distillation | Distillation | Laboratories


Title Date of Experiment Date of Submission : : : Automated Pilot Plant for Distillation 19 February 2011 31 March 2011

Group of Member Name

: ID
2008397775 2008754861 2008292028


Group No. Supervisor Marks

: 4 : Pn Nur Syuhada
5 10 5 15 20 20 5 5 5 10 Introduction/Theory Objective Methodology/Procedure/apparatus Results/Calculations Discussion Conclusion Recommendations Reference / Appendix Supervisor¶s Grading / Rubric


The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the liquid and vapor phases are in equilibrium with each other at a specified pressure. Therefore. The water turns back into liquid before it reaches the top of the distillation column and then it flows back to the bottom of distillation column. by the application and removal of heat. When a solution is boiled at fixed pressure. The Reflux ratio is also the quantity of liquid reflux per unit quantity of product removed from the process unit. the composition of the vapor usually differs from that of the liquid. such as a distillation tower or extraction column. . and the change in liquid composition during boiling changes the boiling point Reflux refers to the liquid which is recycled back to the top of the column. From this experiment. As conclusion the objective of the experiment is achieved. The result of the experiment is based on the reflux ratio of 1:1 and 2:1 after that the number of theoretical stages is calculated. We started this experiment as we boiled the mixture of methanol-water first and then both element would turn into vapor and then goes up to the top of the distillation column where there are differences of boiling point between methanol and water. we had study the separation split as function of reflux ratio. we can calculate the number of theoretical plates. When a pure liquid is boiled at fixed pressure. the boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the applied pressure on the liquid. the temperature remains constant until all the liquid has vaporized. Introduction/ Theory Distillation is the most common separation technique which separate two or more liquid compounds on the basis of boiling-point differences. The condensed liquid that is removed from the system is known as the distillate or top product. by plotting the graph from the result given and obtain.Abstract Distillation is a process in which a liquid or vapor mixture of two or more substances is separated into its component fractions of desired purity. This experiment had separated two liquid dilute together by boiling the mixture of liquid which its element have different boiling point. Moreover.

3.V15.V23.V13. where it condenses into a liquid.5 bar) .V9.V10.V17. All switches set to 0 4.V24. Methanol 4. At steady state conditions.V3.V14. Objective: 1. Valves V2.V25.V22. The vapor at the top of the column then passes into the water-cooled condenser. The plant connected to the electrical mains 5. V27. V28. and V29 is being shut off.The hottest tray is at the bottom of the column and the coolest tray is at the top.V11. V7. Compress Air supply 3.V12. Apparatus / Equipment: 1. Valves V1.V20. Automated Distillation Pilot Plant 2.V8. 2.V5.V26. V6.V21. V16. To study the separation split as function of reflux ratio 2. The process continues until all of the most volatile components in the liquid feed boil out of the mixture. V4. Only the most volatile of the vapors stays in gaseous form all the way to the top. To calculate the number of theoretical plates. Water Procedures: Setting the continuous distillation plant 1. the vapor and liquid on each tray is at equilibrium. the one on the right to 1. V19 and V18 are opened. The reducer unit connected under the electrical board to the 6-bar compressed air unit and the two reducers adjusted respecting the pressure reported under the label ( the reducer on the left must be adjusted to 6 bar.

The resistor J1 were set to 1. The set point adjusted ( push the button SP-w increase of decrease its value with at 80% and set the 2nd loop FIC1 to automatic mode with push button M/A/C (green led on) 16. The AUTO-DIFF switch connected 10. 27. To change the reflux ratio.2 with the indication Out with pushbutton Ind the value is set at 30%. The control 2n loop FIC1 (controller no. 22. Wait until the container of the preheating resistor J1 is filled by turning on the pump G1.1) is set to manual mode with pushbutton M/A/C (red led on) 14. Set the control loop TIC1 to automatic mode with pushbutton M/A/C (green led on) select the 1st loop (TIC1) of controller no. The run switch checked is off 11. 17. The mixture is taken to the boiling point. The control valve FV1 (FIC1) is opened and set the flow rate at 30% ( select the indication Out with pushbutton Ind and increase or decrease the flow rate) 15. The water output connected to a waste pipe 8. The set point were adjust at 55 oC(push the button SP-w) 18. 26. set the timer ³START´ at 2 sec and the timer ³STOP´ at 20 sec. The switch of the resistor J2 set to 1. The plant connected to the water system as in the provided diagram 7. The pump G1 switched off to 0 when the boiler C1 is filled. 21. 1) selected with pushbutton Loop 13. 25. The ³Start´ pushbutton is pushed 12. Set switch ³Reflux´ to 1 28.6. At 2nd loop of controller no. To select the reflux ratio (1:1). The boiler of column C1 were filled with a binary mixture (methanol-water) until the electrical resistor J2 is completely plunged by switch the pump G1 to the position 1. Let the column to total reflux for about 5 minutes (until the temperature TI6 is not stabilized). select different times of the timers . 23. 24. 19. The 2nd loop FIC1(controller no. 20.1. The switch AUTO-PC turned to AUT 9.

After about 3-5 minutes close the water inlet to the top condenser (take the output of the control loop FIC1 to 0) 7. The pump G1 stopped 3. The water to the top condenser is closed .29. The column exhausted 4. 30. The temperatures. along the column. The tank D2 is exhausted 9. The ³Reflux´ switch set to 0 6. The switch of the heating resistor J2 set to 0 5. Halting the Plant 1. The switch of the pre-heating resistor J1 set to 0 2. The tank of the high boiling D3 is exhaust 10. Take the temperature at TI3 and TI6 at first drop of the distillate at the distillate product tank D4. give the composition in different positions of the column. The container of the distillate D4 is exhausted 8.

3 85.Results Reflux Ratio 1:1 Components Feed (liter / hour) Xf (fraction) TI3 (ÛC) TI6 (ÛC) Result 6.3 64.105 36.8 18.9769 0.3 84.59 0.4 Components XD XB D (liter / hour) B (liter / hour) Value 0.9769 0.1 63.1 Reflux Ratio 2:1 Components Feed (liter / hour) Xf (fraction) TI3 (ÛC) TI6 (ÛC) Result 6.1 .

constitute a distillation column. .Discussion BASIC DISTILLATION EQUIPMENT AND OPERATION Main Components of Distillation Columns Distillation columns are made up of several components. A schematic of a typical distillation unit with a single feed and two product streams is shown below: Basic Operation and Terminology The liquid mixture that is to be processed is known as the feed and this is introduced usually somewhere near the middle of the column to a tray known as the feed tray. A typical distillation contains several major components: 1. a reflux drum to hold the condensed vapour from the top of the column so that liquid (reflux) can be recycled back to the column The vertical shell houses the column internals and together with the condenser and reboiler. a condenser to cool and condense the vapour leaving the top of the column 5. The feed flows down the column where it is collected at the bottom in the reboiler. column internals such as trays/plates and/or packings which are used to enhance component separations 3. a vertical shell where the separation of liquid components is carried out 2. The feed tray divides the column into a top (enriching or rectification) section and a bottom (stripping) section. each of which is used either to tranfer heat energy or enhance materail transfer. a reboiler to provide the necessary vaporisation for the distillation process 4.

bottoms. . McGraw-Hill. Perry. Don W. Conclusion We can study the separation split as function of reflux ratio and we can also calculate the number of theoretical plates References 1. 3.Heat is supplied to the reboiler to generate vapour. although in most chemical plants this is normally steam. Robert H. In refineries. Retrieved on March 13. (1992). and as it exits the top of the unit. Kroschwitz and Arza Seidel (2004). the heating source may be the output streams of other columns. Thus. The vapour raised in the reboiler is re-introduced into the unit at the bottom of the column. Some of this liquid is recycled back to the top of the column and this is called the reflux. The vapour moves up the column. The condensed liquid that is removed from the system is known as the distillate or top product. (1984). Hoboken. Jacqueline I.2011. it is cooled by a condenser. NJ: Wiley-Interscience. Kister. Retrieved on March 13. and Green.). The source of heat input can be any suitable fluid. The liquid removed from the reboiler is known as the bottoms product or simply. into and out of the column. Henry Z. 1st Edition.org 2. McGraw-Hill.wikipedia. 6th Edition. Distillation Design. The condensed liquid is stored in a holding vessel known as the reflux drum. there are internal flows of vapour and liquid within the column as well as external flows of feeds and product streams. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (5th ed. Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook. 2011 from http://www.

Appendices .

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