Organic light emitting diode


Sheetalkumar Onkari Suraj Chincholimath


Organic light emitting diode


OLED display technology is gaining dominance in the modern electronic era. This technology promises thin, light weight emissive display with low voltage, low power consumption, high contrast, wide viewing angle and fast switching time. An organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compounds which emits light in response to an electric current. A layer of organic semiconductor material is situated between two electrodes such that least one of these electrodes is transparent. Thus these materials are considered as organic semiconductors. An OLED enables us to produce flexible displays. Use of flexible substrates could open the door to new applications such as roll-up displays and displays embedded in fabrics or clothing. OLEDs can enable a greater artificial contrast ratio and viewing angle compared to LCDs because OLED pixels directly emit light. OLED pixel colors appear correct and unshifted. OLEDs can also have a faster response time than standard LCD screens. An OLED display functions without a backlight, therefore it can display deep black levels and can be thinner and lighter than established LCDs. OLED has high affinity towards plastic substrates. OLEDs are used in television screens, computer monitors, small, portable system screens such as mobile phones and PDAs, watches, advertising, information and indication; they can also be used in light sources for general space illumination and in large-area light-emitting elements.



also organic electro luminescent device (OLED).2 HISTORY OLEDs were first developed in the early 1950s in France by applying a high voltage alternating current field to crystalline thin films of acridine orange and quinacine. is a light-emitting diode (LED) whose emissive electroluminescent layer is composed of a film of organic compounds. 1.Organic light emitting diode Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1. where at least one of the electrodes is transparent. 4 . This layer of organic semiconductor material is formed between two electrodes. The first diode was invented at Eastman Kodak in the 1980s by Dr.1 WHAT IS AN OLED? An organic light emitting diode (OLED). Ching W Tang and Steven Van Slyke.

(figure Conducting layer . In this article. Cathode (may or may not be transparent depending on the type of OLED) – The cathode injects electrons when a current flows through the device. 5 . 3. the third layer helps transport electrons from the cathode to the emissive layer. 4.The anode removes electrons when a current flows through the device. Anode (transparent) . Organic layers . (figure 1) An OLED consists of the following parts: 1. we'll be focusing on the two-layer design. Substrate (clear plastic. this is where light is made. foil) .Organic light emitting diode Chapter 2 OLED COMPONENTS An OLED is a solid-state semiconductor device that is 100 to 500 nanometers thick or about 200 times smaller than a human hair. Emissive layer . 2. One conducting polymer used in OLEDs is polyaniline.The substrate supports the OLED. glass. in the latter design. OLEDs can have either two layers or three layers of organic material.These layers are made of organic molecules or polymers.This layer is made of organic plastic molecules that transport electrons from the cathode.This layer is made of organic plastic molecules that transport "holes" from the anode. One polymer used in the emissive layer is polyfluorene.

Conductive Layer 5. Cathode (-) 2. Anode (+) 6 .Organic light emitting diode Figure 1: OLED Structure Figure 2: Schematic of a 2-layer OLED 1. Emission of radiation 4. Emissive Layer 3.

the cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer and the anode withdraw electrons from the conductive layer. It is transparent to visible light and has a high work function which promotes injection of holes into the polymer layer. the emissive layer becomes negatively charged. in other words. That is why this layer is called emissive. The device does not work when the anode is put at a negative potential with respect to the cathode. Indium tin oxide is commonly used as the anode material. Just like passive-matrix LCD versus active-matrix LCD. so they are moving away from each other and do not recombine. accompanied by an emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region. The recombination causes a drop in the energy levels of electrons. because in organic semiconductors holes are more mobile than electrons. This causes a current of electrons to flow through the device from cathode to anode.1 Working Principle A voltage is applied across the OLED such that the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. OLEDs can be categorized into passive- 7 . Soon. This happens closer to the emissive layer. In this condition.Organic light emitting diode Chapter 3 WORKING OF OLED 3. Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each other and they recombine. the anode gives electron holes to the conductive layer. holes move to the anode and electrons to the cathode. Thus. Metals such as aluminum and calcium are often used for the cathode as they have low work functions which promote injection of electrons into the polymer layer. while the conductive layer becomes rich in positively charged holes.

electrons find electron holes. 3.Organic light emitting diode matrix and active-matrix displays. the electron gives up energy in the form of a photon of light. At the boundary between the emissive and the conductive layers. the brighter the light.2 How do OLEDs Emit Light? 1. 2. The color of the light depends on the type of organic molecule in the emissive layer.(figure 3) 4. The cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer of organic molecules. When this happens. the electron fills the hole. The intensity or brightness of the light depends on the amount of electrical current applied: the more current. An electrical current flows from the cathode to the anode through the organic layers. 3. Active-matrix OLEDs (AMOLED) require a thin-film transistor backplane to switch the individual pixel on or off. The battery or power supply of the device containing the OLED applies a voltage across the OLED.(figure 4) 8 . Manufacturers place several types of organic films on the same OLED to make color displays. The OLED emits light. and can make higher resolution and larger size displays possible. When an electron finds an electron hole. The anode removes electrons from the conductive layer of organic molecules. 5.

Organic light emitting diode Figure 3: OLED creating light Figure 4: OLED emitting light Figure 5: OLED emitting colour 9 .

and blue Pixels.used to render the colour picture. The three colours are further refined by a colour filter. The OLED primary colour matrix is arranged in red. rendering outstanding colour purity. Each individual OLED element is housed in a special micro-cavity structure designed to greatly reduce ambient light interference that also works to improve overall colour contrast. The thickness of the organic Layer is adjusted to produce the strongest light for each of the colours -red.Organic light emitting diode 3. which are mounted directly to a printed circuit board.3 How is colour created? OLED has more control over colour expression because it only expresses pure colours when an electric Current stimulates the relevant Pixels. which purifies each colour without the need for a polarizer. green and blue . green.(figure 5) 10 .

1 Passive-matrix OLED (PMOLED) PMOLEDs have strips of cathode.Organic light emitting diode Chapter 4 TYPES OF OLEDs: Passive-matrix OLED Active-matrix OLED Transparent OLED Top-emitting OLED Foldable OLED White OLED 4.2 Active-matrix OLED (AMOLED) AMOLEDs have full layers of cathode.(figure 6) 4. organic molecules and anode. AMOLEDs consume less 11 . The anode strips are arranged perpendicular to the cathode strips. passive-matrix OLEDs consume less battery power than the LCDs that currently power these devices. The intersections of the cathode and anode make up the pixels where light are emitted. but the anode layer overlays a thin film transistor (TFT) array that forms a matrix. mainly due to the power needed for the external circuitry. PMOLEDs are easy to make. PDAs and MP3 players. organic layers and strips of anode. Even with the external circuitry. The TFT array itself is the circuitry that determines which pixels get turned on to form an image. PMOLEDs are most efficient for text and icons and are best suited for small screens such as those you find in cell phones. but they consume more power than other types of OLED. The brightness of each pixel is proportional to the amount of applied current.

so they are efficient for large displays.(figure 8) 4.5 Foldable OLED Foldable OLEDs have substrates made of very flexible metallic foils or plastics. when turned off. They are best suited to active-matrix design. The best uses for AMOLEDs are computer monitors. a major cause for return or repair. 12 .4 Top-emitting OLED Top-emitting OLEDs have a substrate that is either opaque or reflective. Their use in devices such as cell phones and PDAs can reduce breakage. 4. Foldable OLEDs are very lightweight and durable.Organic light emitting diode power than PMOLEDs because the TFT array requires less power than external circuitry. foldable OLED displays can be attached to fabrics to create smart clothing. When a transparent OLED display is turned on. are up to 85 percent as transparent as their substrate. cell phone. Manufacturers may use top-emitting OLED displays in smart cards.3 Transparent OLED Transparent OLEDs have only transparent components (substrate. Potentially. such as outdoor survival clothing with an integrated computer chip. AMOLEDs also have faster refresh rates suitable for video. GPS receiver and OLED display sewn into it. A transparent OLED display can be either active.( figure 7) 4. it allows light to pass in both directions. This technology can be used for heads-up displays.or passive-matrix. cathode and anode) and. large-screen TVs and electronic signs or billboards.

Organic light emitting diode Figure 6: Passive Matrix OLED Figure 7: Active Matrix OLED Figure 8: Transparent OLED 13 .

Because OLEDs can be made in large sheets. more uniform and more energy efficient than that emitted by fluorescent.Organic light emitting diode 4. Their use could potentially reduce energy costs for lighting. 14 .6 White OLED White OLEDs emit white light that is brighter. White OLEDs also have the true-color qualities of incandescent lighting. they can replace fluorescent lights that are currently used in homes and buildings.

3. Better Durability . like ultra-thin. and a candidate to be the white-light bulb of the future. Lighter weight . and have a fuller viewing angle. flexible or transparent displays. and can even be printed on flexible types of displays.The screens are brighter. 15 . Exciting displays . Low power consumption . Greater brightness . 5. 4. which we do not have today. LCDs OLEDs have the following advantages over today's flat-panel tech (LCD or plasma): 1. Faster refresh rate and better contrast.OLEDs are a far better choice for portable devices.OLEDs are very durable and can operate in a broader temperature range. It also makes OLEDs much more environmental friendly. 2.Organic light emitting diode Chapter 5 OLEDs vs.the screen can be made very thin. 6.

Good for Eyes: Another great advantage of OLED is that it pts less stains on eyes and hence are eye soothing. 5. Flexible: Now you get displays which you can bend. Slimmer: The biggest advantage of OLED screen is that it is slimmer than LCD display. viewing angle could be as large as 170 degree because they produce their own light which increases their viewing angle. OLED advantage is that it is only few millimeters thick. So these screens often provide better user experience.Organic light emitting diode Chapter 6 OLED ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 6. This advantage will lead great use of OLED screens in mobile phones and other handheld devices where fast response time is usually required. These screens provide better viewing experience because they have better contrast. Efficient in Energy: An OLED display consumes less energy as compared to LCD displays and other display screens. Large Viewing Angle: Viewing angle is always an issue in flat screens. 6.1 OLED Advantages: 1. brightness and color aspects. Faster: Another advantage of OLED is that it has much better response time than other displays. 4. No backlit is required in these screens which is the biggest OLED advantage for use in portable gadgets. 2. 3. This is possible only through the advent of OLED screens. 16 . But with the advent of OLED displays. While LCD and Plasma displays could be few inches thick.

8. This adds to another disadvantage as these screens can't withstand even a small drop of water on display. Low Cost: The price of OLED screens may be much higher now but it will come down as the technology becomes popular. 17 . you will not get benefit of viewing these screens. Highly Water prone: OLED screens are highly prone to water. 3. There chance of getting broken is comparatively less to LCD screens and other displays. So if you have open lobbies where sunlight reaches directly. 6. Compared with LCD.2 OLED Disadvantages: 1. these screens may find good use as mobile phone displays as most people don't keep phone for more than a year. Short Lifetime: OLED's biggest disadvantage is that these screens are not for long use. Durability: Another great advantage of OLED is that it is more durable than traditional screens. current cost is quite high which adds to another OLED disadvantage. these screens are not designed to last as long. However.Organic light emitting diode 7. OLED screens could become cheaper than LCD screens in coming time. 2. In this regard. Sunlight Effect: Another disadvantage of OLED display is that they are hard to see in direct sunlight. So life time may be a critical issue and of course a biggest disadvantage of OLED screens. 4. High Cost: As mentioned above. LCD screens are less susceptible to water damage.

and large-area light-emitting elements. OLEDs have been used in most Motorola and Samsung colour cell phones.1 Commercial Applications OLED technology is used in commercial applications such as small screens for mobile phones and portable digital audio players (MP3 players). watches. portable system screens such as mobile phones and PDAs. car radios. digital cameras.(figure 9) 18 . notably the Z610i. information and indication. and the Nokia N85 and the Nokia N86 8MP. the Nokia 8800 Arte. OLEDs can also be used in light sources for general space illumination. small. as well as some LG and Sony Ericsson phones. and highresolution micro displays for head-mounted displays. advertising. Due to the younger stage of development. computer monitors. Prototypes have been made of flexible and roll able displays which use OLEDs' unique characteristics. Nokia has also introduced recently some OLED products.Organic light emitting diode Chapter 7 APPLICATIONS 7. Such portable applications favor the high light output of OLEDs for readability in sunlight. Such devices can be used in television screens. It is also found in the Creative Zen V/V Plus series of MP3 players and iriver U10/clix. so the lower lifespan of OLEDs is less important here. Portable displays are also used intermittently. including the 7900 Prism. and their low power drain. OLEDs typically emit less light per unit area than inorganic solid-state based LEDs which are usually designed for use as point-light sources. and some models of the Walkman. both of which feature an AMOLED display.

More futuristic applications could be utilized in camouflage systems. numerous universities and others. Until 2005.2 Military Applications of OLED.1. developed by eMagin and Flexible OLED developed by Universal Display Corp.1 Patents Use of OLEDs may be subject to patents held by Eastman Kodak. but is created using magnifying optics from a very small display near to the eye. When projected on a head mounted. General Electric. Among the applications where OLED technology is already maturing are near-eye displays of virtual images. 7. high-contrast automotive instrument panels. or made see-through depending on the type optics used. DuPont. Royal Philips Electronics. in 2005. Two types of OLED applications are currently under various phases of maturation – the near-eye micro displays. helmet mounted or visor display. OLEDs were used primarily for testing. simulation and training. Low-power OLED displays are used in a growing numbers of applications supporting dismounted soldiers and commanders in situational awareness. Such an image displayed with very high resolution. smart light emitting windows. rugged PDAs and wearable electronic displays such as display sleeves.Micro display technology Top-emitting OLED (TOLED) applications could include wrist-mounted.(figure 9) 19 . Yet. such image appears like an image in a movie theater. featherweight. Other applications could be conformed. this technology is being integrated in more military systems and on the long run is expected to replace most small form-factor LCD displays. etc. can appear solid and real. drivers and divers.Organic light emitting diode 7. windshield displays and visor mounted displays to be used by for pilots. thermal imaging.

Organic light emitting diode Figure 8: OLED Display Revenue Forecast Figure 9: Micro Display technology 20 .

gaming consoles or handheld devices. OLED technology will be in mass production and when it will become price competitive with existing technologies. More than 50 percent of mobile phones will have OLED displays by 2012. Many are seeing OLED as a technology of future that will empower video displays of almost all the gadgets in the coming time. all are sure to get OLED displays in future. The technology is bit expensive now and as is only available to those who have craze for it. development of OLED Televisions and OLED cell phone displays has already started. a wide variety of applications will benefit. This technology is certainly going to find a way for itself if not now then in future. 21 . Samsung has predicted. In fact. If it can fulfill its promise. mobile phone. Whether it is television.Organic light emitting diode CONCLUSION OLED displays may look new to many but in fact this is almost a five year old technology which is gaining importance only now when LCD displays have already paved the way for them.

wikipedia.php [8] Photo physics of Organometallics (Topics in Organometallic Chemistry) Arvind Shih-Sheng [3] [6] [5] [2] www. and Alistair J.electronicsweekly./OLED-Technology-Explained. Lees 22 [7] www..oled-info.Organic light emitting diode REFERENCES [1] [4] www.engadget..

Organic light emitting diode 23 .

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