(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No.

3, March 2011

A review on distance measurement and localization in wireless sensor network
Kavindra Kumar Ahirwar
School Of Information Technology Rajiv Gandhi Technical University Bhopal (MP), India Kavi.chak@gmail.com

Dr.Sanjeev Sharma(Head of department)
School Of Information Technology Rajiv Gandhi Technical University Bhopal (MP), India sanjeev@rgtu.net

Abstract -Localization is the most crucial issue in wireless sensor network for operations and various application like tracking, positioning, monitoring, routing. This paper focuses on study of location estimation for short range low power wireless sensor network (IEEE802.15.4 standard) based on RSSI and LQI. This review paper is divided into three sections for detailed study. First section gives the overview, problem definition and taxonomy of localization. Second section studies the distance measurement and computation based on signal strength. Last section describes two localization methods ML (maximum likehood) and WCL (weighted centroaid localization) which is mostly used in ZigBee standard compatible to IEEE 802.15.4 standard. Keywords- Localization, ZigBee, Path loss model, ML, WCL.

presents a review and taxonomy of localization methods for mobile wireless sensor networks based on Zigbee. II. LOCALIZATION[5 6 7]

I.

INTRODUCTION

Recent advance in wireless communication and electronics which enabled the development of low cost System on chips (SoC) which implements low power, multifunctional, radio transceiver and several sensors called sensor node whose size is small and tiny. A WSN [1,2] typically consists of a large number of these tiny sensor nodes that are deployed in a region of interest. They communicate over a short distance via a wireless medium(RF) with key feature of Adhoc deployment of sensor nodes and collaborate to achieve common applications [3] like General Engineering, Agriculture and Environmental Monitoring, Civil Engineering, Military Applications, Health Monitoring and Surgery. Current WSNs are deployed on land, underground, and underwater. Depending on the environment, a sensor network faces different challenges and constraints [4]. There are five types of WSNs: 1. Terrestrial WSN 2. Underground WSN, 3. Underwater WSN, 4. Multi-media WSN, and 5. Mobile WSN A class of WSN where the sensors node are moving around physical environment ia called Mobile WSN. It can sense and deployed like static node. Challenges in mobile wireless sensor network are self organization of topology, configuration, coverage, energy, maintenance, and data. process. This paper

One of the most key challenges for MWSNs is the need for localization. Localization is an estimation of position of sensor node in terms of coordinate system with respect of time, distance, received signal strength, time difference of arrival, angle of arrivals, theses values to locate the position of a unknown sensor node. For many applications like habitat monitoring, smart buildings, failure detection, target tracking and military applications. It is more important to retrieve the position nodes with respect to a globally recognized coordinate system in order to record the data that is geographically useful and correct.. In this review term anchor or reference node means whose location is already known, which help to identify location of the unknown node. Generally these reference nodes is equipped with GPS or manually deployed for extract the location information. A conceptual framework of the sensor localization classification is shown in Fig.1 It shows various types of localization method. Localization schemes can also be characterized by a set of feature pairs. The schemes differ from one another in the way the inputs are collected. The various format of input feed into localization model for mathematical computational, it gives position in terms of coordinate and shows performance according various parameters like error, complexity etc .The nodes could be static or mobile, deployed indoor or outdoor, in a 2-D or a 3-D space. Location measurements may or may not require additional hardware. The use of additional hardware in a node should be avoided, as it not only raises the cost, but increases both form factor and operational resource requirements. Furthermore, a localization approaches may be centralized or distributed according to the nature of the underlying algorithm. A centralized localization algorithm runs on a base station which may be a coordinator node and all participating nodes must forward their processed data to this central node. The advantage of the centralized approach is an algorithm can be designed that as more accuracy, precision, and can process greater amounts of data. On the other hand Distributed localization methods do not require centralized computation,

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011

and each node is capable of computing its location with only limited communication with nearby nodes. According to scenario nodes are deployed indoor and outdoor region. We categorize the localization problems into mainly two groups: Range Based and Range Free.

Some range based localization scheme are Centroid method [11], each node estimates its location by calculating the center of the locations of all seeds it hears ,APIT[12] which employs a novel area-based approach to perform location estimation by isolating the environment into triangular regions between beaconing nodes or anchor nodes. Some other methods proposed in Bounding box [13], DV-HOP [14] which are range based III. LOCALIZATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK STANDARD IEEE802.15.4

IEEE 802.15.4[15] standard is to define the PHY and MAC specifications for low data rate wireless personal area network which are portable and mobile devices with very limited battery consumption requirements typically operated in indoor environment around 10 meter. Further, the purpose of the developing this standard for ultra low complexity, ultra low cost, ultra low power consumption and low data rate wireless connectivity among inexpensive devices. The maximum and minimum raw data rates were later raised to 250 and 20 kb/s, respectively. The IEEE 802.15.4 supports the star and peer to peer connections and it support wide variety of network topologies. In this section paper studies the path loss model for distance measurement in basis of RSSI of LQI. A. Distance measurement This is the most fundamental issue in sensor network for localization purpose which uses RSSI based methods. The use of received signal strength intensity (RSSI)[16] is one of the most common method for localization purposes. In contrast, RSS is one of the simplest methods of distance measurement and can be easily implemented in real systems. This technique is based on a standard feature found in most wireless devices, a received signal strength indicator (RSSI). It is attractive because it requires no additional hardware, and is unlikely to significantly impact local power consumption, sensor size and cost. In WSN standard RSSI and LQI is directly calculated without any need of hardware. RSSI-based localization in sensor network[17,18,19] currently has been widely used in personnel mine targeting , home network control , hospital patient care , ecological environment monitoring , children tracking , and so on. The principle of RSSI ranging describes the relationship between transmitted power and received power of wireless signals and the distance among nodes. For modeling RSSI and distance there exists several model but this paper studies two models these are free space path loss model and long normal model. B. Free space pathloss model When an antenna that emits a signal uniformly in all directions without any physical interference or obstacle called free space. In free space, the signal power at distance d from where is the signal the antenna is proportional to power at the antenna. If the distance from the antenna is doubled, the signal power will be reduced by a factor of four. The signal power at distance d is also a function of frequency.

Figure 1 CLASSIFICATION OF LOCALIZATION

A. Range Based method Range based scheme calculate absolute distance between two nodes by using RSSI [8], ToA , TDoA [9] and AoA [10]. After distances or angles have been measured, they can be used to compute locations of nodes without location information (called unknown nodes).These method provide better accuracy for calculating node position. Nodes are equipped with radios for capturing the signal strength. In this paper RSSI is discussed in detail. ToA and TDoA is based on time where propagation time can directly be translated in a distance, based on the known propagation speed. These methods can be applied to many different signals, such as RF, acoustic, infrared and ultrasound ones. While in AoA method node measures the angle of incoming signal by using antenna array or compass. Ranges based suffer from requiring extra hardware and environmental condition. .B. Range Free Method In these schemes, unknown nodes collect location information from neighboring anchor nodes (nodes withknown locations, also called anchors) and estimate their own locations based on their anchor nodes location information.

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In free space, the signal power at distance d can be calculated from the path-loss equation (1) is

parameter self adjusting according application it provided on [23 24]. D. Link quality indicator The LQI (25) measurement is a characterization of the strength and/or data quality of a received packet. The IEE802.15.4 standard (IEEE Computer Society, 2006) indicates that, for each received packet, the LQI shall be measured and represented as an integer ranging from 0 to 255. The minimum and maximum LQI values are associated with the lowest and highest signal qualities detectable by the receiver. The before mentioned influences during transmission of radio packets reduce the quality of RSSI extremely. Thus, localization of unknowns becomes imprecise. Another method to determine the distance is based on the link quality indicator (LQI) of the transmission. It represents a number of required retransmissions to receive one radio packet correctly at the receiver. For better understanding of these parameter a table is provided given below with some influencing parameter.
TABLE I.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LQI AND RSSI

P ( d ) = P ( 0) −10*nlog10 ( f ) −10*nlog10 ( d ) + 32.44
(1) P(d)= signal power (in dBm) at distance d, P(0)= signal power (in dBm) at zero distance from the antenna, f=signal frequency in MHz ,d = distance (in meters) from the antenna n= path loss exponent , it is dependent on real environment for free space n is 2 . Free space model is normally used when the transmission distance is much larger than the antenna size and the carrier wavelength and there are no obstacles between the transmitters and the receivers. C. Log-normal shadowing model It is a most commonly used propagation model that considers the shadowing effect, whether in outdoor or indoor environment. This model indicates that the average received signal strength decreases logarithmically with distance. It is also called log normal model .The calculation formula is as follows:

P i , j (d ) [ dBm] = p0, j [ dBm] − 10*n *log10 (

di , j d0

) + Xσ
(2)
Parameters Signal Weak weak strong strong noise absence present absence present result RSSI low low high high LQI high low high low

P i , j (d ) = It represents the RSS at a receiving node I from
a transmitting node j in dB mill watts

p0, j = the received power in dB at a reference distance
from the transmitter j .It is considered from earth which assume 1 meter from earth n= path loss exponent

X σ = is the random noise variables which mean is zero, the
standard deviation is commonly 4-10. It reflects the change of the received signal power in certain distance.(It is also in dB) By using above equation we obtain the relationship between RSSI and distance [20] Usually d 0 =1 meter

The LQI sometimes generated from a signal level determination, a signal-to-noise determination, or a combination of the two, at the discretion of the network node implementer. This enables both received signal strength indication (RSSI) and correlation-based signal quality estimators to be used. The LQI measurement is performed for each received packet, and the result is reported to the MAC sub layer as an integer ranging from 0 to 255. E. Processing RSSI values This section studies the error correcting model [26 27] for getting smooth value of RSSI. When adopting distance measurement based on RSSI, we must avoid the instability of RSSI, so that the RSSI value can reflect the distance of wireless signal transmission more accurately because of their randomness in radio signal. In this section it studies the two experimental models for getting smoothness in RSSI value. (a) Statistical Mean Value Model (SMVM)-In this model unknown node receives a group of RSSI values and then computers their mean value for obtain optimal RSSI-value per distance. the formula is shown as

RSSI = −(−10* n *log10 (di , j ) − A )
The theoretical distance between nodes is given by

d i , j = 10

RSSI − A + X σ 10*n

In practical application environment, path loss model having problem with multi-diameters, diffraction, obstacle and so on have an impact on the wireless signal transmission[21 22] in the .However it is indispensable to adjust A , n and X σ model according to specific environment. In general, the model's parameters are set based on experiences, so it does not have the self-adaptability. For better modeling of these

RSSI =

1 m ∑ RSSIi m i =1

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m is the number of the RSSI values which the unknown node receives. By adjusting the value of m, this model can balance timeliness and accuracy. When m is very big, this model can avoid instability of RSSI but communication overhead will correspondingly be high. (b) Gauss Model (GM) - When an unknown node receives n RSSI values, there must be some values which are small probability events. This value saved in array A[i].It use Gaussian distribution functions which are shown in equations to deal with the RSSI values.

( x - m )2
2σ 2

F ( x) =

1 e σ 2π
n

(3)
Figure 2- Relationship between RSSI and distance

σ2 =

1 ∑ ( x − M )2 n − 1 i =1 1 n M = ∑ xi n i =1

(4) IV. (5) Maximum likelihood estimation [28] - It can be used when number of reference or beacon node is equal or greater then 3.The essential idea is: if the coordinates of n reference or anchor nodes were known as ( x1 , y1 ), ( x2 , y2 ).............( xn , yn ) (7) Their distance from unknown node D (calculated from RSSI) where d1 , d 2 ,........d n and then the following formula with coordinate (x, y) of the blind node D exists : LOCALIZATION ALGORITHIM

The RSSI value which satisfies the inequality P F(x) 1 will be stored in the array of A[i]. According to the practical experience, we choose P as the critical point which shows the probability event. When the value of Gaussian distribution function is bigger than P, we figure that the corresponding RSSI values are high probability events, Otherwise we figure that the corresponding RSSI values are small probability events. Generally value of P is set 0.5 or 0.6. The mean value of all optimized RSSI values can be calculated using the formula as follows

( x1 − x) 2 + ( y1 − y ) 2 = d12 ( x2 − x) 2 + ( y2 − y ) 2 = d 2 2

(8)

1 n RSSI = ∑ A[i ] n i =1

(6)

For getting better result of RSSI value, it has to need impose a threshold value this is called receiver sensitivity -85dB to 90dB. F. Relationship between RSSI and distance In this section it analyzes the relationship between RSSI and distance between two nodes considering indoor environment. These are the parameter which is taken in simulation. Constant Shadowing model- It uses constant shadowing offset whose value is 4 .In this simulator gets an input value of attenuation in dB, which will added to every transmission at every receiver. Lognormal Shadowing model- It uses lognormal distribution for the shadowing value. We calculate average value of each node at distance interval. Mobility is kept none.

Let the first n−1 equations minus the last equation in turn, and then we can obtain

x1 − xn 2 − 2( x1 − xn ) + y1 − 2( y1 − yn ) = d12 − d 2 2
xn−12 − xn2 − 2(xn−1 − xn )x + yn−12 − yn2 − 2( yn−1 − yn ) y
(9)

= d n −12 − d 2 n
The above equations can then be written as the linear type: AX = b, where A=

⎛ 2( x1 − xn ), 2( y1 − yn ) ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2( x2 − xn ), 2( y2 − yn ) ⎟ ⎜ ...... ⎟ ........ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2( xn −1 − xn ) x, 2( yn −1 − yn ) ⎠
Where b=

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x − xn + y − yn + d n − d
2 1 2 2 1 2 2

2 1

x2 2 − xn 2 + y2 2 − yn 2 + d n 2 − d 2 2
……………………………………

the area covered by the sensor nodes. In adaptive weighted centroid localization[31]path loss exponent is adaptively estimated according to the surroundings where the target nodes situates and targeted position is calculated using WCL. V. CONCLUSION

xn −12 − xn 2 + yn −12 − yn 2 + d n 2 − d n −12

⎡x ⎤ X =⎢ ⎥ ⎣ y⎦
At last, the coordinate of node D can be written in the following type by least mean square estimation:

X = ( AT A) −1 AT b
. Weighted Centroid method [29]- The centroid method is a simple, efficient method that can be used in dense sensor networks. This method assumes that there exists a set of anchors having (i) a known position and (ii) and overlapping transmission zones. The idea of the centroid method is to estimate the position of a target as the average value (i.e., the geometrical centroid) of the positions of the anchor nodes in the transmission zone of the terminal. Furthermore, the positions of the anchors can be weighted. The unknown position is computed as

This paper dealt with distance measurement and localization in IEEE802.15.4 compatible sensor network based on RSSI. RSSI in most commonly used method for localization in this standard because of their adaptability in both indoor and outdoor environment without any extra hardware .LQI combination with RSSI is used for characterizing the signal quality of receiving data and give better result instead of RSSI standalone. As this paper discussed two localization model for computing coordinate WCL is much better then ML in terms of complexity because of matrix computation. The problem with RSSI with combination of WCL is adaptation of path loss exponent for real time environment, In this method it is uniform .For addressing this problem AWCL is discussed.

REFERENCES
[1] F. Akyildis, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “A Survey on Sensor Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, August 2002, vol. 40, pp. 102–114. [2] Vidyasagar Potdar, Atif Sharif, Elizabeth Chang “Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey” International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops 2009 [3] Mohammad Ilyas And Imad Mamgoub "Handbook of Sensor Networks: Compact Wireless and Wired Sensing Systems" 2005 by CRC Press LLC [4] D. Puccinelli and M. Haenggi “WSN: Applications& Challenges “, CAS Magazine, sept. 2005 [5] Jing WANG, R. K. GHOSH, Sajal K. DAS “A survey on sensor localization” J Control Theory App 2010 8 pp 2–11 [6] Neal Patwari “LOCATION ESTIMATION IN SENSOR NETWORKS” A dissertation submitted of the for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy The University of Michigan 2005 [7] Guoqiang Mao, Barıs¸ Fidan and Brian D.O. Anderson “Wireless Sensor Network Localization Techniques” [8] Prasan Kumar Sahoo , I-Shyan Hwang, Shi-Yao Lin “A Distributed Localization Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks”The international conference on mobile technology : application and system (mobility conference )ACM 2008 [9] Guowei Shen, Rudolf Zetik, and Reiner S. Thomä “Performance Comparison of TOA and TDOA Based Location Estimation Algorithms in LOS Environment” PROCEEDINGS OF THE 5th WORKSHOP ON POSITIONING, NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION 2008 (WPNC’08) IEEE 2008 [10] Dragos¸ Niculescu and Badri Nath “Ad Hoc Positioning System (APS) Using AOA” INFOCOM IEEE 2003 pp 1-10 [11] Zhen Hu ,Dongbing Gu ,Zhengxun Song, Hongzuo Li “Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Mobile Anchor Node” Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics [12] Tian He, Chengdu Huang, Brian M. Blum, John A. Stankovic, Tarek Abdelzaher “Range-Free Localization Schemes for Large Scale Sensor Networks” mobicom 03 pp 1-15 ACM 2003

P ( x, y ) =

1 N

∑W ( x , y )
i =1 i i i

N

(10)

F ( x, y ) = ( xi − x) 2 + ( yi − y ) 2

(11)

N=no of anchor nodes , (x,y) denoted the unknown node coordinate , ( xi , yi ) is the anchor node coordinate ,F(x,y) denote the error in location computing between exact and unknown node position. The weight Wi is a constraint which depends on condition of distance and characteristic of signal strength.

Wi =

1 (d ) g

Where d is distance between anchor and unknown node. g is the degree which ensure impact of remote beacon in position determination ,higher g will increase position error .Simulation study describe that degree g=1 produces best localization results. In [30] d is considered energy difference between participating node. In WCL one uniform path loss exponent obtained through experiments is used to calculate the weights of nodes . It is well known that the path loss exponent is the essential reflection of sensing surroundings. Therefore it is not appropriate that only one exponent is accepted all through

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[13] Peng Aiping, Guo Xiaosong, Cai Wei, Li Haibin “A Distributed Localization Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Bounding Box Algorithm” The Ninth International Conference on Electronic Measurement & Instruments ICEMI IEEE 2009 pp 1-5 [14] Wei-Wei Ji and Zhong Liu “An Improvement of DV-Hop Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks” IEEE2006 [15] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., “IEEE Std. 802.15.4-2003 “Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LRWPANs)”, New York, IEEE Press. October 1, 2003. [16] Yuan Zhu, Baoli Zhang and Fengqi Yu, Shufeng Ning “A RSSI Based Localization Algorithm Using a Mobile Anchor Node for Wireless Sensor Networks “pp 1-4 International Joint Conference on Computational Sciences and Optimization IEEE 2009 [17] Yong-Zheng Li, Lei Wang, Xiao-Ming Wu, and Yuan-Ting Zhan “Experimental Analysis on Radio Transmission and Localization of a Zigbeebased Wireless Healthcare Monitoring Platform” The 2nd International Symposium & Summer School on Biomedical and Health Engineering IEEE 2008 [18] Ashok-Kumar Chandra-Sekaran, Anthony Nwokafor, Per Johansson “ZigBee Sensor Network for Patient Localization and Air Temperature Monitoring During Emergency Response to Crisis” The Second International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications IEEE2008 [19] Jia Chen, Xiao-jun Wu, Feng Ye, Ping Song, and Jian-wei Liu “Improved RSSI-based Localization Algorithm for Park Lighting Control and Child Location Tracking” International Conference on Information and Automation Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE [20] Shorly joaha halder,Taw young choi, Jin- Hyung park “Enhanced ranging using adaptive filter of ZIGBEE RSSI and LQI mesurements” ACM 2008 Proceedings of iiWAS2008 [21] Torsten Muetze Patrick Stuedi Fabian Kuhn Gustavo Alonso “Understanding Radio Irregularity in Wireless Networks” 2007 [22] Dimitrios Lymberopoulos, Quentin Lindsey, and Andreas Savvides “An Empirical Characterization of Radio Signal Strength Variability in 3-D IEEE 802.15.4 Networks Using Monopole Antennas K. R¨omer, H. Karl, and F. Mattern (Eds.): Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006” EWSN 2006, LNCS 3868, , . pp. 326– 341 [23] Mao a,, Brian D.O. Anderson , Baris Fidan” Path loss exponent estimation for wireless sensor Network localization Guoqiang” science direct 2007 [24] Jiuqiang Xu, Wei Liu, Fenggao Lang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Chenglong Wang “Distance Measurement Model Based on RSSI in WSN” Wireless Sensor Network, 2010, 2, pp 606-611 [25] Kannan Srinivasan and Philip Levis” RSSI is Under Appreciated” [26] Qingxin Zhang, Qinglong Di “A RSSI Based Localization Algorithm for Multiple Mobile Robots” CMCE IEEE 2010 [27] Zhang Jianwu, Zhang Lu “Research on Distance Measurement Based on RSSI of ZigBee” CCCM IEEE 2009 [28] Allon Rai, Sangita Ale, and Syed S. Rizvi Aasia Riasat “A New Methodology for Self Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks”IEEE2008 [29] Jan Blumenthal, Ralf Grossmann, Frank Golatowski, Dirk Timmermann “Weighted Centroid Localization in Zigbee-based Sensor Networks” IEEE2007 [30] Baozhu Li “A Low Complexity Localization Algorithm In Wireless Sensor Network” IEEE Confrence on on Innovative Computing and Communication 2010 [31] Yanjun Chen, Quan Pan, Yan Liang and Zhentao Hu “AWCL:Adaptive Weighted Centroid Target Localization Algorithm Based on RSSI in WSN” IEEE 2010 and other countries. Many students of M.TECH. and PhD, are working on thesis and project work under the guidance of him. He is a active member of various national and international journal. . His research interest is in the field of MANETs, wireless communication.

Kavindra kumar ahirwar is doing M.TECH. from SOIT RGPV Bhopal .He is graduated in IT from JEC Jabalpur in 2008.Now he is currently working on thesis on topic distributed localization in wireless sensor network. His main research interest about location tracking, energy consumption and path loss model modeling in sensor network.

AUTHORS PROFILE Dr. Sanjeev Sharma is an Associate Professor and working as Head in the Department of in SOITRGPV Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. He is also Deputy Registrar of RGPV University. He obtained his PhD degree from RGPV University. He has published over 50 National and International Journals & conferences various papers across India

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