An Introduction to

Publishing in Japan
2010–2011

JAPAN BOOK PUBLISHERS ASSOCIATION

An Introduction to Publishing in Japan 2010-2011
© Japan Book Publishers Association 2010 Edited by International Committee, Japan Book Publishers Association Published by Japan Book Publishers Association 6, Fukuromachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0828, Japan Tel: (03) 3268-1303 Fax: (03) 3268-1196 www.jbpa.or.jp Printed in Japan

Preface

This booklet is intended to serve as a brief summary of and an introduction to the Japanese publishing world. As a result of rapid internationalization in recent years, there has been an increase in the number of opportunities for those of us in the Japanese publishing industry to make contact with people in the publishing industry in other countries. Contact with foreign publishers involves not only practical business matters but also discussion of the present publishing situation in Japan. The volume of information on Japanese publishing available to foreign publishers is far less than the amount of information about overseas publishing available to us in Japan, largely because of the barrier of the Japanese language. We at the JBPA believe that it is necessary to take advantage of every opportunity to broaden and deepen overseas knowledge about the Japanese publishing world and to further our understanding of our foreign counterparts. This booklet was produced with those two goals in mind. We hope it will be used as a handy reference tool at book fairs and other international gatherings.

February 2010 International Committee Japan Book Publishers Association

Contents
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The Outline of the Publishing Industry in Japan Major Players in the Publishing Industry Distribution and Sale of Publication International Activities in Japanese Publishing Industry Development of Infrastructure of Publishing Distribution The Legal Environment of Publishing Industry Activities for Reading Promotion Electronic Publishing Bestsellers 2003-2008 7 9 14 18 25 26 30 32 34 37 40 42 47

10 Libraries in Japan 11 The Japan Book Publishers Association 12 Publishing-Related Associations and Organizations Appendix: List of Members of the Japan Book Publishers Association

Chapter 1
The Outline of the Publishing Industry in Japan

The main characters of the publishing industry in Japan are as follows; 1. Approximately 70% of publications are distributed by a few wholesalers which cover the whole country. 2. Bookstores are able to stock publications without any risk because of the consignment system. 3. Readers are able to buy publications for fixed price anywhere in Japan because of the Resale Price Maintenance System. 4. Most medium-sized and large publishers in Japan produce both books and magazines, and both are distributed through the same channel. 5. Most of publishers are small or medium-sized company and their stocks are not listed on the market. Mergers and acquisitions of publishing companies seldom occur in Japan. 6. The market of publications in Japanese is mature and many books published abroad are translated into Japanese. On the other hand, the market of general books in English is relatively small. Figure 1 Retail Market Sales of Books and Magazines 1999-2009

(Billion yen) 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Books Magazines

In the trade market, a wholesale distributor will usually act as an intermediary between the publisher and the bookstore. Generally, publishers do business with distributors on a consignment basis, with the distributor then selling to the retail market on returnable basis. Distributors promptly and efficiently deliver books to bookstores and other retailers nationwide after receiving stock from publishers. It is difficult to sell books and magazines in Japan without a distributor, but a significant advantage of this system is that even small publishers can compete on an equal basis with major publishing houses in terms of getting titles into a large number of bookstores. Even though the total sales of publications are decreasing, the number of new titles is not decreasing at the same rate. While the average sales per title are decreasing, publishers intend to keep their sales with publishing new titles. In some cases, wholesalers pay for the new titles to publishers before those books are actually sold at the bookstore. Of course, the term of payment offered by wholesaler depends on the relationship between publisher and wholesaler. Table 1—New titles and number of copies published New titles Copies published (millions) Year (% growth) New General 2004 74,587(2.7%) 396 1,232 2005 76,528 (2.6%) 398 1,257 2006 77,722(1.6%) 402 1,283 2007 77,417(▲0.4%) 404 1,318 2008 76,322(▲1.4%) 397 1,318 2009 78,555(2.9%) 386 1,274 Source: Shuppan Geppo 2010.1 Shuppan Kagaku Kenkyujo Table 2—Magazine circulation Number of titles Number of copies (millions) Year Monthlies Weeklies Monthlies Weeklies 2004 3,505 100 2,808 1,399 2005 3,536 106 2,818 1,329 2006 3,557 95 2,747 1,259 2007 3,543 101 2,668 1,236 2008 3,511 102 2,546 1,174 2009 3,439 100 2,381 1,058 Source: Shuppan Geppo 20010.1 Shuppan Kagaku Kenkyujo

Chapter 2
Major Players in the Publishing Industry
1. Publishers

Some 4,000 publishing companies in Japan—about 80 percent of them in Tokyo—generate about ¥2 trillion worth of business annually. Few publishers have in-house facilities for printing, binding and sales; generally, specialist printing and bookbinding companies—almost all independent organizations with no corporate ties to publishers—are commissioned for book and magazine production. Wholesale distribution, rather than direct sales to the retail market, is the norm. Fewer young people read today than 20 or 30 years ago, and the rise of electronic media in recent years has accelerated this trend. Indeed, it may explain the demise of fiction reading (with the exception of a few bestsellers), which used to be a staple of the publishing industry. Most medium-sized and large publishers in Japan produce both books and magazines. Magazines have been an important part of the publishing business for more than twenty years because they provide both a regular source of income and advertising revenues. Comics (manga) and weekly magazines are now the main staples of the publishing trade in Japan. 2. Wholesale Distributors

Over 78,000 new titles are published in Japan in 2009 (the equivalent of 215 books each day), and some 840,000 titles are in print. Of the 3,400 or so magazines published, five have a circulation of 1 million copies or more per issue. Such volumes place a huge load on the distribution system, and wholesale distributors handle almost all of it (see Tables 1 and 2 on page 10 for distribution figures). Out of a total of 70 wholesalers, 29 are affiliated with the Japanese Publication Wholesalers Association. These 29 wholesalers handle about 80 percent of all publications distributed in Japan. Most publishers will do business with all the major distributors, while bookstores will almost always work with a single distributor. Wholesale distributors play a vital role in the publishing industry, but publishers and bookstores are perhaps too dependent on them; some bookstores have become almost part of the wholesale distribution organization they work with. 3. Bookstores

There are an estimated 15,482 bookstores throughout Japan. About 5,500 book stores are affiliated with the Japan Booksellers Federation. Whether in a railway station or in a busy shopping center, finding a bookstore in

Japan is a simple matter. The majority of bookstores are small, however, an average of floor space of the bookstores which were newly opened in 2009 was about 700 square meters. Book stores have grown in size, particularly in large cities. On the other hand, the total number of bookstores has been decreasing since 1992, at that time, the number was about 22,500. Total sales of major 120 book store are ¥1,279 billion in 2007. The 16 book store whose sales are more than ¥20 billion each, such as Kinokuniya(¥117 billion), Maruzen, Yurindo, Bunkyodo, have occupied 50% (¥647 billion) of that sales. Bookstores constitute an integral part of people’s daily lives in Japan, and some bookstores have even become fashionable rendezvous points. Other recent trends include hybrid stores (which sell audio and video products as well as publications), suburban bookstores with large parking facilities and extensive computer publication corners in retail computer stores. Moreover, 24-hour convenience stores stock a selection of magazines, comics and paperbacks. Additionally, they started to sell hard cover books. The total number of CVS is 42,673 shops and their total sales of book and magazines are ¥356 billion in 2008. In all cases, the total floor space for books and periodicals has expanded in the past few years. 4. The Growth of Online Bookstores It has been more than ten years since online bookstores debuted in Japan, and their influence on the publishing industry can no longer be ignored. The share of book sales at all online bookstores combined has already 6 -7 % of total book sales and the overall impact has been larger than that that share indicates. Online bookstores have had two major influences on the Japanese book publishing industry: 1) the introduction of a new marketing method to the publishing industry and 2) acting as a driving force for major changes in the distribution of publications. The Development of Online Bookstores General online bookstores have made their databases (e.g., the more than 840,000 titles in print in Japan) publicly available on the Internet, delivering orders via takkyubin (door-to-door delivery) or arranging pickup by customers at local convenience stores. The first “real” online bookstore to incorporate a database was major bookseller Maruzen, in 1995. Subsequently, major chain stores, for example, Kinokuniya Sanseido, Yaesu Book Center, Junkudo and Bunkyodo, began offering online bookselling services in addition to their physical bookstores. Two other major competitors also started operations later in 2002. Bertelsmann proceeded to set up the online “bol” as a Japanese corporation, and competition began in earnest with the entry of Amazon.com into Japan. The impact of Amazon Japan has been large. The scale of investment and speed of service by most other companies had been relatively low-key. In comparison, Amazon has established a huge distribution center in Chiba and a 100-person call center in Hokkaido. Furthermore, it opened a new distribution center, having the largest floor space in Amazon Japan, in Sakai City, Osaka in 2009.

CEO Jeff Bezos visited Japan several times and held high-profile promotions. Amazon had already incorporated in England, France and Germany and made the most of their know-how and experience in these foreign markets by investing ¥10 billion in Japan—and gained an immediate share of the market. There were already established customers for Amazon’s services in Japan (via the US), and the company had brand recognition. Once they entered the market, however, they stood out among online stores because of the superiority of their computer system and the high level of service. One year later, the online book market began to settle. bol withdrew from Japan after one year, and many of the remaining players went through a variety of tie-ups and buyouts. The main online book services operating today are Amazon Japan, Seven & Y, Kinokuniya (BookWeb), Bunkyodo (J-book), Junkudo (Junkudo Book Web), Rakuten Books and BookOne (bk1). The patterns of sales Many online bookstores such as Amazon do not release their sales figures, but sales are estimated at more than ¥140 billion in 2009, which is about 6 -7 % of total book sales, including comics in Japan. Even though this figure is lower than other developed countries such as the US and Korea, online sales have reached a level that can no longer be ignored. Amazon Japan has the largest share of the Japanese market and estimated to have more than 50% of the market for online books. A New Style of Marketing Publishers are keeping an eye on the introduction of online pre-ordering. New publications in Japan are not ordered by bookstores. Rather, publishers and wholesale distributors gauge the market potential of a publication and distribute to bookstores accordingly. Thus, there had been no tradition of pre-ordering in Japan. However, online bookstores have actively and successfully encouraged pre-orders directly from consumers. The last installment of the best-selling Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, realized more than 88,000 pre-orders by Amazon Japan. Online bookstores have not always received a positive response from publishers when inquiring about a book they would like to sell by pre-order. However, there has been a recent increase in the number of publishers who are now approaching online booksellers with books for pre-ordering. There have even been cases where publishers have adjusted the number of copies for first print runs based on the pre-orders from online bookstores. For an industry that has relied on the gut instincts of its salespersons to determine first print runs, it could be said that pre-orders have introduced some measurable parameters into the equation for the first time. 5. Secondhand and Antiquarian Booksellers About 2,300 booksellers are affiliated with the Japanese Association of Dealers in Old

Books, of which 720 are located in Tokyo. Secondhand booksellers must obtain a business license from their local prefectural public safety commission as mandated by the Japanese Secondhand Business Control Law, which covers trading in secondhand books and art, crafts and other secondhand and antique items. The Antiquarian Booksellers Association of Japan is an organization of specialized merchants dealing in rare and old books, both foreign and domestic. 6. Other New styles of Business While the sales of new titles are decreasing, opportunities to use books in other ways are increasing rapidly. For example, phenomena, such as an increase of the number of lending books from public libraries, the proliferation of new-style secondhand book stores, comic cafes, and large-scale rental book stores, has occurred successively. Even if a book is used many times in these cases, copyright holder and publishing company have no income from it. Shinkobon Bookstore The number of shops run by “Book-Off” which is a major company among new-style of secondhand book stores (Shinkobon stores) reached 917 (March 2009), and its revenue is over 44 billion yen. Further more, the Book Off Corporation opened new stores dealing with both new books and secondhand books after it retained the Ryusui Shobo. Now it has attracted attentions as a new channel of distribution of new book, especially since Dai Nippon Printing, Kodansha, Shogakukan and Shueisha acquired a 30% stake in the Book Off Corporation. The total sales of all Shinkobon stores are estimated more than 100 billion yen. In these stores, as many books are sold at 50% off of the cover price, the equivalent would be nearly 200 billion yen if converted into sales in a new publication market. Activities Regarding Acquisition of the Right of Lending The basic premise of copyright laws in Japan is that all copyrighted works are subject to the Right of Lending, but books and magazines had long been an exception. This had been the case since the Edo era in order to protect small-scale lenders of books. Another reason given was that the works offered by book lenders were not volumes that seriously affected publishers. From around 2001, however, large-scale comic book rental stores, which purchase large volumes of comics at discount prices, began to appear on the market. Copyright holders and publishers have been cooperating in efforts to block such businesses. The Deliberation Group of The Copyright Council considered this request, the Copyright Law was revised and the right of lending for books and magazines was adopted in 2004. According to the legislation of the right of lending, the publishers and authors’ organizations founded the Rental Rights Administration Center for publications (RRAC) in 2004.

The Debate on Public Lending Right Since 2001, authors’ groups have been putting forward the proposal that Public Lending Rights be established in Japan in the same way they have been in many European countries. The Copyright Council of the Agency for Cultural Affairs has also indicated that deliberations should move in this direction. Under the present law, libraries that lend out videos must pay an additional copyright fee on top of the purchase price of each video. However, budgets at public libraries have been falling since 1996, and if the Public Lending Right were put in place, it would likely mean a reduction in the number of books purchased by libraries. Moreover, some public libraries, at the request of their users, are purchasing bestsellers in large volumes for lending. From an author’s perspective, this practice is tantamount to acting as a bookstore that lends its titles for free. Such libraries are also seen as one of the reasons that sales of books have fallen. Libraries maintain that such multi-copy purchases represent only a very small proportion of their total stocks.

Chapter 3
Distribution and Sale of Publication
1. Distribution Route of publications In Japan, publishers do not collect orders for new books before they are published. Instead, a publisher will determine how many copies to print based on market possibilities and on instinct. New books delivered to wholesalers are automatically shipped to bookstores without store orders.

Publisher

Wholesalers

Bookstores

Convenience stores University cooperatives Installment payment system Reading audience, including libraries, schools, members of university

Membership organizations Export (direct business/exporters-importers/wholesalers) Direct mail Door-to-door sales Installment payment system Newsstands (stations) Dealers Stands Kiosks (JR stations) Newspaper agents Second-hand booksellers School textbook distributors

Direct sales

cooperatives and overseas readers

In theory, at least 15,000 copies of a new title would be necessary to supply each bookstore across the country with a single copy, but many books don't enjoy print runs of more than 10,000 copies. Bestsellers and quick-moving titles, therefore, may not reach smaller bookstores since stock is dispatched to larger bookstores where volume sales are expected. Apart from backlist sales, where the publisher will supply orders from bookstores, it is publishers and wholesalers who decide the flow of publications. In many countries, book and magazine publishers are separate entities. In Japan, however, most medium-sized and large publishers produce both books and magazines, and Japanese wholesalers and bookstores usually handle both types of publications. Today's wholesalers got their start when the distribution departments of publishing companies established themselves as independent organizations to distribute magazines nationwide. Book distribution was piggybacked onto this system, thereby allowing for a planned distribution system for both books and magazines that maintains low distribution costs through constant and high-volume flows. 2. Distribution Margins Nearly all publications in Japan are sold to readers at the retail price with no discounts, so the publisher's price to the wholesaler, and the wholesaler's price to the retailer, is set as percentages of the list price. Average discount rates and distribution margins are as follows. Books Publisher Magazines Publisher Wholesaler Margin (8%) Wholesaler Margin (8.5%) Bookstore Margin (22%) Bookstore Margin (23%)

Because almost publications are distributed on a returnable basis, in some ways it is the distributor who selects stock on behalf of the bookstores. Owners without any experience in the book trade can easily have the right books on their shelves and return unsold stock, making bookselling an attractive business for those entering it from other industries. Basically, anyone with enough capital can open a bookstore.

Number of New Titles and Average Circulation per Title 2008 fields Number of Number of New titles published copies ÿ 1000 copiesÿ General 889 3,420 Philosophy 3,975 24,230 History/Geography 4,146 16,200 Social science 15,667 44,920 Natural science 5,451 10,560 Engineering 5,749 13,470 Industry 3,094 10,600 Art/Hobby/Home 13,032 90,680 Linguistic 1,915 9,000 Literature 14,195 132,650 Juvenile 4,384 29,800 School references 3,825 11,870 Total 76,322 397,390

Average of circulation ÿ copiesÿ 3,847 6,096 3,907 2,867 1,937 2,343 3,426 6,958 4,700 9,345 6,797 3,103 5,207

Source: Nenpo 2009, Shuppan Kagaku Kenkyusho 3. Resale Price Maintenance System Publications were ruled an exception to the 1953 Anti-Monopoly Law, allowing the continuation of the prewar custom of selling publications at fixed prices. The Resale Price Maintenance System, under which a publication must be sold across the country at a fixed price, engenders consumer confidence in the publishing industry. For the 4,000 publishers and 15,000 bookstores across the country, resale price maintenance enables the distribution of a wide variety of titles in small volumes and makes possible royalty payments for books with a small circulation. Flexible and Practical Operation of RPMS For eight years, the publishing industry fought against the government Fair Trade Commission's (FTC's) stance that “from the perspective of market competition, the resale price maintenance system should be abolished.” This standoff came to an end on March 23, 2001, when the commission released the following comment: “From the perspective of fair competition policy, the resale price maintenance system should be abolished. However, considering the large number of dissenting voices expressing concern about the possible influences on culture and the public good, as well as a lack of public consensus on and support for abolishment, we therefore announce that, for the time being, it is appropriate that the present system be maintained.”

The Japan Book Publishers Association values the understanding and support of the Japanese public in this matter, but regrets that the commission persists in maintaining the position that the resale price maintenance system should be abolished. Part of the reason for the decision was that, of the more than 28,000 comments sent to the FTC on the resale price maintenance system, more than 99% were from supporters of the system, including authors groups, local public organizations and nonpartisan members of the National Diet. It would be fair to say that the commission was unable to ignore such an overwhelming result. In accordance with the request of the FTC that publishers, distributors and bookstores should consider ways to make the system “more flexible and practical”, the publishing industry in Japan has been working to promote flexible and diversified use of the resale price maintenance system to benefit readers, such as the development of channels for the sale of books at open prices, special thank-you sales for readers, and revisions of resale price maintenance contracts and manuals governing the system. 4. The Consignment Sales System The second pillar of Japanese book distribution is the Consignment Sales System. Under this system, retailers and wholesalers can freely return unsold publications within a set period of time (usually six months for newly released books). Under this consignment system, even small booksellers are able to distribute a large selection of books with no risk, and specialty bookstores can stock titles with small print runs or a slow turnover. Conversely, the consignment sales system is also effective for mass-market publications aimed at nationwide audiences. The unique system of book consignment serves consumers well because it offers more choice, and it serves booksellers well because it helps them maintain their vitality. However, it can also work to detrimental effect when publishers overproduce and distribute books that do not sell, thus resulting in a large volume of returns. The task of rationalizing the distribution system to avoid this pitfall still needs to be addressed. 5. Returns Under Japan's consignment sales system, bookstores are free to return unsold book and magazine stock to their distributors within a specified period of time. The average rate of returns in recent years has reached nearly 40 percent. Returns are a burden not only for publishers, but also for bookstores and wholesalers because they must assign facilities and staff to supervise the return of unsold stock. Returns also affect the sales revenue targets of publishers and extract a heavy cost in the management and warehousing of returned stock. The problem of returns is one of the most serious faced by publishers in Japan today. Then some publishers started a new project that raises the margin of bookstores and imposes a duty on them to bear the costs when they return unsold books.

Chapter 4
International Activities in Japanese Publishing Industry
1. Translation from Foreign Languages into Japanese Excluding children's books, translated publications account for some 8–10 percent of all publications in Japanese. Some 70 percent of titles are translated from English-language works first published in the UK and the USA. Fiction bestsellers from American publishers account for most of these translations, but the publication of translations of non-fiction works on Japan, especially in business and the social sciences, has begun to thrive. Many of these non-fiction works are published in Japanese at the same time they are released in the USA, and it is not unusual for gross sales in Japan to surpass those in the USA. Only rarely are translation rights obtained by direct communication between publishers. In most cases, the rights are handled by literary agencies in Tokyo. Major literary agents for foreign rights are Japan Uni Agency, the Tuttle-Mori Agency, Japan Foreign-Rights Centre, The Sakai Agency, The English Agency, Motovun and The Kashima Agency. In the past, many translations into Japanese were handled as second jobs by authors, journalists, magazine and book editors, and university professors, but with the establishment of a system for translation royalties and growth in demand for translated works, there has been an increase in the number of professional translators, many of who are women. A sub-industry has developed for serving this new job designation: schools for budding translators, a monthly trade magazine and two associations. Each of these two associations has established its own annual award for translated works to encourage the development of the industry. 2. English Publications on Japan Themes on Japan taken up in English commonly deal with traditional Japanese culture such as kabuki, noh, ikebana and tea ceremony, and Japanese literature (both classical and modern). The demand for titles dealing with Japanese business, society and Japanese language reflect Japan’s central role as an economic power. Major companies that produce publications in English are Kodansha International, IBC Publishing. Kodansha International was established in 1963 with a mandate to “fulfill a publisher’s duty to introduce Japanese cultures overseas via English-language publications.” As of the end of 2007, Kodansha International has produced more 2,000 titles, about 600 of which are still in print. IBC publishing was established by Yohan, whose main business was the import of western books and magazines. Yohan had been Asia’s largest dealer in western books but closed their business in 2008.

English books produced in Japan are hampered by the difficulty of developing sales routes abroad. Many markets suffer from the lack of an adequate nationwide intermediary distribution structure, so sales at the bookstore level depend almost entirely on a given publisher's sales force. A further obstacle is the bookstore’s profit margin in countries such as America, which is relatively high compared to Japanese bookstores. The strong yen must also be added to this list of negative factors: the continued strength of the yen in the first half of 1990s has made the export of English language publications from Japan to foreign markets a formidable challenge. Japanese publishers have also faced difficulties with distribution of their English-language publications in overseas markets. In response, there has been a noticeable increase in the publication of English-language books for the domestic market geared to learners of English. Materials for the study of Japanese language have recently enjoyed good sales. Bonjinsha and The Japan Times are major producers of such texts and materials, and they not only sell to foreign learners in Japan but also export, largely to America and Australia. 3. Japanese Works in Translation Translations of Japanese comic magazines and comic books in the 1990s triggered a larger interest in Japanese publications. At the same time, a number of Asia nations subscribed to international copyright treaties, leading to a steady increase in the number of Japanese titles being translated into foreign languages. Several large publishing companies have their own foreign rights departments, but most publishers sell foreign rights through literary agents, for example, the Japan Foreign-Rights Center (JFC). JFC was established in 1984. Needless to say, the most popular Japanese author is Haruki Murakami, but recently Nanami Shiono, Banana Yoshimoto and Miri Yu also have been very popular. Translated works by all three authors, such as Shiono’s Romajin no monogatari (The story of the Roman people) have been long-running bestsellers in Korea. Banana Yoshimoto was first translated into Italian, delighting 200,000 to 300,000 readers. Since then, Yoshimoto’s works have been translated into 36 languages. Taiwan has been the most prolific translator of Miri Yu’s works, and her popularity is such that in February 2002 she was invited as a guest to the Taipei International Book Fair. Japanese picture books and illustrated books are popular in the Asian market and translations of know-how and self-study titles in such areas as business. English learning texts and Japanese study materials are particularly popular in Korea, China and Taiwan. The Sakai Agency (formerly Orion Literary Agency) was established mainly for the purpose of promoting translation and publication of Japanese works abroad. The agency’s efforts have brought more than 200 of the works of such Japanese literary giants as Junichiro Tanizaki, Yukio Mishima, Kobo Abe and Akiyuki Nosaka to mainly North American and European audiences.

Moreover, in May 2003, Kodansha formed an alliance with Random House in the US under the name Random House Kodansha (RK). Rather than the more obvious route of selecting titles from Random House’s broad catalog and picking titles appropriate for translation into Japanese, RK tried to dig up already published Japanese authors, translate them into languages such as English, German and Spanish, but in January 2010, Kodansha announced that this alliance will be ended. Comic magazines and books in Japan account for 20 percent (by value) of all publications sold in Japan, making the country by far the world’s largest market for comics. Starting in the 1990s, foreign translations of Japanese comics began in earnest in Europe (France, Germany and Italy) and in Asia (Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore). Major comic publishers Kodansha, Shogakukan and Shueisha have actively taken on the challenge of this new business chance, establishing in-house foreign rights divisions. Shogakukan even established a subsidiary company in America, Viz Communications, in San Francisco to handle production and printing of editions for the American market. In 2003, Viz Communications, Shogakukan and its sister company Shueisha, announced the formation of VIZ, LLC, which publishes Shueisha’s weekly comic magazine Shonen Jump in a monthly English-language format for the North American market. In 2005, Kodansha opened a representative office in Beijing, China, and Poplar Publishing Co., Ltd. which is one of major publishers of Children’s books, founded a bookstore for children’s books in Beijing. In celebration of its 80th anniversary in 1989, Kodansha established the Noma Award for the Translation of Literature, given to outstanding translators of Japanese works of literature. The award was created with the awareness that skilled translators are essential both to the introduction of Japanese literature overseas and to the advancement of mutual understanding. In 2007, Mr. Boris Akunin was awarded for the translation of the works of Yukio Mishima into Russian, and in 2009, Mr. Jacques Lévy, French translator, was awarded for the translation of Kenji Nakagami’s Kiseki (Miracleÿ . 4. Import and Export of Publications Imports Nearly all imported books and magazines are handled by one of about 250 importers throughout the country. As of January 2010, 65 of those importers were members of the Japan Association of International Publications (formerly the Japan Book Importers Association). About 14 of the current 65 members serve as the main sales agents for most foreign publications in Japan. According to 2008 import and export statistics on publications (books, magazines and newspapers) from the Customs and Tariff Bureau of the Ministry of Finance, sales of imported books were down by 9 percent from previous years to ¥26.9 billion, and sales of imported magazines and newspapers decreased by 16 percent to ¥13.2 billion. The rate of decrease for all publications was down 11.4 percent.

The composition of imported publications changed from 67 percent books and 33 percent periodicals in 1999 to 66 percent books and 34 percent periodicals in 2008, indicating an increase in the sales of imported books. Import statistics over an eight-year period from 2001 to 2008 are as follows: Table 1 Import value of publications Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Books 36,525 37,639 36,680 32,731 30,111 30,788 29,615 26,935 Magazines 19,050 15,828 16,699 14,513 15,287 16,190 15,745 13,205 (Million yen) Total 55,575 53,467 53,379 47,244 45,398 46,977 45,360 40,144

Source: Nenpo 2009, Shuppan Kagaku Kenkyusho

Maruzen, Kinokuniya, Sanseido and Yurindo are major sellers of foreign-language books on Japan and imported books, but they principally deal in Japanese-language books and magazines. Another company, Yushodo Group, is a major importer and seller of rare foreign books. Exports The export values of publications (books, magazines and newspapers) for 2008 were as follows: the export value of books decreased about 6 percent from 2007 to ¥10 billion and the export value of periodicals also decreased 2 percent to ¥4.7 billion. The exports of books and periodicals had dropped a total of 16 percent between 2001 and 2008. Table 2 Export value of publications Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Books 13,299 12,734 12,070 10,673 9,806 10,305 10,663 10,054 Magazines 4,289 4,274 4,190 4,478 4,574 4,556 4,780 4,689 (Million yen) Total 17,588 17,126 16,260 15,219 14,422 14,861 15,443 14,743

Source: Nenpo 2009, Shuppan Kagaku Kenkyusho

5. Tokyo International Book Fair (TIBF) Tokyo International Book Fair has been held at Tokyo Big Sight, one of Tokyo's main exhibition centers, since 1997, TIBF 2009 was held from July 9 to 12. The fair had traditionally been held in April since 1999, but was moved to July in 2005. TIBF is co-organized by Reed Exhibition Japan Ltd. and the Executive Committee of TIBF, which is made up of the Japan Book Publishers Association, Japan Magazine Publishers Association, Japan Publication Wholesalers Association, Japan Booksellers Federation, the Council for the Promotion of Book Reading, Publishers Association for Cultural Exchange and Japan Book Importers Association. 776 exhibitors from 28 countries and regions (137 foreign and 639 Japanese exhibitors) participated in TIBF2009. In addition to the usual publisher booths, there were thematic publishing displays for Natural Science, Social and human Science, Juvenile Publishing, Education and Learning and Electronic Publishing. A total of 64,800 visitors attended the four-day event. Exhibitions included a book design and production concours, and many publishing-related seminars were held. The most outstanding feature of TIBF is its focus on the Asian Pacific region; the fair slogan is “Building a Bridge for Publishers between Asia and Japan, and between Asia and the World”. TIBF strives to ensure that Asian publishers participate extensively in the book fair. Moreover, the Japanese publishing industry looks to TIBF as a key event not only for Asian publishers, but also for American and European publishers with an eye on the Asian market. 6. Non-Profit Organizations Two non-profit organizations in Japan promote international cooperation and exchange through publishing: the Asia-Pacific Cultural Center for UNESCO (ACCU) and the Publishers Association for Cultural Exchange (PACE). Publishers Association for Cultural Exchange (PACE) PACE (www.pace.or.jp) was founded in 1953 as the Publishers Association for Asian Cultural Exchange, but was reformed in 1956 as the present organization. The purpose of PACE is to develop the Japanese publishing industry's role internationally while contributing to international cultural exchange. It carries out this mandate through 1) participation in international book fairs, 2) exhibitions of Japanese books overseas and 3) introduction of foreign publications domestically. Ninety-five companies and organizations were members of PACE in 2010, including publishers, wholesalers and printers.
FOREIGN BOOK FAIR PARTICIPATION

Since 1987, PACE has worked in conjunction with The Japan Foundation, exhibiting at 10 international books fairs each year. PACE and the Japan Foundation participated in 10 international book fairs in 2007 (among them Budapest, Seoul, Beijing, Belgrade, New Delhi, Frankfurt and

Moscow), dispatching specialists, gathering information and undertaking exchanges with publishers. The Frankfurt Book Fair, the Bologna Children's Book Fair and the Seoul International Book Fair are among the major international book events at which PACE runs a booth to display Japanese books and promote contacts among publishers. These displays have resulted in the translation of many Japanese books by overseas publishers. In more than a few cases, PACE has also contributed to the international recognition of the superiority of Japanese printing, as many overseas publishers have chosen Japanese companies such as Dai-Nippon and Toppan to print and bind their books, especially large, full-color editions.
OTHER ACTIVITIES

In addition to the above activities, PACE also 1) promotes exchange of information between Japanese and overseas publishers, 2) encourages translation by domestic and foreign publishers and 3) introduces and disseminates information on important Japanese-language publications. PACE produces several English-language publications to promote the Japanese publishing industry, including Practical Guide to Publishing in Japan, full text of which is available on its website . Asia-Pacific Cultural Center for UNESCO (ACCU) The Asia/Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO (ACCU), established in April 1971, is a non-profit organization for Asia and the Pacific regional activities in line with the principles of UNESCO, working for the promotion of mutual understanding and cultural cooperation among peoples in the region. ACCU has been implementing various regional cooperative programs in the fields of culture, education and personnel exchange in close collaboration with UNESCO and its Member States in Asia and the Pacific. 7. The Asian Pacific Publishers Association The establishment of the Asian Pacific Publishers Association (APPA) was formalized on the occasion of the Asian Publishing Forum, convened at the 1992 Tokyo International Book Fair. There are presently 16 member countries: Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. The avowed objectives of the Asian Pacific Publishers Association include: a) advancement and development of publishing in the Asian Pacific region, b) mutual cooperation between association members, c) active exchange of publishing expertise and techniques and d) promotion of study opportunities for the youth of the member countries in the fields of publishing, printing, binding and distribution. The secretariat of APPA has been Korean Publishers Association since 2000.

The APPA Publishing Awards To realize these objectives in part, the APPA established the APPA Publishing Awards. First presented at the 1995 Tokyo International Book Fair, the awards are given in the fields of Academic Publications, Children's Publications and General Publications. Books from member countries are submitted through their respective national publishing associations and judged on content, quality and design.

Chapter 5 Development of Infrastructure of Publishing Distribution
Japan Publishing Organization for Information Infrastructure Development (JPO) was founded by JBPA, Japan Magazine Publishers Association, Japan Publication Wholesalers Association, Japan Booksellers Federation and Japan Library Association in April, 2002. JPO was united with Japan ISBN Center in April 2004, and now consists of ISBN Center, Publication Basic Information Center and Research & Development Center. The aims of JPO are; 1) collection and dissemination of publication information, and settlement of standard format of publication information. 2) Support of development of exchange system for electronic publication information and infrastructure between publisher and wholesalers, bookstores and libraries etc. 3) quick response against ordering and improvement of traceability in publication distribution, 4) research on utilization of intellectual property and copyright administration system. Field Trial Test of RFID tag The RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tag research committee in R&D Center has carried out field trial tests for Supply Chain Management, Protection against Illegal Dissemination, Service for Readers, Library, International Standardization, at 13 places; for example, binders, warehouses of publishers and wholesalers, libraries, bookstores and secondhand book stores etc. since 2003, with support from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. In 2006, JPO carried out some examinations on the utilization of RFID tags with the aim of the improvement of efficiency of distribution. In 2007, it also conducted some experiments to prevent shoplifting using RFID. Publications Information Center The Publication Stock Information Research Committee in R&D Center, published a report in 2004, and proposed that a master database of the publishing industry should be established in order to collect the information which is essential to distributing publications in the market and disseminate it to wholesalers and bookstores. Following the proposal, the Publication Basic Information Center was founded in January 2006. JBPA concluded an agreement with PBIC, to undertake the maintenance of the database, collecting the data from the publishers and disseminating it to wholesalers and bookstores etc. JBPA actually started the dissemination of the data to some wholesalers in February 2006. The Publisher pays the collection and dissemination fees to JPO at 500 yen per registered title to the database from January 2007.

Chapter 6
The Legal Environment of Publishing Industry
1. The Freedom of Speech and Press Article 21, Paragraph 1, of the Constitution of Japan reads: “Freedom of¼speech, press and all forms of expression are guaranteed.” Censorship is expressly prohibited in the succeeding paragraph. Needless to say, the freedom of book and magazine publishing is guaranteed in this section of the constitution. However, publishing in Japan today is not completely unfettered. First, defamation of character and obscenity are legally restricted. Second, the publishing industry has developed an ethical code and a system to enforce it so as to avoid government interference. Last, interference with publishing at present comes from pressure groups, not from the government. Freedoms and the Future Legally, publishing freedoms are more or less established in Japan, but there are still threats to this freedom. The obstruction of publishing projects by radical groups has not yet been eradicated. In particular, publications that deal with the emperor or the imperial system in a critical manner or publications dealing with Japanese wartime aggression and atrocities are subject to attacks from the ultra-right. Although slightly different in character, protest actions from various groups over discriminatory language are a problem for the publishing industry and the mass media as a whole. Moreover, the danger of government suppression of publishing freedoms may be on the increase through the promulgation of the Law for Punishing Acts Related to Child Prostitution and Child Pornography in 1999, and for Protecting Children and the Personal Data Protection Law in 2003. The Bill for the Protection of Human Rights and the Bill for Healthy Raising of Youth and Voluntary Restraint are additional laws that may be used to exert control over the media. Neither has the danger of government suppression completely disappeared. Indeed, there has been a trend toward stricter control, such as a bill governing the protection of personal data in the media, as well as preparation for a bill whose contents would include giving the prime minister and prefectural governors the ability to direct and advise the media on methods of information supply. The main target for such regulation would be publications and television. 2. Copyright Law and the Right of Publication Modern copyright law was established in Japan in 1899, when Japan accorded to the Berne Convention and agreed to protect copyrights internationally. (At present Japan accedes to the Paris Act of the Berne Convention and to the Universal Copyright Convention.) In 1999, Japan celebrated the centennial of its Copyright Law and a number of events were held in recognition of this milestone.

Japan's original Copyright Law stipulated nothing about the rights of publishers, while the Publications Law served primarily as a means for the government to control the publishing industry. Publishers began an intensive campaign for their rights around 1925, and finally succeeded in having an article concerning the right of publication inserted in a partial revision of the Copyright Law in 1934. This law was totally revised in 1971, but the right of publication in Chapter 3 remains. Under these provisions, a party whose publication rights have been established by contract with the copyright owner is protected and given the exclusive right to reproduce his or her works for the purpose of distribution. As the current copyright law was enacted more than 30 years ago, it no longer sufficiently covers current conditions, and frequent revisions have been made. For example, in 2003, further amendments to the law were made concerning limits on the use of copyrighted materials by educational institutions. Within the bounds of fair use, instructors are permitted to make copies of necessary materials to be used in class instruction and distribute them to student, and this privilege has been extended to the students themselves. This amendment was incorporated to accommodate the fact that students are now using the Internet to create reports for presentation in class. Copyright holder groups responded to this change by creating guidelines for the appropriate use of copyrighted materials and encouraging schools to keep copying of materials within legal bounds. Amendments also now recognize the right of instructors to broadcast copyrighted materials to students in remote locations when the class is given in real time. However, the amendments do not allow for those materials to be preserved/saved and distributed to students at the remote location, nor to preserve/save those materials and then use them for a different purpose. Pharmaceutical industry requested to extend limits on the use of copyrighted material to let pharmaceutical companies to photocopy medical journals and books to provide healthcare professionals when they request the most recent medical information. Article 77-3 of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law obliges pharmaceutical companies to make every effort to collect, examine, and provide information required for the proper use of pharmaceutical products to healthcare professionals. This matter is discussed continuously next season by the legislation subcommittee of Subdivision on Copyrights, Council for Cultural Affairs of the Japanese Government. JBPA insists that medical journals are published on the assumption that they are purchased by such healthcare professionals. In many cases in practice, however, the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law is used as an excuse for unauthorized reproduction of such copyrighted materials, and such is considered to be several million sets of copies per year. If such reproduction should be allowed, it is likely to violate Article 9 of the Berne Convention. Publishers associations and individual publishers abroad also express opinions against the proposition of the amendment of the Copyright Law. Among the public’s requests for examination, remaining issues include copyright limitation related to library use and school education. As for the library-related issues, the Subcommittee has already started to discuss some of them in connection with

facilitation of archive business. Since 2009, the establishment of the general rule of limitations on exclusive rights, which is similar to the fair use doctrine in the US law, has been under consideration in the Copyright Council. Most of right-holders associations and publishing-related associations are against the establishment of such a clause, because they are concerned that it will expand the limitation of the copyright. 3. Tax System and Treaties for the Publishing Industry In view of the special characteristics of the sales system for publications, special provisions have been made in the national tax law so that the publishing industry can adjust estimated profit to allow for probable losses from damages and returns under the consignment sales system and for depreciation of the value of warehoused books. Royalties sent to foreign countries are subject to taxation. To prevent double taxation, 58 countries have signed an Income Tax Convention. In Japan, each publishing company must apply to the designated tax office to receive the benefits of the Convention. The countries with which Japan has reciprocally signed the Income Tax Convention and their applicable tax rates as of January 2010 are as follows: Tax-exempt: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Czech, France, Georgia, Hungary, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Pakistan, Poland, Russia, Slovak, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, UK, Ukraine, USA, Uzbekistan 5% tax rate: Australia, Kazakhstan 10% tax rate: Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bulgaria, Brunei, Canada, China, Denmark, Fiji, Finland, Germany, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Korea, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, the Philippines, Romania, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Viet Nam, Zambia 12.5% tax rate: Brazil 15% tax rate: Egypt, Thailand 20% tax rate: New Zealand
Note: Japan became a member of the UNESCO Florence Convention in June 1970. This agreement stipulates that all publications to be used for educational and cultural purposes are tax-exempt.

4. Authorization System for Textbooks The School Education Law stipulates that elementary and junior high schools, senior high schools, and special schools (for physically or mentally challenged children) are required to use textbooks authorized or written by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Regional boards of education and schools cannot adopt unauthorized textbooks. Textbooks written directly by the MECST are used only at special schools or as part of the high school curriculum and comprise only 0.12

percent of the total number of textbooks published. The remaining textbooks are published by private publishing houses and authorized for use by the ministry. Concern is growing about an authorization system that has been implemented by the government in the name of education. Some believe that the process of authorization should be open to the public, and questions have arisen as to whether government authorization impinges on the freedom of speech and the press safeguarded by the Constitution.

Chapter 7 Activities for Reading Promotion
Book Reading Week The first Book Reading Week was held by publishers, wholesalers, booksellers and public libraries in cooperation with newspapers and Broadcasting centers in November 1947, when the devastation of World Warn II still remained. They aimed to construct a peaceful and cultivated country by means of book reading. The first attempt was highly appreciated, and from the next year, the period was settled from October 27 to November 9, the 2 weeks centered around the Culture Day (Nov 3). Book Reading Week for Children Following the Book Reading Week, the Week for Children was started in 1959. In those days, it was held from May 1 to 14 (two weeks including Children’s Day, which is May 5, one of the national holidays). Since the Year of Book Reading for Children in 2000, the period has been extended to three weeks, April 23 to May 12, every year. There are many events for book reading, for example, The Children’s Book Day on April 2, St. George’s Day on April 23 etc. The Year of Book Reading for Children In 1999, the Diet designated the year of 2000 as “the Year of Book Reading for Children”, in order to support book reading activities for children, in recognition of its indispensable value. The International Library of Children’s Literature (ILCL) was founded on January 1, 2000 as a branch of the National Diet Library (NDL). It partially opened to the public on May 5, 2000 and started full services on May 5, 2002. The Act of Book Reading Promotion for Children was adopted in December, 2001, following up in the spirit of the Year of Book Reading for Children. Among other things, the act ruled that the Government should settle and publish “the master plan regarding the promotion of book reading activities for children”, rural governments should settle and publish “the plan regarding the policy of promoting book reading activities for children”, and the day of 23, April should be designated as “the Day of Book Reading for Children” etc. Literary Culture Promotion Act In July 2005, the Literary Culture Promotion Act was adopted in the Parliament. This bill was brought up by the Alliance of Literary Culture, which consisted of 286

representatives and senators in the Diet. The aim of the act is to contribute to a vigorous society and intelligent life, establishing the principle for the promotion of literary culture in Japan and developing a comprehensive policy thereon, recognizing that literary culture is essential to the development of a democratic society in which the knowledge and intelligence are paramount. National Book Year 2010 In order to realize the purposes of the both Acts, Characters Culture Promotion Organization was founded in October 2007, sponsored by publishers associations, newspapers association, other industries associations etc. The activities of the organization are as follows; 1) Launching of the Literary Proficiency Test, 2) Promotion of academic publishing, 3) Training of Voluntary Supporters for Reading Promotion, 4) Holding of symposiums and seminars on Literary Culture, etc. The diet admitted the resolution the year of 2010 as National Book Year, which Characters Culture Promotion Organization had submitted. Their action plans are as follows; to raise the Gross National Reading in school and home, to hold symposium, training course etc., to start the official examination of the language skill to support children’s reading comprehension, to survey the public library across the nation and to improve their qualities, to carry out the research study of educational and social effectiveness of reading and to be going to make meantime report about its effectiveness in 2010, to submit a proposal to designate the year of 2010 as "International Book Year for Children" to the United Nations with Korea, to be going to hold the National Book Year Festival from 29th to 31st October 2010. Bookstart Project The Book Start Project was first launched in Birmingham, UK, in 1992. In Japan, it was introduced in connection with the Year of Book Reading for Children in 2000 and started its activities in 2001. Mother and baby are given a bag in which there are two picture books and a guidebook for Bookstart when they come for a medical examination at the health center, and mothers are encouraged to talk to their babies by means of reading books. Approximately 630 rural governing bodies, 30% of the total, are carrying out the Bookstart project, in cooperation with Bookstart Inc., which is a non-profit organization. Bookstart projects are expanding to Korea, Thailand etc. Morning Book Reading The activity “Morning Book Reading in School” was started by a teacher in a high school in Chiba prefecture in 1988. Now more than 20,000 schools including elementary, junior high and high schools all over the country carry out these activities, and 7.4 million students and pupils are enjoying book reading. Students just read books they choose by themselves without any obligation for 10 minutes before the class begins every day. They can learn the joy of reading, which relaxes them and prepares them to concentrate on their studies throughout the day.

Chapter 8 Electronic Publishing
Expanding of Contents for Mobile phone The number of mobile phones in use amounts to more than 110.5 million in Japan, and they are constantly being developed into multi-function devices. The amount of contents readable with a mobile phone is rapidly increasing. “Shincho Keitai Bunko” is a collection of popular novels which has become available on the mobile phone, starting from January 2002. We can read brand new novels written by popular writers, and classic novels, short essays, etc. for only 210 yen per month. The turnover of e-books in 2007 was 35.5 billion yen, which is 95% up compared with the previous year. The most successful field is e-books for the mobile phones, which share is about 80%, 28.3 billion yen. And Comics for the mobile phone (Keitai Comic) were sold by 22.9 billion yen. The number of the websites for the distribution of e-books for the mobile phones is rapidly increased from 193 in September 2006 to 574 in June 2008. Major comic publishers, for example, Kodansha, Shogakukan and Shueisha are providing many comic contents in the mobile phone format. NTT Solmare Inc., one of the distributors of e-content, accomplished total 500 million downloads in April 2009 since they had begun the service in August 2004. When they began the service, they expected male office workers in their twenties and thirties to be their customers. However, the number of young females in their teens to thirties who read this has been rapidly increasing. Distribution of E-Books The website to provide contents in Japan are operated by carriers, publishers, contents providers, and joint ventures. The PAPYLESS is one of the largest contents providers in Japan. The number of their contents is 80,066 in 2008, up 23% from the previous year and the total sales was ¥3.46 billion in 2007. There are also many charge-free websites, where amateur writers submit their works to be open to the public. One of the most popular website of them is “Maho-no I-land”, which received 3.3 billion hits in December 2007. Some of the most poplar works on this site had been published, and became million sellers in 2007. Kodansha, Shinchosha, Shogakukan, Shueisha and other publishers started a project ”Electronic Paperback Book PABURI” in 2000 in order to provide their contents and to issue on-demand books. Now thirteen companies have joined this project. The number of titles of PABURI was more than 9,000 in 2008. The PABURI established “Electronic Book Publishers Association of Japan” in January 2010. There are 21 major publishers participating in this association. Electronic Journal of STM On the other hand, digitalization of academic journals, which is very popular in

Western countries, has hardly developed in Japan, in particular, journals published by private publishers. The reasons are that the readership of academic journals in Japanese language is limited to Japan, and most of the academic publishers in Japan are small companies, which cannot afford to invest to the development of the electronic journal. However, Igaku-Shoin has established the new platform of electronic journal on medicine and nursing in 2009, which enable to search and view the 43,000 documents from 32 magazines of the past six years. Journals in English which are issued by academic societies are gradually becoming digitized; however, they still constitute a small proportion. Launcing of Digital Magazines Shufunotomo Co., Ltd. issued “Digital ef” as a digital magazine in June 2006. “ef” had been published for 22 years in paper, but it was entirely transformed into digital form. After that some magazine publishers tries to publish digital magazines, and totally more than 100 titles are published in 2007. Some of them are collaborated with paper edition, and others are originally edited in digital form. Shogakukan Inc. started the website “Sook” in June 2007. Sook contained 7 born digital magazines for 787 yen a month. However Sook has been free of charge since September 2009 in order to generate more traffic. The Japan Magazine Publishers Association held the World Conference of Digital Magazines in Tokyo in November 2008 in the cooperation with FIPP(The International Federation of Presses and Periodicals). They also established “Consortium for the promotion of the Digital Contents of Magazines” in August 2009. The consortium conducts demonstrating experiments by 2011 to consider matters about ideal form of the portal site, the billing process of micro payment, and file formats.

Chapter 9
Bestsellers 2003-2008

2003
TITLE 1. Baka no Kabe ÿ The wall of foolsÿ 2. Sekai no Chushin de Ai wo Sakebu (Cry Out for Love at the Heart World) 3. Toribia no Izumi (The Spring of Trivia) 4. Bera Bera Book (Talkative English Book) 5. Kaihouku (A liberated Zone) 6. Shin-Josei-sho (On Women vol.2) 7. Taigo no Hou 8. Comic: An Introduction to Kim Jong-il 9. Diet Shingo 10.Usotsuki Onna to Nakimushi Otoko (Why Men Lie and Women Cry) AUTHOR Takeshi Yoro Kyoichi Katayama Fuji TV SmaStation Takuya Kimura Daisaku Ikeda Ryuho Ohkawa Lee Yeon-hwa Shingo Katori Allan & Barbara Pease PUBLISHER Shinchosha Shogakukan Kodansha Magazine House Shueisha Ushio Shuppansha Kofukuno Kagaku Asuka Shinsha Magazine House Shufunotomo FIELD General Fiction General Language General Religion Religion General General General

2004
TITLE 1. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix 2. Sekai no Chushin de Ai wo Sakebu (Cry out for Love at the Heart World) 3. Baka no Kabe ÿ The wall of foolsÿ 4. Good Luck 5. Keritai Senaka(I Wanna Kick Your Back) 6. 13 sai no Hallo-Work ÿ Guide to Future Jobs for 13-Year-olds) 7. Dr. Kawashima’s Brain Training 8. How to Change Yourself in Five Minutes 9. Ima Aini Yukimasu (I will come to see you now) 10.Shin Ningen Kakumei (Human Revolution) Vol. 12 & 13 AUTHOR J.K.Rowling Kyoichi Katayama Takeshi Yoro
Alex Rovira,ÿ F. T de Bes

PUBLISHER Seibunsha Shogakukan Shinchosha Poplar-sha Kawade shobo Shinsha Gentosha Kumon Shuppan Gentosha Shogakukan Seikyo Shinbunsha

FIELD Juvenile Fiction General General Fiction General General General Fiction Religion

Risa Wataya Ryu Murakami Ryuta Kawashima Tome Kamiooka Takuji Ichikawa Daisaku Ikeda

2005
TITLE 1. Atamaga Iihito, Warui Hito no Hanashikata (Wise People and Fools – How They Talk) 2. Kaneko Sho 3. Saodakeya wa Naze Tsuburenai ka? ÿ How the Washing Pole Seller Stays in Businessÿ 4. Shin Ningen Kakumei (Human Revolution) Vol. 14 5. Koredakewa Shitteokitai Kojin Joho Hogo (How to Protect Personal Information) 6. “Motto Ikitai”ÿ I Want to Live More) 7. Densha Otoko (The Train Man) 8. Shinpi no Hou (The Mysterious Karma) 9. Mondai na Nihongo (Japanese in Question) 10.Waru no Chie Bon(The Bad Man’s Tips) AUTHOR Yuichi Higuchi Kaneko Ikeda Shinya Yamada Daisaku Ikeda Okamura/Suzuki Yoshi Hitori Nakano Ryuho Okawa Yasuo Kitahara Akio Kado PUBLISHER PHP Institute Shufunotomo Kobunsha Seikyo Shinbunsha Nihon Keizai Shinbun Starts Shuppan Shinchosha Kofukuno Kagaku Taishukan Shoten Kawade Shinsha shobo FIELD General Biography General Religion General General Fiction Religion Linguistic General

2006
TITLE 1. Kokka no Hinkaku (The Dignity of the Nation) 2. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince 3. Tokyo Tower 4. Writing “The Narrow Road to Oku” by pencil 5. Byoki ni Naranai Ikikata (How to Live Without Ill) 6. Hito wa Mitame ga 9wari (Good looking makes a good first Impressions) 7. Shin Ningen Kakumei (Human Revolution vol.15-16) 8. Kosodate Happy Advice (Happy Advice for Parenting) 9. Kagami no Housoku (The Theory of the Mirror) 10. Kage-hinata ni Saku (Blooming in Light and Shade) Yoshinori Noguchi Gekidan Hitori Sogo Horei Shuppan Gentosha General Fiction AUTHOR Masahiko Fujiwara J.K.Rowling Lily Franky Kanpo Ohsako Hiromi Shinya Ichiro Takeuchi Daisaku Ikeda Daiji Akehashi PUBLISHER Shinchosha Seizansha Fusosha Popular sha Sun Mark Publishing Shinchosha Seikyo Shinbunsha Ichiman-nen-do FIELD General Juvenile Fiction General General General Religion General

2007
TITLE 1. Josei no Hinkaku (The Dignity of Women) 2. Homeless Chugakusei (Homeless Junior High School Boy) 3. Donkan-Ryoku (The Merit of Insensibility) 4. Nihon-jin no Shikitari (The Custom of the Japanese) 5. Shin Ningen Kakumei (Human Revolution Vol.17) 6. Tanaka Yukuko no Zougan Massage (Yukuko Tanaka's Massage for Building Faces) 7. Hello Bye-Bye Toshidennsetsu (Hello, Bye-Bye --- Urban Legend) 8. Pocket Monster --- Diamond and Pearl 9. Pocket Monster --- Diamond and Pearl (Guidebook) 10. Koizora (Longing the Sky) Famitsu Editorial Div. Shusuke Motomiya Mika EnterBrain MediaFactory Starts Shuppan Juvenile Juvenile Fiction Akio Seki Takeshobo Fiction AUTHOR Mariko Bando Hiroshi Tamura Junichi Watanabe Harutake Iikura Daisaku Ikeda Yukuko Tanaka PUBLISHER PHP Institute Wani Books Shueisha Seishun Shuppan-sha Seikyo Shinbunsha Kodansha FIELD General Auto-biography General General Religion General

2008
TITLE 1. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows 2. Yume wo Kanaeru Zo (A Elephant make one’s dream reality) 3. B gata Jibun no Setsumeisho (Instruction of Blood group B by themselves) 4. O gata Jibun no Setsumeisho 5. A gata Jibun no Setsumeisho 6. Homeless Chugakusei (Homeless Junior High School Boy) 7. Josei no Hinkaku (The Dignity of Women) 8. Oya no Hinkaku (The Dignity of Parents) 9. AB gata Jibun no Setsumeisho 10. No wo Ikasu Benkyoho (Study Skill utilizing one’s brain) AUTHOR J.K. Rowling Keiya Mizuno Jamais Jamais Jamais Jamais Jamais Jamais Hiroshi Tamura Mariko Bando Mariko Bando Jamais Jamais Kenichiro Mogi PUBLISHER Seizansha Asukashinsha Bungeisha Bungeisha Bungeisha Wani Books PHP Institute PHP Institute Bungeisha PHP Institute FIELD Fiction General General General General Auto-biography General General General General

Chapter 10
Libraries in Japan
1. Types and Characteristics of Libraries Libraries can be roughly divided into five categories according to parent institution, purpose and use. The National Diet Library The functions of the National Diet Library include the gathering, organization and preservation of data. It serves the Diet, government and government corporations, but also offers library services to the general public. This is a nation’s largest library. As of 2009, the library’s collection contained some 9.3 million books. About 225,000 volumes of books are added each year. The total cost for purchasing of books, magazines, newspapers and other materials is ¥2.5 billion in 2009. In accordance with the National Diet Library Law, a copy of each book, newspaper, magazine, score, map, record and package-type electronic publications published in Japan must be provided to the library. The International Library of Children’s Literature was opened in May 2002. That same year, The Kansai-kan of the National Diet Library was opened in October which serves as a digital library. Now, there are three national libraries in Japan, Tokyo Main Library, Kansai-kan and The International Library of Children’s Literature that cooperate each other. Public Libraries Administration of libraries by local public organizations, both city and prefecture, has a history of about 130 years in Japan, but many of those libraries were destroyed during World War II. The 1950 Library Law served to revitalize the Japanese library system. There are now more than 3,100 libraries in Japan (as of April 2008). However, small towns and villages do not yet have a library, and this regional disparity is a topical issue. Moreover, Japan has an average of only one library for every 41,069 people. The comparable figure for other G8 countries is one library for every 6,000 persons; this gap is also much too large. The number of visitors of public libraries was 251 million, and the number of books lent by individuals was 657 million titles in 2007. Nationally, public libraries contain a total of 375 million volumes. It is increasing 18.6 million per year. The total annual cost for purchasing is 30.2 billion yen in 2008. Overall the acquisition level is still low and growth over the past 10 years has been stagnant or has fallen. A drastic increase in acquisition budgets is a matter of concern for libraries at all levels. Recently, growing number of public libraries have been making efforts to acquire more foreign works and special publications to provide a focus for their collections. They have also begun to actively accumulate new-media resources.

University, Junior College, and Technical College Libraries There are 1,356 national, public, and private university libraries (including annexes) and 241 junior college libraries. If the 62 college of technology libraries are included, there are 1,659 educational libraries in Japan, containing 309 million books, and adding 7.1 million new books annually. The total budget for university and college library acquisitions in 2008 was ¥70.3 billion. Of this total, ¥68.8 billion was for acquisitions by university libraries (an average of ¥50.1 million per library). The figure for junior colleges was ¥1.1 billion, or ¥5.5 million per library, while technical colleges spent ¥313 million, or ¥5 million per library. Most of the expenditure is on foreign books and serial publications. Moreover, the expenditure on electronic journal has been increasing. School Libraries Nearly all of the nation's 22,258 elementary schools, 10,864 junior high schools, and 5,183 senior high schools (a total of 38,305 schools) have a school library, as required by the 1954 School Library Law. Although it was officially announced that a librarian who has a teacher’s qualification should be staffed in each school from 2003, 60 % of libraries are presumed to have a school librarian. Most of them do not serve full-time in such a capacity and the collections are often meagre, which has discouraged students from using them. Since 1994, the government has adopted a policy of funding school libraries, and many support the continued actualisation of such funding. Specialized Libraries There are 1,800 specialized libraries of various sizes affiliated with corporations, non-profit organizations or government offices, and many have closed due to the prolonged recession. More than 30 percent of these specialized libraries have holdings of 10,000 or fewer books, and nearly 40% of them have holdings of 30,000 books or less, indicating that most libraries in this category are small-scale. Thirty percent have serial collections of 500 titles or less. Nearly 40 % have budgets of ¥10 million or less for materials acquisition. Naturally, specialized libraries collect research, literature and data consistent with their mandates, and make full use of different types of databases. 2. Publication Distribution and Libraries The library system in Japan is, overall, behind the times, and its contribution to the publishing industry is low. Acquisitions by public and university libraries combined account for less than two percent of total publishing sales. In the last 10 years, acquisitions budgets have continued to shrink, especially for magazines and specialist books, as well as for books from small and medium-sized publishing housing. Moreover, authors and literature publishers believe that Japanese libraries purchase bestsellers to excess; libraries have been accused of causing authors to lose income, and they have also been asked to establish a public lending right system.

To get a better understanding of the actual situation, the Japan Library Association and the Japan Book Publishers Association carried out a joint nationwide survey for the first time to examine the situation more carefully. 3. Publication Data and Bibliographies The National Diet Library edits a bibliography of books published in Japan in conjunction with its book acquisition system. This listing is offered to the public as the Japan National Bibliography (weekly). A magnetic tape version, JAPAN/MARC, has been offered since 1981, and a CD-ROM version, J-BISC, has been available since 1988. These bibliographies serve as the basic publications database for all the libraries in the country. The National Diet Library has also begun to provide the bibliographic information services over the Internet in 2002. In 2007, it stopped to issue the book catalogues; Japan National Bibliography and the information is now available only through the internet. Today, 88 percent of public libraries and 93 percent of university libraries are using computers to manage their institutions. Accordingly, the use of databases in libraries has increased: in addition to the JAPAN/MARC system, publishing-related organizations are proceeding with “civilian MARC” based on their own publishing information. The National Institute of Informatics various databases are also popular, and the utilization of CD-ROMs, videos and new media resources in libraries has increased as society becomes increasingly information-oriented. With the popularization of the internet, the libraries open their internet websites allowing customers to search books and reserve them, which has increased the number of users. How this trend will affect the publishing industry, both directly and indirectly, is an important question. More information about libraries in Japan can be supplied by the Japan Library Association and the National Diet Library.

Chapter 11
The Japan Book Publishers Association
1. Establishment and Membership The Japan Book Publishers Association (JBPA) was established in March 1957 to promote the growth of the publishing industry and to contribute to the development of publishing culture. Today, there are about 462 member companies, the majority of which are located in Tokyo. JBPA has also established branch offices in Osaka and Kyoto. JBPA members produce more than 80 percent of copies published in Japan. 2. Structure and Activities The JBPA holds monthly Board of Director and Standing Committee meetings, and special committee meetings are scheduled as necessary. The general affairs of the organization are administered by the Executive Office. The JBPA is active in all areas of publishing, including research and negotiation. The primary concerns of the association are the sales, production and copyright of books. The JBPA also promotes free speech and freedom of the press, offers educational seminars on publishing, participates in the development of publishing-related accounting procedures, pursues international exchanges and liaises with various libraries in Japan. 3. Major Activities and Services of the JBPA The Books.or.jp Search Engine/Japanese Books in Print Database JBPA’s online search engine, www.books.or.jp, can be used to search the list of books in print in Japan (840,000 as of January 2010). The database is updated daily, and utilized as the basic database of publications by bookstores, wholesalers and libraries. The search engine can handle queries by title, author and keyword, and details (title, series title, author, publisher, date of publication, price, size and ISBN number) can be called up from individual search results. Clicking on the publisher’s name will bring up the publisher’s contact information, facilitating direct inquiries, and users can jump directly to the websites of 4,696 publishers in 2010 January. An additional feature, called BooksLink, allows users to click on a book title to go directly to a publisher’s summary page. As of September 2007, 194 publishers use this feature for some 140,000 titles. Work is underway to further develop the engine to better serve readers’ needs and assist in providing information on publication schedules to ease distribution problems. Books.or.jp gets an average of one million hits per month, proving that the site is assisting the public in their search for books.

Publishing Training Course for New and Key Employees Each April, JBPA holds a two-day publishing training course for new employees of both member and non-member companies. Customized seminars and observation tours can also be arranged for key personnel. The Best Designed Book Contest The Best Designed Book Contest is held each April. More than 30 books are awarded for the main three prizes (Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Prize, Minister of Economy Trade and Industry Prize, Tokyo Gubernatorial Prize) and other sponsor prizes. Winning entries are then exhibited at the Tokyo International Book Fair in each July. This contest not only promotes improvements in the publishing, design, printing and bookbinding industries, but it also stimulates readers’ appreciation of the art of bookmaking. Winning entries are subsequently entered in the “Best Designed Books from All over the World” exhibition held every March in Leipzig, Germany. In 2008, “The Birds and Birdlore of Tokugawa Japan” was awarded “Silver Prize”, which is the third prize of this world contest. This book had been awarded in the Best Designed Book Contest in 2007.

Chapter 12
Publishing-Related Associations and Organizations
Publishing-Related Associations The Antiquarian Booksellers Association 29, San’ei-cho, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0008 Tel: 03-3357-1412 Fax: 03- 3357-1785 www.yushodo.co.jp
The Asia-Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO (ACCU) 6, Fukuromachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8484 Tel: 03-3269-4435 Fax: 03-3269-4510 www.accu.or.jp Japan Board on Books for Young People (JBBY) 6, Fukuromachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0828 Tel: 03-5228-0051 Fax: 03-5228-0053 www.jbby.org Japan Association of International Publications 1-32-5, Higashishinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-0002 Tel: 03-5479-7269 Fax: 03-5479-7307 www.jaip.gr.jp Japan Book Publishers Association 6, Fukuromachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0828 Tel: 03-3268-1303 Fax: 03-3268-1196 www.jbpa.or.jp Japan Booksellers Federation 1-2, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 Tel: 03-3294-0388 Fax: 03-3295-7180 www.shoten.co.jp Japan Electronic Publishing Association Tsuruya Sogo Bldg. 4F, 2-9-2, Misaki-cho Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0061 Tel: 03-3556-5224 Fax: 03-3556-5259 www.jepa.or.jp Japan ISBN Agency 6, Fukuromachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0828 Tel: 03-3267-2301 Fax: 03-3267-2304 www.isbn-center.jp

Japan Library Association 1-11-14, Shinkawa, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 104-0033 Tel: 03-3523-0811 Fax: 03-3523-0841 www.jla.or.jp Japan Magazine Publishers Association 1-7, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 Tel: 03-3291-0775 Fax: 03-3293-6239 www.j-magazine.or.jp Japan PEN Club 20-3, Kabutocho, Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-0026 Tel: 03-5614-5391 Fax: 03-5695-7686 www.japanpen.or.jp Japan Publication Wholesalers Association 1-7, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 Tel: 03-3291-6763 Fax: 03-3291-6765 www.torikyo.jp Japan Publishing Industry Foundation for Culture Jimbo-cho Three bldg. 8F, 3-12-3, Kanda-Jimbocho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0051 Tel: 03-5211-7282 Fax: 03-5211-7285 www.jpic.or.jp Japanese Association of Dealers in Old Books Koshokaikan Bldg., 3-22, Kanda-Ogawamachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0052 Tel: 03-3291-5209 Fax: 03-3291-5353 www.kosho.or.jp The Japan Writers’ Association 3-23, Kioicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8559 Tel: 03-3265-9657 Fax: 03-5213-5672 www.bungeika.or.jp Publishers Association for Cultural Exchange (PACE) 1-2-1, Sarugakucho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0064 Tel: 03-3291-5685 Fax: 03-3233-3645 www.pace.or.jp Textbook Publishers Association 1-9-28, Sengoku, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0015

Tel: 03-5606-9781 Fax: 03-5606-3086 www.textbook.or.jp Tokyo International Book Fair Secretariat Shinjuku Nomura Bldg. 18F., 1-26-2, Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-0570 Tel: 03-3349-8507 Fax: 03-3349-8523 www.reedexpo.co.jp/tibf Governmental Offices Agency for Cultural Affairs 3-2-2, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8959 Tel: 03-5253-4111 www.bunka.go.jp The Japan Foundation 4-4-1, Yotsuya, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0004 Tel: 03-5369-6051 Fax: 03-5369-6031 www.jpf.go.jp Japan Science and Technology Corporation 5-3, Yonbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8666 Tel: 03-5214-8401 Fax: 03-5214-8400 www.jst.go.jp The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry 1-3-1, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8901 Tel: 03-3501-1511 www.meti.go.jp The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology 3-2-2, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8959 Tel: 03-5253-4111 www.mext.go.jp The Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919 Tel: 03-3580-3311 www.mofa.go.jp The National Diet Library 1-10-1 Nagata-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8924 Tel: 03-3581-2331 Fax: 03-3508-2934 www.ndl.go.jp/en/index.html

Main Wholesaler Distributors Nipon Shuppan Hanbai Inc. (Nippan) 4-3 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8710 Tel.: 03-3233-1111 Fax: 03-3292-8521 www.nippan.co.jp Tohan Corporation 6-24 Higashi Gokencho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8710 Tel.: 03-3266-9573 Fax: 03-3266-8943 www.tohan.jp Main Book and Magazine Importers Japan Publications Trading Co., Ltd. 1-2-1, Sarugakucho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 160-0064 Tel: 03-3292-3751 Fax: 03-3292-0410 www.jptco.co.jp Kinokuniya Co. Ltd. 3-17-7, Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8636 Tel: 03-3354-0131 Fax: 03-3354-0275 www.kinokuniya.co.jp Maruzen Co., Ltd. 3-9-2, Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-8244 Tel: 03-3273-3601 Fax: 03-3273-3608 www.maruzen.co.jp United Publishers Services, Ltd. 1-32-5, Higashi-shinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-0002 Tel: 03-5479-7251 Fax: 03-5479-7307 Yushodo Co. Ltd. 29 San'ei-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0008 Tel: 03-3357-1411 Fax: 03-3351-5855 www.yushodo.co.jp Literary Agents The Asano Agency Tokuda Bldg. 302, 4-44-8, Sengoku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0011 Tel: 03-3943-4171 Fax: 03-3943-7637 E-mail: kiyoshi@asano-agency.com

Bureau des Copyrights Français 3-26-4-903, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 Tel: 03-5840-8871 Fax: 03-5840-8872 E-mail: corinne.quentin@bcf-tokyo.com The English Agency (Japan) Ltd. Sakuragi Bldg. 4F, 6-7-3, Minami Aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-0062 Tel: 03-3406-5385 Fax: 03-3406-5387 E-mail: eaj@eaj.co.jp Japan Foreign-Rights Centre Sun Mall No.3, Rm.201, 1-19-10, Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0022 Tel: 03-3226-2711 Fax: 03-3226-2714 Japan Uni Agency Tokyodo Jimbocho Dai-2 Bldg. 1-27, Kanda-Jimbocho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0051 Tel: 03-3295-0301 Fax: 03-3294-5173 E-mail: Info@japanuni.co.jp The Kashima Agency Yanaka Homes 501, 7-20-6, Yanaka, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-0001 Tel: 03-5834-1871 Fax: 03-5834-1872 E-mail: kashima@kashima-agency.jp Motovun Co., Ltd. Tokyo Co-op Nomura Ichibancho 103, 15-6, Ichibancho Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0082 Tel: 03-3261-4002 Fax: 03-3264-1443 E-mail: koga_motovun@mbd.con.ne.jpÿ irie_motovun@mbd.ocn.ne.jp The Sakai Agency 1-58-4F, Kanda-Jimbocho Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0051 Tel: 03-3295-1405 Fax: 03-3295-4366 E-mail: sakai@sakaiagency.com Tuttle-Mori Agency Dai Ichi Fuji Bldg., 2-15, Kanda-Jimbocho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0051 Tel: 3230-4081 Fax: 03-3234-5249

Appendix

List of Members of The Japan Book Publishers Association

The information is as followsÿ 1. Company name 2. Address 3. Tel & Fax 4. Website 5. The number of new titles issued during a year, 6. Date of foundation 7. Subjects Other information such as names of a president and a contact person, and their contact address can be referred on our website: http://www.jbpa.or.jp/

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