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REOUEST FOR INFORMAT10N ._....•......... 122


9CX)K REVIE'NS .._..
DMSlOM OF _._.ulID


Sec"'.-y lex R.~,


Edltor·,n.etllfll MafyC Wood. C<Mo' n.. Scott R,.... 'I'll'" Sco" Volley of 1M KIol'l'lOtIl Mo..onlOtlU 980-
Editor DOll Ouptu /TIOrphoc: lWO"'flCe. S"l,you COUl'lIy. Coldorn,o The"."., 01'lCl "oHey .......
EdflQtlal -'sMUlnea Mary EI·Bdoul nomtd lot John W $coli who OoK<Mored gold he'e '" 1850 An ort,cle
oboultlle geolog'c OCCllrrefICe of gold in III" '1t900n ol'lCl 'eeen' explorot\Qn
GlaphIcs and DelIO" louIse Huckab~
OCIfY'1)I in , neorby I.Jberty gold m,n,ng dis'nclilort, on poge123, PholO
P1.ltllleIhon, SUperVl1Ol' Jell lambe"
by John L Bu "

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Request for Information

~try .... Del*_ rAee.-_"00II_01 TIII~ I~ a rcqueM for Informal Ion aboul lhe mlln fcalures: and (31 a b"cfdescropl,on
....... ...clGtology The~OtIM;.OS.,1121·20U,
SIr_,sac._,CA858'Ie 5econdclul~" landslides Ifll8ered by lhe Oclobcr 17. 1989 of typc and mechanl~m of the landslidc(s)
jNood II S.C........'O, C'" PCMlm. .lel Send add". . earlhqllale In the Sanla Cruz MOllnl:\ln~ The (mcludlng IhO!ie caused by hqucf~chonJ. sile
~ 10 CAUFOANIA GfOt.OOY (USPS 3!1O a.-Ol. mformahon Will be compiled by the Cahfor· geology. malenal propcrtic:s. and groundll'a·
. . 2lll8O, S - - . CA ~12-2lIeO IU condilioni Or send a copy of a repot"l on
n,l l>cl'arlmenl of ConsenOlllon, 01\ 1)1011 of
AI(lortI: ~-. 000nI.latl 01 ....... _ GtoIogy M,~s and GeoiOlY. lhe US GeologICal Ihe I~ndsllde(s)_
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be used 10 C\-aIU,lle 1M faclon lhal control MIChael W \hnson. CaMarnla Deparlmcnl
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ARTIClES ARE SOlElY TMOSE 0# THE AUlHOAS B,l) l"CllOIl dunll& loC\"Cfe sclsnuc shu-,nl ology, 380CI"1C" DI"I\'"C. Sune 100. Pleasanl
...NO AM NOT NECESSARILY ENDORSED BY THE H,II. CA ~52J·1997 (4151646-59'6. or
To tlclp dc\Iclop I complete map of Iftc dls-
D~.. 1d K Kttfer. U_S Geo&o!.IC"al Sllr"Cy.
Co<~ _ toe aoor...ed ~ ECl<IOf. IflbullOlland I)PC of landslides Ihal occurred
CAl.If'OflNlAGEOlOOY _a-uo.._, S - - dunnl'he.' rceenl Clrlhqllale, ~,enl'MS
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quesled 10 .send (II \oo:all()ll of IJnd\l,de(sl on
a USGS to~raphle base: (124.0001~ (2) a
Gel'1lld E \\eber. Weber and A)SOClalcs.
120 \\hlgale Dr,\'('. Waisonville. CA 95078
Saa_, CA i&812·2iI8O large .cale map of the land~lldelsl shOllllnl! (408) 722-3580, X'

CGEOA U 141111 _IU "990)

The Liberty
Gold Mining District
Siskiyou County. California

TOM FERRERO, Consulting Geologist

Ashland. Oregon

The rugged and SC&f'Iic Klamath Mounlains

geotTlOfpQe jltOWlCll is 01 mIMM! 10 scientists
because oI1l'18 complex structural geology In
lhis regIOn. Movement 01 tectoniC plales 0Yef NOlIn FoI~
Smlmon AI ... ,
geologic lime formed !he geology or Itle Klamath
Mountains. When !his region was Iol'mlng
milions oIyears 890. an oceanic plate to the
weSI was Iorood benealh the North American
conbnootal plale 10 lhe east by a process known
as subduaJOI'l. The heavi8!' oceanic 0'U$1
plunged beneath lhelighter continental crull.
Howe....... nol all or !he ootanic crustal rod!. was
subclucted and some pr;ll1IOn...irlckJding
volcanic island arcs and fragments oIlhe earth',
mande that ie beneath the oceanic crust-were
ltvvsl againsl the continental plate and b&came
assimilated in II. ().ter lime lheae varN:x!s
segmenllo 01 008aniC auslill rock became par1
oI1he Notlh Am&l'ican ~l& in a process known
as aeer.lIOn.
explorllJCln geologislS and mllers are
inl8feSllld in lhis region because ~goilieanl Photo 1. Gold mlning regiol'l ollhe Sawyers Bar area In 1he liberty distria, Klamalh Mournains.
amounts of IlCOnOITlICalIy reeov9fable gold may
S1s,,",you Coonty. v_ it to 1he lIOu!hweS! from EJnll Summit, Scon Moul'llail'ls, ~wlf'>Q 1he North
Fork ollhe Salmon RIVer valey "foregrOlXld. The long spur ridge IAI separates Whites Guidi fBI
rema," undiscovered. Many Caljlomia lode gold
!rom Eddy Guldl (C). Several lode gold min.. were developed near 1he heads of Eddy Guldl and
distllcts that were active III the late 1800. and
Whites Gulch 11'1 the lale 1800s and early 19OOs. The Stuart Fork Formation forms the rugged
early 1900s are being reevalullted by nIIW highlands In photo. The conlatl 01 the Fork FOfTI'Ialiol'l and lhe hangil'lg wall of !he mineralized
Glpbra\lOn melhocfs and geok;lgic lhruSl zone (D) is rouoltly Indicated on the photo. The inaconslbi~1y of some mines reqUIted mIners
models .... .allOr. to haul jl'l equlpmenl and su~es over long dislarlCel. PhoIos b)' aurhor except lIS rtOIfId,


The Libcny gold mining disuict is of the Sacramento Valley into southern arcs to accrete onto the NOM American
located ncar Sawyers Bar in Siskiyou Oregon. II is a stnJ(:turally complex. continent. Regionallhrusl faulling
County, California, on the oorth slope of deeply eroded upland. and is the least ac- subsequently deformed these accreted
the Salmon MowlIains. along the NOM cessible and least geologically known terranes· further IIld they now form
Fork of the Salmon River (Figwe I; geomorphic province in California. The north·south trcnding arcuate: bellS lhat dip
Photo 1). It is one of the principal pre- major rivers in this region have dissected eastward IIld are progressively older to
1970s lode"' gold (quaJ1Z veins) produc- the province into several well-defined the cast (Wagner, 1988).
ing districts in lhe Klamath Mounlains mountain ranges. including the Siskiyou.
geomorphic provinl.:e, which is second in Sou!h Fork. Marble, SCOll, Salmon, and The Klamalh Mountains arc primarily
lode-gold production in California to !he Trinity mowlIains (Figure I). composed of a series of complexly folded
Sierra Nevada Molher Lode. Results and faulted metamorphic rocks of Ordo-
from rel.:ent exploration activity suggest Rocks of lhe Klamath Mountains have vician to Jurassic age thaI have been
!hat !here may be additional economi- been intensely deformed by several intruded by ultramafic rock (peridotite
cally minable gold ore reserves in the periods of folding and faulling and arc and serpentine) and large granitic bodies
Libeny district predominantly the remnants of Paleoz.oic (plutons) from Late Jurassic to Early Ceo
and MCS07.oic volcanic arcs· along with n07.oic time (Clark. 1970). These rocks
REGIONAL GEOLOGY oceanic crust and mantie material on form. complex foundation (called the
which these rocks once rested (Wagner. Subjacent Series) on which younger. less
The Klama!h Mountains geomorphic
1988). Over geologic time several deformed sedimentary and volcanic rocks
province extends from lhe nonhern end
periods of subduction caused these (termed the Superjacent Series) were
Paleozoic and Meso7.oic volcanic island deposited (Norris and Webb. 1976).



... ~llS. 5
• Hornbrook


- North Fork
of Salmon
River Road ,-..."",.,---1;;;;;;;;-

' T\

n 0

Weed ::,1,-
., .:-
,.o. Forks

.... of Salmon
0 Dunsmuir
r ...... " Weitchpec SALMON C~===__~ ....."",
n South Fork
tTl ",.-z. • of Salmon
River Road Trinity
» "'. ~
Hoopa Center
CO "1-
-z. Arcala '"o. Willow 0' ~ ....'" -,
0 5 to t5
, .
20 3
....~' 5

FigUfe t. G_fallocation map 01 !he UbefTy gold mining districl, Siskiyou CounTy. flOflhweslem Califofnla.

Subjacent Sories type in the Klamalh Mountains is quartz the Jurassic Period. The lhick succession
diorite· which represents a less silica- of marine sedimenLary and volcanic suau
Sedimentary rocks within the
rich rock composition when compared was uplifted above sea level, folded.
Subjacent Series include upper Paleozoic
wilh the more silicic granodiorite rock faulted, and intruded by ultramafic and
and Triassic fossilirerous marine
that is characteristic of Sierra Nevada granitic roch. Great quantities of debris
sandstone. congkllnerale. locally discon-
plutons (Norris and Webb, 1976). were eroded from the ancesual Klamath
tinuous lenses of limestone. slaty shale.
Mountains into the bordering seas (Irwin.
and lhinly bedded chert that were
The Subjacent Series thickens 1970). Deposition of marine strall
originally deposited as oceanic sediments
northward into soulhem Oregon. Its total OOC\IlTed throughout most of the
along the border of ancestral North
thiclcness is estimated to be 40.000 feeL Cretaceous Period in the Klamath
America. Volcanic rocks within the
Bodies of u1tramafJC rocks are abundant Mountains region. These sediments
Subjacent ~ ue typically basaltic.
(Norris and Webb, 1976). compose the Superjacent Saies. During
andesitie. and occasionally rhyolitic
the laIC Cretaceous and T crtiary periods.
(Irwin, 1970),
Superjacent series rocks of the Subjacent Series were
uplifted above sea level to form the
The sedimenlary-volcanic marine Superjacent Series rocks include Klamath Mountains (Irwin. 1970).
record in these rocks was terminated by Cretaceous marine sedimentary and Superjacent Series rocks now occur
large-scale intrusions of molten rock volcanic rocks that are up to 5,000 feet mainly on the margins of the province
associated wilh lhe Nevadan orogeny· thick (Norris and Webb, 1976). The and as isolated bodies on down-faulled
(Late Jurassic Period), A common rock Klamalh Mountains began to form during blocks.
's.. Olollaf'/. p. 132. the Nevadan orogeny ncar the close of


The KJamalh Mountains have boc:n
interpreled u being a displKed eJOtell5Km
or the Sierra NevMla. Two signincanl
strue:tural episodeJ: ..e reoogni7,ed: (I) a
period or tighl (Lsoc:linal) rolefing that •
proc:cded and 8tXlOfTIpanied the pilulonic
intrusion during the Nev.dan orogeny.
and (2) during the middle and I.te
Cenozoic Era. noonal and high-angle
reverse r.ulling rai$ed the Klamath
upland. Subsequent erosion crealed the
present rogged lOpOgaphy (Photo I). In
addition to lheIe 1eClonic- cpdodes.
ute:nsive periods or regional thrust
raulling signiflCanLly arrCC1ed Jurassic:
age and okkf rocks or the Klamath
Mountains (Norris IUld Webb, 1976).


Gokl is the most imponant mi~al

commodity in the Klamath Mountains
and occun in placers. massive sulfide
bodies, and quartz lode deposilS
Phom 2. n. Oro Fro hydr-.K; gaId ~ lrt Quaou Viler. near ttw ScoII. RI_, Sisk/rOU Ccully,
(Wqner.1988). Production in the orca 1890s. Gold-bNmfI or....... _ t-lg cam.d by ~ 10 !he aUce whilll a man washes Mountains from 1880 through
1953 totaled 3.861.379 rine ounces, pre-
W«ay the e1pOsed m." tIrraoI WIth. hIgh"9fftsl"l'e WlII*' route (CIIed a -",IN") (lowet nght ot
photo) Photo CXIloYflIsyd tJe s;"uyou C<II.I'lty HisIOriul SocNty.
dominantly from placer deposilS Orwin.
1960; 1970). PlICa gold wu elOlensively
mined during the middle tnd late 1800s
rrom river v.vel.long the Klamath. associated with plutonic rock (diorite:. 2). An estimated 1.210.000 ounces or
Trinity. Smith. Scott, and Salmon rivers quartrdiorite, dacite) and small intru· gold were mined in the 17 river miles
and their tributaries. Older terrace sions of fme.grained light-colored rockJ between the towns orS.wyers Bar and
dcposilS on various levels adjacent 10 (.plite sills and dikes). An intrusive rock Forks of Salmon (Root, 1925). The
these rivers and their uibutaries were (dacite porJityry) is locally called gravel bars, terraces, IJld benches were
orten mined by hydraulic metJ,ods in the "birdseye porphyry" because or its worked ror gold by hand methods. Later
late 1800s (Photo 2). distinctive large reldspar crystals set in • wing-dams IJld flumes were used, and
fine-grained matrix. It is commonly 15- eventually the higher bench terrace
Lode gold deposits are round &OCialoo with ore bodies in the southern gravels were mined by the hydr.ulic
throughout the Klam.1h MowlIains. Klamath Mountains. method, Gravels along North and South
They occur in .11 metamorphosed RussilJl Creek, Whiles Gulch, Eddy
sedimentary and metamorphosed Gulch. and other tributaries or the Norlh
vokanic rock types or Jurassic age and HISTORY OF THE UBERTY DISTRICT
Fork of the S.1mon River thai drain the
older. Gold most commonly occurs in The Liberty gold mining district or Liberty district were also placer mined
native form within quarlZ veins. and is southwestern Siskiyou County is • (Photo. 3 and 4), Eddy Gukh yielded
broadly associated with iron arsenic principal lode gokl producing district in 145.000 ounces or placer gold (Root,
sulride (arsenopyrile) and iron sulfKk the Klamath Mountains. second only to 19'2j).
(pyrite), and locally associated with k.d the French Gulc.h/Deldwood districl ne.
sulride U;akna). zinc sulfide (sphalerite). Redding, C.lirorni., Fragmeruary Lode gold was discovered 11 the Black
and c:oppc:r-bearing silic.te (chrysocoll.). historical rceorcb indicate production Bear mine in 1860. and at the Klamath
The silver content or Mountains £rom the: Liberty district to be Ilicul and Mountain Laurel mines in 1862
ores is usually low. 300.000oWlOeS orJode gold (fable I). (Root. 1915). Production began the yar
following discovery at all three mines
A few lode gokl depo5its have been P1aceJ deposits have also been which were the greatest gold producers in
found in ipeous intrusive and u.l!ramaflC imponanr. producers in the Libeny the Liberty district (T.bk I) (Hoa..
rocks. Gold-qu.-tz veins are oflen mining district.. The North Fork or the: 1971). Produclion rrom these and
Salmon River wu finl mined rCl' placa numerous other mines in the districl
gokl ne. Sawyers B. in 1850 (Figure continued intenniuently until the 19305.

CAlFORNlA ceQ.OGY ..... ,...

TABlE I. REPORTED PRODUCTION' FROU SOt.E PRINCIPAl lCX>E GClO MINES OF" Tl-E uends southw~l-northelSlalong Ihe
LIBERTY MINING DISTRICT, 1162 TO 1". (HIan, 1888; <nwtord, 11$4" 1_; Hamillon. IQ20: nonh slope of Ihe Salmon Mowuains
Flo«. 1825; 1lnZ; Em.n6ori. li32;..bnft, 1i32; Br.cIey, 1i:35 HDl:l, 1971). (Filure 3). It dips mainly south 10 CIS!,
The producIon rw..rrb«a _ c:IlcueI1IId in ITIIr'Iy euu !nIm ~ ...... blaNd on $20.157 told price
from 10depecs 104.5 dcpee$ in the

"hlugh . . price of gold -.cI Wring . . run 01 producDon In . . I..ilel'Iy lhlna. SOUthw~1 half of !he district (Black Bear,
Eddy Gukh. Whites Gukh areas), and it
Mine dips 40 degree$ 10 85 degrees wesl in !he
northeasl half of !he districl (Big Cliff.
"',00) China Gukh, Cow Creek areas) (Figllfe
2: Photo 1). The lJ'lOn'Wous dip 10 the
WCS! is probably due 10 faulting and
>12.05l0 foldinl of the thrusl zone along Ihe odie
of the Russian Peak batholith..
Eddy Gulc:h

Mol.ntainlllutel ".020 The thrusl zone contains nWTlerous

discontinuous slabs of bedded chert and
Bal (also called Caliform. siliceous schist sheilled mainly from the
Consolidated, Gold Balll" 22,900
Stuart Fork Formation. and melamor-
LInIon (also called Ewening phosed organic shales and mudstones
Suw, e.tlulj (carbonaceous Khisl). pelitic schist. slate
and peenstone derived mainly from the
Hayfork terrane. These rocks are folded
and faulted. although their general
Lanky Bob 2••1lilO anilUde is parallel to the l.hrust. They
have been intruded by numerous silk and
1.•50 dikes of predominanlly diorite and dxite
>1,700 porphyry"'. and a fmc. grained. dark rock

,..,. (possibly a lamprophyre·; HoIZ. 1971).

The porphyry .ills and diW conunon1y
form one wall of quam veins Of 0CCU1 as
frapnents in !he vein bearing fissure.
RKad:s ~; prodta:;IlOfl was ~ in manr caM'. The disli.ncl red 10 orange/brown
•• Mowttain l " ~lh IT'll"," _ worlled by ".J. BaI" Compwly in ... wellhc:red wrface expression of !he
producIiYe y . porphyry sills and dikes was called
"t.own argillite" by prospectors. and was
consW:lered a prime indicator of gold
beating mineralilllKln, especially in
Some ore was processed in circular According to local lore. FagllJ1dez was association with quan:r. veining.
pil.1 in which broken ore was pulveri7.ed the captain of a sailing vessel moored in
by stone wheels (lUTastras; Photo .5). San Francisco in about 1860. He give up Gold bearing quartz veins in the
Most ore was processed in stamp mills a sea.going life 10 join the rush for gold. Libeny district mosl often occur along
comprised of batteries of two 10 lhiny. and found pay din at the Humpback mine contacts belween harder, more r~islanl
two stamps (Pholo 6; SlUmpf, 1979). in Eddy Gulch (Filure 3). bedded chert or siliceous 51Chis!, and
Ball mills and flotation systems were softer leu resistanl carbonaceous schisl
employed in !he later productive years (Elmandorf. 1932: Jones. 193'2). When
GEOlOGY OF THE UBERTY DISTRICT the Stuart Fork Formation was thrust over
(Bradley, 193.5; Gowen, 1949). Due 10
the rugged terrain. many openr.lOI's Nearly all of !he lode mines in the the Western Palezoic and Triassic Bell
installed acriallramways 10 move ore Litleny gold mininl disuictce located in rocks, and slabs of each rock unil were
from mines on the Sleep rjdg~ and an approximately 2,OOO·fooc-widc shear sheared from the thrusl faull walls. much
mountain sides 10 more accessible mill zone. This shear zone is in Ihe thruSI of the slippage OCCWTed along the
sileS loca~ down slope on level ground. faulled conlaCt belween undc::rlyingille siliCClOWl rockkabonaceous rock
Paleozoic to middle Mesozoic groenstone conllC-U. llte soflef ccbonaceous rocks
Some comnl\mili.~ were "lied in and marine mewedimenu of the are much more sheared along !he conlacts
the Liberty districl during the produclive undifferenliated Hayfork te:rrlne. and than !he harder silicic rocks.
years. Townsi\.CS with posl offices were overlying Paleomic 10 Triassic bedded
established at Black Bear (1869) and chert and other marine metasedimenu of Later. lensional fOfC~ exer~ most
Rollin (1898) (Figure '2; Stumpf, 1979). the Stuut Fork Formltion (Seyfen. 1968; likely in association wilh intrusion of the
The liner was located in Eddy Gulch. Goodie. 1990). The thrust zone occuu
and was named after Rollin Fagunde:r.. as an oulcrop about 12 miles lonl which ·S-Gbual')'. Po 132.


""""'- Rood
~ River
3~ Mine
e Existing lown

:;..,\!.. Etna
1\ Mountain
o 1 2 Miles
Tanners Peak
l",.V\)SAWYERS ~ 8
~- Klamath
Forest FoAK

Long Gulch L.1c8cF~

1. Homestoke 9. Big Cliff 17. live Yankee
2. Cub Bear 10. Lanky Bob 18. Ida May
3. Hogan 11. Keaton 19. Klamath
4. Overton 12. Uncle Sam 20. Union
5. Highland 1J. Humpback 21. Mountain laurel
6. Advance 14. Block Bear 22. Anno Johnson
7. Rainbow 15. King Solomon 23. Cleaver
CECILVILLE B. Molloy 16. Wilson 24. Hickey

Russian Peak balholilh during !he siliceous rock.k_bonaceous rock con- mobilized by heat now from orogenK
JurWtc Ncv.dan orogeny (and possibly 1aCl$. POfPhyry and odter sills and dikes proc:enc-s. circulated du-ough the reo-
during CRt.ceoU5 and Tertiary orogenic were inuudcd along the opened planes. pened rl5SUIeS. dcpositinl silK&. rnetaJlK
epis0de5·) forced opo'! many of lhc shear sulfides. gold. and olher minerab (Photos
planes in the lhrust zone. Much of lhe Mineral bearing Wiler derived from 8 and 9). This process OCC\DTed in many
opening occurred along !he sheared magma (juvenile w.lCf) or from water phascs. Generally. the sills and dikes
trapped in sedimenr.ary rocks when !hey were intruded first. followed by multiple
',.. Glouary. p.l32.. were deposited (OOlUlltC wilIer) was episodes of vein deposition.


Photo 3. View dowfl Eddy Gulctl 'rom the Klamath lode Oolcl ~n&: Photo 5. Remaina 01 an arrastra at the Anna.Johnson gold ~n&.
TiWlel' Peall in distance. The area in lhe center Ior&gfOUl'ld was Uberty distrid.
ellenslYely ITWled by hydraulic meltlods In the late lllOO$.

The intrusive rocks arc ortcn quile a1lered

when they arc in conlllct with quartz
veins. Alteration products include
sodium rcldspar (a1bile). iron-magne-
sium a.luminurn silicale (chlorill:). and
calcium carbonate (calcite).

Two common lypeS or quanz veins

are white, very line-grained (cryptocrys-
talline) quartz with minor llntounlS or
pyrile and vinually no gold. II'ld while to
clear, medium- 10 coarse-grained
cryslalline quartz with arscnopyrile,
pyrite. and gold. The porphyry sills and
dikes occur with both Iypes or quartz. In
many cases crypIocrystalline qulU17. and
granular quanz occur as layers or lenses
in !he same fissure.

Photo 4. View to the south from \tie Ama Jo/wlson gold ~ne showing the oeSI 0' Eddy Gulch. The
OUI00p8 are bedded d.n IIfld silic:eous sc:hiSI 0' Itl. Stuart Fork Formation. Sheared lhn.lStlone
roclu below these outerops are tldden by limber.


PtlOl0 7. View 10 !he north across China Gulch !rom !he Advarce gold mine. Liberty dislria. '" ""Ide
zooe of carbonaceous schist and rnin&ralized quartz Yeins strikes north hom the Advance fIWle
lICIOSS !hIS canyon and dips stoopl)' wesrward (10 1tle lett in pholO).

.... Pholo 6. Two·stamp rrd at1he Anna Johnson gold mine.lIberrv dial/iet.

Movement along the vein fissures is closer 10 the hanging wall of the thrust SllIface oxidized (Elmandorf, 1932:
occurred between vein filling episodes as zone (Klamath. Union, and Mountain Jones, 1932).
indicated by brecciated quartz SU5pCnded LallIel mines), but a substanlial ore body
in later quanz and gouge. Pre-mineral occuaed doser 10 lhe foot wall (Hump- Gold and sulfide minerals are
and post-mineral north-south and back mine) (Figure 3). In lhe China concentrated in fissure veins. Gold
nonhweSI-southeast striking and steep Gulch area, the ore bodies are aligned occurs mainly as native metal associated
dipping to vertical cross faults complicate along several parallel carbonaceous schist wilh quartz. and a small percentage
the structural relationships. bellS up to 50 feet wide (PhoIO 7). The occurs in auriferous arsenopyrite. Gold
Black Bear mine ore bodies are in two also occurs in altered porphyry where it
From field evidence. it appears that parallel veins (Rool, 1925). contacts quartz veins. Gold bearing
upward migrating mineralized hydrother- quartz occurs as continuous veins of solid
mal fluids circulated into and up through Ore bodies have been mined to depths quartz from a few inches to sevcral feet
the thrusl 7.onc. mainly along the of 1,000 feci (Black Bear mine), 600 feel wide, and as SWIUTllS of randomly
carbonaceous rock/siliceous rock (Klamath mine), and SOO feet (Mountain oriented veinlets in the sheared carbona-
conlacts_ The mineralized fluids were LallIel mine; PholO 10) (Root, 1925: ceous schist and jXIrphyry. Wider vein
trapped laterally by eross faults. folds Weigel, 1935). Numerous smaller ore fissures usually contain a complex series
ard/or pinched vein fissures. Concenlra- bodies in the district were mined 10 of quanz veins and veinlet swarms, cu-
tions of metallic minerals were deposited depths of 100 10 300 feci. HislOricai bonaceous schist and altered porphyry.
in the structural traps. Ore bodies in the records indicate that in some mines Productive widLhs in the mines are
Liberty district are commonly bounded increasing eoSts of hoisting, pumping, reponed \0 average about four 10 six feet
on one side by a pre-mineral cross fault. and cTOu-culting on lower levels to and widcn 10 as much as twenty-four feet
or occur in antidinal folds (Weigel. develop backs· hailed down-dip mining. (Roo!, 1925). Melallic minerals make up
1935). Production in some mines was slOpped about I to 2 percent of lhe vein material
by litigation (Daggetl, 1932) and World (Daggetl, 1932). Non-ore minerals
Ore bearing fissures occur throughoul Wars I and II. Qlher operations were (gangue) include quanz and minor
the Liberty district thrust zone. In the simply mined out. Produclion in lhe amounts of ealcite.
Eddy Gulch area there are significant are deeper mines reached well below the
bodies at three or four levels of the thrust.
The greatest concentration of ore bodies


0 500 1,000

FEET ~O~1~
.-,- Unclude$ sheared ,I_b, or
WPTB end Stulft Fork roc aJ
20 to 30·

~ WlIson ~
Humpback Mine

(Old mill an
town sitel

I ...."••

. BC.../'\
. . / . .- \
....--- cs \
I. -7;!f_.-..... -.,_.~
BC .,..... \
r- ·... \.BC
'-'. \
~~~.:' ."
- ·.05<1
~ GaSh~n.r
•f} Mi.!!!I
Be ~~ cs ~

F",ure 3 Eckly Guldl group or mIIlltS In Ihe Ubefrv gold ""nong dIStrICt.

'30 CALlfOAN1A GEOLOGV .........

.. .
- _ __


-<[ V V "" Thrust Contact

____ .... Veins

>'200 Strike & Dip

......... ". Porphyry SlI1a

•••••••••••• Other Dikes & Sills

((/fJ}; Major Workings

~ Mine ~
______ Road
/ Sam

, . _-rG-p.I}~ Anna Johnson


, Mountain .<[
Laurel ~ A
i A
c .<[
cs.... :;."" t<

,J1, ;,.
w BC
, 20°

\ BC,. PS "
•• BC \'. 1-0"" -<r \>-
Be ~It-
,,,,"IJS~~ A ~

'1 I Bcl Bedded Chert

,/ ......,.·""~8C Union
4" 20 to 30°
\ I csi Carbonaceous Schist

PS ~ A BEDDED CHERT OF THE [ill Pelitic Schist


\ [ill Limestone


CAlIFOflNIA GEOlOGY June 1990 ,"

. . . . . ..."..: .1aull4lourldld _IIW II
~ UFII'IIatIcI» ~ ..... _

1111I...... dIIIlnct Irorn __ accnIId

...... 1n . . MglDn.
.... . . . . . -.rnNllrmg »"'1*101.
will Cll' lode -.....n. ftW'l WCllVIg Il'Wl
,..d.,..... .....
I .~ ;pi.,..
. . . . . . Of . .

cIIriH:lalcncl fIOIPI¥I1c ~

1ilIUndIni mak ,..,.,.

(-..etl IlOi,ltIItillda, and ~ I
PhOto 8. Vi_ 0' a prospect trench fIO<th 0' the AdvatlCe gold mme. Libert)' d,s!ncl. Gold·bear,ng
quam: and casbonac:eou, schist debll, on 1el1. This site is located at the '001 of the s10p0 shown In
tIiIt: ~CD. . . . .d .......

Ph010 7.

...........,: ..... 01 . . ."....'.
and pIldDnIm
- . . parlol ....... o\nlelaCUlnO
............ , ,.....01......
.ua.Il: and Ewer Q *'-.


Results rrom exploration drilling Recent geologic mapping combined IDt"*'IIncbIng ~ ...
programs in the Eddy Gulch area in 1975 wiLh drill core and dwnp sample assays
and 1986 showed that pyrite and indicate that the Liberty mining dislrict . . . ."', . . . . . . radI. NlClDraIN
CIIlI~ C'lOt.~. . . . . . . . . . . . .
arsenopyrite are pervasive throughout the may have economically minable surrace
more porous rock units (mainly carbona-
coous schist and pelitic schist) to at least
gold reserves along vein oulClops in
Eddy Gulch. and possibly in other areas and or tJoil._.....
.-.z tIIarIIr.. pUDnIC rOdr. caw....... tg bioi.
......... amouni quIl'iZ'
and more Nn
100 reel above and below the veins or the district. Additional exploratory
- . I e : ...... 1O ..... 1oroN
(Photo 11). The ratio or arsenopyrite to work is needed 10 bener define the voleMic _: • ,...,., alrwd IinMr bell or
pyrite increases toward the veins, as does distribulion, grade, metallurgy and vrolcIno4a above. subGJcllon lOIMl
the gold oontenL Twenty-rour explora- volume or gold-bearing material.
tory drill holes interscd.ed 29 significant
gold bearing zones that averaged 16.5
reet wide. Assayed samples rrom lhese
zones averaged 0.056 ounce or gold per
ton (Sannes. 1977; Ferrero, 1986). Nine
or the zones were wider than 20 reet.
some were as wide as 42 reet with
average gold values or 0.050 ounce per
ton. Assays or dump material rrom the
Klamath mine averaged about 0.10 ounce
or gold per ton (Ferrero, 1986).

PhoIo 9. n.e Buzzatd vetn at The Advano:e mille is 6.5 leet Wide. dips sleeply eaSl and
COfltaJn5 quartz and carbonaceous setllsl Sample bags 3Jld hammer lor 5<:ale.

Photo 10. Oulcrops in loreground are part of the Mounlaln LalKlII mine PhOto 11. Reverse orculation dtillflg rig at the Union gold mine.
quaJ1Z vtoIn. Most of lhe gold produaion atlhe mine was laken "om ChIs LJb&r1)' distrICt Samplelworn this driling program W8fe used to
vein. The ""irl dips nOf1tlWesterly and Is In an anuelinal fold. analyle the rmning poMlnuai irlthiSlII'N.


Bradley, Walter W., 1935. Sialuyou CoonI)': Cali- Stuart Fork lefl"ane. Klamath I.4ounlillns, Norris. Rob&rlM.. and Webb. Roben W.• 1976,
Iornia Joul'nal 01 Minel and Geology, Thirty·
fi"'t State M"neralogisl's Report. p. 255-327.
northem Calilomia: Geological Sooety 01
America Bulleun. Y. 102, p. 86-101.
Geology 0' Ca~Iomia: John Wiley & Sons.
Inco<porated. 365 p.
Clark. William B., 1970. Gold diltricts 01 Ca~Ior· Gowen. J.B., 1949, Consulting mining Root. Uoyd l.. 1925, Siskiyou County: Calilor...a
..... Califoml. DiVision 01 MlI'IEIs and Ge0l- engineer's repoll on geololfy and potenual of Stale Mining Bureau. Twenfy.fil'$t Report 01
ogy Burre~n 1~. 186 p. the Eddy Gulch gmup: Unpublished. the Slate Mineralogist, p. 428-487.
Crawford. J.J.. 18S4. Siskiyou Counfy: Calilornia HarnalOO. FleIChet, 1920, SISkiyou County: Car.. Sannel, David l.. Illn. Consulting geologist
Slate Mining Bureau. Twelllh Report 01 the Iornia Slata Bureau. Se""nleertth Re· report 01 actiVi\llt1 lor the properl)' 01 Naw
Slati M'n8falogia!. p.275-294. port of lhe State Mineralogist. p. 529-536. Cinch Uranium. SislUyou County. Calilomia'
Ctawford. J.J.. 1896. Siskiyou Counfy: Calilornia Holl. PresIon E.. 1971. Geology 01 the lodlt gold Unpublished.
Slate Mining Bureau. Thineenth Ripon of districll in the Klama~ Mourllains, California Seylert. Carll< .. 1966. Geology of the Sawyerl
the S13te Min....logill, p. 366-435. and Oregon: U.S. Geological SurYlty Bulletin Bal qllldrangle: Oep.aItmenl 01 G8olCienoe.
Oaggln, 8el'l F.• 1932. Mining e"9~'s reporl '290. Burtalo State Univerlily College. Naw YOlk.
on Union Cenll"a1 gold mines, lJbefl)' min~ Irelan. William. Jr.. 1888, Siskiyou Counly: Ca~· Slump!. Gary 0 .. 1979. Gold rmning in Siskiyou
districl. Si~iyou County. Callfomia. Blacll Iomra Stale ""n~ Bureau, Eighth R&poI'I 01 CoonI)'. 1650 101900: Sisluyou Col,lflly HI...
Bear. CaJilornia: ~li.shed. the Stall M.neralogiat. p. 5ll1·565. torical SocIel)' Occasional Paper No.2.
Elmandorf, William J .. I932, Mining engineer's Irwin. W~~am P.• 1960, GeologiC reconnal.. Yleka. CalifonVa, 140 p.
r1lporl on lhe mining propefty of Gold Stan- sance of the norlhem Coasl Rangel and Wagne<. David l.. 1966. Geology 01 the Del
dald.Inc.• Sislliyou Counfy, Calilorma: Un- Klamath Mounlilll'li. Califomia: Callforma Norte and Siskiyou counties and adjacenl
pub~shed. o.Vlsion of Mines and Geology BUnlun 179. poIlIOflS 01 Humboldt. Shasta. and Tnnoly
FerretO. Tom. 19&6. Consulting geologisrs Irwrn. W~~am P.. 1970. Geology of the Klamath counties, Ca~lornia: CALifORNIA GEOl·
report on Eddy GuldllT1lr'Wlg properues. MolKltains: CALIFORNIA GEOlOGY. Y. 23. OGY. Y. "4, no. 12, p. 267-272.
Spnng 19&6 ExplofationPmjacl:Unpubiished. no. 7. p. 135-138. We.gel, C.R., 1935, Civil and minng engWlee<'S
Goodge. JoIvl W .. 1990. Tectonic eYOlution of a Jones, C. CoImck. 1932. Consulllng IT1llWlg In· map 0' Ball mine (Mountal/\ LaullII mine):
cohefenl lale TriasalC subduction compiIU. gl~'s report on Union Central, Mourllain Unpublished.
lau,~. and Klamath mines.libe<fy mining
distria, SislUyou CoonI)', Cati'omia: Unpub-


Reclamation for Wildlife Habitat
An Example From
Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada
GAil A. NEWTON, Plont Ecologist, Division of Mines and Geology
GEOFF G. ALLAN, Senior landscape Architectural Technologist, ,
Transportation, Public Works Canada.

Recloiming mined-out 099,ego,e po" In Calilar-

"10 has be<omll the locus of incrllosil'l9 COnCe,n.
Reclomol,on ordinances hove belln odopllld:
(1110 ""sure complioncll with 0 community', mos- ,
Ier pion thol moy de-igna!.. '~Ific land USIIS to
fulfill thOI comm<Jnity's requirements For Hood
control, greenbelts, 1or><ffil1s, or other land needs;
12) 10 g..... ranlee thol mined-Jond with liltl" 'II'
maining morie! wolue will be '1lItored to on (K-
ceploble cOftd;~on and conform with odjacent
highe.·rnoritllf·volue lands; gild (3}lo odd 0
M&OW.II of community protection to ensure thor
,,""ed-oul property is 'eclOlm"d. ReclomOlion is a
Cosl of doing bUlinen lor th.e oggregote indullry.
T~" following artid .. de",nbes I~" reclamalion of
a Canadian quarry deligned 10 support wildlife.
..• edilol"


tlin.t glance. the golden meadow~

A shrouded in misl appear 10 be nalll-
rallandforms WOOlO I). Grass grows 10
knee level. Spruce grows to lhe edge of
the meadows. providing con:r for many
~pecies of birds. BUllhi~ meadow is nOI a PIlolo 1. View of a portion of Healy Creek pol follOWIng redamOlian. P/rolo by Goil A. Newfan.
n31uml landform: il is a reclaimed gravel
mine in B3nff N3tion31 Park.

Banff National Park altracts more than

Ihree million visitors a year. It is localed yard~ of alluvial aggregate 10 lhe Twin- increased end-usc land values. and
on lhe eastern slope of lhe Canadian ning Project. is an CJtcel!enl example of increased bencfit of hubitat to wildlife
Rocky Mountains. 310ng the Alben3 reclamation planning and implemenl..- (Mencaeci and Carter. 1989).
flank of the Conlinenlal Divide (Figure tion. Healy Creek pit opera1ions. as Wilh
I). Thb. National Park. Canada's firsl. all eXlraClion urea:. for lhe Twinnl1lg Reclam:ll ion of a gravel extraction pil
was established in 1887. Belween 1980 Projeci. were managed and supervised for wildlife habitat. whether in California
and 1986. the TransCar13d3 Highway by Public Works Canada or Albena. rcquires an understanding
(TCH). which bisects Banff National of lhe planl communities und aS~OCialed
Park. was twinned to four lanes. This REClAMATION PLANNING landforms that provide lhe basic needs
TWlOnl1lg Project provided 16.7 miles of (food. water. and co\'er) for wildlife
new highway. which was fenced on both An average of four Ions of :.and and specics. A delailed reclamation plan thaI
side~ 10 proteel1he resident population gravel per person is u.'>cd annu:llIy in lhe identifies u turgel wildlife specie, (or
of deer and elk from the impacts of in- U.S. Bctween 1940 and 1980, an c\ti- relatcd group of wildlife :.pccies) and il.'>
creased tf"oIffie. Underpasses were buill to mated one nil Ilion :lcrCS were rmncd for specific ba~i~· needs should be preparcd
allow animals to pass under lhe highway. sand and grol\·el. and only one'lhrrd of prior to inilialing lhe mining operalion.
However. the fencing excluded wildlife lhat are.. was reclilillled (Swanson. 1982). Because habnat diver~ity is an imporlant
from their grolzing habitat. To compen- consideralion during reclamalion for
sale for lhis loss of hilbital. large scale Sand and gf"J\'C1 IIlrnlflg operalions ure wildlife. the plan should also strive to at·
off-road ~nd and gravel pilS were re- usually located along past or presenl lract other wildlife species. as w..:ll as the
claimed 10 provide forage areas for Slrcam courses; these area.'> oflen support larget specie:.. to lhe sile by en~uring thai
deer and clk. Healy Creek sand highly productive wildlife habilue. Well II conlains many different planl commu·
and gravel pil. a major extraclion planned aggregate pit reclam:1I10n can nities. landforms. and water sources. Not
operalion which supplied 458.000 cubic rcsultlfl cost savings 10 lhe 0pcl'1llOr. only dcx:s this diversily direclly inerca:.e


N 0i..~"'b~~"O Mit"

• Btllb"

I o

Healy Creek


rIg"'" 1. Banff National Po.... A1beffo, ConoOo, ~ng TtoruConoclo

HoghwCl)' otld On a.ea 01 sol'ld olld gtll'Yfd exlrOdlOfl olong H"1y C.Hl.
the numbcrof wildlife species. bUI II alro • the use of vel;ctatlon to natumlize the
creates borders. or "edges." between inted'aee between new con!>true(lon
different plant communities. Edgc~ h:l\'c and remaining fore~t:
been found to greally increase the number
of species able 10 use a site. as wei I as the • contour grading of ~Iope~ 10 recreate
amount of usc a sile receives from any landforms and prevent erosion: Slopes may need to be graded to create a
~iven species. more gradual ri!>C to the pit edge: in gen-
• habitat re-creallon for hooved
mammah such a~ deer and ell. em!. slopes steeper than 30 percent lessen
HEALY CREEK PIT and fish; the value of the resultant habnat (Green
and Salter_ 1987). The next step is to
The lIealy Creck pit exemplifies not • impacts to wildlife by determine if the target specks will U"t the
only thorough prior planning. but also phased mining and sequential a\~Jilablc landforms and 10 increase the
thoughtful planning for ell.. habitat and rehabilitation of sand and gra\e1 pits. \..ricty of landforms on the site. Mlninl;
Io\>ildtife habitat divcnily. The success of operations usually result in regularly
the: Healy Creek pit reclamation progr:tm The nllnLll!! dc~lgn for the pitlncorpo- shaped landforms (rectangular pus).
is based on the mullidisciplinur) planning rated fUllCllonal and operational require- Because Irregularly shaped landforms
process invohing s~cialists from a \,ni- ments for a majOr gravcl e\lrac:tion minco prO' Ide bcuer habitat by incrca..~ing the
cl) of fields. nolabl) engmeering. \\ Ild- as ",..ell as habitat requirements for elk. amount of foresl edge. the landforms
hk biology. plam ecology. and landscape Therefore. detailed plans for the cntire eau!.Cd b) mlllllll; oper.itions may require
architeclUre. These experts worked operation were produced prior to mlnlllg rc,haplllg
together to mitigate the environmental implemcmal10n (Figure 2).
effects ofthc mining oper.llion. Healy Cfi,."('l Pit is located on an altu-
londform vialterrJCc m relam1'ly f1attcrram y,hll:h
Heal) Creek pit provides a model of the did not allOY. for a y, ide variety of lantl-
type of design criteria used for rehabilita- The first ~tep LIl planning for wildlife form' to be created. The "muill-iobed"
tion of other pits along the TCH corridor. habnat ., to determlIle the type and vari- dc\ign and \"Crtieal relief of the pit pro-
The main concerns for reclamation ety of Iandform\ th:lt will be llvailabJc vided the needed variety for intcgmtlon
planning at the Healy Creek pit included: on the ~Ite dunng the reclamation pha~e. With the ,urrounding tcrmin (photo 2).

c"mORNI'" GEOLOGY Ju,,~ 1990

,,, Drailling courses or water bodie~. an
essenti,ll feature for most wildlife recla-
,., mation projects. ~hould be designed for
the targel ~pecies (such as deep JlOnds
3 "
with ...h,dlow are:lS for waterfowl). Water
'0'ff greatly increases the number of .'>pccie~
,f· , :Ible to \I.~e a site :lnd increa~ ... the :lvaiJ-
,0 j able edge habitll!. especially if combined
wilh an irregulllr shoreline.
,,," , ""...
Although water is not an e.'>senlial

- ON
, ON requirement for elk ll:lbitat. JlOnd~ were
included in the reclamation de~ign 10
increase the use of Healy Creek pit
by other mammab and waterfowl. The
ponds:11 lhe Healy Creek pit provide a
variety of aqu:uk habitats because of
the varying water deplhs. irregUlar
shorelines. and season:ll water level

Plants selecled for reclamalion projects
Figure 2. Healy Creek pit neor the Sunshine Interchang!!, .howing the phased mining and r"clamation should Dc based on lhe climate. soils.
plon (1.7). Se$ Photo 2. PJon by lombard North Group, Co/gory, Alberta.
landforms. water forms. and lhe needs of
the largel species. Healy Creek pit is 10-
caled in the montane life lOne that typi-
cally has coot. short surtllllers. and long
cold winters. The Banff region has large
The multi-lobed design of the pil was top~oils a~ a re~ourcc rather lhan a con- seasonal and annual variations in precipi-
based on gr.tvcl extraction logblics amI ~tructiOIlmaterial. TUlJMlil stockpiles were lation and temper,Hure. with annual rain-
the sp:ltial requirements of elk habitat ~tmtcgically located and repl:leertlellt was fall mngcs from 15 inches 10 50 inches
(foresled ,lfcas for c)'.:apc .JIld ('over ph:l~ed to 1I1Inimize erosion and damage and temperatures ranges frortl 85 degrees
within 300-600 feel of foraging arca.\) to the live eomponenb of the soil. Fahrenheit in summer 10 - 20 degrees
(Green and Salter. 1987). The main dif-
ference bel ween the Healy Creek pil and
morc convcm ional designs of gravel pi!:>
is Ihe lISC of relatively shallow excavation
cells as opposed to deeper. more rcclan-
gular pils.

The Healy Creek pit was excavated [0 a

nmxirnurn depth of 17 feCI and reclaimed
to a depth of 13 feel wilh slopes nOI ex-
ceeding:l horizontal to vertical ratio of
4: I. allowing for easy access by elk. This
pit design required more land ,Ind tree
dearing than a more tmditional gravel
operation would require. However. the
ph:lsing of mining and reclamation opera-
tions. the preparation of a detailed recla-
mation plan. and the integration of the pit
with exi~ting landforms. gre:llly reduced
the ~hofl and long term impacts of gravel
extraction comp:Hed with a more conven-
tional pil oper:ltion.

The ,1IJ1ount ,md quality of replaced

top~oils largely determine the product iv-
ityofrx:c1aimed 1'llIds. In montane re-
gions. top!'>Qil i~ often limited: therefore. Photo 2. Aeriol view 01 the multl.lobed delign of the Heoly Creek pit in 80nff Nol1onol Pork.
the mining :lnd reclamation plan trx:ated Photo by A AndeNon.

136 CALIFORNIA GfOlOGY June t990

lal and :-hould be etlher left In pl:K'e 00
lOe Sile (lr added 10 the final planllng de·
sl!!n. Atlhe Healy Creel. pll. dcbm. con·
\I\lrnf of de:ld tree, from the !!n1llhm~ of
lhe slle.....-as placed wllhln lhe mcadov..s
10 udd another dllllcns;(m !<.Ilhe lk"ign


Because mllllllg I' a d)nalnlc procc~.

reclamallon plans ~houtd be: SOnlC"Ahal
fleXible and cOllllnuall) updated as nccn-
.sar); hovoewr. forcfflClCnt and effeetl\;:
reebmatlon. lhe plan h .... s 10 be designed
prior III Ihe bej!.lIlmng. of nunlng. opera.
uon'. DI\-e"llY. III lerms of dlffercnl
Iypes of landforms and "'Oller (om,s. the
number of plant spce)cs 00 a Silc. the
V.HlCly of life forms rcprc<;cnled. and IIIe
,patlal rclat10llsnip of the planl gro.tpmg!..
IS the ~C) for reclamallon for \loildlife
habllal Ileal) Creek Pit eXIsts as a model
of -.ound. fleXible planlllnt: fOf gB\-et pn
Photo 3 An.A: he,d grozltS In ..... 'Wor..t willtife hobolal, f_riy 1M HeoI)r Cr.... .-d and
recbmllllOn for wildlife habitat; ell. grve
g..... el pol. noro bl' It. K-'ius.
loda) "nere there once a gr."el oper-
alion (I"hoco 3)

Fahrenhel1 in wimer. One of Itle bcsl ACllvc re\"cgclallon ef!mts lift often rhe ,ucceM of the Ileal) Creel. pll
melllods f\ll" delcrminlng plant <;('lcCllons I'ICco~ry 10 speed up lhe latunl pro- reclam.lIlOn prot!r.U1l "'':IS assured by lhe
IS 10 ealalog lhe spcctcS l:roY;Jng 011 lhe (" Sh. lhc nlllnbcr of rlant IIllcnilloCiphnar) pbnnllg approach. in-
SIIC "nor 10 dlSlurb,mce and Spcc1C~ Sf'CCICS on a site. and minlmlJC erosion cludllll: ClIpcrl' from .all concerned fielJ~.
~rOYolng II ncam) arcilS Ihal currcnlly IfplanlS are manuall) mstalled on a ~llC. by the dynamIC plannlll& p~s . .and b)
ClIflPlII"llhe lyre of h~tlliallhc reebm;l- the plant nluenal), should be pl:IICcd 1ft ~spomlble lIrpll.'menlalion. ThiS ~mt"
lion pr~rum "1lllry 10 neale. Spc:cllll Irregular pallcrns 10 ertlance habllat dwcr- muhldl.sciplma.r) p1annmg approoch to
a!lcnllon !!hould be !I\ocn to carly l><.ICC~­ sily; rows or unikKmly spiloCcd dc),I1l1b rco;!a", .. tlUlI of l>altd illKl gr.. \'t"ll'lb
sKJnal species (Ihat Ill. plant species .... hlCh should be ;I\olded Specie, choices should can bt cquat1) successful In rcslorlng.
readily in\'auc dhlUlbcu areas following De CrMlIpalllJle Wllh the Site t;haractCflSlICS. enha.ncing. or P1O\ Kiln! "'lkUl(C habItat
natural or human-m:wk: diSlurbanccs). pnwidt food (W" COYer lOr the 1arp:1 specie!>. In California.
and. if non-native. be non-invasIVe.
Wildlife bioloeists have dclcrmincd
pnme ell habitat to be gr.ASSlands con- The main food >;oorc:e (Ihe meadows)
tllinl"$ fCKue and sedge~ mterspersed al lhe lIealy Credo pll wall estab REFERENCES
wilh chrublands and forested areas. on li~hed by scedmg wilh fe-.roe. ",heat
gl~. I~ gloi». and bluc:gIOCo). and nal-
er-n. J E~and So/l.... i.E..1987.~kw;t ~Iopin" lC"rrain (JO percent ur ,.domelon of w,IdJif. hobllot in Ih. (o.....dCin
less) (Green and Salter. 1987) Al lIealy ur.J1 m\"OISlon of lhe area \lob encouraged pro.". ptQ\'>n<:••. Pre-pored lor E"..,ron....'"
Creel. pil. vcgClaled fingers ollhe orl!:I' b) pffi\'Khn& a sullablc seedbed A lew (osoOO and .... berto RKreotio<l. POrb and
lUll chrubialKb and foresced art:alIi .... ere lree anJ ~b IIlCre placed Wikllole foundot;on by Ih. Delio En....ron_toI
prcscr\-cd and lhe shallow. mulll-Iobcd wlthm lhe meadows 10 provide eO\'er Monoge......1Group ltd.• 11.. p.
cJ(eu\"OIlion cells were planlcd:ill> I:faS\- away flOm the pll edge. Trtc. shrub. and MerKo<a. M.c..onde..rt.r. RA. )989,,",-1_
btrbaccous planlmgs lI.:rease the S11l1C- .ec!o,m 11_ bonk It !lock Producll, Novembe.-,
lands. The Irees and shrubs scrttn lhe
lur.aJ dl~",il)' oflhe mullanl hahital. and
meadows from nearby rollds and OIher Swonoon., GA.19B1, Summa.., of ....ildIiI. "OIo;M
disturb:lnces. e!\Sure immediate cover and provide bellcr habllat V".t1ucs ('ueh as both ofgro'<'el PI" symposium 1ft Svedorshy. W O~
food for wildlife 'ptticll •• nd proviJc: a food 0100 "O'l'Cr) lhan oIny of Ihe cumpu- and C,awford, !l.O~ edltOfl, W.IdIif. VoIues
ncarby courcc of seed and planl malerials nenls alone. In addilion. nags. slumps. of Gtov.I Pit>. Sympo_ Procwd'ngl, A-
lhal will naturally illV'.tdc Ihc .ilc. anti (Jcbfls p-ovldc: valuable ....lldhlc habl- 24·26. 1982,\ltSOlo,p I·S ~

CAUfOllN1A Gt:OI.OGY ..... ,... IJ7

Books reviewed in this section are not available lor purchase from DMG.

M'lIIng History


1850-1900. By Gary D. Stumpf. 1979. Siski-
you County Historical Society. 910 South
Main Street. Yreka. CA 96097.140 p. S9.51.
includes shipping and lax: paper cover.

One of the most important hiSlOrical events

in the hislory of CaliFornia occurrcd On janu-
ary 24.1848 when James W. Marshall di~­
cO\'cred gold while digging a lailrace for a
sawmill at Coloma. about 36 miles ea~t of
SUtlCrS Fort. Apparently. the Fir~t primed
notice of lhe ~old d,scovery at Coloma was ill
the Clllift""hlll newspaper. published in San
Fr.tnciseo on March 15. 1848. On May 29.
1848 the newspaper announced that it was
suspending publicalion because ilS OWn em-
ployees were joining the search for gold in
Sierra Ncvada.
In addition to the Mother Lode of the
Sierra Nevada. the Klamath Mountain~ in
northwestern California have produced im-
pressive quantities of gold. The principal
gold mining countics in lhe Klamath Moun-
Hard rock miners of the Blue Grovel gold mine. Siskiyou Counly. Underground miners in the 1800s hod tains include Shasta. Siskiyou. and Trinity.
to be physicolly tough becouse their worlr: wos orduous. Note the white condles they used to light their In lhis region gold-bearing quart2 veins oc-
woy underground. Cove-ins, pop-outs, lires, Roods, premoture explosions 01 blosting chorges. timbers, cur in metamorphic rocks of Paleozoic and
ond equipment lolling down deep sholls coused trogic occidents which were 011 '00 Irequent in the Mesoloic age lhat have been invaded by
underground mine. of Colilornio during the 18oos. In mines thot were hundreds of lee' deep. foils were granitic rocks of Jurassic age. Numerous
o common couse of deoth. Although hord rock mining hos become much lOfer in recent yeors, it re· dikes are associated Wilh the gold veins.
mains as One 01 the most dongerou. profe..ions. Photos courtesy of the Siskiyou C(wllly Historical Gold also occurs in placer deposits along
Society. ri\",rs and streams.

A wing-dam gold plocer mine on the Klamath River OcroU from the long Gulch gold distrid. 5i.kiyou County. circo 1890.. The lorge
spinning currenl wheel in Ihe foreground powers 0 pump thot wo. used to wosh Ihe gold from the ';ve' grovel. and sands. The pile of
olluviol 'ock on which the men ore .tonding was .tocked will. lhe aid 01 a wooden derrick lcente, of photol. Note lhe Rum" operolion
On upper left .ide 01 photo.

138 CALlfORNtA GEOLOGY June 1990

In 18491lotd prospeClor~ f,rsl explored
the Klamath. SCOll, and Salmon fi~ers of the
Kl:arnalh Moontains geomorphic province
In June J 850 gold was discovered ncar lhc
confluence of the North and Soutll forl.s of
Che Salmon RI\"cr, SI~I.IYOU Counly. bUl the
small amounts of placer gold proved 10 be
In~ignlficanl and lhe prospel."IOrS conI inucd
theirscarch In March 1851 significant
• amounts of placer gold v.erc dl~()\'ered al
Yreka F1:us. Wllhin six weds about 2.000
gold-hungry men had rushed to the spot: the
Siski)ou County gold ru~h wa~ on.
In the carly days of the gold rush Cl\lr"ct-
Illg placer dust. rrakes. and nuggets from sur-
face gra~'cJs an(l sands demanded lillie in the
,,'ay of equipment. skill. or manpower. The
early miner was a lough. independent fellow
who lool;ed upon his quest for riches as
"every man for himself." Pans. rockers. long
!Oms, and sluu:es were allihal was required
!O make a fortune. Howe\'er, as gold became
harder 10 find, more efficient. larger·scale
methods - such as drlfl mining, hydraulic
mining, and lode mining - were employed
!O extnCl it. These methods required more
sophisticated equipment. were more expen-
sive. and commonly required financial bad- 'lie PII" Moll gold mine on the Klomotll River I\O'Or Gott>rille, Siskiyou County, circo 1890. Th.. mine
Ing. The once independenl miner lOIn forced operated for six months 0 year during periods allow woler IIow on Ille river. The wing_dom ("pper left
10 combine his efforts with others 10 make a of plloto) il 1I0iding lhe woler out of Ihis expoled and excovated ledion of river bed. The CV"enl
living. Some of the early da}' romance of wheel, "'rned by the river on tile other side of Ihe dom, WOI po..... r.d by two "Chin••• pumps.w lA
prospecting was 10Sl in Ihe process: lhe pur- Cllinese pump wos 0 slonting wooden ~h with the lower .nd in the ........ through wllicll On endl...
sun of gold became less of an advenlure and choin of slanted wooden boords - thaI jult iiI the Irough - moved upwo,ds. uS\lOlty by meOns 01 0
lllOl"e like another way lO make a living. treodmin.1

A drift mine w'as a hori~ontal passage dug

underground to follow lhe gold-bearing de·
POSil and lhlS mcthod was primarily used to
excavale placer gold. Underground crosscut
mining mel hods were somellmes used 10 in-
ler~ct Ihe gold ore al depth The h)draullc
mlnmg method lOla.' u~ed 10 e~'ratl auriferou'
gra\"Cls nd sands by means of high·pres)ure
W:llcr )CIS. often called "'gianI," or
"11l0rlltors. "
The lode mining method was uwd 10 fol·
low gold-bearing fis)ure) wilh a"o,'ialed
Quanl. and melallic sulfide mmerah IR lhe
"ouoI,y rod, A lode mIRe IS communly
called a "'hard rock mine" bccau!>(' ,Ieel
lOul,. dynamne. and powerful cru)hmg ma-
chlRe~ are required 10 e~lract Ihe gold Un·
dl.'r~rouod mIRing mel hod) were dangerou'
openlllOns Ihal reqUired )pecialiled equIp,
mCn! and knowledge
Prior 10 lhe 1970" lhe Klamalh Mount:lIn,
wa' the !'Ccond mo.t rrodu,·ti\'c gold region
in Califurnlll Sl\l.lYOu Counly Wa) a prlllc"
pal gold produclRj! area m the KI;ullJlh
Mounlams unllllhe 1930, Thl~ booi. de-
"'rlbe' the \anous mIning melho\h and the
eqUlpllleol j!old mlner~ emplu)ed 10" re't lhe
yellow melal from Ihe rugged Jnd .ecnie
nM)<JnI3In, of SI~klYOU County. California D
Till! 18905 min.. wlleeled lIil borrow from 'nO"llly Center by way 01 e,no and Sawy.... 10 Grollom
Gulell - a distonee of obo,,' 50 miles - where Ill.' slruc:k a S6.000 pockel of plocer gold

.. .
More Gold Rtnh

Book Reviews WORLO FAcrS & FIGUIWS Th,rd 1:lh-

11I)fl. lIy VIctor Sh()\l.'er, 1'}8,} John Wiley &
GOLD SU;KER. Ad'-cnlurcs of a Iklgian
,'rgonaul donng Ihe Guld Ru~h Year, By
Stm" 605 Third Avenue. New Yor"-, NY jean-NIcolas l'crlOl. l'ran~laled by Helen II
10158 721 P $5995, h~rd c,,~·er. Ihelnur Edlled by 11 R. Laman. 19115. Yalc
Unl\'erSlI)' "ress. 411 North Branfurd RlIad.
EDM TRAVERSES MhASUR~MENT. CUtll!lardltVC data on 2 l!l ClIunlnes, IWcr Ilranfonl, COnnCCllCOl 06405. 4SI!' Hard
COMI'UTATION AND ADJUSTMENT. fly 2.650 CllIe,. and abuul 3.000 llcogr.lphle and cover.
R,G. Bird. 19119. Loogllllm ScientifiC & cullurdl fealures of Ihc ....orld arc pruvided m
Technical, Es»ex. England Copuhlhhcd by Ih" handhuo~ Orj;anlled lAW elewn Many bt)()~S havc been "-'fllIen ",-,htch shed
John Wiley & Son~. IlK .. 605 Third Avenue. 11On,. Ihe book contaIn., counl ry labre, by IIghl on lhe ~ocialand cult oral history of lhe
New York. NY 101:511 1411 p. $6195. hard C<lAlmenl; ctty lables. by cUntlnenl and coun- guld ro,h er.. In Caltfurni;l. Thl' narr.ttl\'e of
eu,'cr. Iry; counlry ("umpan,ons; clly cumpartS(m~; a gtfted sloryleller relays IInporlant lhemes
eumllam.lms of cultur.l1 fealur"". gcogT:lphle uf l:urOf'C'an and American history -lhe
A 11"ll\1:rse lIlay be defined 3' II ~lIr~cy by lable, and compan....m' uf sca~. !'lands. riV,
e,",. mountatn,. nalllT:lI la~es. and lI.alcrfalr.-
rcaCIIOfl of lhe Frcnchman 10 Ihe gold ru,h.
lhe plonecr espenence of illlnllgr.tms III the
mca~urmg straight hnc, frnm pOlnl1O pmnl
and Ihe angle bel...·ccn. An 100M IS an clcc- Informauoo. ,uch as hydrographic fealures WC'I Coast. the forctgn per'peellve on life In
lr,)nic dlslarICc-mca,uring Instrument. of ethe'. populallon slahsllCs. eounln", ",-,uh nmctcenlh-cenlury Caltfornla and Ihe P..lClflC
Th,s technical book ,ncludes lhe folJU"'mg j;real"'l encrgy production. hlghesl ell,e,. Nurthwe,I, Ihc CUSlom, of Ihe now·e~l,ncl
chapler': lravcrse~; lhe oo'iCr\lalion of angles longest bridge,. and lalliude and longuude lIf Yosennlc Illdians.
and bearings; correction 10 measured cl". '.HllIUs ril'cr., un readily be located, In 11150. Jean·N,eolas l'crlUI. al..cnty-'tX
lant:cs; EOM calibration: nll!>Closure. accu- ye:lr old Belgian, lefl !'ans 10 JOin a Frcnch
rary. and I'.cighling: rhe method of equal mining company btlUnd for the gold ficld.1 of
shlfls; lilt: method of condilion equa.ions: lhe CalifornIa. l'<'rIOl', narral,,-e begtns ",-,ith hIS
/krIo.·dlld, mClhod: length ralios. or l,ne pairs: ~htpboard ad'-cnlures "" 'he lI.'ay 10 America
ncl .....ork adjuStmenT: and height traver,cs by lie lands al Momerey. Califurnia, and SCb
trigonomelrlcal Ie,·cling. FIELI>GEOPI1YSICS. By John Mtlsom out for the soulhcrn mines 200 miles away.
1989 Hal,ted Press. John Witey &. Sons. Reaching the gold mming I'a",p~, !'erlOl and
Inc. 605 Third AI'enue. New York. NY h,s fnend, become compelent nllners and
10158,182 P $19.95. Mlft cover. begin 10 ~now and admire Ihe Yosemite
Geoc:hemicol ()"Cleo
Indians, wtth whom lhey work placer nunes,
ThIs handbook!' IIltemJcd 10 help anyone l'crlol is hlrcd to open a lr.lll 10 Y<l!>Cnllle for
tnl'oh'cd In small-'>Calc geophys,cal wrvcys u-.:: by I,-,urisl' Then he 'el off for Oregon 10
TION OF TilE EARTH. Edlled by C. 1.1r)'an
II IS de"gned for pracllcal applicatIons In tnVe~hgate new gold diseo\'Crle~. He never
Gre!;or. Ruberl M Garret" Fred T ~bdcn·
I.le. J.llarr) Maynard 1988. John Wilily & field u.)c The buo~ dC.ICTlbesesscnl'al field reachc\ lhese new fields. btll 'lays In
lechnlques and aswcialed equlpmem Wtlh !'unland 10 become a landscape gardener
Son~. 605 ThIrd Avenue. New Yor~. NY
poarlleular enlpha,,, bemg grVelllO practical ThIS huo~ is number 310flhe Yale Un,ver-
10158 2761J lind co"cr
hmtlalton,. common prohlems. and pllfalls, ~uy Wcstern Americana .'CTICS.

Chel1llcal cycle~ revolve around lhe canh

M:llly u",ful c"ampte,. lables. chedli'l'.
and IlJu'traltUlI~ arc proVided IIllhe 1>00"-.
a, il ~l ..wly ages, The cycles run lhrou~h rc\· Chapler, cOlier gT:l' lIy InI·e"'g3l,ons. Illag·
en'olrs _ ocean. all11lbphere. ,edllnenl~, nellC Inl'e'ligatlon,; raIllNeltvily ,un1'y~;
and MJ on -In an InlTlCale nel ..'ork thai eleClTlC current mel hods: direct current
keeps inpulS and OUIPUIS roughly In halance. melhods; Induced polari1allon; eleClro-
re~ponding 10 dt~turbance~ by Sleenng lhe MINERALS ANI) ROCKS. ExerCIse' In
magnelle mel hods; seIsmic melhll'd,; !iC1~mlC
SySlem bad loward~ a slead)' ~Iale so Ihallhe CryMal108mphy, Miner.l108Y. and /-land
reflecllon and 'cisnlle refr.letion ~urveys.
,i~c and contenl of e:..:h reservOIr Slay ap- SpecHnen l'cuolO8y, lIy Cornel" Klem
proximalely Ihe SlIme over long interval~ 1989. John Wiley &. Sons. 60S Third Avenue.
(geologIcal penods or eras). New York. NY 10158 402 p. $28,95. paper
All of lhese geochemical cycles are being GeolKhnology cover.
affecled by human acl,vily. The nalunil me-
laboll\1ll of lhe eanh has been allered by PLATE TECTONICS & CRUSTAL EVO· Exercises in Ihis collect ion arc des,gned
rnan'~ induslrial, agrieullural, and fOSSil-fuel LUTION. Th,rd eduion. By Kenl C. Condie. to supplemenl an introduclory nnner..logy
burning mel hods. Geocbemical cycles such 1989 Pergamun !'ress. Mu..el1 House. Fair- coorse or a beginning-level m,neralogy-
as lhe sulphur cyclc and lhe almos!lherle res- viell.' I~~rk, Elmsford. Ne.... York. NY IOS2J. IlClrology course.
en'oir of carbon have all been aeeeler-ned S49.SO. soft cO\~r, $100.00, hard C"'1'r ThlTly-fivc exercl~s. whie-h Cl1vc:r a Wide
and many subslanees lhal do 1lO1 cSisl r.. nge of IOPICS m cryslallography. nUllcr..l_
nalur.tlly are now being released inlo Rapid accumulallon of dala In Ihe fields of OSY. and hand specimen pelrolog)'. arc
tile almosphere. geophysics, geochenustry, and geology In ineluded. A stalemenl of goal~, background
Thts book opens Wtlll a IllSloriclll skelch of lhe paSI 25 ycars has added much 10 lhe un- mformation. references, and IIllllany cases a
cycli<: proce~!>C~ in geology. II lhen l.h~cusse~ derstandtng of Ihe physical and chemical na- malertals lIS. are tncloded "llh eaeh a~s'gn.
geocllemical cycles in Ihe conlinenlal crUSI ture of Ihe earlh's erusl and of lhe proce,se, menl, The book inelude~ bolh .self-conlained
and lhe oceans and geocllem,nl cyele~ of at- by .. htch u ellolved c~erclse' Ihat can be performed oUl)IlJc: Ihe
nlO)phcTlc ga~e~. Chaptcr J deals wllh IIller- This book d,scu~~s lhe origlll and ellolu- clas~roum or laboT:llory and nlaleTlal,-
BellOn of ellcmieal cych:s Wilh lhe mantle, lion of Ihe earlh's crust. It Include\ tnforma_ depcndem exercise, II.hich llIU\1 be pcrfurmed
Chapler 4 wllh Ihc bl1lchemical c)"cIes of lion on the ongln of Ihe earth· moon syMem. m a elassmom.
carbon and ,ulfur. and Chapter 5 wilh lhc the manlle and core, lhe erUM, plate IC<"lon·
evolVing uogenic cycle 'cs. 1C<"lonlC )('lling~. magma a~socla"oo and
lIy lookHlg al how eanh has reacled 10 pre- manlle sources. PhaAcfUloie orogenic sys-
'IOU~ changcs HI liS I'hemical ma~e-up. Ill- lems. !'reeamhnan cru,lal provlllces, ongm
s'ght llIay be gained IIllo It<l>< earth Will real'l and e,'olullon of the crust amI mamle. and
10 the currenl ~ituallon e"lIgenlc earlh S}'Mem,

'<0 CAliFORNIA GEOLOGY Jvne t990


- - r I, - ,

-' --..- ..
Mllllntaln Building and Contincnlal Growth.

- -
Topic) In lh~ Earth Sci~nces 3. D)' David G. ~.
lIo,,·ell. 1990. London. Roulledge. Chapman
and Hall. 29 Wesl 351h Slreel. New York.
cOlforn,o c""" ... ~

Ii it ~-

NY 10001. 232 p. $35.00. paperback.
Inlroduced III this book IS Ihe conc~pl of

suspeclterrlnes: how SUspcellerranes rClall' "

to classic plale teClonlCS theory. and what
they represent in rerms of mounlain building
and conlincnlal growlh processes.
Q]Po<,,"' .....
CD UI'derpIOI9O_~
~Ba./O.e-~ __

"" 11\>"_' lKI..n
...."'...r 0<..._ uusr
. . 0.0<__ _..."
The term trrmi" rcfelS to topographic or
ph)'siographlc features. such as In a moun-
o 1"1"'"9"...,..... 01 SorWo
Uoo:OO-Qroocopoo~ __
~ "'*"""I' OI'Id...-onoc ........
~ 1~-1O '" Y""' _ _ ,n
I.' Go IKI.......... " , " ' . . . - . . . -
1.1 Go l K I _ o I _ CfO!Otl
lainous terrarn. basin and rJnge lerra;n. or [D-..- c.::..J r......... ng ~l ~ C",1OtI ~ !C!O
dUl:n rerrain. The lerm Irrrmrr describes a 010-2'0", Y Old ..... ton.
parllcular kind of geologic body and requires
a mod,fier for clarlfiutiOll. such as a volcano- A 930 mill·lo~ wI.t_Io_eo.' «on section from tile Colifornia Continental aorderiand ta the Ria
genk lerrane or a limeslone temllle. A lec- Gronde nh.Lote Tertiary ta pr...nt day tectonic mo".menl in this region •• pnneipolly cou•• d by Crul'
tonostraligraphie terrane has both structural tale.tension ond nfling procel105. Theil force. ore octing on old.. rock tilot hoi undergone Ihru.t
llectonk) and straligrapllic crileria. The au- foulti~ ouocioled witil occrellon tectonic move mel'll. m.y.: ",i"ion. of yeof'$ old; Go: glgo·onnum,
thor defines a tectonosrratigraphic terrane as meon....g bI.ion. 01 yeOf'$ old.
a faull-bounded Slratigl1lphic body lhal is ge-
netically unrelated 10 adJOining slr.lligraplilc
bodies. and is genelically dislinct from the
OIher tectonostratigraphic lcrl1lncs in the
In rhe section on rhe Cordillem of Norlh
Amenca. lhe tectonic hislory of the conli·
ncnlal coaSI of thc California Conlincntal MAIL ORDER FORM
Borderland IS described (see cross scl:rion). Complete oddre.. form On next poge
Geologic koowledge has increased dramati- Indicate number of copies Pnce includ05
pottage oMi sole. to.
cally dUllng the laslthirly years. but lhere
are sllll many unkno,,·ns. A glossary and •
bibliography are included. _ _ Bl90 Geology of northe .... California. 1966 $ 10.00
_ _ Bl93 Gold dillrKIs 01 Colifor ... io. 1970 $ 8.00

_ _ SR120 Geology lor plonning;n Sonoma County. 1980 _ . $ 13.50
McIp Interpretallon _ _ SR156 Mineral land c1a..ification of port!<lI'ld cement concrete·grode oggregote
in til. Socrome",'o·Foirfield productiQn_con.umption region. 1987 (new) $ 18.00
FOUR DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF _ _ SR163 Surfoce and groundwater monogement;n lurlon mined_lond rl<lomotion. 1989
GEOLOGICAL MAPS. Techniques of Inter· (new) . _. . . .. . .. . $ 10.00
prelallon. By Clive A. Boulier. 1989. John
Wiley &. Sons. Inc" 605 Third Avenue. New REGIONAL GEOPHYSICAL MAP SERIES (scal. 1,250,0(0)
York. NY 10158. 296 p. S61.95. soft cover. _ _ Mop No. lDAeromognetic mop of tile Sacramento quodrongle. 1988 $ 6.00
_ _ Map No. 20 romog etic mop 01 tile Son'o Rosa quodrongle. 1988 . , 6.00
GeOlOgical maps are the most fundamenlal _ _ Mop No. 3DAeromognelic "'ap of Ih. San Bernardino quadrangle. 1988 , 6.00
unils of a geological dala base. Interprelation _ _ Mop No. 40 Aeromognetic mop of rhe Weed 1988 ... _.. _..... , 6.00
of geological maps requires rhe ability to
retrieve four dImenSIOnal dala from two SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS
dimenSIOnal maps. _ _ SP33 MIneraI. and rocks. 1962 . . .. . . , 1.00
ThiS lext covers the techniques of geologi-
cal map imcrprerallon from the elementary
_ _ SP41 BasIc plocer mining. 1946 .
_ _ SP59 Proceedingl of mined land redomotlon worksllop. June 11-12, 1980. 1982
_ _ SP86 Footilills counhe. rrn ing handbook. 1985 .. . .
, .,,,
, 2.00

, 4.00
lel'('lto a complete analYSIS of a publbhed
map. cO\o"Cnnglopics such as geomorphology. _ _ SP87 Placer gold recovery melhod•. 1986 . , 2.50
~traligr~phy. Igneous and mCtanH)lphlc
rocks. geometry and the dlstriburion of rocl COUNTY REPORTS
unils. and geological history. The le.~llnLro· _ _ CR4 Mine. and m,neral rllource' 01 Tnnity County. 1965 S 10.00
duces remore senSing as an InLegral part of _ _ (R6 Minel and minerai .elources of Sliosta County. 1974 , 7.50
learnmi: how to analylc geologICal maps. II
IS Intended 10 help undergraduate studcnts CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY
reel al ease m map Imerpretat,on _ _ I year (12 ,nues) . $1000
_ _ 2 years 124 inu"sl . S20.00
_ _ Bock .uues (Spec,1y volume and monthJlndivlduol issue. SI.00 each. , 100

TOTAL AMOUNT ENCLOSED .. . . . . . ... .. " _


feci of surfact "',Utr on h)drdUllc slruclures.
T.KII"OI09'f of WoIer MOfNIOflft{j
ground"'":Iltr. scd,mtnl lrlln\port. and slllInl ... More
WATER SAMPLING 1989 Edlled by
Jaromll Kra]ta Translallon edited by Jcremy
Soil 'Ulcr siudles art of partICular rtlt·
~;IACt 10 agriculture and fortslfy and Ifle Reviews
J()!i('ph A~"lillabic from Jolin Wiley ol Sons. Imporlanl In slu(hcs of IIII' effeo;\.) 0( C"":IpG-
Inc,. 605 Thud A\~nuc. Ne\\ York. NY lransplrallon and lhelr rdllllon 10 preCIPlla-
10158 212 p S8995. hard ("over lion, surflCe ",altr,and ,rouoo"'altr
Gmund"'aler quluy mon,IOrtfIIIS usuall)
Waler III a subSlanllallnd "1111 componenl cUrled oullotally and the ,nformallOll ,alh- ocrOBER 17. 1989 EARTHQUAKI:.
olihe envlrOnmenl1n ... hK-h ..~ Ii~~ Because: ertd is us-ed for h)dror:colOllcal and 'co· SA""'TA CRUZ MOUNTAINS (Sltde Sell By
or Ihls facl. upc'f1s from around lhe "'orld chemICal mapplnr:. h)lIroo)namK le~lInl. Gl1Iduale SllkScnts al Ihe Un"'cl"ill) of Calt-
ll'cognl:«' a r:fO¥>lnl need 10 monllor ",aler and studieS of Itmporal \1IUallons In lhe fornl:O. S3nla Cru:( 1989 A\1II1:obk from
qualll), on a r:~l snle Succtssfultn"lron- ,TOUnd..-;ller ~llmc The anal)lltal resull~ E.arlh ScIence 8o.ard. AuenllOll Inn Oranr:t
menIal protl'tllOlland 1M ..hlt~~menIS of of r:round"i1l1tr arc us-efulln ",aler conscr~"a' and Jeff l\.13rshal1. Quale Photo!>. Unl\enll)
a:o!or:lCaltOrlSC'n-;l11Oll depc'nd on Iht 1101I. the protttllOn of aqUIfer<; a,alnSl pollu ofCahforntil. Sanla Cnu. CA 9~ ~500
I'-;lllabllll)' of larlt dala b<lSC's aboul ..-;lltr 1101I and ....."Cr lk~·tlopmcnl. prO\pcctlnr: for ptr 'oC1lm:ol.e ehed, pa)";;lblc 10 l: C RCJCn'-'l;
~loOUrttS m,neral) and dc\"Clopmcnl (If mlncnl p«lI!o- alk"'" four ",«b for lkh~~I)
Samphnl "'Jltr Spc'elmen~ 1\ neco;~r) pc'Cb. dlsJl'O"':II of solid and hqllld .. aSles,
for appr.lllsml ",altr qualll) llId quall"l)' sub\urface SlonlC of hquld\ and ,a'>l:S. U'>l' GradWlle Sllklcnl\ al Ihe Unl\"Cr'll) of Calt·
Currenl and pottntlal u.mphQI mclhods and of mlncnl ..alcrs.ltoIbcrmat enellY. and fornl<ll, S:onla CrUL as)Cmbled a '>1'1 of f\"'I~
ICChnolOlY art dtKu~d In Ihl~ lUI Pre<:lpl' eUlhqune p«'dKIIOIl "~mm ~IKk\ of Ihe rtCl'nt ellrlhqual&' fur
lallon IS umplcd malnl) 10 slud) lll~­ In Ihl\ bool 'OilIer l.lImplln, 1\ Ifuled a~ lexhlng purpo:l'>C' Proceeds VI ,11 hcKfu lhe
phcm' I"fOCtMC~ an Independenl and compln ltchnolOfk:al L"C S:onla Crul Graduale Sludcm General
Surfxt "'<llltf \;Irnrhnr: I~ fundamental diSCipline C<)\~~le ran,t\ from the ,ene~1 Fund
10 qualll) \1u.l1I'~ rtlill,n, 10 Iht U>c 1"':111'1 probkm) of "'aler '>llRlpIIllIIO more 'JIC\'lft~ The '>1:1 Indude:\ tpKcnler dl"'rlhullOn
suppl). IHllallllfl. f I~htrll'~ Iorio de,rtt of U'>I:\ Incllldml! lhC' ....mphnr: 01 alrJlO'phcrl\:
lRl~p \Ie". eros\. '>I'ehon,. and oblique \Ie\\ '.
pollullon Surfxt ",altr ....mrhn, I~ 1M haSI\ preelpI\3t,on. ,urfa.:e ",aler. "'II ..aler, and both .l·O and 2-DI. ~ IC'\O ~ of lround deforma·
or \ludlC's of OI'"r:anll: Itfe In "'illtr and lhe d· ~rQUnd\\-;ltel
IIIIft, landslides. hqucfiICllon eflc:<.'h, enll-
nttflnr: htruclurah failure). I'n:dKled
.. _ " - . IfI>und dtf{\f'mauon. lI('ce!cromeler Uala, and
a 1.1·pa~e 11"1 descnblllg the eloTlhquale In
ADDRESS FORM FOR ALL ORDERS IC"neraland a ~ltde-b)-)hdt dl ...... u\~t<'" , he
Please pronl or lype
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Teoch'F>g ShOe Set
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CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY SUBSCRIPTIONS ''''CIlI)' lSmm ~ltde) \\Ilh a lH:wllcd c\pl:tna·
lion of c",,'h ,1",1e and a facl \heel on lhe
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dCpKI 'Iru':lurat dJI1I"ge in the ,'IIIC\ III
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S..nld Crul MUUnIJln" and Ihe ",.lldp'>Cd
thai the subscription eXPires on rece,pt 01 December 1990 Issue,) Please (') I're" ,'rU~1 ure III 031.1a nd
enclose address labellrom pasllssue The ,l,.k: '1'1 ,,\ullat>1c fur d,""'MIm u...:
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tunOII Address .. ordera 10 QN'ISK)N Of MINES ,\NO GEOLOGY. PO 8oJ< 2980, Sacr.menlO.
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A Page for Teachers

Visit a Mine
.. Minmg, Minerals. and Me" is the
name of an education progrJI11
cndor~ed by lhe California Mming As~o­
cialion (CMA). The program Icaching
modules acquainl grade school (kinder-
garten lhroogh six) students .... ith mineral
resources and the mining industry. The
Associalion has enli~tcd the panicip:nion
of member companic~ in Ihe distribution
of the program 10 interested schools.

The JO-moduJe pad.ct provides ba~lc

information on geology. rocks. and mm-
erals. :lntl thcir formmion; uo;c of minerals
In consumer products: technological ad-
vance' c\ol\ing from rnincrnl uses; the
ongoing need for mineral resources in
modern society; and environmental pro-
tection and reclamation practices. The
Cduc3110naJ packets provide activities that
can be used in nUllhcmatics. spelling.
and olher academiC subJects. as welt as
science. The modules are self-contained
and each module includes Jesson plans for
20 days of teaching. School ch,kI,en pose by huge ....,..,"9 equlp""ent at Jo.... estown ....,.... Tuolumn. Counly, Cal,fomla,
durill9 a vnit 10 the mme. Jamestown has 11'1. third h'9h~lt p<odu(!,on of gold 'n tile stote.
PiIoto COUMly of Sonora Mining Compony
Some CMA member companies aiM!
conducl mine tours for the public includ-
ing students in kinderganen through sixth
grade. and up. The mille tours generally
feature the geology related (0 mineraliza-
tion. proce!\Sing procedures for the mineral
ore. the equipment used. and environ- • Coca Mines Inc.: Cactus Gold Mines • Kerr-McGee Chemical Corporation:
mental protection and reclamation meth- (gold. sillier). near Moj:t\'e. Kern Soda Products Operations-Searles Lake
ods. Lead lime for scheduling tours County (soda ash. sodium l>ulfate. borax. pol-
ranges from two months 10 two weeks. • Grefco: Palos Colol'1ldO'i Mine ash). Trona. San Bernardino County
Most mining companies e:ln accommo- (diatomaceous earth). Lompoc. Santa • Sonora Mining Company: Jamestown
date 30 to 50 tour panieipants. Barbara County Mine (gold. siln:r), Jamestown.
• Homestake MlIllllg Comp:lIly: Tuolumne County
Some mining companies that conduct McLaughlin MlIle (gold. sillier), ncar
tour~ Lower Lake, Lake County

Tcacher~ m:l) requc,t information

Jbout mine tour, and teaching modules;
\;all or write to the California Mining
AMociation. 1010 11th Streel. Suite 213.
Sacramento. CA 95814. (916) 447-1977

CALIfORNIA GfOtOGY June t990 '<3

P.O. BOX 2980
USPS 350 840




BarbarJ Evoy and Mell-loJland. J989.
39 p.. 17 figures. 3 tables. $10.00.

This reporl provides informal ion on sur-

face water and groundwater management
for usc in the mined-land rcclamat iOIl
planning process in California. Mined-
l:lnd reclamation. as defined by the Cali-
fornia Surface Mining and Redamation
Act. is lhe combination of land lreal-
ments which pre~'ent or minimize water
degradation. air polhllion. damage to
aquali,· or wildlife habilal, and cm~ion
re~uhillg from a ~urface mining upcrulion.

Surface water alld groundwater man-

;lgellleni phlY an integral role in nearly
every reclamat ion plan. Groundwater and
surface waler runoff (bolh onto and off of
lhe site) must orten be evaluated (I) lO de-
sign flooding :tnd erosion proteclion mea-
sures such :l~ drainage channels. levees.
culverts. or riprap: (2) 10 prepare and
carry OUI a succes~ful revcget:l\ion pro-
gr.nll: (3) 10 design slable final ~Iopes:
(4) 10 m'lximil-e polenti,ll available wal<.'r
for lhe operalion and rec1<1111alion ~l<lge~:
(5) 10 prevent Ihe di~ch<lrgc of contami-
llanb from mine proce~"es or from mined
area~: and (6) 10 limit long-term 1o:<lchale
formal ion and movemenl froll1lailil1g~.
pil. or wa~le rock di~posal area~.

Thi~ report i~;l guide for nune opera-

lor~.local govcrnment, planners. and
plan rcyiewer.\.

Special Reporl 163 is avail;lb1c for

rderence or pun:hasc (SW.OO) <II DMG
offkes in Lo~ Angeles. f>lc<l~anl I-Iill. and
Sacr;ullenlo_ Copie~ may ;ll~o he pur-
ch:l~ed by Illail ord..:r (sec Mail Order
Form). ~

CALIFORNIA GfOLOGY June 1990 l:l9 1'18IJ