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c c c c c c c c c c 04.03.2011


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I realize this particular means and method would be a nightmare at a nuclear plant under normal
circumstances. This is also why I feel it may be overlooked as a viable option of attaining radiological
barriers, contaminated material encapsulation, structural repair, and stopping water flow.


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Lead lined cement blocks are currently in use at nuclear powerplants as a radiological barrier. What I
propose is using crushed lead as an admix to gunite and making seamless leadlined walls as a barrier to

Another application may be Boric acid as an additive for use in encapsulation of contaminated debris to
retard nuclear action.

The greatest concern with gunite is the pressure the material is applied with. This can be mitigated to a
degree by using a watersoftener first or gluelikeencapsulant such as used in asbestos encapsulation
projects. It binds dust and small particles to larger less mobile particles. To a degree the shooting
pressure can be adjusted down.

The gunite itself is a ͞shot͟ formless application of concrete. The methodology lends itself to ALARA
because most of the material handlers can be if need be 1000-1500 ft away limiting exposures.

The process itself can be set up in 20-40 minutes and gain 100 wall feet of radiological coverage up to 6
ftheight in less than 2 hours. If sigunite or baking soda is used as an admix the work time to initial
hardening drops to 15 minutes and the rest of the desired wall height can be gained in a second pass.

Wall thickness freeform can be between ½ inch to a maximum of 4 inches. Personally I have been in
situations where we needed and gained 1ft of thickness in 2 passes.

With lead as an admix as soon as the nozzleman shoots a large enough section to stand behind he is
shielded as well as the process will allow. Lead has no set or wait time. He can then shoot the remainder
from behind the leading edge of the radiation barrier.

The process if started from the outside walls and worked inward will multiply the barrier effects as soon
as the next parallel wall inside is covered. Instead of four inches of coverage the next parallel wall makes
it 8 inches. The third one in makes 12 inches of leadlined coverage. The importance of this is simple
ALARA. As workers are traveling to projects any decrease in radiation will make it more tolerable and
hopefully livable.


Shot gunite will adhere to most surfaces including metal.

þunite lends itself with an admix/nuclear action retarder to encapsulation. The mix itself can be made
almost nonporous or very friable depending on needs. This while not a deconning method may provide
enough breathing room so workers may continue with the truly necessary work in front of them.
Depending on the contamination levels it may provide relatively quick foot access to areas that would
otherwise need to be cleaned first.

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The material itself is used for concrete repairs providing a highyield patch in cracked concrete and areas
that have suffered breakoffs. Shotcrete and gunite are used worldwide as earthsupport and tunnels, as
well as tunnel rehabilitation projects.

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To a degree by adjusting the application angle and using a ͞hot͟ mix gunite can be used to stop the flow
of water. In general for moderate to large flows, first the application of sandbags with a sigunite mix and
a weep or flume pipe is used to control and contain the flow while the material is being applied. Fifteen
or twenty minutes after the application the weep pipe can be capped off.

In truth I hope the information here is found to be helpful. To proceed with this methodology would
require a nuclear chemist, nuclear engineer, and a batchplant engineer working out the mixes and
options. That would be the starting point.

Best regards,

þH Eliason