Timing Techniques

Transits, progressions, solar returns, midpoints, declinations and directions, are the timing techniques in most common use for assessing an event, whether past, present or future. The five steps: lunations, ingresses, eclipses, outer planetary aspects and great conjunctions, focus on the short term (lunations) or long term backgrounds (great conjunctions) of the timing techniques. Each will be the focus at a particular time. Underlying the entire set of building blocks, is the national chart, or charts. The national chart represents the "face and fate" of the nation. While every nation is affected by all of the elements represented by the astrological building blocks, each responds differently, to a greater or lesser degree, depending on its national pattern. Either we must be willing to spend time and trouble delineating a national chart, (or charts), or we will be continually reacting to events rather than forecasting them. Transits Astrologers use a wide variety of timing techniques. The fastest are transits the day-to-day movements of the planets and the aspects they form to one another. Transits are very general in their effects, since they affect everyone, every day, to some extent. For instance a square between Mercury and Uranus has the high possibility of indicating a plane crash - somewhere in the world. It can also indicate a large thunderstorm or damage from winds. It may mean a power outage affecting a major city, or parts of one. Transits and their aspects only acquire meaning when they are placed in the context of a national chart or national event, tied to a specific locale. The effect of the transiting aspects depends on the relative speed of the planets involved. Thus, fast-moving inner planets such as the moon are continually creating new aspects while the slow outer planets remain within a fairly small area of a chart for a much longer period of time. In mundane astrology, transit watching is one of the most interesting techniques in assessing the potential in the aspects formed daily by the planets. Transit watching is a valuable learning tool, too. As the news breaks each day, we can match the type of event to the transits and discover the how planetary positions tell their own story.

though it is always possible that some resourceful astrologer will show its worth in the future. the progressed chart indicates when the "change of focus" occurs in the national chart. also known as the annual solar revolution. each day after the birth of the country or event represents one lunar month.Progressions The second most common tool used in timing techniques is called secondary progressions. For instance. In a national chart it is difficult to assess how useful converse progressions may be. this method is based on the "day for a month" idea.and by implication. . This may yet prove to be an interesting timing tool in mundane astrology. which lasts approximately 30 years (one sun sign) it may become quieter. Both progressed planets and birth planets need to be compared to judge how this phase will likely manifest. each day after the birth of the country or event represents one lunar month. So day 1 after inception in a national chart. This may yet prove to be an interesting timing tool in mundane astrology. Converse secondary progressions are in even less common use. this remains one of the most under-used timing techniques in mundane astrology. but once its ascendant progressed into Taurus. Some astrologers also favor the use of tertiary progressions. it may become more stable and staid in its dealings. Some astrologers favor tertiary progressions. Here each day before the nation's birth is equivalent to a year of life. aggressive and pioneering. more prosperous and peace loving. The solar return. In mundane astrology the sun holds a particularly important position and represents the "ruler" of the country . Using this method. The solar return can be cast for any given year after the "birth" of the nation or event. or event corresponds to year 1 in that chart. but in its Taurus phase. Generally. Not as common as secondary progressions. based generally on the "day for a year" method and its variations. Solar Returns Highly favored by astrologers doing natal work in assessing the year ahead. this method is based on the "day for a month" method. the government in power. Thus. a country with Aries rising may be viewed by the world as progressive. Not as common as secondary progressions. is the chart cast for the exact moment when the sun returns to its birth position. day 2 to year 2 and so on. Hence the importance of the solar return chart in assessing where the focus will lie for that year. It's still an Ariesrising country.

that is their declination. who founded the school of Cosmobiology. they are to be considered as influential as a longitude aspect for they carry an intensification of the planets found in the chart. Like secondary progressions. measuring degrees of celestial longitude along the ecliptic.e.namely a parallel. it fell largely into disuse. the celestial equator in order to determine which planets lie north an south of this equator. or one planet is north and the other south in the same degrees . The Moon crossing the equator by declination seems to influence geomagnetic forces on earth. Currently it is undergoing a slow and steady revival as a viable technique it is an area of astrology that deserves more attention than it presently gets. when it reaches the Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer. Although this technique enjoyed much attention decades ago.6N or S) at the Solstices. The midpoint between two planets. Solar Arc directions Among the many variations on the use of directions.Midpoints Many astrologers use Midpoints as a timing technique. constitutes a marker of sorts and events are often triggered when a transiting planet reaches the midpoint between the two. This is another way of using the degree-for-a-year system. Declinations The territorial equator of the earth is projected out into space . Deciding which midpoints to use and when they are significant is often highly debated by astrologers. Declinations add another dimension of aspecting when two or more planets are found in the same degrees north (or south) .i. For instance. When declination aspects are found exclusively of the longitude placements. The use of midpoints was revived and brought back into major use when Alfred Witte founded Uranian Astrology and later developed further by Reinhold Ebertin. In this method. since many earthquakes occur at this time. usually otherwise unaspected by any others. Each planet or angle is then compared to the national chart to see what new . the solar arc remains the most common. it is a very useful timing tool. the Sun reaches its maximum declination (23. Midpoints can be used in regular charts as well as dials. all of the planets in the nation's "birth chart" are advanced at the same rate as the sun's motion.namely a contraparallel. When a natal chart carries an aspect in longitude and the same in declination the effects are very powerful.

1 degree in 4 minutes. culminate and set. or "Primum Mobile". The ratio of degrees to years is called the "key" to primaries. returning to its starting point exactly after 24 hours of S. (360/24 = 15). by early next December it will culminate with Antares. Fixed stars repeat this course identically: after a sidereal day. at about 16h29m of Sidereal Time.1s. as it was called) moves at an exact rate of 15 degrees per hour of Sidereal Time. at the end of May. instead of the ecliptic. The distinctive character of this technique is the use of the diurnal motion of the sky. They repeat this pattern everyday. culminate in the South and set in the West (apart from circumpolar stars. as is the case with transits and secondary directions. not on their apparent motion on the ecliptic.T. which is based on the equator and the parallels of declination. some of them with good reason. . but many other keys were suggested afterwards. i. namely 4 minutes of Sidereal Time. beginning of June. at about 4h32m of S. the Sun culminated with Aldebaran. Celestial bodies rise in the East. which is why it is called "diurnal" motion. They repeat their course. based on the apparent diurnal motion of the planets across the sky. We say "apparent" because neither of these motions corresponds to the real motions of celestial bodies: both are looked at from the earth (geocentrically). The measure employed in the method is the elapsed time during which one complete degree of Right Ascension passes across the meridian. culminate and set at different sidereal times instead.relationship is formed. who first described the method. The Sun. (which lasts about 23h56m4. forever and ever the same . the Moon and the planets ("planet" meaning "wandering" in Greek) rise. For instance. One degree for a year is the key given by Ptolemy. Primary Directions (by Alessandro Barone) Primary Directions is an ancient system of predicting the time of events.T. since all celestial bodies move on them when they rise. and both are projected on a reference circumference: the equator or the ecliptic. that is about a day minus 4 minutes). and culminate in the North). which neither rise nor set. This "sky" (the sky of fixed stars.e. the formidable red giant in Scorpio. the red star in Taurus.with marginal variations over millennia.

according to Vettius Valens. (Hyleg: the luminary or planet that generally signifies the native. according to Ptolemy's key.since 6 hours. The number of degrees and minutes of right Ascension passing over the meridian between the moment of birth and that moment when the aspect is complete. its tribute to the ecliptical system is the consideration of planetary cycles. the planets retaining their radical places and thus carried round the heavens to form aspects to the places of the significators. When the Hyleg culminates. and turned into years with the usual key: one degree = one year. The premise is as simple and basic as that. which can have practical importance during a lifetime. or cross the ascendant. When it sets. As with primaries.) Symbolic directions Symbolic Directions are a somewhat simplified version of primaries. culminating and setting correspond intuitively to the phases of human life.It follows that all Primary Arcs between the sensitive points in a Nativity. This system. the lesser and an intermediate . but are basically intuitive. its tribute to the equatorial system is the consideration of the "rising time" of signs. Rising." Primaries are founded on a very basic symbolism. he will die. the most important point on the ecliptic in his chart. Each planet has three cycles. completely and unjustly forgotten today. It offers an easy alternative to Ptolemaic directions for astrologers who do not have much inclination for mathematics. or meets the malefics in some detrimental manner. Firstly. Secondly. joins the equatorial and the ecliptical systems together. are formed during some 6 hours after birth . Primary Arcs are produced solely by the rotation of the Earth on its axis. with Ptolemy's key. correspond to 90 years of age. They are simply computed as the difference in ecliptical longitude between the two points of the ecliptic. in its absence. or. The Timing of events. the greater. constitutes the Arc of Direction. the rising time is the number of degrees of right ascension that pass over the meridian in order for a sign to rise. each degree equivalent to one year of life. the native will achieve the maximum he is allowed in life.

The equinoxes (meaning equal night).one. the longest night. when the sun enters 00 Capricorn. the time of year when the days and nights are of equal duration. the ordinary rules of astrology apply: the houses and their connection through aspects and rulership. To judge the nature of the events. 44 minutes and 2 seconds. or 00 North or South declination. the casting of lunation charts is the next most common tool in assessing events. measured from the exact moment of the Moon's conjunction with the Sun. The Aries ingress is particularly important in western astrology. when the sun enters 00 Cancer. is in December. occur when the Sun enters 00 Aries and 00 Libra. From an astrological point of view they divide the year into four primary charts. The four cardinal ingresses also mark the four seasons of the year. Seen from earth.New Moon. according to the time shown in any good ephemeris. Full Moon and Last quarter Moon. which correspond to the number of years the planet takes to return to the same aspect with the Sun. The solstice point is when the sun (sol) appears to be standing still (sistere in Latin) as it reaches its furthest declination point north or south before appearing to "turn back. in the same degree of the Zodiac. These charts set up the "week ahead" and are helpful in analyzing an existing situation to see "what will happen next". The winter solstice. Lunation charts can be broken down further into lunar phases.) Older astrological texts were of the opinion that the events promised by the new Moon would actualize around the time of the Full Moon. First quarter. corresponding to the moments of the four phases of the Moon . Its influence is generally regarded as being active for the entire period of the synodic month (29 days. also known as a synodic month. set for the moment of the ingress. some 14 days later. but for any locale of interest. is the period from one new Moon to the next. as this is the point where the . from local weather forecasting to international news. At the summer solstice. The Basic Building Blocks Lunations After the daily transits. the longest day is in June in the northern hemisphere. 12 hours. A lunation. the Sun appears to be at the precise meeting point between the ecliptic and the celestial equator. Cardinal Ingresses The cardinal ingress chart is cast for the moment when the Sun enters one of the four cardinal signs and coincides with the solstices and equinoxes. in the course of the approximately 7 days that each phase lasts.

The lunations successively activate various points of the cardinal ingress charts.western zodiac begins. Nevertheless there are times they may have more impact than usual. coinciding with the day of the last quarter moon. They only occur at the new Moon. sets up a pattern in the sky. (like an ingress). which can be partial or total. Older texts tend to go with the idea that an activating planet. principally Mars. either by conjunction. An eclipse chart. during the Sun-Moon opposition. A Solar eclipses occurs when the Sun's light is cut off from our view by the Moon. the major media trace the start of the violence in the Middle East back to that time frame. For instance. needs to activate the eclipse. probably because their influence is of shorter duration and the fact that the lunation charts are better indicators of "what the Moon will highlight". with Jupiter conjunct Israel's Mercury. Some astrologers like to get the "year ahead" view from the Capricorn ingress chart. The same school of . Solar and Lunar Ingresses Many astrologers also use these ingresses (the moment the Sun or Moon enter zero degrees of a sign) as monthly indicators of events. opposition or square. which is why the lunations are usually viewed against the backdrop of the larger ingress charts. when the Sun and Moon conjunct near the Moon's nodes. the Virgo ingress of 2000 heralded the start of renewed hostilities in the Middle East. A lunar eclipse is when the Moon's light is cut off from the Sun by the earth. holds the upcoming Jupiter-Pluto opposition in the 1st and 7th houses. at 10 Gemini/Sagittarius. in 2002. The influence of eclipses is another highly debated topic in astrological circles. when the Moon's nodes are close to the Sun and Moon. (the Virgo Ingress) at Tel Aviv. which may or may not manifest immediately. The chart. set for August 22 2000. Eclipses are sometimes considered to set up particular sensitive points in a chart. occur about 5 or 6 times a year. Violence began to escalate soon after the first Jupiter-Pluto opposition became exact on September 4 2000. They are considered less important than the cardinal ingresses. although generally lunar eclipses tend to manifest their influence more quickly than solar eclipses. Lunar eclipses only occur at full moon. which lie dormant until affected by a transiting planet. Eclipses Eclipses. Even now. while others prefer the Aries ingress.

or faster moving planets. Each year the outer planets slowly move into various. in various (interchangeable) combinations: Jupiter Religion Gemini People Opposed Pluto by Sagittarius The Masses/The Foreigners Enemy . For instance. with the lunation affecting both the ingresses and eclipses at various points in time. Eclipses belong to a larger cycle too. Neptune and Pluto .are those planets that lie at a larger distance from the Sun and whose motion appears to us to be much slower than the inner.two areas which have been in high focus since then. This idea has been largely tossed aside. Saturn. At this point the Sun and Moon return to almost the same positions again. but it deserves closer scrutiny. More recently. as well as those countries where the ascendant was hit directly by the eclipse degree. Outer Planetary Aspects The outer planets . the eclipses set up further patterns for the year. since they repeat themselves about every 18 years. except that the area of visibility is not the same in the next set of eclipses. the eclipse of June 2002. but it too merits more attention. which first clicked into place in September 2000. the former since the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the latter since the escalation of conflicts over Kashmir. At this point there isn't enough research on this concept to reach a conclusion on its validity. The delineation of all the possible manifestations of these long-term aspects is important to understanding the ongoing "focus" for that time frame in mundane astrology. Jupiter. visible in the Western US coincided with some of the largest wild fires ever in the western US. the dreaded August 11 1999 solar eclipse extended from the north eastern seaboard of the USA. (near New York and Washington) to India and Pakistan .Mars. Older texts also considered the actual path where the eclipse was visible to be the main area affected by the eclipse. fairly long-term aspects and remain more or less in that aspect for long periods of time. For instance. Uranus. carried with it the suggestion of these two concepts opposing each other. the Jupiter-Pluto opposition in Gemini/Sagittarius.thought holds with the idea that the effects of an eclipse are only wiped out once Saturn transits the eclipse degree. Along with the cardinal ingresses.

Charles Harvey said of the Great Conjunctions of the outer planets that they "mark out the key seed-moments of history. the Great Conjunctions belong to the outer planetary aspects. This is another area of mundane astrology that needs more attention from mundane astrologers. in turn. Campion and C. As the JupiterPluto opposition moved away. N.or a noxious weed. Saturn moved in on Pluto. the seed carries with it all the potential to become a giant tree . it is usually accompanied by some measure of instability and the initiation of new direction and activities." (Mundane Astrology. which occurs approximately every 20 years. "Because the conjunction represents both the final fulfillment of the preceding cycle and at the same time the birth of the new cycle. by M. in the earth sign Taurus and holds sway till . The most recent of these occurred on 28 May 2000. but the Great Conjunctions between two outer planets occur over such long intervals of time that they are accorded special reference and importance in mundane astrology. beginning August 5 2001. indicating a specific set of astrological principles that will be constantly at issue and in the news headlines. either favorable or unfavorable." One of the most important of the Great Conjunctions is the Jupiter-Saturn cycle. Harvey). The Great Conjunctions Strictly speaking. Harvey goes on to say. The outer planetary conjunctions are like beacons in the sky. These are charts set up for the precise moments when two outer planets reach their exact (partile) conjunction. At this time the conditions set up by the expanding and widening polarity in Jupiter opposing Pluto became the "new reality". to create the next set of Saturn-Pluto oppositions. As in nature. according to the aspects involved.Big The Clergy Large Immigrants and immigration Religious movements Multinational companies Communications/Telephones Young People Information Movement/s Like-minded people Communications and energy partnerships Income Secrets/Sex National Debt Hidden financial connections Long Distance The Church Affairs Abroad Foreigners/Religious differences Terrorism/Death Places far away The CFO or company treasurer Large scale dealings and trade These are just a few examples of the polarization of ideas and goals that becomes activated by an opposition between two outer planets. Baigent.

both short and long term will play out for the next two decades. these are just a few of the possible implications of the latest JupiterSaturn Conjunction and some of the major topics that will constitute recurring themes for the next two decades in the world. Having done that. Saturn and Taurus: Jupiter Politics Multinationals Saturn Conservative Reality Check Taurus Values Money and Spending Wealth Banks Long distance Older and communication Established and transport Business Bigger Foreigners Large Sweeping Changes Travel International Alliances Religions Large Scale Stability/instability National Financial Security/limitations Implications Weakened Economy Fixed Ideas and Law and Slow. it is necessary to see them as the main backdrop against which all the other aspects. A natal astrologer's first task with a new client is usually to draw up the natal chart and read it as a whole. the astrologer moves on to the transits and progressions to learn about the current focus and where the concerns are. .20 year impact of these two planets. The national chart and its locality on the planet pinpoint just how and when important changes and events can be expected to occur. we need to look at all the key words associated with the three: Jupiter. Steady Order/restructuring Implementation Restriction/security Costs Governments Laws/Strict Adherence Financial Aid Conservative/Fixed Retirement/Losses Money Again. Once again. In order to properly assess the long term . to better understand what makes that client tick. The National Chart or Charts The national charts should form the foundation for all the processes and techniques described above.December 21 2020! The last time the two chronocrators (markers of time) appeared in a Great Conjunction in Taurus was during World War II.

despite its history. or it may expand and contract its borders. particularly the more ancient ones. The (slightly longer) answer is: it depends on a variety of factors. we should be prepared to spend time and energy on delineating the basic national chart. One of the key conceptual mistakes in mundane astrology is the idea that a country. reflecting the various phases of its growth and perhaps even a few more. representing many different eras of their development. this important step is either skipped or ignored in mundane astrology. This brings us to the next most obvious question: which chart should we use? The short answer to that question must surely be: all of them. because of its history. is all that seems to count. It doesn't suddenly enter the world. An ancient chart may still be widely used in a country because it is still valid. the record and dates of the earliest phase of a country's beginnings have usually been lost in the mists of time. in the quest to "look at the transits". it "lives on" through the ages. Some countries.All too often. a piece of land. Astrologers who live in those countries and use those charts are usually the best source in that regard. to understand what is happening "now" about some event. Nor does a country die. have many different charts. or its form of government. can only have one birth "moment". for each and every country we wish to explore astrologically. or whichever chart is currently regarded as the key chart. We need to judge whether a major event signals a "brand new country". an Independence chart and a Republic chart to consider. Merely obtaining the Independence chart. This is an even less satisfactory answer and is perhaps one of the main reasons that astrologers are inclined to give up on mundane astrology. in its entirety. like a person. as a person must inevitably do. such as India have an Empire chart. Unless it disappears off the face of the earth. or perhaps. It was always there. either inhabited or uninhabited at various times in its history. But just as a consulting astrologer would seldom immediately launch into the "what's happening" phase of the reading for an individual client. as independence often does. as a new baby does. or whether the new form of government merely represents a new phase in the country's . This is a fundamental error. Most countries. A country is not a person. It may change its name. It's true that for most places on earth. Each chart has its own significance.

These are dates we do have and dates we can use to draw up national charts. An important announcement or event may take place. But whether they went forward or backward in our view. the new borders were set and internationally recognized as such by the end of the 20th century. The world essentially became a different place. With the creation of these independent states came modernization and new forms of government. amongst other things. until September 10 1993 before Israel's Prime Minister Itzhak Rabin signed the document recognizing the PLO. In assessing national charts and deciding which chart or charts to use. the French and the Portuguese for instance. but without considering what it actually symbolizes in the chart. The symbol has a meaning. With the possible exceptions of Palestine and Kashmir. all granted independence to their colonies and territories sometime in the 20th century.development. it is important to take a long hard look at the symbolism implied by the event. We can do this by using all of the various timing techniques available to us. So it seems much more appropriate that the best PLO chart to use would be the 1993 chart. As astrologers we deal in symbolism. the Germans. as a group of mundane astrologers to painstakingly discover which charts are most "active" for each country. as they were granted independence from one of the countries that had previously ruled them. It is up to us. the true importance of the event may be missed. some more potent than others. to decide which . for those countries. Some gained more land and some countries lost some of their land under various agreements and conflicts. Many others reverted back to their old ways. the fact remains that the large majority of these countries were given their independence in the last century. It represents the event. Mars is symbolic of war. those they had lived with long before their imperialist rulers had arrived. For instance the official proclamation of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was November 15 1988. The Dutch. which have no records of their earliest days. the British. It took another five years. But here's an interesting point. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries a great many countries were "reorganized". But at that stage there was no state yet created. or potential event. We have to resign ourselves to the fact that countries are multi-faceted in the sense that they resonate to a variety of official charts. If it is merely a "new phase" it should be clearly shown in the old chart by secondary progressions or one of the major timing techniques.

ote: The Book of World Horoscopes. by Nicholas Campion. contains the available data. we can cast charts till we are blue in the face. dates and history surrounding the creation or inception of most of the countries on planet earth and is the most comprehensive book written on this area of mundane astrology to date. It requires a large group endeavor and a worldwide sharing of information. . In the end. with all its wonderful timing techniques will not easily reclaim its historical importance unless and until the national charts are properly delineated and used as the real foundation for all the events which unfold in each country of the world.charts are dormant and which are active. but mundane astrology.

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