in hagiographical literature. of the stories-Maryof Egypt,Thais,PeFour lagia, Mary nieceof Abraham came and the from literary the tradition of the VitgePatrum,talesof the desert fathers lateantiquity, werereof and toldthroughout Europe. of Augsburg known Afra was mainly Germany. in Mary Magdalen's provides keyto reading thelegends thus story the all and to anunderstanding medieval of prostitution, it willbediscussed and followingtheothers.
HAGIOGRAP HY, CULTURALH ISTO RY, AND P RO STITUTI N O
Hagiography provides richsource medieval a for culture. Although exthe tantsaints'lives areproducts an elite milieu,they did reacha wide of spectrum society: justthosewho couldreadthem,but alsothose of not who heardsermons preachers had readthem, and those who by who vieweddramatic performances them.Anymedieval canconstruct of text medieval society a modern for audience, hagiographical because but texts, of theirgreatcurrency, constructed for manymedieval it peopleas well. Examination howhagiographical created of texts social meaning cannot ignoreproblems related the genre.Saints' to livesfollowed conventions, borrowed fromtheirmodels,andcontained stereotypical elements. The goalsof the biographies to make caseforcanonization to cdifythe a or reader mightbe at cross-purposes an accurate with account the subof ject's The textscannotbe takenas reflections actual life. of eventsin the world.The chronological distance whichthe prostitute at saintswere placedalsofrustrates attempt usetheirstories evidence the any to as for experience the prostitute the Middle of in Agesor evenin lateantiquity. Butthe samefeatures vitiatethe factual that reliability the narratives of make themparticularly valuable thehistory theconstruction sexufor of of alityin medieval culture. distance timeandspace The in betwecn audience andsubject means in analyzing hagiographical that the discourse can one
3DonaldWeinsteinand RudolphM. Bell,Saintsand Society: TwoWorlds Western The of Christendom,1000-1700 (Chicago,1982);SherryL.Reames,The"LeBendaAurea":AReencaminatton Its Paradoxical of History (Madison,WI, 1985), pp. 198-99.
trans.HolyHarlots: Prostitute Saintsin Medievatl Le.and court recordsprovidethe materialfor social historians'studies. 14 6London CommissaryCourt Act Books. prostitution.LydiaCochrane (Oxford. ordinances." Si. the but hagiographical textsconnectedwith these institutionsdid not dealwith herlife of prostitution.Canonlaw officially definedthe prostituteas a promiscuous woman.In most of the texts used here. Ruth Mazo Karras. Legal texts. Departmentof Manuscripts. prostitutionmerelyprovidcdthe background againstwhich penitencestood in starkcontrast. Guil&all Library.4 mayreadthe texts for the way they We constructedsexualityand. It constitutcda greatershareof the meaningthanit did of the lengthof the texts.Prostitution in Medieval Society: TheHistory an Urban of Institution Languedoc in (Chicago. Financialexchangewas not as negligible a factor as canon Iaw would makeit. LeahLydiaOtis. 1470-73.gend 5 ignoresome questions aboutthe context:these saintswerenot connected with powerfil families or contemporary institutions. London. in particular. like "whore" today.5Eventhe denotationofthe worditselfis problematic. In literatureand in common parlance meretrinc. An examinationof hagiographical texts is particularly helpfulto an understanding ofthe meaningof prostitutionin medievalcultureandsociety.in the medievalaswell asthe modernview. one who earnedher living by sexualfavors.but secularlaw clearlyrecognizeda classof professional prostitutes. the saint'slife beforeher conversionplayeda relatively smallrolt. 80r.or simplyone whose sexualmoralsthe speaker wishedto impugn.regardless any of financial clement.The biographies ofthe prostitutesaintscanilluminate the meaning of the institution of prostitutionfor medieval socicty and culture.6But more thanjust the definitionof a word or a set of termsis at stakehere. The medieval authorswerefreeto developtheirbriefsources into moreelaborate narratives without direct political pressure.andeven churchcourtstreatedprostitutesdifferently fromfornicatorsandtook the factof payment evidencethata womanbelongedto as the formergroup.1985). Medieval Prostitution. 4Thecult of MaryMagdalen promotedby the monksof Vezelay was ezhopreserved her relicsandby ecclesiastical authorities Provence in whereshe supposedly ministered. fol. 9064/1. 5Forrecentworkon medievalprostitution forexample. but indiscriminate sexualitywas the key.kalowingthat they were situatedin medievalgenderand powerrelationsin generalbut that the authorshadno anc grindwith regard the individualsubjects.andprovidedthe contextin which the audienceunderstoodthe saints'laterlives andworks.could be a promiscuouswoman. to to The narratives' most obvious anddeliberate point dealtwith conversion and repentance. but such an understandingcannot be gleancd from these recordsalone. Jacques Rossiaud.Yetthc relativelybriefaccounts ofthe life of prostitutionlinkedthe storiestogether. "TheRegulationof Brothelsin LaterMedievalEngland. see. Onlythe portionof herlife afterthe deathandresurrection Christ putto political of was use.gns ( 1989): 399-433. .1988).
Joe}B. Konrad of see Kunze.B. On the historicity oriand gins of the story. 14 8Marie-Therese Lorcin. A.University Michigan. Philologische StudienundQuellen. pp.6 RUTH MAZO KARRAS THE PROSTITUTE SAINTS LATEANTIQUITY OF Thefourdesert saints Saint and Afra. whoselivesweresetin thefirst four centuries oftheChristian embodied notion era. Medieval thinkers.trans. Medieval society ascribed greedaswellaslustto theprostitute. and eds.Mary The and of theEgRptian" (Ph. JohnW. R. Walsh.1970). concludes in the fabliaux putainest uneincarnation Convoitise that "la de beaucoup plusque de Luxure. Legenden Tha?s derMariaSe.1978). 1979).IourMoney Iour Life:Economy Religion theMiddle ar and in Ages.Fafons senti7t depenser: de et Lesfabliassfranfais (Paris. theversions the All in medieval Westdrew moreorlessdirectly a Greek attributed the on text to seventh-century author Sophronius.pp. 1963). 1983).IN. see Masters) Princes and Merchants: TheSocial ViewsofEetertheChanterandHisCircle.seeMargareta Wietzorek. thoughthe caseof Mary Magdalen indicates it wasfemale that sexual insatiability gaveriseto theotherpassions.StudienzxrLeyende derheili. (Norman. the ofthefemale general in as lustful promiscuous.. 2 vols. TheScandal theFabliatc (Chicago. Yunck. p.1986). of 1977). 7-12.appeared many in ofthemedieval versions ofthesesaints' lives. 49 (Berlin.p. Shoaf.1-8.Baldwin. Jacques LeGoff. (PrincetonNJ. 1988).gyptiaca Die der ?wnd in denromanischen Literaturen vorxe1DmlichMittetalters des (Lengerich. TheLineafofLadyMeed: e TheDevelopmentof Mediaeval T4enality Satire(SouthBend.17 (Exeter.gen MariaSe. Kaye. nismfortheirdownfall a woman.Chaucer theCurand rencyofthe Word:Money. and sinnedthrough Butthemechalust. 61-66. HowardBloch. 13. that Maryof Egypt's storyrevealed mostclearly waythe HighMiddle the Agesconceived prostitution female of and sexuality. pp. LesterK. Anne MarieSargent. literary well as philosophical juridical.1969).D. murderer the couldrepresent Everyman. Little. blame on her Thepenitent was the fell prostitutes' stories reflectedconcern money exchange the also a with and in market.PatriciaRanum(New York.ImagesandReferenceinLateMedievalPoetry OK. in Spain. Theprostitute represented Everyman well.La vidadesanta MariaEgipfiaca) ExeterHispanicTexts. bothmonastic secular. Dante. Bussell Thompson JohnK.8 Thesetwo contradictory motivations sin the financial the lifor and bidinous. Thevarious Latinversions ."TheImpactof of Moneyon the Development Fourteenth-Century of Scientific Thought. R. 1939). xiii.gioxsPovertyand theProfitEconomyinMedievalEurope NY. JohnA. (Ithaca. 1977)."ThePenitent Prostitute: Tradition Evolutionof theL«fe St." 9Onthe popularity Maryof Egyptin Germany.forthe primarily as monastic authors developed theme woman temptress who the of as recognized that mentoo.diss.. prostitute and The couldrepresent Everywoman moreeasilythan.ptiaca imdeutschen Sprachyebiet." Journal Medieval of History (1988): 251-70.peoplebecameacutelyawareof an elementof financial exchange implicit many in types sexual andexplicit prosof acts in titution. storyof the monkZosimus.7 thinking monetary As in terms becamemore common. as or wereprofoundly troubled theprofit by motive thequestion howto and of behave morally a money in economy.Reli.for example. the Whileseeking 7Forthe impactof moneyon societyandculture.9 mostversions In Mary's story own appeared withina frame.
withthe intercession the a In VirginMarycouldshe enter.p.1854).butit in ticipated allsins. l°Rutebeuf.. (AnnArbor. him or tingZosimus making aminor of andgoing into greatdetailin the description Maryof Egyptandthe life. for in Egypt. life: over theeremitic thecenobitic shewasa moreperfect reader To sinner. message asceticism repentance appearedwithout sometimes ofthetale.-P.. Completxs LatingCursxs in Ecclesiae. ed. 39. 144 et romanes francJaises. the played central thestorylauded Zosimus whichit wastold. for wilderness.guez-Monino en estudio de la leyendade SantaMariaEgipciaca Espana. . the Zosimus of of because the severity the power. pp.Afterhe covered withhis andthen in years Alexandria. (Madrid.University MI. Dembowski.. ed.ed. the church voicetoldherto crossthe man A and Jordan hersinswouldbe forgiven. Michigan ed. La vie de sginteMarietJEflyptienne: 1977). lines63-64. lines 295-306. as she confessed had Marythe Egyptian sunkto shehadcommitted and of in Zosimus anagony lamentation self-reproach. character. of only a her forcebarred fromentering church.gia Autun. en Versions ancienet en moyen Dembowski. 11Ibid." Patrolo. another year the left. Honoriusof Pl (hereafter ). 12 in Contributions ModernPhilology.shelivedas a prostitute many an There invisible with paidherpassage herbodyon a shipto Jerusalem. 1:99-110. lines 143-48. J. fais.particularly a as her her that wasthesexual identified andallowed to stand such shining remained and of The of example conversion. early of account her para "Apuntes el Craddock. themedieval and wasawoman a former eventhoughshe to the depthsof sin.La Viede sainteMatie IwEflyptienne. Bernadine Bujila. p. toldherstory.Where than ascetic he. Zosimus He returned following by told Mary herstory. of sin. Studien. charitable gaveherenough years for lasted seventeen in the which of to money buythreeloaves bread. she thirtyyears livedwithouteatingor drinking. 166-67. 1949). spiritual Born she cloak. 1 withher. and discussionof Frenchversions in Peter F. and Sargent. (Geneva.Legend Saintsix Medieval Prostitgte HolyHarlots: 7 who figure triedto saw Zosimus a naked in perfection thedesert. 109-11. Egyptian's Onegroup textsadapted the deemphasizing Virgin. 50.p. 172:906." and Leyend other pp. Publications of A.47. men with (intercourse married or but not onlyfornication alsoadultery to with and priests) incest(intercourse two menwho wererelated each all she other).1966). in to andthe relationof the vernaculars themarediscussed Jerry a HounenajeRodrt. textT. on hisreturn thesecond her he following foundherdeadandburied withthehelpof a lion. on depending the contextin of The moralmessage the storyvaried role.l°On hervoyageto Jerusalem seduced the menon board.butthestory to central allversions of witha message herinterof as frame a miracle theVirgin. "Speculum Migne (Paris. her fleefromhim.1Sheparof had eventhosewhooriginally no intention sinning and gluttony othersinsofthe flesh. 9-12. After year in but to arrangement givehercommunion. The Golden of see versions: diagram textualrelaLatincollectionsformedthe basisfor manyvernacular tions in Kunze.againall the morestriking cessory omitstory Sophronius's freely.
trans. 135:544.). 12-49. if She livedbybegging spinning.1978). 194 (alltranslations mineexceptas noted). wellasintoLatinmeter. Evenversions and as 13 that toldthestory much more briefly. asAdgar's such Anglo-Norman collection of miracles theVirginfromthe latetwelfth early of or thirteenth century.beginningwith a late twelfth-century French clearly text." Romania 11 (1882): 366-81. Shetooka dwelling withthe prostitutes. 1977].niederlandischen und lateinischenFassungen.ed." existedin many manuscripts wastranslated Italian Spanish wellasabbreviand into and as atedin French prose." 73:680 (EnPL. U. Not justfortheirmoney.. Hadtheloveof theyoungmen.. l 4Adgar. There soldherbody./ Butto fillfill maddesire. ThompsonandWalsh. Walter Skeat.X RUTH MAZO KARRAS In the Latintranslation Sophronius.eds. 35. MI.Altfranzosische Bibliothek."Vitasanctz Marizegyptiact meretricis. Dembowski. textT. never of She accepted money sleep to withanyone. German.Harlots of the Desert. of Marytold Zosimus that she livedpromiscuously seventeen for years did not losehervirginity but for thesake money. andnot forgoods. p. Shereceived themwillingly. lines 111-24 (alltranslations mineexceptas noted). p. 2:23-25 (this text is not actuallyby Vlfric). are 15Dembowski.whichPeterDembowski labeled has "T. 114 (London. Spanish. made Mary Egyptian prostitute the a working monfor ey. Portuguese. Alltheyoungmencame thebrothel to Forherbeauty. 106 [Kalamazoo. ed..9 (Heilbronn. pp. Flodoard Reims.28 (Berlin. 1886).''l4 her The other textualtradition. J.ed. in both French Spanish. Butforherpleasure Shehadthemwithherallnight. "Anciens textes portugais:Vie de sainteMarieEgyptienne.. are A number proseversionsbasedon T. W. because she thoughtshe wouldhavemorecustomers she did not charge. Y. Nunes. Cornu. Konrad Kunze.35-56). "Textos antigos portuguesesVII. l3Aelfrzcvs Livesof the Saints) ed. Cistercian Studies Series.J. she Shewaswhiteas a flower. pp. Marienlegenden. desire go to Jerusalem or Her to stemmed from awishnotto seetheholyplaces to attract but more lovers.'iDe und of triumphis Christisanctorumque Palzstinz. founditswayintoEnglish.l5 12Paulus Diaconus."PL."Revista Lusitana 20 (1917): 183-205. From elev12 the enthcentury thisversion on. picked the detailof hernot charging sex:"Shereceived up for everyone. CarlNeuhaus. of and containthe samedetails: . French.S.EarlyEnglishTextSociety. textsO. Z. 1890). and J. glish translationin BenedictaWard.Textedes spaten Mittelalters derfruhenNeuzeit. LegendederheiligenMariaAegyptiaca: Ein Beispielhayiographzsclver Die Uberliefe7^ung in 16 unlveroffentlichten deutschen.This text. OriginalSeries (hereafter EETS O.
Abandonnynge there wymen townewythothercomyn thesame Andwythnoo otherthynge bodyto allthatcame andusyngeherpropre or who Ages.p. Rutebeuf's text. bothenticedmen charge Hish-I-13) 2d ed.gipciaca. likesof TheideathatMarytheEgyptian in morecommon became to whichmighthavebeenfamiliar theaudience..alsodepictedhercharging customers: Si.. See gavea muchbriefer lines 54-57. 98.writers translated Middle In gateherlyuynge. Vitas Patrum." A. French to SuzanneNash. 2:53. 134. fol.. to vatedby herrefilsal accept a becoming prosa need believethatfinancial couldeverexcuse woman's make need a becoming thief. ser. the out operated of a brothel.1495).l8 textsmadeheraccept blamc for payment sex. sin Mary's as aggratreated that Thoseversions followedthe original did canonlawyers not Although payment.butby the fifteenth to fiasal accept unremade of and awareness institutionalization prostitution sucha detail point. Clasicos Alvar. Manuel 1972).gende. LeBende.at least." Rel7ieu744(1971): 695-705. l8James Brundage. her closely. money:Rutcbeuf? 47."TheVitaePatrum Old andMiddle 68r.TheSpanish added detail asonemightfindin medieval in her received well and fetedher when she arrived other prostitutes 16 Alexandria. 1977). Dembowskir textsX andV. esp.Escurialense suggests(p. morallessons. "Rutebeuf'sContribution the SaintMarythe Egptian Legend. Estowia santa Mana E. Le." William in her 1400 depicted asworking a "common around of translation the Vitge Patrumalso delate Caxton's fifteenth-century yeres the durynge tymeof seuentcne "and her scribed joininga brothel: of atte maderesydence the openbordell andmoreshe haddecontynuelly In beynge.this groupoftexts formedan important ofthe expansion uponthe expanded and to cultrthattheyweremeantforrecitation the illiterate forthis reason hleW T but whosepocm who certainly Rutebeuf. 2. 16VidadesantaManorE. 704-5."17 the earlier reMary's about statement theirsources' the retold storydidnot question the century increasing moneyforsex.p.The versionof the trouvere p.r Exeter iaca de ed. Similarly. Walker panicTexts. source. ed. Caxton(London.D.William in L. trans.financial couldatleast tituteasit couldaman's for the The the sin moreunderstandable.Holy Harlots: Prostitute Saints in Medieval Le. lines 151-54.otltof fearthata thosesheled intosin:whensherefused she wouldstandin the wayof hergratification. University Pennsylstania. that originated version German An century. 19 (Madrid. . Midof (Ph. 36.gns1 (1976): 835in "Prostitution the MedievalCanonLaw. RogerWalker.see Constance Rosenthal.gif (Ms.Verisimilitude as the constmcted prostitute a professional. however.gend 9 such life notionof alustfill buta brothel not evoked thevague Thepassage that the text towns. EnglishLiterature" dle Vutch prose versionof the fifteenthcentury.15 (Exeterr ofthe vernacular part Spain.althoughits sourcefollows Sophronius Die Kunze. that differedfromit. impliedbutdid not stateexplicitly sheaccepted accountof herpreviousIife. On Caxton's a 1936)1p. often-printed the fifteenth and house. Hispanicos. diss. and the texts the outweighed theological alistic. Die 17Kunze. Ii) thatin ed. 110.
. 1887).405.CarlHorstmann.1956). Th. Jahrhundert. reprint.1900.gendaryorLivesof Saints."20 and it and no Abandonmentof thefemale bodyto allunderpinned medieval the understanding of prostitution. forn-svenskt Ett legendanum (Stockholm. 20Jacobus Voragine. the of of retellings theirlegends Euof in ropean vernacular traditions followed someof the same patterns.gend Varagine's and Le. "Caxton's Golden Le. 1:455. a Le..EETSO. p.see SisterMaryJeremy. New York. Yet versions presented the for 19 later that money asamotive were sympathetic-they notmention force finannot did the of cialnecessiicy-but combined profit the motive thatoflust. Maryof Egyptts activitiesstill amounted prostitution." available all. Modernauthors." "public.ge Geschichte zur der deutschen Spro«che Literat?r ( 1928): 345. 203.glished William or by Caxton. ed.. merely Not promiscuity indiscriminate but promiscuity was required. TheSovthEnBlish 14 Legendary. S. 1:136. p. und 52 RedeYom Gloxven." Speculum (1946): 212-21. Unger ed. line 14 2265. Graesse LA). is 2lIn additionto those already cited:Hildebertof Lavardinr Maria "De LEgyptiaca.Awareness with ofthe importance commerce notimply understandinghowthe of did an of money economy contributed sexual to exploitation. Charlotte ed.Germanistische von Abhandlungen.1846).theproperty allmenin asense as to of because theywerethe property none. 1:487.Thisstoryassumed the price anobstacle menhavingsexwith that was to prostitutes.'Bruchstucke and einer bayrischen Predigthandschrift dem 12.. abandoned to lechery refused man.2lThisunderstanding or to of theprostitutes common all.gend. Priedrich der Leyen. both feministandnonfeminist. life The of Thaiswasthe mostwidelyknown. 87 (London. Mill. TheGolden Legend Livesof the Saintsas En. GeorgStephens.S. 235 (London. 1877). 22Karras 5 above).10 RUTH MAZO KARRAS andmade sineasier them. 171:1329. bothLatinandvernacular.13 (Edinburgh. such theGoldenLe. . p." PL. forthisparticular 21 passage.EETS O. Ellis (London.gendaAurea (hereafter ed.gendaAurea.. andwhen wasin theageoftwelve I years wentinto I Alexandria. Der armeHartmann. whichmakesthe relationship with a prostitute different fromthatwith another woman. thereI gavemybodyopenly-to bythespace sevenand sin of teenyears. Legends theSaintsia Scortish M. R. gave to Texts as which only averybriefaccount ofthe Egyptian's of sin!treated asa prostitute: life her "Iwasbornin Egypt.ed. HeilaBra MannaSogur. (Oslo. C.ed. 261.ed. 1847).S. such was by of of beauty 19W. F.WilhelmFriedmanved.Gesellschaftfiirro- manischeLiteratur. the standard As Latinversion recounted: "There onceaprostitute thename Thais. havenotedthatmenoftenseek out prostitutesprecisely because they do charge. 425(n. 7. (Dresden. Caxton's rendering accurate.pp.1973).Schatz. Even without monetary exchange. d'Evelyn AnnaJ. of Dialect." aus Beitra. TheEarlySouthEnglishLe. 3:107.ScottishTextSociety. p. referred Mary to of Egyptas "common..1896))1:309. (Dresden. Many ofthe texts.AltitalientscheHeilisgen-Lesgenden. 248.1897).J.wasreflected regulations brothels of in of across medieval Europe forbade that prostitutes refuse customer to any or evento haveparticular lovers. On the relation Caxton's of translation to the original.1908).22 Thoughotherprostitute saints fromthe VitgePgtrumtradition never attained popularity Mary Egypt. Metcalfe. (Breslau.
theyallmadeclear financial of or strompyd" "comoun herebody"but. Nau.col. . Marbodof Rennes." PaulMeyer.1904). and OswaldR...Whenshetookhimintoher theycouldnot be seen. versions Mostofthemedieval They closely. 71. more Latindrama version. 5:241. roomwhere for he chamber asked a moreprivate that at Surprised herresponse no one couldseethembutGod. wholetext. for the of of thestories Mary Egypt) textsblamedThais thesinsof hercusof for PL. her or pounds. girl's that of because thequarrels tookplace heard of A withblood. 24802 de la bibliothequenationalecontenantdiversouvragescomposesou ecritsen An35 nationate (1986): 147. Opera." 171:1630. pp. Hrotsvitbae literary ThePlays Larissa Bonfante.EETSO. Ggimet (1903): 86.24 made quite from translation theGreek the followed original high:theshilling and and of herawoman refinement beauty keptherprice was LeZgend far of translation the Golden gave Paphnutius herin Caxton's The century. 417-18. Hrotswithaof Ganhad the editedunder titlePapDnxtixs. broke retiring to all She a pented(after sermon). Banks.he asked downandreShe in why. ed.Metcalfe. to Reference Hrotsvitha's 18. Thereareotherversions Greek: F. versionwas a feminist 1984).University Pennsylvania.Jacob's ed. dela des et gleterre. p.seeWard 12 above].ges ofthe life of Thais. 1900). HeleneHomeyer(Munich. 51-74. fol." 73:660 (my translation." monkbythename Paphnutius of wasoftenfilled himher.Whether not the textsstressed highpriceor motive herlifeof sin:shewas in the though. p. VitaePatrxm Narroof Transl6ationtheAlphabetum 15th Centx7ty An of 26AnAlphabet T&les: EnWish Well.25 in of price a prostitute the fifteenth morethanthe typical of to amounted hundreds goodsshe burned valueof the gold andother herriches. in Henrid'Arci. Marbodof Rennes. PapDnawtixs" diss.pp. 22."Vitasanctt Thaisis. interpretation pp.1970). Legend. PeterDronke.. version which 4196. The versionin Henrid5Arci's Golden 25 Caxton's to referred herhighprice(p.if shebelieved God.Women [New of ofHrotswitha Ggndershetm York.gend Saintsin Medieval Prostitxte HolyHarlots: ll poverty. 23'(Vitasanctz Thaisismeretricis. see Karras.D."Noticesextrorits mounuscnts bibliotheqxe PL. tenth-century the dersheim's See meritthananyof the others. 1629. 83-84).shewasa prostitute..moreexnot onlya "comon Like nothing."AStudyof the ThaisLegendwith Special 1922). ArthurBrandeis. 2:215. ed. Fr. and to and goodsforhersake came extreme sold thatmany alltheir doorstep the her among lovers." does not nameThaisbut tellsthe samestory). 96v (ametrical MS British Library Harleian de "Narracio meretrice. 115 (London. thenburned hergoodsbefore her concerned life of as ofthe story."Noticesurle manuscrit 24Forexample. to and herreputation tookit uponhimself convert He disguised to selfas a loverandshowedhismoney her. p. arguesthat Hrotswitha's (Cambridge. translation the see in [n."Lifeof Thais."26 one to "inaccessible none. On the historicity 30 dxMusee de "Histoire Thais. pp.23 and in thedesert hergreat Legend) the including Golden ofthisstory. tionum) MaryMacleod EETS O. 147).pp. 105-46). of Writers 1979].9of (Ph. 126-27 (London."Annales see Nau. ofthe legend. pp. 328-49 (trans. 3. bulk asceticism.Le. ed.except who brought plicitly. Kuchne.but the storydid not varysignificantly. theMiddleA. withMary Egypt) The thedesert.S.S.
Carl Horstmann..Theuseof excreher with her mentas an imagein this storywasnot coincidental: resulted it fromthe financial aspect hersin.although Hrotswitha it mostbluntly. Homeyer. p.Shesentthemto hell andwouldhaveto account theirsoulsaswellasherown. 29Metcalfe. 335.forbeauty to oftenbrought pride its in wake. of Thaiswasmostconcerned that withtheroleof money. leastoneversion at presented mainsinasneither her lust norgreedbut. 134. ed. . . . .sinceHrotswithawrotein thetenthcentury. Bonfante.ed. . renouncing lifeof prostitution burning gold. Thanto haveto takecare allmybodily of functions Inthesame place. AlphonseBayot. . .12 RUTH MAZO KARRAS tomers. ed.p. .rather. .Theimportance money the storydid not of of in arisefromthe economic changes the High Middle of Ages. . trans. writer Hrotswitha Gandersheim of vividlyexpressed implication: the Cantherebe anything moredifficult. 343-44.stressed moneyPaphnutius the brought andequated her. Le poememoral. p.p. 147. . Walloon The Poeme moralwentinto lengthy anddetailed digressions the danger beauty: on of many beautiful women behaved amanner in offensive God..Textes de anciens. despoiled notof their She men wealth generally of but a specific payment a specificact: "Shewas alwaysreadyto take/ for whoever wouldthefirst payment make. .. pp. 3. . 28Hrotswitha. pride.30 Pride provided another motivebesides andgreedforprolust 27Henri d'Arci. . Alphabet of Tales. textsmade The clear shetookwhichever that lover paidhermost. 7. . .28 The detailof havingto excrete the celloccurred the otherversions in in also. . . . SinceI amfilthyfrommysins. 30Lepoememoral. . . I knowit'srightformeto livein a filthy shack."29 Although moneyplayed important in the medieval an role versions of theThais legend. later but versions made roleof money the much morespecific. Hrotswitha. Orof a greater discomfort. .27 for The ascetic Thaisundertook life afterherconversion involved being walled a cell Theninth-century in .1:14-15. Academie royalede langueet de litterature francaises Belgique. put Of all the livesof prostitute saints. p. . boththeirbloodshed theirsexual and sins.1 (Brussels. to Because theterrible of smell. ed.6:12-13. . 2:215. 39. without leaving ever it? I amsurethatverysoonit willbeimpossible livehere."Die EvangelienGeschichten Horniliensammlung Ms." der des Archivpir die Erforschung neueren der Sprachen57 (1877): 279. 8. 1929). p. . 38. lines 11-12.andpridein beauty in jewelsandclothing) a sin specific (or was to women. Vernon. Homeyer.
Bonfante."34 desertascetics The regarded moneyas totally alien. 4:3.33 the her When Abraham asked friend his whether should money he take withhimto paythe innkeeper. pp.pp. 312. lacking explicit but the Snancial exchange accompanied that prostitution the caseof the other in 3 lThis saintis sometimes referred as SaintMarythe Harlot.withmoneyasa specific motive. 304). "Abraham.HolyHarlots:Prostitute Saintsin Medieval Legend 13 miscuity indeed.p. profession her a notorious in antiquity theMiddle and Agesforloosemorals. Who"protects" withtender her care. oneofthedesert the also saints. 12 above]. Medievalpeoplereadthe nameMaryin both casesas an allusionto the Virginrather thanto MaryMagdalen: Marythe Egyptianin textT compared herselfextensively the VirginMary. 91.likesexuality. "Abraham. Bonfante. 4:6. to his and sherepented returned thedesert and to withhimto do penance." in of 1:5.contrasting own sin with the latto her ter'spurity(Dembowski.disHer of and guised alover.it mightevenleadto lustandgreedthrough desire the to showoff beauty. 32As"VitaS. trans. 33Hrotswitha.Ashamed to confess sin anddo penance. medieval repeated the and texts andreinforced connection. ed. Wilmart. p.. Hrotswitha usesa monkto commenton the appropriateness the nameMaryfor a vowed virgin (Hrotswitha.shebecame common a prostitute.ed.. the Thelegend Pelagia of presented asanactress. 92-101). p. as After theyretired herroomherevealed identity. became prosa titute for financial not avaricious but motives. twowereequivalent. Thaiswasnot simply beautiful But a womanwhose prideled herto fall. 73:651-59 this in (see translation Ward[n..ed. fledto a cityandsupported her she herself by prostitution. .like that of Marythe Egyptian..32 Hrotswitha provided fullestdevelopment the storyin herplay the of Abraham. uncleheard herwhereabouts wentto seeher.. friend his replied. Andwellhe might: Forevery thatpasses brings a goodprofit day she him From menwhofrequent aslovers. whilethe remainder Abraham's is in of life foundat 73:283-92." in Homeyer. 34Hrotswitha. placed in a nunHe her nery. p.a falsemonkseducedher. 90. 311-12." in Homeyer."Abraham. whoseplotclosely followed of herPgpDnutius. lines 465-77). On the relationofthe Marystoryto textsof Abraham's see Andre life."Lesredactionslatinesde la vie d'Abraham ermite." Revue Benedictine ( 1938): 50 222-45.p. a frame: storyof Abraham.3l The story. Homeyer. 43. Mary nieceof Abraham.where. available everyto one. "You wouldnot be allowed meet to with Maryotherwise.ed.twentyyearslater." episodeis printedseparately thePL.trans. Mariz Meretricis.Therewasno conflation to of Marythe nieceof Abraham with Marythe Egyptian.. holymonk had the This foundhimself guardian hisorphaned the of niece. too she that Here stressed financial the element: Shehaschosenasherhomethehouseof a certain pimp.
2 (Paris.. 203). p. of trans. . 36Hermann Usener. Pierre d'Brle ed. calleda prostitute connected and with a brothelin a tenth-or eleventh-century "Lapastext.See HippolyteDelehaye. .ed. Shewasalso also (p. * * .p." 135:587. re-edited with French translation Jean-Pierre by Rothschild Armand and Strubel Peta.gen der Pela.andperfilmes. The originalLatin p. . 80. life her emphasized beauty her andriches. o-xxiv..inBelagie lapenitenteJ. 80. but for Flodoard Reims's of Latin metrical version callheraprostitute. Andshedidagoodbusiness herflesh. 62v. 2: Otherversionsreferred herprofession: OldEnglish to the Martyrolofly.martyr Porto. The name and the feastday mayhave been takenfromone of several other SaintPelagias. lines 5-8.boththe Golden Leyend vernacular and versions. sionde saintHippolyte. 73:663-72. . her Thecombination thename of Pelagia thethemes sexual with of license arld transvestism ledto thesuggestion thislegendary was of has that saint based the Greek on goddess love. "ThePemale Transvestite Early in Monasticism:The OriginandDevelopment a Motif" Viator (1974): 1-32. 72. ForFlodoard.gie in la penitexte: Metamorphoses leyende. 201.seeJohnAnson. . which described Pelagia's before conversion. "Lavie de saintePelagieen ancienet en moyen fransais.110. after death herfelas only her did lowascetics discover sex. line 19. gems. . During her eremitic shedisguised life herself a man." lFransois de ed Dolbeau.14 RUTH MAZO KARRAS saints. . "DieEvangelien-Geschichten. of 5 371hisSaintPelagia not a historical was personage.Leyenden heili.V. 116 (London. . translation her story did not explicitlycall her a prostitute(PL.36 medieval of The Western versions of the storydidnot contain anything connect saintwiththegoddess.35 with Pelagia happened hearBishop to Nonnusgivea sermon wrotehima and letter. Flodoard calledherpelex 76. line 137.gioflraphy of An to trans. Petitmengin. . 2:183. 1879) pp. vol. .37 of theprostitute All saints em35Horstmann. see Ward.. 1984). .1900). line 164).pp. . 66-75). Mostof the texts. .1907). * . in On transvestite saintsin general.fol. Caxton's fifteenth-century translationofthe VitaePatrutn caHed a "Jougleresse Daunceres" 17 above).TheLeyends the Saints: Introduction Ha. M. p. 16. "Pelagia" means"ofthesea"andwasone ofthe namesgivento Aphrodite heraspectasa seagoddess.S. .gia (Bonn.p. line 81. Crawford (London. thenconverted andshebecame desert He her a ascetic. to the norwasthereanyawareness anyof the several that SaintPelagias the in calendar shared name a withAphrodite.hergold. p. p. legendseemsoriginally have her to been basedon a homilyof SaintJohnChrysostom abouta converted prostitute. . 'sDetriumphis see Christi Antiochae gestis. who were virgins. Old her or (n. . GeorgeHerzfeld. . Prench versionscalledher"decorpset de couraige chaste" similar non and terms."300. not promiscuity pay. PL." Pelagie in lapexitente. calledhera mima. 190. one did and Middle English version described assinning money wellasbeing her for as responsible thesinof themenshetempted: for Shewasa fairenough woman Anddrewmany manto sin a Forshemade bodycommon her Inlustof thefleshandlechery.but did not mentionmoney (Jean-Pierre Bordier. * * . ed EETSO. .
one prostitute indigenous Europe. 39"Conversio Afrae.genLeben Leiken und anders."in Lebensbilder demBayerischen axs ScXabenn Gotz Freiherr ed."Historische Vierteljahrschnft28 (1933): 385-411. than of or The connection prostitution the goddess loveappeared of with of explicitly the life of Afra. in Bishop Narcissus hisdeacon and Felix.Afra.HolyHarlots: Prostitute Saintsin Medieval Lesgend 15 bodiedsomeof the samecharacteristicsextreme beauty coupled with lust thatmedieval peopleassociated the pagan with lovegoddess. Expeditius in ed. 1200 andseveral life German lives:AntonL.gici. p.Afrae vitametrica.andcamefromtherewith the ritesof Venus. not mentioningthe Venuselement." 17-18. 1906). I. Priedrich Wilhelm.At firstshetookthemforcustomers. livedin she Augsburg the time of the persecution at underDiocletian 303-5. 229. "Passio Afrae Vetustior de Passione et AfraeArmenia. ErichGierach. Afra's 38 legend attributed life her of sinto apagan family tradition. B."Die Afralegende. took refuge herhouse. ed.41-64. 1913). more canplease can the she Venus.Levison.. ed. Bruno Krusch. (Hannover. 3 1896)." inPassiones Vitgeque SanctorgmAeviMerovin. von Polnitz [Munich.43-169. but Pelagia so to no greater did degree Mary Egypt Thais.ed." becausethe name of SaintVeneriaof Antiochprecedesher in the martyrology.DerHeili."39 Thisexplanation a product amedieval was of hagiographer's imagination. esp. her irl Afra protected Narcissus Felixfrom soldiers finally amartyr and the and died for herrefilsal sacrifice theRoman to to gods. in allowed to remain the brothel.7. Afra livedin thefourth the who century nota prostitute was at all. .4l 38"Conversio PassioAfrae. in "Die H1. 192-204. thepriests as of Venus say. pp. "Die H1 Afra.let alonea devotee Venus. pp..22-23. just madehera prostitute.the morelovers woman her in a whoserves Venus have. pp.genannt Passional dgs (Leipzig. Andreas Bigelmair. Der armeHartmann 21 above).32 (Berlin.p. 1928). pp. described hermother. 303-4.204-19. pp." AnalectaGermanica:.fleeing fromRoman soldiers."S. my to serving goddess the Venus making and herself agreeable prostitution. pp. For.ed.40 thosewho retoldandreadthe of But storyof Afra theMiddle in Agesunderstood asaservant priestess her or of Venus. 26-27). Mayer. DeutscheTexte des Mittelalters. as by Hilaria: "My parents wereof the Cypriot race.Scriptores Rerum Merovingicarum. afterNarin but cissusexplained Christianigr her. (n. SchmidtandAntonGlock(Amberg. and MGH SS Rer. "SanktAfra.A scribemistakenly wrote "Afra venerea.Theotherprostitutes thehousealsoconverted. 203." Archivfxr die Gesc1viclyte desHochstiftsAu. Das Marterbxch. 40Theconnection with Venus probably comesfroma misreading ofthe Hieronyman martyrology.Merov. esp.1952]." Passtones et in Vitaeque SanctommAeviMerovinflici etAntiquiorum Aliqxot.. Therefore consecrating daughter the ritesof Venus. in the saint to According herbiography. 1:1-29. to written thelateeighth in century." 57-58. Venus and cannot worshipped be except thosewomen were by who fornicators. authorof the "Conversio" madeup the The then story to explain "Afravenerea"(AndreasBigelmair. P..gsb 1 : 139-221. Krusch W.she expressed wishto convert to a and eradicate sins.Monumenta Germaniae Historica. otherreferences Bigelmair. eine schwabische Reimlegende. 41ALatinmetrical of ca.
See alsoSylvain ClementandA. her having nothing do witheither to lustor money. shestillhad yet to takeup heroicasceticism. Histoire la de prostitution (Brussels.). Afra though. was expected legends the desert this in of saints apparently notasnecessary thelegends European but was in of ones. like abandoned herprostitution simultaneously becoming with Christian.16 RUTH MAZO KARRAS Afra's lifedidnotholdasmuch early prurient interest authors for during the HighMiddle Agesasdid thoseof the otherprostitute saintsbecause hermainsinwasnotpromiscuity paganism. lines 2240-41.Byfarmostoftheimages Mary of theEgyptian medieval wereasapenitent. sheresponded shehadleft she but that thatprofession thatthemerciful and Christian hadforgiven God her. audience The could entertain exoticfantasies aboutthe brothels Alexandria Antioch of or but couldmore easily envision mundanity the ofthoseofAugsburg.was themotivation behind prostitution. desert The fathers wrotethelivesof thedesert who saints weremuch stricter their in asceticism anyone themedieval than in West. Afra's wassetin amore story familiar world. Thekeyto the differences between andtheothersaints. windowshowedherstanding in a doorwayand then embarking with the pilgrims:ArthurMartinand CharlesCahier. pp. VitrauxduXIIIesiecle (Paris. n. p. Guitard.1959). Similarly. didnot represent sin particular femininity.1900).Icono. to Egyptin identical termsbutwenton to describe detailMary's of sin. whilein the caseof in life Afra. allegedly showedhersellingherbodyto payherpassage.42 attribution Afra's but The of prostitution paganism in effect. Afra. 2265-66. no longerin existence. in art cycles generally began with the angelbarring doorto the church her.he moveddirectlyto herconversion. 886.0raphie chretien des vol. who datedthe destruction 1660 andsaidthe window to wasmorethanthreecenturies At Bourgesa now destroyed old. He seemsto havegotten the story fromPierreDuSour [PaulLacroix]. 203. in womenandmenfromvarious walksof lifewhodiedforthefaith." 62. herlegendshe her Ill madethis clear: Roman the judgeat hertrialsaidthatshecouldnot be a Christian because wasa prostitute.43 Themoresympathetic treatment Afra medieval of by authors stemmed in part from difference thecircumstancescomposition the in of oftheoriginalstories.to not knowing better meant to any thatshedidnot haveto expiate sin withasceticism.d. 44LouisReau. taleof Afraincludedin some manuthe scriptsof the Golden Le. 248 andpl. 1841-44). Vitraux Bourges de (Bourges. del'art (Paris. referred herandto Maryof p. p. . Mono. storyresembled Afra's those of otherconverts lateantiquity. for 43"Passio Afrae. 1. 11. because butavery all fewdepicted later the parts oftheirlives.44 Thais appeared latein very 42DerarmeHartmann.gend verybrief.graphie Saintsn 3 of L'icono. wasmoreeasily it redeemable. prostitution incidental. a detail her was only of herpaganism.orwithherpraying the the to to Virginor buyingthe loavesof bread. I'elagia. She a to Theimages thesefivesaints Western do not contribute great of in art a dealto theunderstanding oftheirlivesasprostitutes.it gavethe detailsaboutherworshipof Venusbut was did not go into detailaboutherrepentance hergreatsin.graphiedelaCathedraledeBoursgesn vol.butthisis theonlysuchexample known. 3:313. p. windowat a Parisian A church.
45 Pelagia before conher version appeared a twelfth-century in passional fromStuttgart mounted on anassandholdingalyre.John20:17). 142r. 1920-21).. p. Though the Virgin surpassed her in holiness. I>rinceton.perhaps mostpopular the saintin theMiddle Agesafter Virgin the Mary. see Marina Warncr. fig. 48See Victor Saxer. 26:7-8. Albert Schramm. 25-26. who was not at all common in Western medieval iconography. In one thirteenthcentury window.gend she burned worldly her goods.E. Ikonographie derHeiligen (Freiburg.combined three NewTestament figures: Maryof Magdala. 269) shows her betveen two demons and then continues with her prayer before the Virgin.47 as MARY ALAGDALEN Themostimportant penitent the "celestial in gynecacum" Mary was Magdalen. 1017 (printed by Anton Sorg of Augsburg.San Marino.who "hath chosen goodpart. sister Lazams Marof the of and tha. pp. 47There is at the Saint Jacob church in Straubing a fifteenth-celltury image after a design by Holbein the Elder. CA (photograph consulted at Index of Christian Art. 45H. Huntington Library. showing both her conversion and her martyrdom. John 11:2 identifies . 224-35. from Freiburg. 1985). and Jean Verrier.iv. 4tThis scene is often conflated. On the relation between Mary Magdalen and the Virgin Mary. pp. 3 (Auxerre. ed. on the wide popularity of her cult. p. it may be a reference to Mary Magdalen. andthe figure identified onlyas"awoman thecity. 1482).Le culte de Marie Madeleineen occident ori. fol. in both legend and art. Aloae ofAll Her Sex (New York. Mark 16:9. Abb. 40. Der Bilderschmuck FruDdrucke der (Leipzig. Karl Kunstle. 1959). des a Cahiers d'archeologie et d'histoire. ii. a monk spoke tO her through her uZindowand tempted her.M. Mark 14:3). 1951). with the one at Bethany where a woman anoillted Christ's head and Judas Iscariot complained that the costly oil should have been sold alld the money given to the poor (Maw. that whichshall betaken not away from her"by listening the teachings Christ to of whilehersisterbusied hcrself withlookingafterthe guests(Luke10:38-42). of whomChrist seven out cast devilsandwho wasthefirstto seeChrist after resurrection his (Luke 8:2.animage alluded hercareer anenterthat to as tainerbut only indirectly herloose sexualmorals. 4:Abb." washed was who Christ's feet withhertearsat the houseof Simonthe Pharisee (Luke 37-38). she appeared holding an ointment jar. sinners could more easily identify with the Magdalen. Das StuttBarterPassionale(Augsburg. Rcau. Princeton University. 3027. the medieval The as Westknewher. 35. NJ ). 23. in which a sinner.46 usually to Afra appeared a martyr. 1.andin aGerman translation (1482)of theVitae Patrumsheaccepted bagof money a froma man. 1926).Mary Bethany.La cathedraledeBourgesetses vitraux (Paris. which played no role in her legend.49The 7: xi. whenshedidappear money played rolein hericoa nography: a fourteenth-century in manuscript the Golden of Le. 46Albert Boeckler.gines la jin du moyenage. A manuscript in the British Library (Royal 10.48 Magdalen. fol. 1923). also appeared in this passional (Abb. Mary the niece of Abraham.Holy Harlots: Prostitute Saints in Medieval Legend 17 Western although art. 32): in a scene leading up to her fall from chastity.
the raising Lazarus.traveled Marseilles.graphicaLatina. concentrated extremely became in The to others. 221-24.prostitutet'' at least'<promiscuous" 19 Traditio : 92). Simon. SeeBibliothecaHgio. at leastas earlyas SaintAugustine. on the Latinversions herlife andmiracles. notherlifebefore conversion evenheranointfeet (Saxer." and such as "peccatrix" "impudica. she her making livingby sexual prostitute a professional differHer prostitutes. Eine slSee Hans Hansel. The liturgy-as opposedto homiletic.18 RUTH MAZO KARRAS and with woman" Maryof Bethany Maryof of identification the "sinful of identification hersinassexual.anddefinitively identified pp. or '.50 sins unspecified that assumed MaryMagdalen's authors All medieval of prideandthe enjoyment Thoughtheyoftenincluded weresexual. 55).andmostofthe miracles 1900-1901). Saxer'sappendixof liturgicaltexts does containa text ing of Christ's to referring heras a sinner(p. 366).emphasizing castingout of the sevendemons. the to fallen a of hadtheeffect making (redeemed) woman first seetherisen Christ."Histoirelitterairede 1 France (Paris. 53Of160 medieval which clearlydoes mean three calledher "meretrix. dramatic of the playedthis aspect.see Saxer.. 267.gdalen6[-Legende: Quellenuntersuchun. aftershe."Legendes followthe Biblemorecloselyandbeginwith the scenewherea repenofthe narrative versions . on French in pieusesen Provencal" ibid. 2:804(Brussels. thosethatdid aresignificant with herlife before to the free allowed rein on silence the subject the cause New Testament's tenth-centuryhomilies uponwhose 54 imagination Odoof Cluny. WhenLatinhagiography thanformalbiography.5l sins all all sex. 1918). authors' as Marythe sisterof Lazarus the one who hadanointedChristandwashedhis feet with her this tearsbutdoes not indicateto whichoccasion refers. Other and Latinsources. mainlyon the laterpartof herlife. Meyer.L'ordredespenitentesde Sainte Marie-Madeleineen pp. sexual uria) and Yet intercourse. (Bottrop. Allem6lBne life of expressions herformer usingvarious hymnsto MaryMagdalen. or her but the andthe eventsafter Resurrection.53 her categorized asa common extent dealt Mary Magdalen to anygreat about Fewtextsof the many bebut herconversion.because her sexual prostitute. ed. (Fribourg. 2-6. Hymns. 25. rather andsermons and Lazarus. PaulMeyer.sometimes sevendeadly besides pleasures othercarnal early Magdalen's lifesawthesin of lust(laxof the representationsMary as depicted was MaryMagdalen never as looseness thekey.52 socialclass saintof repentant the became patron towns.p. legendof MaryMagdalen Provence to attributed herdatefromthisperiodof her all popular overEurope." A Femina': Quondam "'Peccatrix (JosephSzoverffy."Legendes from translations in francJais.Die Maria-Ma. A. at the sametzme. SociiBollandii en hagiographiques Paul of 10. in practiced medieval who prostitutes commonly her entiated from her and of someofthepossibility repentance salvation liferepthusmuting the morals. p. life.32:78-108. the West the maintained separation Christianity 50Eastern the sinceGregory them as one. 33:388. but amongthesethreefigures. Greatin the latesixthcentury.1904). 52Saxer. withtheubiquitous combined Magdala." of Survey the MaryMagdalen homilies through mainly emerged the 54Before twelfthcentury lifeof MaryMagdalen the it aboutherdid develop. alongwith Martha. texts of yet resented.narrative.g works downand 1937).
HolyHarlots: Prostitute Saintsin Medieval Le. Bibliothek litterarischen des Mereins Stuttgart.. and 283 (Oxford. p.gend 19 mostlater versions Mary of Magdalen's drew life directly indirectly."TheMiddleEnglishSaintPlayandItsIconography. Mirkns Festial: Coltection Homilies." TheSaintPZay in inMedieval Europen CliffordDavidson. (Stuttgart. ed.andthe of sins devil to temptherinto sin.anearly the of fifteenth-century Englishtext:Theodore Erbe. Murphy. 58For example. DonaldC.. Elall.Art and Music MonographSeries. the sevendemonssoughtherout because herdepravity.Various to versions otherreasons gave for hersin. Gustav ed.55 In the latemedieval English Digby PlgyofMaryMagdalexe. in 156 1881).S.see Clifford Davidson.D.whereat Magdalen sowroth the to the was thatsheabandoned herself sinfillpleasure..Shefledherhusband's abuseandwent to Jerusalem. p. however. this is foundparticularly Englishmysteryplaysand in someof the Prench passionsandin both French Englishsermon and traditions.p. by These attributed to any he not especially sinil nature rather the combination riches youth.1969).. thathe was to and wasaboutto takeherto wifewhenChrist."Inveneratione sanctse Mariae Magdalenz. Liebenow..gend followed Odo in attributing sin to the combination riches beauty notedthat her of and but someblamed on a jiltingat the akar:"Certain it authors maintain that MaryMagdalen betrothed SaintJohnthe Evangelist. diss. in Erlauer Spiele. 96 (London. Honoriusof PL. the deathof herfather herinto the despair allowed sent that demons allegorical figures the sevendeadly andthe world." TheLateMedieval in Reli. 14 n.S.58 tant MagdalenanointsChrist's feet.HelenMeredith Garth. 630. trans.Ausgabendeutscher Literatur XV. 33. sinceit omittedJacobus's repudiation it. Festial JohnMirk. 363. The tradition Johnthe Evangelist the brideof of as groomat the weddingat Canawascommonin the MiddleAges. On the origins of the Digby play. "Ludus Mariae Magdalenae Gaudio" in (Erlau IV). 57LA (n. 1982). KarlFerdinand des Kummer (Vienna. whereshe became commonprostitute(v2W1garis a meretnx). 550do of Cluny.1948). 20 above). 416. bis XVIIIJahrhunderts. Peter K." DasDramadesMittelattersn Richard in ed. DasEgererFronleichnamspiel. 8 (Kaled. p. lines 454-55.gendofJacobus Voragine de (New York. RyanandHelmutRipperger. 203. SaintMaryMaBdalen inMedievalLiterature) Hopkins Johns . LouisB. 103.CatholicUniversity America. and a which sheruined herfouldeeds.which but to of and together provided great a temptation sin. or described ascoming her froma goodfamily having goodname..DeutscheNational-Litteratur.2 (Berlin. 73-75. des ReiheDrama.pickedup this explanation. Caxton's translation ofthe GoldenLeyend (4:87-88) apparently acceptedthe explanation too. A of EETSE. 96 ff. of 1951). Granger p..ed. amazoo. p. ed.979) believedhera married woman. of None ofthe vernaclllar traditions.EETSO. cominginto the midstof the nuptials. Severalof the Germanplaysalso includethe Devil as a charactertempting Mary Magdalen:Das Kunzelsauer Fronleichnamspiel. "Alsfelder Passionsspiel. called Evangelist Him.56 The Golden Le. 1986).gioxs ofBodleian Digby133 Plays MSS andE Museo 160. Sechs altdeutsche Mysterien einer nach Handschrift XF. Jhs. (Tubingen. other this but writers did. 1905). p. ed. Froning. Milchsack. 1882).the flesh. See also SisterMaryJohnof CarmelChauvin. 39. Autunin the twelfthcentury(col.EarlyDrama. JohnL."The Role of MaryMagdalenein MedievalDrama" (Ph. 105. p.Jr.).d." 132:714.t'57 to Jacobus Voragine de did not accept explanation. pp.MI. Baker. but not MaryMagdalen as the bride.TheGoldenLe. pp. 56"Saint MaryMagdalen.
sinnedmainly of she through pride. Nobility wealth and contributed hersin:in many to ofthe texts. lifeof sincouldhardly Her compare thatof a poor to woman who turned prostitution live.gendary explained. 3 (Baltimore. for Medieval authors generally triedto maketheir saints nobleaspossible. 196-97. vol. pp. stress hernoblefamily serve differentiate froma the on did to her common prostitute." Vitedi alcunisantiscrztte buon in nel secolo linBua della toscana.Yetdespite drawbacks nobility impede saintly of the of that a humility. (Berlin. theSouth more than As English Le. Sometextswentintogreat-detail about herfamily.2-5). and 1950). 60 Mary Magdalen's standing. 124-35. the Alemannic in poemDerSaelden Hort and in a fourteenth-century Italian devotionalromance.. didnotreject theworst she even wretch although wasof high she family. DomenicoCavalca. 21 above). wealth. The taleappears the greatest in detail.Der Saelden Hort. padri (Milan. MariaMaddalena.59 a Yet noblewoman's potential nobility character afailure liveupto for of made to thatstandard shocking sin bya commoner. 4 of Volgarizzamento vite de ss. beauty and made her in themedieval mindmoreappropriatea special as friend Christ if for than she were a commonprostitute. class nobility. d'Evelyn Mill (n. pp. Evenafterher conversion love for her Christ. Freiburg Breisgau. notmany as and came from humble origins.1927).sweeter / than than lilyflower" express Magdalen's forChrist.ser. 37.Valentina delle Hawtrey. and .20 RUTH MAZO KARRAS Theseexplanations Mary for Magdalen's of sin emphasized nolife her blefamily originsandgreat riches. (like butthe carnal language additional gave meaning the scenein lightof to University Studiesin Historical PoliticalScience.Birthin a humble to to cottage was nota popular hagiographical topos. p. Jahrhundert" (Diss. Heinrich Adrian. 3 above). ed. medieval audiences usedto bodily were metaphors spiritual for relationships theloveof Godforhumankind). particularly French the mysteries the German and passionplayswhere Maryboasted herbeauty. although clearly spiritual. 30. and 60The South En. 1830). DeutscheTextedes Mittelalters. 2-4 (trans. p. 59Weinstein Bell (n.67.atleast thesocial to group created that the texts.pp. 26 "Vitadi S. pp.with illustrations. no. im 1961). Marga Janssen. English The Lamentatyon of MaryMagdaleyne (attributed Chaucer actually to but probably written between1460and1480)usedphrases as"my true such own turtle-doveMy / life's and"my joy" mostexcellent paramourFairer rose. proclaimed to the love She her loveforhimin veryphysical terms.1:303.including pride birth.glish LeBendary. MaryMagdalen's neglectof her classstatuscompoundedher sin: "Shebecame womanof greatest the folly knownto memory. described someof thesame was in terms usedto refer herearlier to courtly dalliance.noblebirthimpliednoblecharacter the requisite and spiritual qualities saintliness. LifeofMaryMagdalen The [New York. ed. "Maria Magdalena derabendlandischen in Kunst:Ikonographie Heiligen der von den Anfangenbis ins 16.1904]. lines 19-20.
1878). Osbern ed. from Auchinleckmanuscript.BerthaSkeat(Cambridge. d'Evelynand Mill. (n. Serjeantson. 522. GoldenLe. altenCglischerLegenden (Heilbronn.."Your her nameis turnedabout / And you are called a sinner" ("Fragment van een in nederrijnsch dialect geschrevenPaaschspel [Maastricht Passion]. tookthepassage Luke involving unnamed in 7 the sinful woman mean Mary to that Magdalen "lost name.pp."63 a Thetextsclearly linked"losing name" sexual her with sin.the sexually sinfulwomanbecame generic. Maria della di Maddalena.22-23.p. H.AltenglischeLecgenden. 81.F. 21 above). on the mutuallove of MaryMagdalenandChrist. In the passionplayfromMaastricht the in Netherlands. the wordswouldhaveresonated with the eroticeven thoughthe audience understood spiritually. pp.TheEnglishMysteryPlays (London. 64Many texts. from CambridgeUniversityLibrary GgII. 62SeeMariaNorbertaHoffmann. EdinburghAdvocatesLibrary. 334. subsumed the evilof hersex. p. 68-73.6l lovelanguage Mary The that Magdalen usedin lamenting thedead over Christ medieval in religious drama derived fromthe Song of Songs. 51. Moltzer [Groningen. no longeranindividual.1ines 41-42. 1938). p. Stephens N. 163. 206 (London. p.andwascalled customablysinner. them EventhoughMaryMagdalen cameof noblefamilybackground.1983). p.vol.CarlHorstmann.McDonaldandDavidMills. 408.p. Caxton's Golden Legend.Holy Harlots: Prostitute Saints in Medieval Le. but in however.1897). Sammlung ed. Bokenham.gend. 148. Italian play equated an .1881). MaryS. 1:258.." Alesin sandrod'Ancona.ed.gend 21 Mary Magdalen's earlier history. p. suchaoneshould / Mary sinfill.coupledthe loss of namewith specificidentification of her offense as sexual:TheSouthEnglishLeyendary. 4:74. identification a known had the with character required explanation whyhernamewasnot usedin this an of episode: "And so muchassheshonein beauty for greatly. See also Garth. seealsoRosemary Woolf. p."65 sexual as be the That misconduct 6lTheLamentateonofMaryMaegdaleyne. lines 878-83). 1933). (Heilbronn. (n. 1:256. of ed. SacreRappresentazionideisecoliXIVnXVeXVI ed. 19 above). 1872).always interpreted allegorically the Middle in Ages.. and so muchthe moreshe submitted bodyto delight. "Rappresentazione conversione S.. PeterF. in manyof the textsaboutherearly sheforfeited claim thatbacklife her to ground because herimmorality.ed. ed.S."TheDrama ReligiousCereof monial. 63LA. Similarly.many of The and othertexts which drewon it.36." Medieval in Drama. 65Carl Horstmann.1875].When to Mary Magdalen bewailed Christ as her truelove.1972)."in De middelnederlandsche dramatische Poszie. pp." had her Although Luke didnot saythatthiswoman no name. 107-8. Ma. Metcalfe. especially English.andtherefore lost her she herrightname.In others. in riches.gdalenenszenengeistlichen desdeutschen Die im Spiel Mittelalters (Wurzburg. (Florence. 1 of TheRevels History DramainEnglish of (London. lines 678-79.1:263.she lost onlyherfamily narne: "Herfamily nameshelost / andwas called.ed.64 someshe In lost evenhergivenname. Marthaadmonishes sisterandsays. Legendys HoolyWummen. E. EETSO. 1:303.6.62 Thislanguage couldhavebeenunderstood differently quite when placed themouthof awoman in speaking amanthan to whenplaced the in mouthof thesoulspeaking God.
line 422. reprint. riche menhirelei3enbi//and3evenhiregretmede. the class even she for when name. Genevat1976)." di in D'Ancona. (Geneva. line 54) C'Manie (ed." the contrast and between Christ the sinfill arld Magdalen served emphasize depravity. lines 9979-88. MaryMagdalen's into promiscuity. In however.22 RUTH MAZO KARRAS brought shame thefamily to accorded withmedieval well viewsof female chastity a commodity be guarded thensoldnot by the woman as to and herself byhermalekin.sheresponded shehadriches her and that enough her of own.' 68Iamindebtedto HelenEttlingerforcallingmy attention this point. [n. p. offered silver gold.. 67Le mystere lapotssion aArras. Graham Runnalls A. 463.do notfear. ed. Peasant. p. play to IV 108. I don'twantto have goldorsilver.Thepassage echoed words Christ instituting sacrathe of in the ment. practice. 117. dumanuscrit dela bibliotheque 131 Sainte-Genevieve ed."Thisis my body. The German referred is Erlau (n. MariaMaddalena. 100. honor. who to I don'twantto sellit. andin the fifteenth-century passion explicitly Arras she offered her bodywithout to anyone: fee I amabandoned all.gendary Horstmann 19 above]. p. indicate. 394. notmake a prostitute sin on did her in thesenseoftaking money. 1974). / butalways ready. sexual Her license certainly was indiscriminate: "Iwasnever slowto sin. fall although wasconsidered it a grave aswellasdishonor herfamily. didnotrefer money didtake to distinguish she to but care herselffrom lower ofwomen while searched alover. 1891. / townsman.p. I can't offer anymorethanthis: it It is ready receive to all Without refilsing anyone. One exceptionto the rllleof hernot takingmoneyis in an Englishtext.67 Heresherefilsed money because wasdemeaning because did not it but she notneedit.Christianity but valued female chastity itselfasa in religious even ideal whenit conflicted family with strategies) biographies as of female saintswho remained virgins! despite theirfathers' attempts to marry themoff. 56 above).ed.p.gneur. to Leteveryone come. to .gdglene. lines 174-76. 66Le mystere lapassion de nostresei. and family:"Rappresentazione un miracolodi S.68 theDigbyPlayofMary to her In Ma. Jules-Marie de joue Richard (Arras. suchconflict aroseonly rarely the Christian and emphasis chastity on reinforced patriarchal the family's to control daughters' need its sexuality. Hereis mybodywhich present I Toanyone wants haveit. The EarlySouth English Le. Leteachonedo hiswillwithit. or clerk priest!"66 sherefiased Yet money: oneGerman whenanadmirer in play.
with The on perfume.1967]. A. 76 70Gustave Cohen.). do you sir. Sherman Kuhn(AnnArbor. frivolity." The clearimplication thatshedoes not wantto be takenfor someoneof low status. and (New ."TheTavern Scenein the MiddleEnglishDigbyPlayof MaryMagdalene. 1956-). Bowers." St?wdiesPhiin lolofly (1979): 319.Hoty Harlots: Prostitute Saints in MedievgtLe. The editorsglossed the word (n. 15-32. herconcern attracting and with lovers served botha criticism as of womenin courtly society(orevenwomenin general) the lateMiddle in Agesandavividdemonstration theaudience hersinful to of nature before herconversion. p.7l MaryMagdalen's songs. Bryan.TheEnglish ScottishPopularBallads York. Morris. 1890.On the is tavern scene.see RobertH. anindication are ofthe close connectionofthe Magdalen the popularmindwith in sexual immorality general.but see theMiddle En. 1:228-30. Murphree.implied same the sortof sexual asthemore sin explicit discussed texts above spoke her that of sinningwith herbody. line 520.clothing.clearly 'loose a woman"').glish Dictionary.sheresponded. 1965). The to passion by JeanMichel. RobertA. waspresented stageasa sinful she on woman.Recueil chgnsons de populaires [Paris. theendof theMiddle of By Agesthe identification of MaryMagdalen womenin general and withsexual hadbecome sin so pervasive the dramatists that neededonlya fewsymbols evokeit.v. play fromAngers. reprint. outward and the signsof lust. Publicationsde la facultedes lettresde tumvers°itae Strasbourg. mostscholars and 69DigbyMaryMa. some.in whichshe appears havebeenconflated to with the Samaritan womanandin which she is accused bearing killingseveral of and illegitimate children. not but morally. "kelle" (whichI translate hereas "slut") "prostitute" 251).1962). (Strasbourg. spoke wantonly in She of ing many lovers "Iwillnever restrict myself one" butnot explicitly to about sleeping them. . that but sinconsisted in aninterest thingsof theworld.The word generally meansa net or cap. 6:11 ff.TheScandinavian andEnglish ballads aboutMaryMagdalen. 23 1925)." .. audience The admired enjoyed dancing singand her and ing butalsounderstood asfeminine these wilesandincitements thesins to characteristicwomen.70 focusin thesescenes hermakeup. take foraslut?" me Immediately thereafter proved she herself least loose at a woman.'Bisseur compte dEpenses lemystere du etle des pour de la passion joue a Monsen 1501. very evenbymedieval standards.69 A number dramas. of both and referred Mary to Magdalen's sexual onlyindirectly.shelamentedlifeof unspecified sin In a pastsin. "kelis. not represent did MaryMagdalenasovertly sinfill. 71The situationis similar popular in songsfromFrance Spain: dancesandflirtsbut and she does not actuallyengagein liaisons (EugeneRolland. M.p. 41. (Gainesville.pp.gend 23 a gallant a tavern in professed love. ed. MI. AU These Teach: in to Essays Honor C.A.gdalen 56 above). Paris. Lelivredeconduite re. Theresa Coletti. allowing to become if by him intimate her. Franin See cis James Child. in of ed."TheDesign of the Digby Playof MaryMaBdalene. but they appear havedeas (p. his "Why." pluralmeaning"ill-bred a people.ed. 178. nota prostitute. A.herpraise herown of beauty. Robertson. to rivedthe meaningentirelyfromcontext("Weknow of no otheruse as here. . AltonC.in others. andAubrey Williams L. with A rich lady with loversmlght rankabovea prostitute socially. s. German French. FL.
since. 1:520. of body symbolizedthat sin in a particularly feminineway. she talkedaboutmusic. condemnedher frivolityand equatedit with debauchery it She referredto each of the seven deadlysins in discussingher pleasures. In the Maastricht passion.. In from Benediktbeuern andVienna. 72Jean Michel. Omer Jodogne(Gemblollx. 74-93. 74Benediktbeuern in KarlYoung.Le mysterede la passion (Angers 1486). andadornments. ed.. in ed. it can not causeme dishonor.and herjoy in life she probably not appear sympathetic a medievalaudience to a moddid as to as ern one. p.gderManaMaBdalexa deutschen im religiosenDramaund in derbildendenKunstdes Mittelalters. which included adorning her body and hair as well as singing. See Cornelia ElizabethCatharina Mariavan den Wildenberg-De Kroon.and the subtext labeledher a promiscuouswoman. in . Caringfor nothing else."74 Literally. 114." Das Drama des Mittelalte7ts. "delightin the world"was the Magdalen's but her adornment her sin. She claimedthat she kepther honor. pp.when the Magdalen askedthe admonishing Martha whysheshouldgiveup herpleasures. (Amsterdam. drewon the Benediktbeuern play.I will adornit with various hues. p. (Stuttgart. play 2d 1962).to sexualsin specifically.Marypurchased perfume ointmentfor herselfand and sangin the famous"Mundidelectatio" the joys of the world in termsthat imof plied not only frivolitybut alsoa touchof debauchery: "Thedelightsofthe worldarethose with which I wish to be inflamed. becauseI haveso manygoods. zur und 39 1979). 1959)."73 sins consistedof pleasure luxuryrather Her and thansex. whichfor a womanamountedto the samething. 162-64. two of the earliestGermandrarnas. 73Ibid. OtherFrench German and playsalsounderscored themethatdelight the in the things of this world amountedto sin-for a woman.24 RUTH MAZO KARRAS haveseen her as coquettishhererather thandissolute.Amsterdamer Publikationen Sprache Literatur. pp. DeutscheNational-Litteratur.Das Weltleben und dieBekehrurz. RichardFroning. lines 8522-25. 14 n.). the exclusion spiritual to of goods. on MaryMagdalen's worldlylife in the German drama general... 316. The peopleat the houseof Simon the Leperwho criticized Jesusfor lettingherwashhis feet said that she was known throughthe town as a "dishonorable woman.herfamilyname I maykeepa roundtable andassociate with peopleof honor.Yetthe textwas not sympathetic.I will look aftermy body.72 Yetthe contextof this passageinvertedherclaimthat because was rich she she couldnot havebeendishonored:as the playshowed. (Oxford.d.TheDrama of theMedieral Church3 ed. but in her franklove of her own beauty. 'sWiener Passionspiel.food.she couldsin and she did sin.her carefree attitude.
p.wassinful. beautyandinnatenobilitycontributed Her to makingher the archetype the penitentsaint.gne.andan apostleto France."75 the Auvergne In passion. in fact. IV . Mary said she was young and beautifuland ought to be enjoyingherself. the The dramas hammeredhome the messagethat a woman followingher lustfulwill was. GallPassion]. provenwrongbyher was laterrepentance. J. and as in the other German plays.of whatever In status. without hurtinga soul.The fact that the texts recognizedher high socialclassand the lackof monetaryexchange her in sexualitydid not makeher less of one but. She most often appearedin art as an individualfigurcratherthan in a cycleof her 75"Maastricht Passion" 63 above).it subverted whole genderorder. Graham Runnalls ed. 1:80-81). in and Artistsbeforethe laterfifteenth century did not usuallydepict her worldlylife.who thought she should be undertheircontrol. but anywomanwho wishedto controlthe dispositionof her own body. The dramas othertextsofthe life of MaryMagdalen and implicitly made a distinction that canonlaw failedto makebut thatmost medievalpeople clearly betweena promiscuous did."76 She did not careif some defamedher for such a life and calledher sinfill. 1846].Yetat the sametime her of sin of lust made her the equivalentof a prostitute.but hadanotherreasonto addforwantingto enjoyherself:"ShallI not havecontrolovermy body?"77 Sucha sentiment from an unmarried woman upset her family. dancedwith priestsandlaymen. lines 1191-93.herwordsironicallyrevealed thatshewas "hurtinga soul":herown.she wanted "to lead a joyfuland amorouslife. hada sharpan(n.heropennessto alllovers. In the St. A. (Geneva.Holy Harlots: Prostitxte Saints in Medieval Le. womananda commonprostitute.gend 25 Marthatold her. F.transgressed boundsof socialclassaswell as appropriate the gender behavior.p. 522. rather.other than by leavingit undisposed.allwomenwerethe same in theirsinfillsexuality.But althoughshe meantto sayherlife did not harmanyoneelse. althougha hopefulmessage." Schauspiele in desMittelalters. line 335. Her denialof anysin inherentin pleasure. 135. 106.The Magdalen both was andwasnot a prostitute. in yet making the distinction they reinforcedthe connection.p. 77Erlau (n. ed."Itis sinfillandimpure. out of control.ShewasChrist's specialfriend.she sang about the joysofthe worldandaboutherbeauty. the Erlau In LudusMariaeMagdalenaeGaudio) only in the Germanplay exclusively devoted to Mary Magdalen. 76La Passion d'Auver.conveyedthe message that despitethe socialandeconomicdistinction. she swerforthese reproaches Martha's that hersistercriticized of spitebecause was of out she not asattractive Mary("Leben as Jesu[St. The iconography MaryMagdalen's of preconversion agreedwith the life literature depictingherasa beautifill wealthylady. addition.Mone [Karlsruhe.a favorite saint. GallPassion.one could exerciseself-control a positivesense and in remaina virgin. 1982). 56 above).
2 (Paris. 3a). Der Paramentenschatz: ICorchliche Gewander Stickereien dieMarienkirche. a sixteenth-century pp. 13.dancing. by "Master the of Magdalen Legend.78 cycles herlifethefirst In of scene was usually anointing Jesus. arguedthattheselatemedieval NJ. C'Le tympan Neuilly-en-Donjon.80 ideaof showing worldly The the pleasures the of Magdalen have may comefrom drama. 7). 1912). andpl. 1. 45 and (n.One imageconnectedher earliersin to her beautifill evenmoredirectly: a fourteenth. Clement Guitard 44 above). JanetSeligman(Greenwich.At leastone monument juxtaposed imageof MaryMagdalen the anointing Christ's feet with the imageof originalsin. mantel[Berlin. 18-19 and frontispiece). 1-2).AdamandEvein the garden with the serpent: Walter Cahn. 285). worksdepictingheras no The a penitent in the wilderness.Friedlander. La bible ed. 35-80. 8lEmileMale.Mary Magdalen's lifebecame sinful a morepopular themeamong artists. motherof Francis alsoshowedherhunting.MarthielMatthews (Princeton.8l whentheartists not the Even did 78Aparticularly knownthirteenth-century well imagefromFlorence showedherasa penitent holding a scroll. Queen MaryQs Psalter (London. 808).pp.madeforLouiseof Savoyr. 46 79Gertrud Schiller. a choirrobefromDanzig(firsthalfofthe fifteenth century) showed her in fashionable dress. Evenherethe sequence contained scenesbeforethe anointing. .calling others to penitence. Die Chorund aus vol. 718..trans.4-6). 193I]. attributes a pyxis her were (ointrnent ora jar) book(asasymbol ofthe contemplative Shewas life). 1975]. pl. 1971). symbolsboth of aristocratic recreation of frivolity and (Wildenberg-De Kroon. 383.surrounded men with animalheads. pp. pl. 389).p. fig. 12:13.In this sceneMaryMagdalen the of sometimes woregaudy clothing somescholars taken asignof herprostituthat have as tion butthatprobably represented onlyasa woman her fondof adorning herbody.1912).26 RUTH MAZO KARRAS ownlifeorof Gospel scenes. this imagewas influenced the iconographic by traditionof Maryof Egypt. Christian Iconography. 80Two illustrated manuscripts the Alemannic of poemDer Saelden Hortdepictedherriding out to hunt and playingball. she appeared dancingwith cavaliers fifteenth-century on stainedglasswindowsat Sable andRigny-le-Ferron France in (Janssen. 261. p.p."PMLA : 334.Wildenberg-DeKroon p.which may by represent demonsor the bestialnatureof fleshlyenjoyment Mannowsky.295-96.rev. de Laborde. and kissingherlovers(Wildenberg-De Kroon. fig. depictionsof MaryMagdalen'searlylife were influencedby the mysteryplays. pl. 1. IconographytheSaints TuscanPaintinB of in [Florence.Abb. oftenshown a penas itentwithlongandunkempt hair. 1:158. "PopularIconography ofthe Passion. clothing the implied rather denoted sexual than the sin.ed. A. CT. lettingherhairgrow long did not referto the natureof her sin exceptperhaps the unkempt whichcontrasted herearlier by hair with personal adornment.Religious in France: LateMiddle Art The Ages. 1952]. tapestryfrom the churchof Saint a Ursulain Erirt showcd her riding out fromher castle. [New York. the I. Danziger (W." de Cahiers civilisation de medievale (1965): 353.and surrounded scenesfrom her life by (GeorgeKaftal. reaching zenithin the sixteenthits century Netherlands. 67) (esp. similarly depictedherpreconversion with a hunting life scene(MaxJ. pls. EarlyNetherlandish Painting. trans. life.fifteenthhair in or centuryFrench manuscript initiatedherpenance cuttingherhair(Grace she by Frank. vol. pp. 38-43 andAbb.accompanied her loversandby by huntingdogs (Janssen 58 abovel.79 Beginning thelater in Middle Ages. For 8 earlydepictionsof otherscenesof MaryMagdalen's preconversion see GeorgeWarner. 1986). a triptych the Netherlandish [n. moralisee illustree." from 1510-20. illustrated biography.
amorous particularly only appeared very of the not she.theimas However. theyshowedherengaging activities symbolized such in worldly pleasure general. of images herby The than rather poverty.41-45.82 well-dressed of the image thesaintasa rich. 12:18-19.83 set elearation forththegreat sexual sin.In the portraits symbolism promiscuity music the genitalia. The van by is anengraving Lucas Leyden. angels elevated a In she ground rodeout hunting. this does not meanthattherewasno influence. 63-64. greatsins were age madea religiouspoint too: as MaryMagdalen's stoodfor The thoseoftheviewer. hersoftencarried beauty. She concern outward with and ing bothhernobleorigins herearly and woman. LynneLawner. in fact. the backlovers including by witha man.the Magdalen the Problem Secularization 83Craig 98 NorthernArt. proudandsensual of Magdalen artto be olderandmoreelegant But of MaryMagdalen the drama. of life the who stressed contemplative asthe foundation MaryMagdalen's . numerous were thoseof opulence lute. hersinsandtemptations not definitely a common wasa lady. saints of as ornament theextreme ameans indicatto but garb. in appeared veryrich Magdalen besides Mary Other hercouricliness. spoke images the surface engraving. p. found the Mary but thantheyoung.gend Saintsin Medieval Prostitxte HolyHarlots: 27 withmen. derHeiliBen won Stxdien zxrIkonoBraphie Renatssance: und in Heili. esp. thefarbackground that indicated thewhole onlythistinyimage life."Lucas Leyden.buttheyreinforced beautifill for excuses depicting beenmerely lady. dance so forgiven. sinfiul Magdalen's life of representationMary pictorial Thebest-known her showed dancing. have usingfamous Italian portraitists various women. inwhich playedthe or by she Half-LengthsE.ge Sxnderin deritalienischen Lives theCourtesans: of 1984).surrounded a crowd her. entabulated to the subtly: luteasreference the female that and to attempted show that therewas.Le. MonikaIngenhoff-Dannhauser. pls. bis Leonardo Tizian(Tubingen.thecourtly also from Magdalen thisperiod stressed of Singleportraits Mary hunting. 82Friedlander. acertain to using saint justify the art. 126-27. Craig of a creating picture thedance. as dance oraristocratic life. rather devotional Lucas than of category genre Harbison notes. scenefromhereremitic fell extent engraving intothe the To Mary represented Magdalen. Magdalen's to merely alluded Mary representations Artistic withmenbutnot in She only revealed frivolity.suchaskisseroticcontact Magdalen actual in Mary represent either erotic that in ing. too couldGodforgive scenes of thewholelifeof sin. of Portraits theRenagsance of and van Harbison. 167.pp. ofthe Female theMaster may as courtesans models.MariaMazgdalexa. mainscene in kissing.thecombination thepreconversion andthe by changes wrought repentance.1987).no suchinfluence demonstrated thereare She and in differences detailbetweendramatic pictorialrepresentations.frivolous. response those argued the theological that sanctity. in dallied Lucasts otherlovers positions. He in EarlySixteenth-Century to in of pointherewasthe importance repentance. (New York."OudHotlgnd (1964): 120-21.
arly sogynist ethosof thelateMiddle this embodied gender a was undoubtedly sinner. content all:theymerely at had engraving noreligious ofLucas Leyden's van created miBut having goodtime.2 Lexikon derchristlichenIkono."JournaltheLxteSociety Magdalen. "MaryMagdalen. this color was not partlcularly (Berlin.87 to themonastically a showed people courtly lady young.85 the revealed graphic in ing with prostitutes taverns as to of artists notusethisrepertoire images representMaryMagdalen did of conventions the Giventhe iconographic prom}scuous.DieProstitxtioa in items(3fclothingproscitiesaboutwhatdistinguishing of European the regulations various red) by weremarke. p. 1976)." im Hansel.New York Church Musicof Collins.(Rome.In somecases:they to anothercolor insteadtand sometimesthey were forbidden wearred. Ages.s. See also Engelbert vol. IIans wearingothercolors. Mxsic.graphie." Congress the of ofthe mondaine m?usicale"Report Twelfth Magdalen.84 iconographic thatbelonged ribald depravity to wouldhaveallowedartists depicthersexual time certainly Son of paintings theProdigal consortdirectly: contemporary much more But a eroticism. see alsobrothelscenesby JanvanHemmessen Larow. "Mary America (1972): 65.pace often appeared In-any case.gen Fortschritte (1935): und der Magdalena Wandel Zeiten. 1981).ColinSlim. see 84H. alsoH. 1972]. 'CMaria meretricio" which in The 158. TheProd. 12:51).. Mxsicoloyicat Society. The scenesin whichshe enjoyed pleasures the worlul to her or who implied to a viewer knew story whocame the sin necessarily someofthe iniitations was image withtheideathatpleasure evil Indeed.IwanBloch.v. Colin Slim.MusicianandDancer. "Mary BerkeleyJ ed. images only of the tive. diss. Colin Slim. 1977. Art andDrgm6l Son 85H.igal at the Whores: (Friedlander." Kirschbaum. [Ph. 284.'Farbensymbolik. p.MaryMagdalen 11 Forschxn.2:200). andDanielfIeartz. of awareness hersexual buttheart andevoke viewer's the identify her the lady a between well-born whoenjoyed pleasures clearly differentiated whore.andMaryMagdalen definition. DanielHeartzandBomlieWade(Basel. unequivocally woman to of in only Middle Agesit required thepyxis thehand a haloed sin. suggestedthatsheworeredforlove. iChabitu equivalent a red to of in she was to appear the liturgicaldrama Lras wasnot necessarily in fromthe Fleuryplaybook Young[n. served this artasaworldly negawerefarfromentirely The of the volte-face herconversion.TheProductionMedieval dramas calledfor herto wearred (Fletcher connectedwith VA. Collins)p. 62). ( EarlyMusic81980):465.d wearing butlt wasoften tituteshadto wearor avoid.1970). 5 (Irvine.86 ofthe fleshanda common in began MaryMagdalen to appear When theendoftheMiddleAges at her partly eroticize aswellasto stress to woman. dress(version pp. gives prostitution theMiddleAges.CA. 818. andthe stagedirections the liturgical University. 87Janssen. 1:814-15. 74 above]. 335-37. .D.beautifill.not forsexuality.28 RUTH MAZO KARRAS of vocabulary the The to chansons. MaryMagdalenwas depictedin art often wearingred (Magdalen 86Although Ulltil 1300" Tradition The Evolutionof a Western of "TheIconography MaryMagdalen: for 1982]. p.. 122).1912). Intemational of of Lutenist. Drama [Charlottesville.
98). fell at the feet of Bishop Nonnus in a parallelto the scene in which Mary Magdalenanointedthe feet of Christ. p. and its absence in that of Mary Magdalen (and Pelagia). p. among do The echoesandparallels not obscurea indamental difference the legends:the emphasison monetaryexchangein the storiesof Maryof Egypt (at leastin some ofthe versions). Both Marysbehavedsinfilly in orderto asserttheirown freedom.Mary Magdalenwas not of the classof women who would sleep with men for sexualitymadeherthe worstof sinnerseven money.5456) in anEleventh-Century MariaeMa."Mary ofthe 53 Speculum (1978): 16-20. Keyser S.p.indeed. JeanMisrahi.gdalenae Extant The in Magdalen the OldEn.Lundergermanistische frubmittelhochdeutsche "Notes sur le culte de Sainte schungen. Cross.H. (n.nor was noble birth an excuse.But herindiscriminate without the monetaryelement. Gert Mellbourn." Josephus' 'Narrat life of Maryof Egypton thatof MaryMagdalen.andthe penitentlife owed a good deal to the legend of legend of the Magdalen's Mary of Egypt. to a certainextenttheirstorieswereconflated.Mary the Egyptian.andMarythe nieceof Abraham.an Old Norse version made this comparisonexplicit and also called her "the sinful woman. name"of Maryof Egyptwas "sinfil woman. 1:455. R.Holy Harlots: Prostitute Saints in Medieval Legend 29 THE LADYAND THE WHORE Not only the motif of the convertcdsexualsinnerlinked MaryMagdalen to the other fiveprostitutesaints. 82. 321-22. 107). p.12 [Lund. R. 108-9. 35 above)." (B. andJ. socialcircumstances for Though a need to earna living might providean explanation prostitution. See also ok 90Barlaams Josaphats stattrans.88More subtleverbalparallelsalso show that these texts were understoodin much the sameway."AnalectaBollandiana 18 Speculum (1943): Manuscript. lines 183-84.Therewerealsonumerousexplicitparallels. 89Stephens 21 above). Bonaventure homiletichandbook German [New York. deepersin. ing thatshe embraced ."AVitaSanctae Marie-Madeleine. 88.gtsammlung.both camefrom"good"(noble)families who accusedthem of bringingshameon their kin. Nonnus'sfeet as a substituteforChrist's.ga."89 saysthat "another signifiedmuch like and whost surfaceadornment frivolity. explicitly in Flodoard RothschildandStrubel. Sa. 78 (1960): 164. See BaudoinDe Gaiffier."90 MaryMagdalenwas clcarlya type andmodel for the other saints.(n.1975]. 1.L. the Magdalen's.E. pp.Readingthe legendsof the other saintsin light of that of MaryMagdalenrevealsthat the undoubteddistinctionbetwtcn the promiscuouslady and the common prostitutedid not make a werediverse.Thais. Unger (Oslo.and Pelagia(Speculum Fored. togetheras penitents: 88Inartthey often appeared in as Woman ImaCge Medicoupledthem as penitents(seeJoanFerrante. a tsvelfth-century evalLiterature Eine Ecclesiae: even equatedMary Magdalen. it was not an excuse. The difference. 1851). Both art and literature coupled Mary the Egyptian and Mary Magdalen. on the influence of Variant HerLegend. 1944]. Predi.pp. 136.glishMartyrology: Earliest 335-39.but the sin wasthe same. n. one Swedishtext even Pelagia. and ed. Janssen. Male.
andhercultwas widespread. withoutalways and the even making explicit references herlifeasa sinner. Stories prostitutes of provided opportunities themostdramatic the for repentance. motif repentir la litteraturefranfaise Le du dans me'dievale(des originesal230)(Geneva. theEgypand Mary tian'sdesireto be freefromparental rlomination not leadher to did parricide.gdalena in derLyrik desMittelalters (Dusseldorf. a waythatvirginsaintsandesin pecially Virgin the Mary couldnot be identified them. otherprostitute The saints served moreasmoral examples as than 9lAnton Mayer. thoseof the desert than fathers. whosestrict asceticism in response what was to medieval wellasmodern as people would have considered minor such temporary in fairly sins. aus ManaMa. esp.p. on MaryMagdalen as exemplum allsinners. Afra's paganism notleadherto sacrifice idols. 166-215. be with Even whenshewasshownasfunloving. of Unlike Virthe ginMary. as lapses charity. including sexual the aspects that of life. seeJean-Charles Payen. for .Theemphasis thesexuality on ofthesewomen served identify to them with women(or people)in general. message repentance forgiveness the legends the The of and in of prostitute saints spoke menaswellastowomen. loveofthingsofthe or world. "Der Heilige und die Dirne: Eine motivgeschichtliche Studie zu Hrotsvits 'Abraham' 'Paphnutius. forexample.503-4.pp. did to Mary Magdalen's wealthandloveof thegoodlifedidnotleadherto eatsumptuous andexpensive banquets overindulge wine. Thais's pride herbeauty in didnot leadherto stealto obtain jewels ornaments. immoral oftheother the life saints to bemore had clearly stated. of greed. 1966). muchmoreso. SeeWiltrud derFunten. in thecaseof Afra. 190."' and Bayerische Blgtter das Gymnasiatschulwesen fur 67 (1931): 74-80.theimplication thatshewasprowas miscuous. 1967). to MaryMagdalen the had honorof witnessing firstappearance the risenChrist emphasize the of to thepossibility hopeforallsinners.allfeminine wasexpressed sin sexually. pp.Sexuality. on the doctrine contritionism of andthe roleof the repentant prostitutemotif in it. martyrdom) thepossibility God's made of mercy the all morevividandprovided hopeto theaudience. thewoman's par to in was sin excellence.Theextremes with of thedepths thesewomen's andtheholiness theirlater of sin of lives(or.allthesewomen's and in diverse sinsled themto prostitution.9l Thepopularity the cultof Mary of Magdalen meant constant that allusionsin sermons in artreinforced message. to Mary Egypt's was of story wellknown itsownandasamiracle on oftheVirgin. Whether occurred it because pride. it Much could conveyed allusion. former the prostitutes shared the had in everyday of the average life Christian. alltheselegends. of regardless gender.30 RUTH MAZO KARRAS Thestoryof Mary Magdalen notneedto beasexplicit theothers did as because wasso wellknown. from sexual free all taint. Butthe factthata life of pleasure meanta life of sexual licensewasnot unique her. wastheworstandthemosttypical This sin fora woman.
or but notonlyof sexuality evenof femininity. through salvaof mightholdout a message hopeto women. liveswouldhavebeen popular Vincentof Beauvais's and a to edifyingstories illustrate sermon thus seeking usedbypreachers and priests. stressin discharged loveof Christ and prostitution rejection activitywith sexual offeminine ingtheequation saints the of distrust women. in Venxs Sactcloth: M.Not onlydidsuchwomennot liveup to Christian did God. morespecific tratethe general in was aboutgender alsoimplicit the tales. themformen's thatblamed in but and repentarlce salvation. thatmessage not as strong the opposite spiritual sins.showedits fiandamental total asceticism. butThais. (Carbondale. notapositive Christianity the Magdalen Mary from life from al pleasure daily andallsexuality religion. prostitute of God. it waswomen prostitutes those of with equated them-who wereaccused beingdissatisfied thepreachers that with whatGodhadgiventhemor of thinking theycoulddo better stanmoral thanGod. as to wouldbeknown thegeneral had The works.Le. see 920n the eroticaspectsof MaryMagdalen. church an devotional who or nobles bourgeois read literate but as as of the in interest spreading message repentance widely possible. Marjorie Malvern. (in somemanuscripts) apas compendia.gdalene's .Pelagia. but of or here whatis relevant is not thepurpose intention thewriters the to used preachers thetales illusWhile and to meaning thereaders listeners. well as in of in peared the most popular hagiographical Their encyclopedia. church. linking prostitution Venus thelifeofAfra witha women active of or of at a connection prostitution everl allsexually of condemnationswomMedieval to opposition Christianity.to be readby both message as femininity as womenandmen. notof prostitutes Thetalespromoted if was Theydid not suggestthat prostitution legitimate the particular. but erotic. public wellasto themonks. and Ori. a to themeof God'smercy the contrite.92 thechurch acceptif side oftheerotic of herbeing(even echoes after ed hersanctity thedenial hinted in with of The persisted). by wereembodied a that someof thefunctions in otherreligions fillfilled only But of goddess loveorthewifeof amaledivinity. fimdamental and bothwomen menwhoornamented this supported idea: cosmetics en's or but of were themselves accused pride. 1975).andChristianity not havea sexually but dards theyalsorejected mustbe to divineprinciple offerthem.gend Saintsin Medieval Prostitxte HolyHarlots: 31 Afra and of subjects cult.gins Metzmorphoses TheMa.in thattheyachieved in sexuality a and not tiondespite beingvirgins showed wayto sublimate one as was but striving.wouldnothave for in a provided place Christianity saints of Thelegends the prostitute sexuto attempted eliminate one. IL. denial the theirpastthrough strictest couldonlyexpiate saints These death.If womentookthe message concerning one. beenanencouraging it wellasrepentance.Anyeroticenergy feminine active by The of andinworks penance.
prostitutes wererequired to listento sermons attempting convert to them. as .1983). Thismightsuggestthatthe in (n.asdid the prostitutes. in They mayhavebeensomewhat titillated descriptions depictions the by or of prostitute saints' beauty eroticactivity and beforetheirconversion. of largely fashionedbymonastic writers. Brlmdage 1 above). the was See. the and her The legends the prostitute of saintsas retoldin the Middle Agesreflected someof theconcerns theirtimen of particularly about those money andsexuality.butno repentant unfitmothersor abortionists became popular saints. Of thirtywomensaintsin theLA (not countingthe eleventhousand virgins). Pelagia. few suchbecame of But saints. medieval clllture emphasized equation the of womenandlustandmade prostitute paradigm thefeminine. viewsof Thomas Aquinas. 123-38. it abusing mostsalientqualit. JaneTibbettsSchulenberg. no suchpenitents but werecanonized. e. worstsin for a womanwould be infanticide. Thais)weresexual and sinrlers. GeorgesDuby.fiveweremiraculously preserved fromrapeor prostitution the othand ersequallymiraculously savedfromforcedmarriage.trans. could as of (and did so in medieval handbooks exempla).g.93 the penitents But wereprostitutes. and what they learned was that womenwho enjoyedtheir sexuality amounted prostitutes.theLgdyand the Pnest. of course. vastmajority female and as The of ''sinfill saints" hadcommitted sexual sirls. not in the greatest Amurderer serve anexample repentance often evil.sevenweremarried women. 94Inofficial theologywomen'smainpurpose not sexbut reproduction."Journal Medieval of History (1978): 117-33.Barbara Bray(New York.TheKnight. the of and Though message that wasdirected menaswellaswomen. distrusted feared and women general. medieval to The discourse gender.Thesestoriesconstituted what teaching aboutprostitution mostmedieval peoplewouldhavereceived.pp.whenprostitution inwas stitutionalized manyEuropean in towns. Sexuality defined woman it defined sin. pp. Of the nineteenvirgins. Sexuality. the a of 930n changing typesof femalesanctity. pp.32 RUTH MAZO KARRSAS prostitute repented. see "Sexism the and CelestialGynaeccum. but thatonlymade easier blame it to themformen's Bygiving sins. 220-38.Holyvirginsanddutiful wivescouldbecomesaintstoo. such prominence (as the foremost example repentance) womencompletely of to abandoned their to sexualVity. holyharlots allplaced achronological The were at distance.94 prostitute her The couldstand Everyfor woman. muting somewhat message repentance salvation. Authors chose sexual to depict sins mostdramatically process repenthe of tance women thesinners..nineteen werevirgins.from 500 to 1200. the lateMiddle In Ages. factthatthedramatic at the conversion fromsinto repentance place took withwomen displaced sexual onto all sin womenandmadefeminine sexuality. 3 above). they also helpedconstruct notionof femininity but a of whichsexuality an important was part. the MaryMagdalen. 4 WeinsteinandBell (n. for theMiddle Ages.constituted woman's if shesinned wouldbe by a life.andreligious orders were established repentant for prostitutes. 425-26. andfour(Mary Egyptian.v. just sexuality general. sinceit subverted primary her purpose.