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ACTA PERIODICA TECHNOLOGICA
APTEFF, 40, 1-220 (2009)
ACTA PERIODICA TECHNOLOGICA - Novi Sad (formerly Zbornik radova Tehnološkog fakulteta and Proceedings of Faculty of Technology) publishes articles from all branches of technology (food, chemical, biochemical, pharmaceutical), process engineering and related scientific fields. Articles in Acta Periodica Technologica are abstracted by: Chemical Abstracts, Columbus, Ohio, Referativnii zhurnal – Khimija, VINITI, Moscow, listed in Ulrich’s International Periodical Directory, and indexed in the Elsevier Bibliographic data bases – SCOPUS. YU ISSN 1450 – 7188 UDC 54:66:664:615 Publisher University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology 21000 Novi Sad, Bulevar Cara Lazara 1, Serbia For Publisher Prof. Dr. Zoltan Zavargo, Dean Editor-in-Chief Prof. Dr. Sonja Đilas Editorial Board From Abroad Prof. Dr. Živko Nikolov Texas A and M University, Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, College Station, TX, USA Prof. Dr. Erika Békássy-Molnár University of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest, Hungary Prof. Dr. Željko Knez University of Maribor, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Maribor, Slovenia Dr. T.S.R. Prasada Rao Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehra Dun, India Prof. Dr. Đerđ Karlović Margarine Center of Expertise, Kruszwica, Poland Dr. Szigmond András Research Institute of Hungarian Sugar Industry, Budapest, Hungary Dr. Andreas Reitzmann Institute of Chemical Process Engineering, University Karlshruhe From Serbia Dr. Ratko Lazarević, Academician Prof. Dr. Slobodan D. Petrović Prof. Dr. Erne Kiš Prof. Dr. Petar Dokić Prof. Dr. Spasenija Milanović Prof. Dr. Vladimir Srdić CODEN: APTEFF
ACTA PERIODICA TECHNOLOGICA APTEFF, 40, 1-220 (2009)
FOOD TECHNOLOGY Biljana R. Cvetković and Marija R. Jokanović EFFECTS OF PRESERVATION METHOD AND STORAGE CONDITION ON ASCORBIC ACID LOSS IN BEVERAGES Gordana R. Dimić, Sunčica D. Kocić-Tanackov, Dušanka J. Pejin, Jelena D. Pejin, Ilija J. Tanackov and Danijela Tuco ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CARAWAY, GARLIC AND OREGANO EXTRACTS AGAINST FILAMENTOUS MOULDS Ljubica P. Dokić, Marija I. Bodroža-Solarov, Miroslav S. Hadnađev and Ivana R. Nikolić PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED SNACKS SUPPLEMENTED WITH AMARANTH GRAIN GRITS Aleksandar Z. Fišteš and Đuro M. Vukmirović REDUCTION OF WHEAT MIDDLINGS USING A CONVENTIONAL AND EIGHT-ROLLER MILLING SYSTEMS Gordana B. Koprivica, Nevena M. Mišljenović, Ljubinko B. Lević and Vjera S. Pribiš CHANGES IN NUTRITIVE AND TEXTURAL QUALITY OF APPLE OSMODEHYDRATED IN SUGAR BEET MOLASSES AND SACCHAROSE SOLUTIONS Radomir V. Malbaša, Eva S. Lončar, Spasenija D. Milanović and Ljiljana A. Kolarov USE OF MILK-BASED KOMBUCHA INOCULUM FOR MILK FERMENTATION Anamarija I. Mandić, Sonja M. Djilas, Jasna M. Čanadanović-Brunet, Gordana S. Ćetković and Jelena J. Vulić ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WHITE GRAPE SEED EXTRACTS ON DPPH RADICALS
Spasenija D. Milanović, Mirela D. Iličić, Katarina G. Duraković and Vladimir R. Vukić TEXTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FERMENTED MILK BEVERAGES PRODUCED BY KOMBUCHA Dragan V. Palić and Sophia E. Coetzee PROTOCOL FOR USING PROTEIN SOLUBILITY AS AN INDICATOR OF FULL-FAT SOYBEAN HEAT TREATMENT Dragan V. Palić and Klaas-Jan Leeuw COMPARISON OF THREE IN VITRO METHODS FOR DETERMINING AND PREDICTING THE ORGANIC MATTER DIGESTIBILITY OF COMLETE DIETS FOR RUMINANTS Dragana Pešić-Mikulec and Gordana B. Niketić COMPOSITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMERCIAL YOGHURT BASED ON QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF VIABLE LACTIC ACID BACTERIA Slađana M. Savatović, Aleksandra N. Tepić, Zdravko M. Šumić and Milan S. Nikolić ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF POLYPHENOL-ENRICHED APPLE JUICE Mirjana A. Vasić, Biserka L. Vujičić, Aleksandra N. Tepić, Jelica M. Gvozdenović-Varga and Zdravko M. Šumić DIETARY FIBER CONTENT IN SOME DRY BEANS Tanja D. Žugić-Petrović, Nataša M. Joković and Dragiša S. Savić THE EVOLUTION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA COMMUNITY DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATURE SORDOUGH CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY AND PROCESS ENGINEERING Eva S. Lončar, Miroslava M. Radeka, Snežana B. Petrović, Andrea S. Skapin, Ognjen Lj. Rudić and Jonjaua G. Ranogajec DETERMINATION OF THE PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF TiO2 COATINGS ON CLAY ROOFING TILE SUBSTRATES – METHYLENE BLUE AS MODEL POLLUTANT Nataša Lj. Lukić, Svetlana S. Popović and Jelena Dj. Marković MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF FLUX RECOVERY DURING CHEMICAL CLEANING OF TUBULAR MEMBRANE FOULED WITH WHEY PROTEINS Nevena M. Mišljenović, Gordana B. Koprivica, Ljubinko B. Lević, Bojana V. Filipčev and Tatjana A. Kuljanin OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF RED CABBAGE IN SUGAR BEET MOLASSES - MASS TRANSFER KINETICS
Vitković DETERMINATION OF TENSION STRENGHT IN THE LONGITUDINAL AND CIRCUMFERENTIONAL DIRECTION IN GLASS-POLYESTER COMPOSITE PIPES Aleksandar R. Branislav B. Antov TREATMENT OF SUGAR BEET THICK JUICE SPENT WASH BY CHEMICAL AND NATURAL COAGULANTS Ivana M. Došenović and Sunčica D. Marjanović and Zvonimir J. Milenko S. Šćiban. Škrinjar and Nevena T. Saša I. Klašnja and Mirjana G. Jelena D. Nikola J. Pejin. Irena S. Radmilo R. Čolović. Tokić and Predrag S. Jovanić. Marjanović INSTRUCTION FOR MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION 155 165 177 183 195 211 223 .Slaviša S. Mile T. Stanić. Suturović THE USE OF L-ASCORBIC ACID IN SPECIATION OF ARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN DRINKIG WATER Marina B. Pejin. Kocić-Tanackov THE INFLUENCE OF CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE. Stamenović. Nemet ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF SPICES AND HERBS ESSENTIAL OILS Dušanka J. Marina R. Olgica S. Bajčeta and Dragana D. Kojić SIMPLE CORRELATIONS FOR BUBBLE COLUMNS AND DRAFT TUBE AIRLIFT REACTORS WITH DILUTE ALCOHOL SOLUTIONS BIOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL ENGINEERING Marija M. Šijački. dr Nikola J. Grujić. Putić. XANTHAN AND GUAR-GUM ADDITION IN BREAD DOUGH BEFORE FREEZING ON METABOLISM AND VIABILITY OF Saccharomyces cerevisiae IN MEMORIAM Prof.
Вукмировић ЕФЕКТИ МЛЕВЕЊА ПШЕНИЧНОГ ГРИЗА У КЛАСИЧНОМ И ПОСТУПКУ СА ОСМОВАЉНОМ СТОЛИЦОМ Гордана Б. Гордана С. Јокановић УТИЦАЈ МЕТОДЕ КОНЗЕРВИСАЊА И УСЛОВА СКЛАДИШТЕЊА НА ГУБИТАК АСКОРБИНСКЕ КИСЕЛИНЕ У ОСВЕЖАВАЈУЋИМ БЕЗАЛКОХОЛНИМ ПИЋИМА Гордана Р. Марија И. Фиштеш и Ђуро М. Соња М. Докић. Танацков и Данијела Туцо АНТИМИКРОБНА АКТИВНОСТ ЕКСТРАКАТА КИМА. Цветковић и Марија Р. Левић и Вјера С. Милановић и Љиљана А. Хаднађев и Ивана Р. Илија Ј. Вулић АНТИOКСИДАТИВНА АКТИВНОСТ ЕКСТРАКАТА СЕМЕНА БЕЛОГ ГРОЖЂА НА DPPH РАДИКАЛЕ 1 9 17 25 35 47 53 . Пејин. Љубинко Б. Димић. Мишљеновић. Јелена Д. Малбаша. Бодрожа-Соларов. БЕЛОГ ЛУКА И ОРИГАНА НА ФИЛАМЕНТОЗНЕ ПЛЕСНИ Љубица П. 1-220 (2009) САДРЖАЈ ПРЕХРАМБЕНА ТЕХНОЛОГИЈА Биљана Р. Ћетковић и Јелена Ј. 40. Ева С. Ђилас. Душанка Ј. Јасна М. Пејин. Мандић. Сунчица Д. Прибиш ПРОМЕНА НУТРИТИВНОГ КВАЛИТЕТА ЈАБУКЕ ПРИ ОСМОТСКОЈ ДЕХИДРАТАЦИЈИ У РАСТВОРИМА САХАРОЗЕ И МЕЛАСИ ШЕЋЕРНЕ РЕПЕ Радомир В. Спасенија Д.ACTA PERIODICA TECHNOLOGICA APTEFF. Копривица. Коцић-Танацков. Николић СВОЈСТВА ЕКСТРУДАТА СА ДОДАТКОМ КРУПИЦЕ ОД СЕМЕНА АМАРАНТУСА Александар З. Мирослав С. Лончар. Коларов ПРИМЕНА МЛЕЧНО-ФЕРМЕНТИСАНОГ ИНОКУЛУМА КОМБУХЕ ЗА ФЕРМЕНТАЦИЈУ МЛЕКА Анамарија И. Чанадановић-Брунет. Невена М.
Саватовић. Радека. Никетић КВАНТИТАТИВНО ОДРЕЂИВАЊЕ БАКТЕРИЈА МЛЕЧНЕ КИСЕЛИНЕ КОМЕРЦИЈАЛНИХ УЗОРАКА ЈОГУРТА Слађана М.Спасенија Д. Александра Н. Жугић-Петровић. Наташа М. Јоковић и Драгиша С. Шумић и Милан С. Мирослава М. Снежана Б. Рудић и Јоњауа Г. Лукић. Тепић. Иличић. Савић РАЗВОЈ ПОПУЛАЦИЈЕ БАКТЕРИЈА МЛЕЧНЕ КИСЕЛИНЕ У ТОКУ ФОРМИРАЊА ЗРЕЛОГ КИСЕЛОГ ТЕСТА ХЕМИЈСКА ТЕХНОЛОГИЈА И ПРОЦЕСНО ИНЖЕЊЕРСТВО 63 71 79 87 95 103 111 Ева С. Дураковић и Владимир Р. Палић и Sоphia E. Coetzee ПОСТУПАК ЗА КОРИШЋЕЊЕ РАСТВОРЉИВОСТИ ПРОТЕИНА КАО ИНДИКАТОРА ТЕРМИЧКОГ ТРЕТМАНА ПУНОМАСНЕ СОЈЕ Драган В. Васић. Здравко М. Андреа С. Вујичић. Тепић. Милановић. Раногајец ОДРЕЂИВАЊЕ ФОТОКАТАЛИТИЧКЕ АКТИВНОСТИ TiO2 ПРЕВЛАКА НА ЦРЕПУ КОРИШЋЕЊЕМ МЕТИЛЕН ПЛАВОГ КАО МОДЕЛ ПОЛУТАНТА 125 Наташа Љ. Огњен Љ. Светлана С. Марковић МАТЕМАТИЧКО МОДЕЛОВАЊЕ РЕГЕНЕРАЦИЈЕ ФЛУКСА ТОКОМ ХЕМИЈСКОГ ЧИШЋЕЊА ТУБУЛАРНЕ МЕМБРАНЕ ЗАПРЉАНЕ ПРОТЕИНИМА СУРУТКЕ 135 . Поповић и Јелена Ђ. Александра Н. Шумић САДРЖАЈ ДИЈЕТЕТСКИХ ВЛАКАНА У НЕКИМ СОРТАМА ПАСУЉА Тања Д. Бисерка Л. Јелица М. Гвозденовић-Варга и Здравко М. Мирела Д. Николић АНТИОКСИДАТИВНА АКТИВНОСТ СОКА ОД ЈАБУКА ОБОГАЋЕНОГ ПОЛИФЕНОЛНИМ ЈЕДИЊЕЊИМА Мирјана А. Вукић ТЕКСТУРАЛНЕ ОСОБИНЕ ФЕРMЕНТИСАНИХ МЛЕЧНИХ НАПИТАКА ДОБИЈЕНИХ ПРИМЕНОМ КОМБУХЕ Драган В. Катарина Г. Лончар. Петровић. Скапин. Палић и Klaas-Jan Leeuw ПОРЕЂЕЊЕ ТРИ IN VITRO МЕТОДЕ ЗА ОДРЕЂИВАЊЕ И ПРОЦЕНУ СВАРЉИВОСТИ ОРГАНСКЕ МАТЕРИЈЕ У ПОТПУНИМ СМЕШАМА ЗА ПРЕЖИВАРЕ Драгана Пешић-Микулец и Гордана Б.
Бранислав Б. Антов ТРЕТМАН ЏИБРЕ ОД ГУСТОГ СОКА ХЕМИЈСКИМ И ПРИРОДНИМ КОАГУЛАНТИМА 145 155 165 177 Ивана М. Станић. Миленко С. Филипчев и Татјана А. Ирена С. Мишљеновић. Куљанин ОСМОТСКА ДЕХИДРАТАЦИЈА ЦРВЕНОГ КУПУСА У МЕЛАСИ ШЕЋЕРНЕ РЕПЕ – КИНЕТИКА ПРЕНОСА МАСЕ Славиша С.Невена М. др Никола Ј. Марјановић и Звонимир Ј. Бојана В. Сутуровић ПРИМЕНА Л-АСКОРБИНСКЕ КИСЕЛИНЕ ПРИ ОДРЕЂИВАЊУ РАЗЛИЧИТИХ ОБЛИКА АРСЕНА У ВОДИ ЗА ПИЋЕ Марина Б. Токић и Предраг С. Олгица С. Клашња и Мирјана Г. Копривица. Стаменовић. Гордана Б. Левић. Пејин. Радмило Р. Дошеновић и Сунчица Д. Шијачки. Шкрињар и Невена Т. Којић ПРЕДВИЂАЊЕ ОСНОВНИХ ХИДРОДИНАМИЧКИХ И МАСЕНОПРОЦЕСНИХ КАРАКТЕРИСТИКА У БАРБОТАЖНИМ КОЛОНАМА СА И БЕЗ УНУТРАШЊЕ ЦЕВИ СА РАЗБЛАЖЕНИМ РАСТВОРИМА АЛКОХОЛА 183 БИОХЕМИЈСКО И ФАРМАЦЕУТСКО ИНЖЕЊЕРСТВО Марија М. Путић. Марјановић УПУТСТВО ЗА АУТОРЕ 223 195 211 . Саша И. Јованић. Грујић. Миле Т. КСАНТАНА И ГУАР-ГУМЕ У ХЛЕБНО ТЕСТО ПРЕ ЗАМРЗАВАЊА НА МЕТАБОЛИЗАМ И ВИЈАБИЛНОСТ Saccharomyces cerevisiae IN MEMORIAM Проф. Немет АНТИМИКРОБНО ДЕЛОВАЊЕ ЕСЕНЦИЈАЛНИХ УЉА ЗАЧИНА И ЛЕКОВИТОГ БИЉА Душанка Ј. Бајчета и Драгана Д. Шћибан. Никола Ј. Чоловић. Пејин. Марина Р. Коцић-Танацков УТИЦАЈ ДОДАТКА КАРБОКСИМЕТИЛЦЕЛУЛОЗЕ. Витковић ОДРЕЂИВАЊЕ ЗАТЕЗНЕ ЧВРСТОЋЕ У УЗДУЖНОМ И ОБИМНОМ ПРАВЦУ У СТАКЛО-ПОЛИЕСТЕР КОМПОЗИТНИМ ЦЕВИМА Александар Р. Јелена Д. Љубинко Б.
FOOD TECHNOLOGY .
Sc. Jokanović Global market is flooded with vitamin-enriched foods. and green vegetables.86:577.. Cvetković. 21000 Novi Sad.053 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.2:663.uns. This fact is of great importance for the consumer who must know how to store beverages and when to consume them in order to get the maximum benefit of added vitamin C. Vitamin C also reportedly reduces the risk of arteriosclerosis. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. The objective of this paper was to determine the amount of ascorbic acid lost in beverages applying different preservation methods and storage condition.ac.. mainly beverages.01% to 90.83 % to almost complete loss in samples preserved with sodium benzoate. Major vitamins for enriching beverages are the antioxidant vitamins A.uns.27% in thermally pasteurized samples and from 97. Fruits and vegetables supply more than 90% of vitamin C in human diets (1). Jokanović. The richest natural vitamin C sources are fruits and vegetables like pepper.rs. L-ascorbic acid is nutrient that besides its vitamin action is valuable for its antioxidant effect. such as prevention of scurvy and maintenance of healthy skin. C and E. 40. Cvetković and Marija R. Faculty of Technology. Vitamin C is a generic name for all compounds exhibiting the biological activity of Lascorbic acid (AA). colorimetric method. After 30 days of storage at 4-8oC ascorbic acid overall loss was from 81. Ascorbic acid is readily oxidized and lost during storage of the beverages. AA is the principal biologically active form but L-dehydroascorbic Biljana R. gums and blood vessels. stimulation of the immune system and other health benefits. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. citrus fruit.ac. M.cvetkovic@fins. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. rose hip.APTEFF.. Marija R. beverage. since stress in modern life is known to increase the requirement for vitamin C (2).rs. 1-7 Original scientific paper EFFECT OF PRESERVATION METHOD AND STORAGE CONDITION ON ASCORBIC ACID LOSS IN BEVERAGES Biljana R.Sc. A high recommendation of daily intake for humans has been suggested. 21000 Novi Sad. Beverage was made in laboratory conditions with synthetic L-ascorbic acid added according to the national legislations. biljana. Assist. cardiovascular diseases and some forms of cancer. KEY WORDS: L-ascorbic acid. firstname.lastname@example.org. storage INTRODUCTION L-ascorbic acid is largely accepted as additive in human diets because of its antioxidative potential.2298/APT0940001C UDC: 663. B. Serbia 1 . at rates depending on the conditions of storage. Institute for Food Technology.
commercial processing. fluorometry. and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). As a consequence of the common man’s increasing awareness regarding the importance of vitamin C. initial concentration of ascorbic acid. C and E. L-ascorbic acid application in the food industry increases quality and technological properties of food. flavour and universal stability of the food products (fruit juices. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. The usual methods include titration (AOAC). clinical and epidemiological studies. pH. b) analysis of the amount of ascorbic acid loss in samples during 30 days under different storage conditions. electrophoresis. etc.2298/APT0940001C UDC: 663. Vitamin C is usually selected as an index of the nutrient quality because of its labile nature as compared to the other nutrients in food (1). an oxidation product.053 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. the global market is flooded with vitamin-enriched foods. spectrophotometry. Natural and synthetic L-ascorbic acids are chemically identical and there are no known differences in their biological activities or bioavailability (5). in closed glass bottles. Addition of synthetic ascorbic acid increases content of vitamin C. the ratio of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. salt and sugar concentration. Since the discovery of the basic vitamins and their many forms. Ascorbic acid added to beverages is readily oxidized and lost during staying. metal catalysts. light. influences maintenance of colour. the current recommended daily acceptance for ascorbic acid is suggested to be 100-120 mg/day to achieve cellular saturation and optimum risk reduction of heart diseases. This fact is of great importance to the consumer who must know how to store the beverages and when to consume them in order to get the maximum benefit of vitamin C content. The loss of nutritional quality during processing and storage of food has become an important problem. and in the dark at room temperature and in a thermostat at 37oC. Fortification is a growing trend in soft drinks and in the dairy sector. storage in the refrigerator. Determination of the nutrient content of foods is becoming extremely important as researchers learn more about the relationship between dietary intake and human health (14). stroke and cancer in healthy individuals (6). The main factors that can affect ascorbic acid loss include temperature. beverages. microbial load and protection by the container (11). efforts have been made to retain them in foods during post-harvest. oxygen. 1-7 Original scientific paper acid (DHA).) (4). Objectives of this paper were: a) preparation of non-alcoholic beverages in laboratory conditions with addition of synthetic ascorbic acid and two methods of preservation. Various methods have been reported in the literature for the quantitative determination of vitamin C in foods or biological fluids.2:663. also exhibits biological activity (3).APTEFF. Vitamin C is usually added as ascorbic acid (7. and played a role in 8% of all new food and drink products introduced in 2003 (9).164. baby food. Based on available biochemical. 8). Major vitamins for enriching beverages are the antioxidant vitamins A. storage and preparation. distribution. 40. at a rate depending on the conditions of storage.86:577. colourimetric. Ascorbic acid is highly sensitive to various modes of deterioration. (13). mainly beverages. 2 . as well as nutritional value (10). The term beverages-soft drink originally applied to carbonated and non-carbonated drinks made from concentrates. although it now commonly refers to almost any cold drink that does not contain alcohol (12).
Samples were evaluated after 30 days of storage. Ascorbic acid was added in two concentrations: 100 mg/l and 150 mg/l. Thermal pasteurisation gradually decreased L-ascorbic acid content.APTEFF. Shelf-life study. and then citric acid was added to get appopriate sensory characteristics. 1-7 Original scientific paper EXPERIMENTAL Materials Beverage preparation. Sugar was added like inverted syrup (dry matter content in the final product about 9. by measuring ascorbic acid content. Samples of beverages thermally pasteurised or preserved with sodium benzoate were stored in three different temperatures conditions: refrigerator (4-8oC). For thermal pasteurisation were transferred into 200 ml glass bottles. and in a thermostat at 37oC. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION According to our results pasteurisation method had high influence on vitamin C content.86:577. The detection limit of the method was 0.164. The L-ascorbic acid content of these clear solutions was determined without any sample treatment. which is in accordance with national legislations (15). Slovenia) in water in a ratio 3:97. Ascorbic acid content was determined using colourimetric method. Under the conditions stated in this procedure.-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) in the presence of the electron carrier PMS (5-methylphenazinium methosulphate) at the pH 3. room temperature (20-22oC). second part of samples were first preserved with sodium benzoate and than transferred into 200 ml glass bottles.053 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 40. 15 minutes) were selected to be the same as in a conventional pasteurisation of industrially produced beverages. Each value was measured in triplicate and averaged with standard deviation. 3 . Twelve samples (with both AA added concentrations) were divided in two parts: a) One part was thermally treated (pasteurisation). Method Determination of L-ascorbic acid. Celje. in the final product. L-ascorbic acid reduces the tetrazolium salt MTT (3-(4.84 mg/ respectively (Table 1). 72 408.5 %). Beverage was prepared by diluting commercial beverage concentrate (Aretol no. There were alltogether prepared 12 samples.2:663. were 37.2298/APT0940001C UDC: 663. Ascorbic acid contents immediately after thermal pasteurisation in samples with 150 mg/l and 100 mg/l of added vitamin C.66 mg/l and 25.5 to a formazan (MTT-formazan).5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2. assay is specific for L-ascorbic acid. Thermal pasteurisation conditions (85oC. b) The other part was preserved with sodium benzoate in concentration of 130 mg /l.175 mg/l. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Preservation. which is determined by measuring absorbance at 578 nm.
During the preservation of beverages with sodium benzoate the loss of added ascorbic acid was much lower than in thermally treated samples. 40. Average ascorbic acid content (mg/l) with standard deviations in the beverages after 30 days of storage at 4-8.58 71.6 ± 1.26 2. 1.86:577. (2004).81 24.99 0.81 % for samples with 150 mg/l and 100mg/l added ascorbic acid. 80 70 Ascorbic acid loss (%) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Thermal pasteurisation Sodium benzoate preservation 28.40 ± 8.40 % and 28.30 nd* nd nd nd Preserved with sodium-benzoate AA AA 150 mg/l 100 mg/l 14.2:663. 1-7 Original scientific paper Table 1.43 ± 0. Immediately after preservation. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.053 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.37 ± 1.19 ± 8.02 37. there are two different rates of ascorbic acid degradation observed during the heating process: an aerobic degradation followed by an anaerobic degradation.66 ± 2.4 74. AA. In the beginning of the heating process oxygen remains in the bottle and therefore aerobic degradation of the ascorbic acid with oxygen in abundance takes place.16 74.17 ± 0.98 113. Average ascorbic acid content with standard deviation and it loss in samples immediately after pasteurisation and preservation Samples 100 mg/l added ascorbic acid 150 mg/l added ascorbic acid Ascorbic acid content (mg/l) Pasteurisation Sodium benzoate preservation 25. With prolonged time of heating the atmosphere in the bottle becomes saturated with vapour. the loss of ascorbic acid in samples with sodium benzoate was 24.ascorbic acid 4 . respectively. Ascorbic acid loss immediately after the two methods of preservation Table 2.APTEFF. 20-22 and 37oC Storage temperature 4-8oC 20-22oC 37oC Pasteurisation AA AA 150 mg/l 100 mg/l 28.164.89 100 mg/l added vitamin C 150 mg/l added vitamin C Fig.84 ± 3.not detected. so that the oxygen concentration is minimal and the ascorbic acid is degraded anaerobically (16).35 According to Blasco et al.2298/APT0940001C UDC: 663.08 nd nd nd nd *nd .
and 97. whereas. by each heating method of orange juice. According to Vikram et al.83 % in samples with 100 mg/l added ascorbic acid.01 150 mg/l added vitamin C 99. Oxidation of ascorbic acid occurs mainly during the processing. light. heat.26 Sodium benzoate preservation Fig. anaerobic degradation of vitamin C mainly appears during storage. 2.053 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.01 % in samples with 150 mg/l added ascorbic acid. (2005).2:663. Ascorbic acid loss after 30 days of storage in a refrigerator (4-8 oC) Storage temperature had a great influence on ascorbic acid loss.27 % in samples with added concentration of 150 mg/l to almost complete loss for samples with 100 mg/l of added ascorbic acid (Fig.APTEFF. 5 . Degradation of ascorbic acid both by aerobic and anaerobic pathways depends upon many factors such as oxygen.83 81. During storage. During storage. 2). The decrease of ascorbic acid concentration to levels unacceptable by declaration or industrial practise often defines the product shelf life. temperature had a greater influence and the degradation was rapid at higher temperatures (17). storage temperature and storage time.2298/APT0940001C UDC: 663. the vitamin C content gradually decreases at a rate depending on the processing and storage temperature. After 30 days of storage at 4-8oC and thermal pasteurisation the overall loss of ascorbic acid was 81. The more rapid decrease of ascorbic acid concentration at the beginning of the storage can be attributed to the immediate reaction of an amount of ascorbic acid with the dissolved oxygen (18). the vitamin C content gradually decreases at a rate depending on processing and storage temperature. The more rapid decrease of ascorbic acid concentration at the beginning of the storage can be attributed to the immediate reaction of an amount of ascorbic acid with the dissolved oxygen (18). Heating method had a definite influence on the retention of ascorbic acid. 1-7 Original scientific paper 100 mg/l added vitamin C 120 Ascorbic acid loss (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 Thermal pasteurisation 97.86:577. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. which is especially observed in thermally preserved juices (10). After 30 days of storage at room temperature (20-22oC) and in thermostat at 37oC ascorbic acid was not detected in any sample.57 90. CONCLUSION The decrease of vitamin C content to levels unacceptable by declaration or industrial practise often defines product shelf-life. 40. In the beverages preserved with sodium benzoate after one month of storage at 4-8oC ascorbic acid overall loss was from 90.164.
It should be recommended that beverage with ascorbic acid added should be consumed after preparation with no long time of storage. Food Chemistry 65 (1999) 165-168. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 20 (2007) 313-322. Journal of Food Engineering 74 (2006) 211-216. 7. REFERENCES 1. 6 . Gandara: Screening for folic acid content in vitamin-fortified beverages. Arya S. 5. Coates: Vitamin C in frozen. Klimezak I. and F .86:577. The experiments have shown that L. 9. 10. so that the oxygen concentration is minimal and the ascorbic acid is degraded anaerobically (16)..S.. Malecka M. 40. and Adel A. Del Caro A. Ascorbic acid loss was greater in preserved than in pasteurised beverages. followed by an anaerobic degradation. 8. 6.2298/APT0940001C UDC: 663. Koca N. Post harvest Biology and Technology 20 (2000) 207220. Review. Gliszezynska-Swiglo: Effect of storage on the content of polyphenols. Prieto P.Karadeniz: Degradation of vitamin C in citrus juice concentrates during storage. 4. Garcia-Falcon M. 2. and A. the atmosphere in the bottle becomes saturated with vapour. Gultekin: The effects of cutting and drying medium on the vitamin C content of rosehip during drying. Food Chemistry 79 (2002) 141-144. B. and S. K. Analytica Chimica Acta 417 (2000) 1-14. vitamin C and the antioxidant activity of orange juices.164.Jain: Non-spectrophotometric methods for the determination of Vitamin C. Szlahta M. S. (2004) there are two different rates of ascorbic acid degradation observed during the heating process: an aerobic degradation. unpasturized. Joint Bone Spine (2004). Journal of Food Engineering 68 (2005) 513-518. polyethylene-bottled orange juice: storage study. Lee H. and G. vitamin C and antioxidant capacity in minimally processed citrus segments and juices during storage. fresh squeezed.053 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.S. and J.ascorbic acid added like additive in non-alcoholic beverage is extremely unstable in water solution. S. 1-7 Original scientific paper According to Blasco et al. Grande C.APTEFF.. A. Lee S. Food Control 17 (2006) 900-904. and S. With prolonged time of heating.. Rodriguez-Comesana M. Falkon G. S. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Project TP-20068). P. Simal-Gandara: Control of nutritional labels in beverages with added vitamins: screening of β-carotene and ascorbic acid contents. 3. Olivier Fain: Musculoskeletal manifestations of scurvy.: Changes of flavonoids. Erentuk. Kader: Preharvest and post harvest factors influencing vitamin C content of horticultural crops.. Burdurly H. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2:663. Gualaboglu M. Food Chemistry 84 (2004) 99105. and P.. S. The samples with a lower initial content of ascorbic acid lose it faster than those with a greater content. S. J. Mahajan M. In the beginning of the heating process oxygen remains in the bottle and therefore aerobic degradation of the ascorbic acid with oxygen in abundance takes place..
Esteve M.83% у пастеризованом узорку пића. 12.-Wiss. Lebensm. Journal of Food Engineering 69 (2005) 31-40..APTEFF. уз додатак синтетске Л-аскорбинске киселине. 15. 17. 14.2298/APT0940001C UDC: 663. B. односно витаминима А. Kahraman N. Stoforos N. Ова чињеница је од велике важности за потрошаче који треба да знају како да чувају и када да конзумирају освежавајућа безалкохолна пића (која су обогаћена аскорбинском киселином) у циљу максималне користи од додатог витамина Ц. 881 (2000) 309-316. Food Chemistry 82 (2003) 387-395. Задатак овог рада је био мерење опадања концентрације витамина Ц у узорцима током различитих услова скледиштења. Јокановић Светско тржиште је преплављено витамински обогаћеним производима. R.99%.-Technol. and M. 1-7 Original scientific paper 11. УТИЦАЈ МЕТОДЕ КОНЗЕРВИСАЊА И УСЛОВА СКЛАДИШТЕЊА НА ГУБИТАК АСКОРБИНСКЕ КИСЕЛИНЕ У ОСВЕЖАВАЈУЋИМ БЕЗАЛКОХОЛНИМ ПИЋИМА Биљана Р. 16. Polydera A. 37 (2004) 171-175. Kabasakalis V. and J.G.C. Л-асакорбинска киселина у освежавајућим безалкохолним пићима врло брзо оксидише и разлаже се током складиштења. Prapulla: Thermal degradation kinetics of nutrients in orange juice by electromagnetic and conventional methods. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. у зависности од услова чувања. Bylaw of quality and other conditions for aditives and their mixtures for food products (Službeni list SRJ articles no. Ц и Е.. Michael L. Најчешће се производи обогаћују антиоксидантима.G. Siopidou D. Food Chemistry 70 (2000) 325-328. 18. and P.wikkipedia.97. Цветковић и Марија Р. Taoukis: Comparative shelf life study and vitamin C loss kinetics in pasteurized and high pressure processed reconstituted orange juice. а у конзервисаном 90. Acar: Enzymatically validated liquid chromatographic method for the determination of ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids in fruit and vegetables. углавном освежавајућим безалкохолним пићима.86:577.053 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.org 13.S. Током складиштења од 30 дана на температури од 4-8оС губитак аскорбинске киселине је 81.Vermue: The vitamin C content of orange juice packed in an oxigen scavenger material. Moshatou: Ascorbic acid content of commercial fruit juices and its rate of loss upon storage.01. 40... Ramesh M. Frigola A. 4/2002 and 16/2005).N. Rodrigo: Ascorbic acid degradation kinetics in mushrooms in a high-temperature short time process controlled by a thermoresistometer. Journal of Chromatography A. www. Zerdin K.164. Blasco R. and E. Освежавајуће безалкохолно пиће је припремљено у лабораторијским условима у складу са важећим Правилником. and S. and J. Vikram V.. u. Demir N. Journal of Food Engineering 60 (2003) 21-23. Gokmen V.2:663. Received 17 November 2008 Accepted 26 February 2009 7 . J. 56/2003..
. Tanackov.. KEY WORDS: Spice extracts.5 and 1%. it inhibited completely the growth of P.07.2298/APT0940009D UDC: 664.Sc.APTEFF. Faculty of Technical Science. Serbia 9 . Moulds occur more frequently than other microorganisms on food products during storage and distribution as a consequence of inadequate conditions.uns. low moisture food (< 0. Gordana R. Dr. Assist. Medium moisture food (0. which are cytotoxic and carcinogenic. Dušanka J. especially the foodstuffs with short shelf-life. University of Novi Sad. B. Ilija J.o. Tanackov and Danijela Tuco Inhibitory effect of caraway. garlic and oregano extracts (0. against four moulds species was investigated. Pejin. implicatum and E.3:582.. etc.5:66. Pejin. Etol JVE d.Sc. Dimić. Dušanka J.5. The caraway extract had the strongest inhibitory effect by inhibiting the germination of Emericella nidulans. 0. Essential oils extracted from spices and other herbs. Trg Dositeja Obradovića 6. GARLIC AND OREGANO EXTRACTS AGAINST FILAMENTOUS MOULDS Gordana R. their usage Dr. Assist. nidulans at the doses of 0. Pejin. Prof.1. 0. have been intensively investigated for their potential role in the protection of food from microorganisms. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Jelena D. 9-16 Original scientific paper ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CARAWAY.75 aw) and sour food are especially susceptible to the presence of moulds. Prof. fresh fruits and vegetable. Serbia. Kocić-Tanackov. 21000 Novi Sad. Dr. Pejin. fish.rs. 40. cakes. and as such present a potential health hazard for humans (1).90 aw). stergmatocystine. Dimić. Sunčica D.1% and Aspergillus tamarii at the concentration of 0.. Being natural antimicrobial agents.75-0. However. Prof. Penicillium commune and P. as well as their biologically active components. Bulevar Vojvode Stepe 40. Ilija J. Kocić-Tanackov. The development of moulds on food can be expected in cases when inappropriate sanitary practice is applied in production plants. Assoc. Sunčica D. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1.3%)...ac. significantly reducing the growth of colonies. tamarii and P. commune. M. Assoc. University of Novi Sad. especially of E. such as bread. Dr. which are the most susceptible to microbial spoilage. The extract of garlic only partially inhibited the growth of A. gordanad@tf. ochratoxin A. Faculty of Technology.o. bakery products. Serbia. antifungal activity INTRODUCTION Moulds highly prevail in nature and frequently contaminate human food. 21000 Novi Sad. Some of them produce secondary metabolites such as aflatoxins. salads. 1 and 2%).061. 21000 Novi Sad.28 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.5% during 7 days of incubation at 25oC. Danijela Tuco. Jelena D.. nidulans (93. Oregano partially inhibited all mould species. implicatum at the concentration of 0.
garlic. 1 i 2% (v/v). 0. scraped with sterile loop and aseptically transferred into sterile test tubes.5% agar in sterile distilled water (4). and used for further work. Each test was run in triplicate. Emericella nidulans. The cultures were maintained on potatodextrose agar (PDA) slants at 4º C.1.07. PDA plates without any added material were made and used as control plates.3:582. 8). implicatum were taken from the culture collection of the Laboratory for Food Microbiology. Spore suspension obtained in this way was adjusted to final concentration of 2×106 spores/ml using the hemocytometer. 7. moulds were cultured on PDA slants for 10 days until fully sporulated. For test moulds. 0. and oregano were provided from Etol.28 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. E.APTEFF. garlic. isolated from food. Penicillium commune and P. implicatum are presented in Table 1. EXPERIMENTAL Materials Commercially available food grade ethanol extracts of caraway. The solid plates were inoculated with spore suspension containing 1µl (103 spores/ml) in the centre of the medium and were incubated for 7 days at 25oC. Faculty of Technology in Novi Sad. their residues have been found on old Egyptian mummies (2) and there are evidence of their usage as antiseptic agents (3).5. Test cultures for antifungal investigations. Studies have shown that some spices like vanilla do not possess antifungal activity (4) whereas some of them have a stimulating effect (5. This study was aimed at investigating the antifungal potential of caraway. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. and oregano extracts against some food-borne fungi. commune and P. Antifungal test The inhibition of mould growth was determined by performing daily measurements of the radial growth of colonies cultured on PDA medium which contained spice extracts (each plate separately) in the following concentrations 0.061. garlic and oregano extracts against A.2298/APT0940009D UDC: 664. Slovenia. Preparation of inoculum Prior to the experiment. preserving simultaneously food freshness and sensory quality. 9-16 Original scientific paper can minimize the application of synthetic preservatives and additives.5% Tween 80 and 0. nidulans. Celje. 10 . Aspergillus tamarii.5:66. Spores were taken by adding 10 ml of medium which contained 0. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Inhibitory concentrations for caraway. Preserving properties of spices and their extracts have been recognized long ago. 6. tamarii. Diameter of the growth was determined by averaging the radial growrth of the colony in two orthogonal directions. P. 40.
0 14. The inhibitory activities of spice extracts against moulds Extract Caraway Conc.5% was needed to completely inhibit A.5 18.1 18.5 1 2 A. commune.5 15.07 0. tamarii and P. tamarii 12. At the concentrations 0.1 0. nidulans and P. 11 .3 73.5 1 2 0. the same extract concentration exhibited approximately 70% inhibition rate (79.4 Inhibition colony growth (%) E. tamarii and P. Against A. commune P.2 16.4 30. respectively).0 100 100 33.1 66. 9-16 Original scientific paper Table 1. commune between 11.28 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.7 48.1 and 0. tamarii by two and three days.6 to 33. commune was observed in all applied concentrations.1 33. implicatum became visible only on the sixth day after the inoculation of agar plates.8 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 22.1 31.2 11. The garlic extract at 0.1% concentration.07 0.3% and for P. The effect of caraway.5 11. implicatum 20. 40.3%) the growth of E. whereas P.2 100 11.07 0. nidulans and both Penicillium species (P. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.6 14.7 Garlic Oregano As can be seen from data presented.0 77.1 0. tamarii ranged from 1. If compared to A.3 37.8 5.1 33.6 100 100 1.1 14. the caraway extract delayed the beginning of germination of A.3 25.8%). the differences in their growth rate were noticed during the next days. The 2% extract inhibited almost completely (93. nidulans P.5 30. The level over 0.4 and 74. The level of growth reduction in the presence of garlic extract for A.1 to 59. At this level.7 17. the caraway extract exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity that was particularly expressed against E. however.6 55.1 47.2%.7 22. The appearance of the growth of E.3 100 100 59.5 1 2 0. tamarii. as compared to the control.9 29.3 26. colonies of P.1%. commune was not under the influence by the increased extract concentration.APTEFF.1 22.5%. Although none of the tested species was completely inhibited by the oregano extract.1 0. stronger antifungal activity against P.1%.3 12. commune and completely the growth of P. commune and P. nidulans. implicatum was found to be the least sensitive species.6 79.5 33.3 74. oregano and garlic extracts on the germination and growth rate of moulds is presented in Figures 1-3.5 and 1% concentrations inhibited only partially the growth of A. implicatum) which did not grow at extract doses over 0.8 11. At 0. (%) 0.5 93. respectively.3:582. implicatum was markedly reduced (77.5:66.2 47.2298/APT0940009D UDC: 664. high concentrations were found to significantly inhibit the growth of colonies. tamarii. nidulans. implicatum and E.1 31.061.1 11. the growth of P.
3:582. Effect of garlic extract on the growth of moulds 12 . 2.28 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 9-16 Original scientific paper Fig.APTEFF.5:66. Effect of caraway extract on the growth of moulds Fig. 40.061. 1. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940009D UDC: 664.
Caraway was more efficient at lower concentrations. Previous studies also reported strong inhibitory effect of caraway on Penicillium species. at the concentration of 0. 2). showing various inhibitory effects on the growth rate reduction. The growth of A. carvacrol (from caraway and oregano). for three days. griseofulvum were completely inhibited at 1% dose (8.APTEFF. nidulans. commune over 1%. nidulans was noticed at the concentrations over 0. At lower levels of oregano extract (Fig. tamarii. Stronger inhibitory effect on the growth rate of E. tamarii and P.2298/APT0940009D UDC: 664. implicatum by two and four days and E. Fig. implicatum and E. 40. corylophilum.5:66. Studies have shown that P. P. P.3:582. garlic and oregano extracts caused the absence or delay in germination of tested fungi. commune was delayed only at the concentracion of 2%. limonene (from caraway).5%. implicatum over 0. commune did not grow in the presence of 2% garlic extract until the fourth day. Antifungal properties of the tested extracts are due to their major constitutive components.1% for A. Effect of oregano extract on the growth of moulds The increasing concentrations of caraway. The 1 and 2% concentrations delayed the growth of P. the begining of germination was delayed by two days only in the case of P. compared to garlic and oregano.5% and at P. aurantiogriseum. Higher concentrations did not significantly influence the appearance of A. nidulans by two and five days. pointing to the greater sensitivity of these spesies (Fig. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 3). implicatum. thymol (from 13 . 9). it was the only extract to inhibit the growth of three species (out of the four tested) during the whole period of incubation (7 days) at 25oC. 9-16 Original scientific paper The growth rate decline with increase of garlic extract contents in the agar medium was especially pronounced in the case of P. 3. tamarii and P.061. commune and P. whereas P. Moreover.28 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.
Z. vanillin. Seto. implicatum. A. London (1980). nidulans and P. Phenolic OH-group is very reactive and easily forms hydrogen bonds with active sites in enzymes (6). J. J. parasiticus at 2000 ppm dose and on A. 4.H. Appl. Forsch. Lebensm.3:582. Int.061.II. Rios: Inhibition of fungal growth on bread.A. 5. REFERENCES 1. Nielsen.5:66. R. J. of Food Microbiology 60 (2000) 219-229. Guyenot et al.C. with special emphasis on mustard essential oil. 3. Lebensm. J.S. Mabrouk. R.B. Elliott. Boyraz.S. J. New York. Netherlands (2005) pp.L. Utrech. S. (3) investigated the protective effect of essential oils of 16 spices against xerophilic fungi from genera Eurotium. L. ochraceus and Fusarium moniliforme at 3000 ppm. Wageningen. by volatile components from spices and herbs. 94 (2003) 893-899.APTEFF. and M. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.C. Garlic show antifungal activity against certain Aspergillus.A. 2. Sanchis and S. 6. E.H. Unters Forsch A 207 (1998) 253-255. 171 (1980) 344-347.C. Clark. Silliker. Frisvad.T. Fitoterapia 76 (2005) 661-665. Ramos.A.N. P. Vol. 40.S. Christian. which is in compliance with our results. Z. V. Phenol compounds such as carvacrol. Ponson & Looyen. thymol. 7. geraniol and cinnamaldehyd are known antimicrobial agents (11-17). reference materials and regulation.. Oregano exhibited strong inhibitory effect although was unable to completely inhibit the fungal growth. Özcan. El-Shayeb: Inhibition of aflatoxin formation by some spices. caraway showed inhibitory effect on Aspergillus flavus and A. and the possible application in active packaging. garlic and clove are effective in preventing the growth of moulds usually present in bread. 20). Unters. Purroy. Olson and Jr. V. frequent contaminants of food.: Inhibitory effect of spices extracts on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL2999 strain. common spoilage organisms in bakery products. eugenol.and airborne fungi. Garlic was the most effective against E.H. Roberts: Microbial Ecology of Foods.: Mycotoxins: detection. Bryan. Marin: Antifungal activity of volatile compounds generated by essential oils against fungi commonly causing deterioration of bakery products.2298/APT0940009D UDC: 664. N. in Introduction to food. and R. According to Soliman and Badea (18).332-338. Hoekstra and J. Microbiol. 11)..P. Aspergillus and Penicillium. J. Özcan: Antifungal effect of some spice hydrosols.5% dose. Caraway extract exhibited high efficacy already at 0. Eds. E. D. Academic Press. Penicillium and Fusarium species (19. Samsin. It was also reported that oregano extract is capable to completely inhibit Aspergillus parasiticus at the level of 2% in agar medium (6). F. Bairol-Barker. A. 14 .P.28 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. CONCLUSION This study proved that the tested spice extracts can be potentially protective agents against filamentous fungi. V. van Egmond. Nielsen and Rios (4) showed that esential oils of mustard. Essential oils of cinnamon and oregano proved to be very effective in growth inhibition of Fusarium proliferatum (21). 9-16 Original scientific paper oregano) and sulfur compounds (from garlic) (10. M. and M. Guynot.M.
APTEFF. 18. V. Moleyar.G.Y. S. Morozumi. Marin: Inhibitory effect of cinnamon. 39 4 (1980) 818-822. D. 13. Velluty. Dimić. 15 . 10. and C. 12 (2004) 1-55. 14. Microbiol. A. Food Microbiol 89 (2003) 145154. and R. Lien and S.E. A. Fung: Antimicrobial activity of spices. and P. Book of Abstracts. Sakai and H.28 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Autom..3:582. Bullerman. 19.I. 17.. Kocić-Tanackov and D. Seir: Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production by cinnamon and clove oils. LWT 37 (2004) 263-268. Soliman. J. 19 (1994) 110-113. H.M. M. H. S. J. LWT 38 (2005) 565-579. C. Badeaa: Effect of oil extrated from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi.B. T. pp.: Antimicrobial activity of essential oil extracts of various onions (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum). A. Book of Abstracts.M. Oil Res. Sanchis. Ceylon. Rouza: Inhibitory parameters of essential oils to reduce a foodborne pathogen. Food Microbiol. 9. Narasimham: Antifungal activity of some essential oil components. 62 5 (1999) 540-542. 9-16 Original scientific paper 8. Dorman. 11.. 16.J. J. 10. S. and Penicillium italicum growth. 54th International Meat Industry Conference. antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of laurel. G. 40 (2002) 1669-1675.A.Y. M. Egido and S. and T. N. Microbiol. Int. Beograd.R. Essent. 3 (1986) 331-336. D. B. L. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Lett. sage. of Food Science 42 4 (1977) 11007-1116.J. oregano and coriander essential oils. A. Meth. clove. cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol. Rapid. Appl. Benkeblia.I. Deas. Matamoros-Leon. 21. Vrnjačka Banja. E. lemongrass.E. J. S. Dimić. Kurata: Inhibitory effects of spice on growth and toxin production of toxigenic fungi. Food Protect. 18-20 June 2007. 89. del Valle and S.. Ruberto: Chemical composition. 11-14 June 2008. Mei-chin. oregano and palmarose essential oils on growth and fumonisin B1 production by Fusarium proliferatum.V. Penicillium glabrum.5:66. Biondi and G.L. Int. Y. 15. Toxicol. Wauke. p. J. Mahmound..K. Ramos. Ponce. Karalić: Inhibitory Effect of Spice Extracts on Growth of Penicillium aurantiogriseum and Penicillium corylophilum. Kocić-Tanackov: Antifungal activity of spices extracts on the growth of Penicillium commune and Penicillium griseofulvum.G. Lopez-Malo: Individual and combined effects of vanillin and potassium sorbate on Penicillium digitatum. 49 (1999) 49-56. 6th Congress of Medical Microbiology..: Antifungal action and antiaflatoxigenic properties of some essential oil constituents. and S. Argaiz and A. J. J. A.. 6 (1998) 618-627. Environ. A. 40.061.D. Hitokoto. Shih-ming: Inhibitory effect of seven Allium plants upon three Aspergillus species. 12. Moriera. G. 20.T. Food Microbiol. rosmary. Appl. F. Food Chem. Microbiol. 335-336. Baratta.2298/APT0940009D UDC: 664.
5% током седам дана инкубирања на 25°C. 0. 0.1.061.2298/APT0940009D UDC: 664. Илија Ј.3:582. нарочито код Е.28 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Пејин. Душанка Ј. implicatum и Е. Екстракт белог лука је само парцијално инхибирао раст А. Димић. Пејин. 40. белог лука и оригана (0.5. Penicillium commune и P. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. implicatum при концентрацији од 0.07. Оригано је парцијално инхибирао све четири врсте плесни. Јелена Д. Сунчицa Д. Танацков и Данијела Туцо Инхибиторнa активност екстраката кима.1% и Aspergillus tamarii при концентрацији од 0. Коцић-Танацков. Екстракт кима је имао најјачи инхибиторни ефекат спречавајући герминацију Emericella nidulans.5:66. nidulans (93.5 и 1%. БЕЛОГ ЛУКА И ОРИГАНА НA ФИЛАМЕНТОЗНЕ ПЛЕСНИ Гордана Р. 9-16 Original scientific paper АНТИМИКРОБНА АКТИВНОСТ ЕКСТРАКАТА КИМА. Received 24 July 2009 Accepted 14 September 2009 16 . commune и потпуно P. tamarii и P.APTEFF.3%). али је раст колонија био значајно смањен. 1 и 2%) је испитивана против четири врсте плесни. nidulans при концентрацијама 0.
Nikolić Extruded amaranth grain products have specific aroma and can be used as snack food. Extrudates with various texture were obtained. investigated extruded blends of Amaranth with wheat and outs flour. supplement in breakfast cereals.016. Institute for Food Technology. M. extrudate. Extruded amaranth grain products have specific aroma and can be used as snack food. mineral meters. supplement in breakfast cereals. proteins.641.15+664. Extruded products of corn-amaranth grits blends. Assoc. All samples exhibited thixotropic flow behavior. were produced by extrusion-cooking using a laboratory Brabender single screw extruder 20 DN. Sc. Hadnađev and Ivana R. Since this plant has similar application as cereals. or as raw material for further processing. fat and cellulose percentage are higher compared to cereals (1. 2).2:664. Miroslav Hadnađev. KEY WORDS ׃Amaranth. Serbia 17 . The optimal combination of these components. Dr. 17-24 Original scientific paper PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED SNACKS SUPPLEMENTED WITH AMARANTH GRAIN GRITS Ljubica P. Ivana Nikolić. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. or as raw material for further processing (4). Its protein. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1.71. Prof.. ldokic@uns. Serbia. Serbia. 40.696 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. B.64. 21000 Novi Sad. Marija I. properties INTRODUCTION Amaranth grain has significant nutritional value.2298/APT0940017D UDC:664.APTEFF. Marija Bodroža-Solarov. The origin of Amaranthus sp. Amaranth Dr. Sc.ac.04׃respectively (5). hence rheological properties were examined.05׃or 60 . 21000 Novi Sad. Hungary. Sanches– Marroquim et al. During extrusion process starch granules are partially degraded. Faculty of Tehnology. Faculty of Tehnology. 21000 Novi Sad. containing 20% or 50% amaranth grain grits. Bodroža-Solarov. 3).rs. rheological.8:664. Those samples in which part of the corn grits was replaced with amaranth one had lower viscosity and exhibited lower level of structuration during storage. is from middle and south America. Miroslav S.641. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. Serbia and Montenegro (2. starch. Corn starch is relatively easily isolated by wet-milling procedure. Dokić. but for the last few decades this cultivar was introduced in European countries as Austria. Poland. to their opinion is 50 . it is classified as pseudocereal (2). Ljubica Dokić. Starch is an important industrial raw material for food products as well as for technical products.
APTEFF, 40, 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940017D
UDC:664.64.016.71.8:664.641.15+664.641.2:664.696 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40, 17-24 Original scientific paper
starch is interesting because of its small granular size, 1–2 μm, which provides specific functional properties, as good freeze–thaw stability and resistance to mechanical shear. Amaranth starch content is approximately 63%, while protein content is 15%. The starch has „waxy” characteristics and specific molecular composition, while proteins have high quality and major content of S–amino acids and lysine (6). There is no effective and easy method to isolate the starch from amaranth seed because of its small granules and high protein content. Considering the fact that starch and protein are of high quality, some other methods were developed, like dry milling and separation or extrusion process with the aim to provide products useful for food or nonfood purposes. During extrusion process, properties of native starch granules are modified and pregelatinized starch with changed rheological characteristics is obtained (7). Numerous products with starch undergo thermal treatments during production and application, when starch gels with specific rheological characteristics are formed. Modification of rheological properties can be achieved by mixing different starches. The aim of this work was to investigate rheological characteristics of gels of amaranth and corn grits blends, before and after extrusion process. EXPERIMENTAL Amaranth and corn were acquired from local commercial sources. Grits was obtained by milling whole grain in laboratory mill (Bühler 202, Germany). Blends were prepared in the following ratios: amaranth:corn, 20:80, 50:50 and 0:100, respectively. Particle size distribution of grits is presented in Table 1. Table 1. Particle size distribution of corn and amaranth grits Sample Corn grits Amaranth grits Fractions remained on sieves of particular size, (%) 850 μm 650 μm 450 μm 350 μm 250 μm 1.2 44.1 50.3 3.7 0.7 0.8 43.0 41.2 9.0 6.0
Grits blends were extruded using a laboratory Brabender single screw extruder 20 DN. Before extrusion, the moisture content of the grits was adjusted to 16%. Such moisture content enables optimal extrusion conditions. It was fed to the extruder under the following conditions׃ Compression ratio 41׃ Temperature of the first zone 120°C Temperature of the second zone 130°C Temperature of the third zone 160°C Die diameter 3 mm Screw speed 120 rpm The extruded product (flips) was analyzed for moisture (AOAC,1984, 8), bulk density and expansion ratio. 18
APTEFF, 40, 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940017D
UDC:664.64.016.71.8:664.641.15+664.641.2:664.696 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40, 17-24 Original scientific paper
Extrudate density was calculated. Six products were randomly selected, weighted (m) and measured (L, D), and the density was calculated as follows: 4× m Density = 2 π×D ×L
where m is the mass, L – length of cooled extrudate with the diameter D (9). Expansion ratio was calculated as the ratio of the diameter of extruded simple to that of the extruded die. Density and expansion ratio are given as average value of six calculations. Statistical Analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least significant differences (LSD) were performed by the Statistical Analysis System (Statistical, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA). Strength, hardness and plasticity were determined on a universal instrument for texture analysis INSTRON 4301. Determination of hardness was performed with head with 1.6 mm diameter running at speed of 60 mm/min. Softness of sample by cutting was examined using knife with 1 mm blade and at head speed of 60 mm/min. Probe for compression with 30 mm diameter was used to examine the force needed to compress extrudate from 1 cm length to 0.5 cm at the Instron head speed of 48 mm/min. The measurements were performed in the six replicates and average value for strength, hardness and plasticity were calculated. The gels for rheological measurements were obtained by heating 6.25% suspension of grits, in a Brabender viscoamylograph up to 95°C and then held at 95°C for 30 min. Gels were made from grits blends as well as from extruded products milled to grits on a laboratory mill. The obtained paste was cooled to room temperature and rheological measurements of the gels were carried out at 20°C. Measurements were carried out right after the cooling (0h) and 24 hours later (24h). Rheometer RheoStress 600HP (Haake, Germany) with measurement set plate–plate (PP60Ti), with 60 mm diameter and 1 mm distance, was used. Flow curves were obtained by hysteresis loop method by the following cycle: ramp up 0-500 1/s in 4 min 500 1/s in 2 min constant γ ramp down 500-0 1/s in 4 min. Micrographs were taken on a scanning electron microscope (JEOL–JSM–6460LV).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results of the determination of expansion index and density of extrudates are presented in Table 2. The initial moisture level drop from 16% to the final average level of 7.5% for extrudates, was within the expected range of 4-8%, reported by Koeppe (1987) as characteristic for an extruded snack products. The difference in moisture content of extrudates is not statistically important (Table 2).
APTEFF, 40, 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940017D
UDC:664.64.016.71.8:664.641.15+664.641.2:664.696 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40, 17-24 Original scientific paper
Table 2. Extrudate properties
Sample 100% corn grits 80% corn : 20% amaranth grits 50% corn : 50% amaranth grits Moisture content (%) (db) 7.6 ± 0.09a 7.4 ± 0.03a 7.6 ± 0.05a Expansion index 4.03 ± 0.21a 2.83 ± 0.11b 1.83± 0.18c Density (g/cm3) 0.095 ± 0.02a 0.132 ± 0.01b 0.346± 0.04c
Results are mean ± SD of six measurements a Means with different letters in the same column for each sample are significantly different at the 5% level
Addition of amaranth grits to extrusion blend proportionally reduced extrusion index and increased density of extrudates, due to its reduced expansion properties compared to corn. Reduced expansion resulted in a denser product with smaller air cell diameters as shown in Figure 1.
Fig. 1. Scanning electron micrographs of amaranth:corn 50:50 (A) and corn extrudate (B)
It is difficult to produce expanded products by extrusion cooking of amaranth grain alone, due to its high fat content (6-8% in whole grain). Fat provides a powerful lubricant effect in extrusion cooking and reduced product expansion (11). Flips of 100% corn grits have the highest expansion (4.03) and lowest density (0.095 g/cm3), which provides demanded crispy structure during eating. Blend of 50% corn and 50% amaranth grits resulted in a decreased expansion index (1.83) compared to control 100% corn grits by 2.2 times, but in increased density (0.346 g/cm3 ) by 3.6 times.
Table 3. Texture of extrudates measured by Instron 4301
Sample 100% corn grits 80% corn : 20% amaranth grits 50% corn : 50% amaranth grits
Compression force (N) 13.2 ± 0.23a 20.8 ± 0.32b 24.5 ± 0.15b
Penetration force (N) 3.2 ± 0.09a 5.1 ± 0.11b 11.6 ± 0.08c
Cutting force (N) 19.2 ± 0.20a 18.8 ± 0.18a 18.4 ± 0.14a
Means with different letters in the same column for each samples are significantly different at the 5% level
Table 3 represents the differences in compression, penetration and cutting force (N) for the extrudate with amaranth grits supplement compared to the control with 100% corn 20
APTEFF, 40, 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940017D
grits. Increasing the amount of amaranth grits in flips increased the resistance of extrudates, thus the difference in force for compression and penetration compared to corn grits flips is significant. Cutting force which imitates biting, is not statistically much different among treatments. Hardness of flips with 50% amaranth grits represented by penetration force (11.6 N) is by 3.6 times higher than the penetration force for sample with 100% corn grits (3.2N), which is a major difference. Generally, the addition of grits from whole amaranth grain, as a fiber–rich raw material in extruded product formulations, resulted in increased density and hardness of the product (12). Figure 2 presents flow curves of gels obtained from corn grits and blends of corn and amaranth grits in the ratios 80:20 and 50:50, determined immediately after the preparation and after 24h. All systems exhibited thixotropic flow behavior. Gels prepared from corn grits had the greatest value of shear stress, i.e. viscosity, and largest thixotropic loop area. The structure is weak and it was broken–down by low share rates. During storage for 24h the system with 100% corn grits is additionally structured and three–dimensional gel structure is formed as a result of retrogradation of amylase fractions. Since retrogradation is a process of binding by weak hydrogen bonds that are easily broken, the flow curve for 100% corn grits measured after 24 hours shows a peak characteristic for breaking such structures down at very low shear rates. Gels of examined grits blends had lower viscosity than corn grits and during storage they did not build additional structure. This is a result of replacing part of the corn grits, whose starch contains amylose and amylopectin, with amaranth grits whose starch includes small amount of amylose and high amount of amylopectin fractions (13).
B B B
120 140 120 100
### ### ###
0 100 200 300 400 500
40 40 20 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500
Fig. 2. Flow curves of the gels from corn grits and corn–amaranth grits in the ratios 80:20 and 50:50 determined in 0 h and 24 h
64. From the flow curves.06 24h 0. Values of yield stress. 22 . as well as flow curves of obtained extrudated products.57 0.71. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.641. Flow curves of gels made from extrudates had lower viscosity than the gels made from corresponding grits.44 0. 40. Table 4.57 0 Consistency index k 0h 2.97 1.75 3.92 0.41 0.016. extrudate Yield stress τo (Pa) 0h 3.30 0. 17-24 Original scientific paper In such a way fraction which structurate during time (amylose) is partially replaced by non gelling fraction.696 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.89 0. Flow curves of the gels made from the corn grits and extruded snack.59 0.72 0.APTEFF. consistency index and viscosity behavior index Sample 100% corn grits 80% corn : 20% amaranth grits 50% corn : 50% amaranth grits 100% corn extrudate 50% corn : 50% amar. fitting data in Herschel–Bulkley equation (14): τ = τ0 + k γn • the values for yield stress τ0 and coefficients k and n were calculated. in Figure 2.8:664.52 0.96 0.2298/APT0940017D UDC:664. Values of viscosity behavior index n for all samples are smaller than 1. Increased amount of amaranth grits decreased viscosity and surface of thixotropic flow curves.06 120 100 80 τ (Pa) 100% corn extrudate corn/amaranth 50:50% extrudate 100% corn grits corn/amarnth 50:50% 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 γ (1/s) Fig.49 2. 3.641. Yield stress decreased with addition of amaranth grits. and from 50:50% corn:amaranth grits and extruded snack Fig 3 presents flow curves of corn grits and grits blends of corn and amaranth in a ratio 50:50.59 2. which is characteristic for thixotropic behavior.21 0.72 0 0 24h 4.78 2. values of yield stress τ0 increased for gel samples after 24 hours of storage due to the structuration.75 0.46 6.05 Viscosity behavior index n 0h 0. Also.2:664.38 0.05 24h 10.59.93 12. as part of the corn was replaced. 0.15+664.
M.T. Re: Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering 19. Varga: Influence of Variety and Type of Emulsifier for Functional Food Quality and Amaranth Basis. In Official Methods of Analytic Chemists.016.R.. Kovacs.L.641. P. Ainsworth. 32 (1999) 79-88. Maya. M. H. Vega: Evaluation of whole amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) flour. R.: Effects of Genotype and Sowing Date on Yield and Yield Components of the Genus Amaranthus L. Radosavljević.. J. 75. its air classified fractions. Torres R. Onwulata. 5 (1991) 426429..Thesis.. When part of the corn grits is replaced with amaranth grits viscosity of gels decreases compared to pure corn grits. Also. 51. 7. 4. and S. Cereal Chemistry 64. AOAC : Solids (total) and moisture in flour. 2 (1998) 212-216. P. Becker: Amaranthus: A Potential Food and Feed Recourse in: Advances in Cereal Science (1984) 357-396. Jane J. M... E. Konstance R. and M. 6. University of Novi Sad (2001) 1-113. 8. Escobedo.H.. 10. Strange E. C. Tucker. J. Marson: The Effects of Conditions on the Functional and Physical Properties of Wheat–Based Expanded Snacks. W. Journal of Food Engineering 73 (2006) 142-148. M. Rupnow. Harris. G. D..696 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. M. 40.71.64. V. Tosi E. and R. 2.M. R. Cereal Food World 36.. 14th edn..8:664. S. 11.A. The obtained pastes had a lower viscosity. 4 (2002) 391-395. J. 5 (1986) 1231-1234.641.APTEFF. Lebensm. Ding Q. 17-24 Original scientific paper Starch granules in extrudates after thermal treatment were partly damaged during extrusion process and they built weak gels. A... Faculty of Agriculture.2298/APT0940017D UDC:664. I. Sanchez–Marroquan. D. and they can be classified to the category of pregelatined starch granules. Maraz–Szabo. Hanna. 10 (2000) 470-473.A. Plunkett.: Food Uses of Grain Amaranth. Gonzales. J.. F. Liu Y. A. 23 . and blends of these with wheat and outs as possible components for infant formulas. R. Cereal Chem..D.u.. Johanson: Isolation of Amaranth Starch by Diluted Alkaline–Protease Treatment. 4 (1987) 332-336. Food Sci..–Technol. E. J. C. Ilo. thus obtained gels of extrudated products have lower viscosity than the initial grits. 12.. Air oven method. Proceedings of XIV International Congress „Cereal Bread 2000” (2001) 223-226. Breene. 5. Smith P. De Greef. Holsinger: High Fiber Snack Extruded from Triticale and Wheat Formulations.. (1984) pp. 249. H. 9.. Ph. 3.. Koeppe.. L.15+664. Cereal Food World 45.. L. S.–Wiss.. E. Berghofer: Extrusion Cooking of Rice Flour and Amaranth Blends. M. Saunders.2:664. extrusion process partially damages starch granules. Walker. REFERENCES 1. L. CONCLUSION Increasing amount of amaranth grits in the extrusion blend causes increase of density and hardness of the extrudated products and decrease in expansion index. Avita. W. Cupett: Physical Properties and Some Nutritional Characteristics of an Extrusion Products with Defatted Amaranth Seeds and Defatted Maize Gluten Meal (80:20 Ratio). Del Valle. S. Bodroža–Solarov. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. E..
17-24 Original scientific paper 13. Received 15 June 2009 Accepted 9 September 2009 24 .15+664. L. Colona..641. Мирослав С. Повећањем удела гриза од амарантуса у смеши за екструдирање долази до повећања густине.8:664. Добијени су екструдати различите текстуре. Bello–Perez. Узорци код којих је део кукурузне крупице замењен амарантусовом имали су ниже вискозитете и показивали низак степен просторног структурирања током стајања. Peredes–Lopez: Macromolecular Features of Amaranth Starch. Сви системи су по типу протицања били тиксотропни. Бодрожа-Соларов. Hannover (2002) pp. 4 (1998) 395–402..71. повећања тврдоће.2298/APT0940017D UDC:664. 75.2:664.46. : The Rheology Handbook. P.. Roger. 40.016. O. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Mezger T. Cereal Chem.641. СВОЈСТВА ЕКСТРУДАТА СА ДОДАТКОМ КРУПИЦЕ ОД СЕМЕНА АМАРАНТУСА Љубица П. Vinsentz Verlag. Докић. Марија И. A.696 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. P. смањења степена експанзије.64. 14. Николић Поступком екструдирања на лабораторијском Брабендеровом 20 ДН екструдеру добијени су екструдати мешавине кукурузног гриза са додатком 20% и 50% крупице од семена амарантуса.APTEFF. У процесу екструдирања долази до делимичног оштећења скробне грануле те су испитане и реолошке карактеристике. Хаднађев и Ивана Р.
vukmirovic@gmail. Segregation between the kernel parts occurs in plansifters. With appropriate adjustments of the processing parameters in the eight-roller milling system it is possible to achieve similar milling results to those in the conventional system. 40. Serbia 25 . Breaking the wheat kernel is affected by corrugated cast steel rolls that gradually separate the endosperm. Ever since the grinding of grain has been known to the mankind. possibilities and solutions have been sought out in order to simplify the grinding process and make it more efficient. process rationalization.com. where sieves and airflow separate particles of different size. specific gravity and shape (1).ac. By decreasing the roll gap setting and increasing the upper size limit of flour in the process with the eight-roller mill it is possible to increase flour yield and therefore decrease milling energy consumption per unit mass of flour produced without deterioration of flour quality as determined by ash content.APTEFF.762:66. KEY WORDS: Wheat flour milling. the lower flour yield has been obtained using an eight-roller mill compared to the conventional milling system (5-8 %) followed by a higher energy requirements for grinding.Sc. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. djuro. Reduction of relatively pure endosperm to flour is achieved by using smooth rolls. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. Institute for Food Technology. 21000 Novi Sad. 21000 Novi Sad. At the same roll gaps and under the same sieving conditions. New concepts and ideas only have chance of being successful if the yield as well as the quality of the finished products are not affected and requirements such as reduction of investment.Sc. while the overall investment. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. energy and maintenance costs are significantly lower.rs. and in purifires. Faculty of Technology.. Vukmirović1 Possibilities for the rationalization of the wheat flour milling process using the eightroller mill on the 1M and 2M passages of the reduction system have been investigated.. fistes@uns. Fišteš.2298/APT0940025F UDC:664. Đuro M. eight-roller mill INTRODUCTION The objective of the wheat flour milling process is to separate the branny cover and germ of the wheat kernel from the endosperm and achieve as high as possible flour extraction with the lowest contamination of bran and germ that increase the ash content. Serbia. Fišteš and Đuro M. The traditional Aleksandar Z. B.012 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 25-34 Original scientific paper REDUCTION OF WHEAT MIDDLINGS USING A CONVENTIONAL AND EIGHT-ROLLER MILLING SYSTEMS Aleksandar Z. Vukmirović.71-11:664. where sieves separate particles of different size. M. bran and germ. operating and maintenance cost are met (2).
Even though the eight-roller mill has found its place in the modern flour milling process relatively little research has been performed on various factors affecting the milling results using this technique mainly focusing on the front passages of the break system (8-11) rather than the passages of the reduction system. 8. Over the years the main equipment used in the grinding system has been redesigned to such an extent that it has been possible to multiply the throughputs of these machines but flour process technology has not changed fundamentally since the introduction of the roller mill. Second. the purifier and the plansifter (4). coarse material is separated from the fines and therefore the conditions for controlled milling are less favorable. 4. 40.APTEFF. 8). which increases the volume to the roll (5). that should not pass to the next break roll. The decision as to how many double grinding passages can be applied in the flowsheet depends directly on the finished products to be made. it produces more break flour and fine middlings and less coarse middlings and sizings that can be purified to produce clean middlings and low-ash flour. Compared to a conventional process with the four-roller mill. the capacity of the lower roll is limited because the ground material is lower in density. It is not always possible to equip installations exclusively with eight-roller mills (4. coarse middlings. the introduction of the eight-roller mill into the milling flowsheet offers the following advantages (2. 5-8): • fewer pneumatic suction lifts (conveying the stock from the roll to the sifter) – resulting in lower material and installation costs • lower pneumatic system air requirements – resulting in lower energy costs and lower filter surface requirements for cleaning the pneumatic conveying air • reduction of sifter surface • smaller number of roll stands • less spouting and auxiliary components • lower space requirements for equipment installation – resulting in lower building costs for the new milling plants or increase in grinding capacity within existing limited building space • more compact building design makes it easier to keep clean with less area to fumigate • with less equipment there is less cleaning and maintenance. First. 11). whose function is to separate endosperm from bran. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. twin stage grinding ignores the milling principle that.012 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.762:66. This is the reason why it is very important to define the passages and optimal roll parameters that allow the introduction of the eight-roller mill into the milling process without deterioration of the yield and quality of finished products.71-11:664. 25-34 Original scientific paper wisdom in flour milling is that after every grinding step the ground material should be sieved and the undersize material removed before regrinding (3). It is evident that when the first and second breaks are combined into a twin passage. Tegeler (8) and Wanzenried (7) 26 . after grinding. Eight-roller mill (a total of 8 rolls in one housing) provides two grinding passages without any intermediate sifting. There are several disadvantages of using this break system.2298/APT0940025F UDC:664. This is the reason why the double grinding of intermediate streams before sieving has been one of the most notable process developments in flour milling (3). the particle size distribution of the stock will not be the same as with conventional single break system (2. On the other hand. it grinds fine material. Third.
1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.25 m in diameter were used. 2M-0.) eight-roller milling system – the entire stock following 1M was milled on the 2M without intermediate sifting Table 1.012 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. The first stack was the same as that mentioned above. flour ash and milling energy requirements) obtained using the conventional process and process with an eight-roller mill employed on the 1st and 2nd midds (1M and 2M passages) of the reduction system. The research of Zwingleberg (9) and Zwingleberg and Artz (10) showed that appropriate adjustment of the roll parameters is needed regardless of whether the eight-roller mill is used on breakage or reduction passages. Summary of experimental range of variables tested Milling system Conventional Smooth Eight-roller Roll surface Roll gap combinations [mm] 1M-0. In the second. Smooth rolls 0. EXPERIMENTAL The samples were obtained from an industrial mill (120 t/day) intercepting the stream (middlings) that would have been sent to the 1M. The experiments were designed to compare: a.08 1M-0.05 Feed rate [kg/cm/min] 1M-0. 2M-0. flour release.71-11:664.25 1M-0. The aim of this work was to examine and compare the effect that roll gap changes have on the milling results (degree of particle size reduction.20. The samples (50 kg) were separated using the automatic sampler divider (Gompper-Maschinen KG) into 0. 2M-0. For the conventional milling system the sieve openings were 250. Under industrial conditions. 2M-0.05 1M-0. In this particular mill (having five break.1 m in length and 0. For the eight-roller milling system three different stacks of sieves were used.10.APTEFF.20. 25-34 Original scientific paper stated that the granulation from flour produced in the eight-roller mill is finer while the flour color is slightly whiter compared to the ones in the conventional process. four sizing and six reduction passages) the eight-roller mills are not employed. 2M-0.15* 1.762:66. the sieve with the 150 µm bolting cloth was replaced 27 .) conventional milling system – the entire stock following 1M was sieved for 3 min on a Bühler laboratory sifter (model MLU-300) and the part of the stock held on the sieve fitted with 150 μm bolting cloth was milled on 2M b. only the roll gap settings and feed rate (to a limited degree) can be adjusted during the milling process.20 5 Differential Fast roll speed [m/s] *The slower feed rate on 2M corresponds to the amount of flour removed by intermediate sifting of the stock leaving 1M Sieve analysis of the entire stock following 2M was performed on the above Bühler laboratory sifter for 3 min.5 kg batches and milled on a Variostuhl (model C Ex 2) – laboratory roll stand (Miag). Table 1 summarizes the experimental range of variables tested.08. along with the bottom collecting pan.10. 200 and 150 µm. 40.2298/APT0940025F UDC:664.
The weight distribution among the streams was highly reproducible. yields of the size fractions of the milling output are not to be compared because the cumulative size distributions (Fig.7% estimated confidence interval for the data (weight percentages) presented in the paper is ±0. Considering that the 2M feeds were different for the two milling systems. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Changes in the particle size distribution of the stocks leaving 2M.37%. brought about by the decrease of the roll gap. Two samples were milled and sieved under the same conditions. Flour yield F (%) in the eight-roller and conventional milling systems was calculated from Equations (Eqs. The ash content of the total quantity of flour leaving the 2M was determined according to ICC standard method No.012 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 25-34 Original scientific paper with a sieve having 180 µm bolting cloth.104/1 (12). By decreasing the roll gap. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 28 . E kJ/kg.)  and . in the conventional and eight-roller milling systems was calculated by Eqs.71-11:664. and for the third stack the sieve openings were 250 and 200 µm. 40. respectively.762:66. respectively.2298/APT0940025F UDC:664. kW) the material flow. the 99. Two different power readings were recorded corresponding to operation with (P. The subscripts indicate flour following 1M or 2M. followed the same trends in both milling systems. The significance of the differences between milling results obtained using investigated milling systems have been tested by the paired Student’s t-test. The milling energy consumption during all grinding runs was determined from the wattmeter fitted as an integral part of the Variostuhl laboratory roll stand. E= E= P − P2*M P1M − P1* M t2M t1M + 2 M m2M m1M ( P1M − P1* ) + ( P2 M − P2*M ) M (t1M + t 2 M ) m2 M   Here m (kg) is the mass of flour obtained and t (s) is the time of the grinding run determined by the chronometer.  and . The milling energy consumption. kW) and without (P*. Based on the 3σ rule. the quantity of material >200 μm (size fractions >250 μm and 250/200 μm) tends to decrease while the flour yield (<150 μm) increased. F (%) = m2M * 100(%) M  F (%) = m1M + m2 M *100(%) M  The symbols m and M stand for the weights of the flour and native feed. respectively. 1a and 1b) were given relative to the mass of the material milled on the 2M and only serve to show the general trends.APTEFF.
25 (usual for this stage of grinding process). The roll parameters such as roll gap. decreasing the roll gap increases the grinding zone size (14) so the grinding action. the tougher branny particles are flattened and remain in the coarsest size fractions of the milling output (>200 μm). 40.012 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. differential and the type and condition of roll surface influence the magnitude of the stress and the relative contributions of compressive and shearing forces (14). thereby increasing the number of endosperm fractures creating more flour. 25-34 Original scientific paper Fig. The nature of deformation depends not only on the applied stresses but also on the particle components upon which the stresses act. uniformity and the feed rate of stocks to rolls. roll velocities.762:66. with over half the total in the pericarp. Compressive stresses are more effective in causing the disintegration of the brittle endosperm material while bran (tough and fibrous) is more prone to the ductile fracture imparted by shear forces. In a roller mill particles are subjected to shear and compressive forces. is prolonged and also contributes to the greater flour release as a result of increased number of endosperm fractures.2298/APT0940025F UDC:664.71-11:664. Under the present grinding conditions. 1. greater shear stresses are imposed. Ash is concentrated in the bran. using the smooth rolls and relatively small differential – 1. as the roll gap decreases greater compressive forces are imposed. under predominant compressive forces. Cumulative size distributions of the stocks following 2M milled through different roll gaps in the a) conventional milling system and b) eight-roller mill system The factors affecting particle size reduction can be classified into those arising from the physicochemical properties of the material and those related to the design and operation of the milling equipment (13).APTEFF. testa and aleurone and the ash content increases from the inner (endosperm) to the outer (bran) 29 . With roll differential closer to 1 the compressive forces dominate in the grinding zone. As the roll differential increases. Middlings are composed primarily of endosperm (they also contain adhering bran and germ) exhibiting viscoelasticity when fracturing. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. In addition to that. Simultaneously.
2M-0. Flour release following 2M in the conventional and eight-roller milling system 30 .762:66.35 1. 2) and the difference is statistically significant (p<0.16 0. proves that bran particles remain intact. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 25-34 Original scientific paper part of the wheat kernel (15). flour particles are removed from the stock before regrinding on 2M by intermediate sifting. Dexter and Biliaderis (17).37 1.10.05 At the same roll gap setting and under the same sieving conditions.2298/APT0940025F UDC:664. Fig. 2M-0.22 0.10.05). while roll gap had no influence on flour ash content (Table 2). 2M-0.08 1M-0.05 1M-0.APTEFF. The increase of the ash content of the coarsest fraction of the stock following 2M. In the conventional system. Ash content in flour (<150 μm ) and the coarsest fraction (>250 μm) of the stock following 2M in the conventional and eight-roller milling systems Ash content (%)dm Conventional system Eight-roller system >250 μm <150 μm >250 μm <150 μm 1.35 1.38 Roll gap [mm] 1M-0. in their studies of the effect of smooth roll grinding conditions on reduction of wheat farina.08. while in the absence of intermediate sifting remain in the material feeding the lower pair of rolls of the eight-roller mill (stock following 1M). the flour release was lower in the process involving the eight-roller mill compared to the conventional milling system (Fig.71-11:664. Table 2. 40.15 0.12 0.37 1.17 0. 2.012 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.38 1. Scanlon and Dexter (16) and Scanlon.27 0. also reported similar findings.
 and  define milling energy consumption relative to the mass of flour obtained. At the same.05) (Table 3). under industrial conditions. Ash content in the total amount of flour following 2M in the conventional and eight-roller milling systems Ash content (%)dm Roll gap [mm] Conventional system <150 [μm] 0. 3) (p<0. etc. similar (p>0. 2M-0.36 0.01). It shows that previously mentioned adjustments in the process were not followed by increased grinding of the bran which would otherwise pass into flour and increase flour ash. so the other probable cause could be inefficient sifting of the flour.37 0. It needs to be pointed out that increasing the sieve size contributes to more efficient sifting but at the same time increases the upper size limit of flour. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. by replacing the 150 μm bolting cloth with sieves having 180 and 200 μm bolting cloths in the process with eight-roller mill. Only one sifting operation in the process with eight-roller mill. Neither the roll gap adjustments nor the sieving conditions changes resulted in deterioration of flour quality since the flour ash remained constant (p>0.APTEFF. compared to two in the conventional system.39 0. replacement of the sieves in the plansifter (changing the sieve aperture) is probably the easiest way to change the sieving conditions and therefore influence the sifting efficiency.05) or significantly higher (p<0.10.37 0. It is mainly due to the lower flour yield in the eight-roller mill process.35 0. The heavier load in the 2M grinding zone in the process with eight-roller mill increases the power requirements in the operation with the material flow (P) and also 31 .38 <180 [μm] 0. feed rate to the sifter. it is possible to increase flour yield and it comes as a result of greater compressive forces imposed on the particles of the stock.05 <150 [μm] 0. the energy required for grinding tends to be higher in the eight-roller mill process compared to that in the conventional milling system (Fig. also contributed to lower flour yield.37 <200 [μm] 0.10. 25-34 Original scientific paper These particles take on some of the stresses in the grinding zone which otherwise would be used to reduce the remaining middlings to flour. Table 3. roll gap setting in both milling systems. Under the same roll and sifting conditions. 2).012 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. number of gyrations per minute. 2M-0. By decreasing the roll gap setting in the process with the eight-roller mill compared to the gap in the conventional system. 2M-0. cloth tension. thereby explaining the lower flour release in the process with the eight-roller mill as well as the finer flour granulation as a result of further grinding of flour particles.36 0.19). However.71-11:664.08.05 1M-0. without changing the sieving conditions.36 Eight-roller system 1M-0. (18. Sifting efficiency depends on a number of different factors such as disposable sifter area.2298/APT0940025F UDC:664. The amount of the flour in the stock following 2M is considerably higher in the eight-roller mill process. both causing the increase of the flour release.36 0.37 Eqs.38 0.08 1M-0.762:66. 40.01) flour yield has been achieved compared to the one in the conventional system (Fig.
The higher feed rate to the lower pair of rolls of the eight-roller mill. This justifies the use of the eight-roller mill on the 1st and 2nd midds (1M and 2M passages) of the wheat flour milling process. the introduction of the eight-roller mill into the milling flow sheet offers numerous advantages which significantly contribute to the reduction of the production costs. 3). it is possible to reduce the energy required for grinding (Fig. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.APTEFF. 32 .S.762:66. Ponte. CRC Press. REFERENCES 1. K. 40. by appropriate adjustment of the sieving conditions and/or roll gap (following the data presented on Fig. With the appropriate adjustments of the sieving conditions or/and roll gap setting in the process with the eight-roller mill it is possible to achieve similar milling results to those in conventional milling system. New York (2000) pp.G. 25-34 Original scientific paper contributes to higher energy consumption. and J. is unavoidable because there is no intermediate sifting and therefore no removal of the undersized material before regrinding. 2). Posner.012 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. compared to feed rate on appropriate milling passage in conventional milling system. Kulp. W. In Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology. Eds. Taylor and Francis Group.: New Development in the Mill Flow Charts Grinding Process Using Eight-Roller Mills. 3. E.71-11:664. By increasing the flour release in the process with the eight-roller mill. 2.2298/APT0940025F UDC:664.1-30. December (1993) 6327-6332. Energy consumption in conventional and eight-roller milling systems CONCLUSION Compared to conventional milling system. Fig.: Wheat. Association of Operative Millers-Bulletin. Baltensperger.
G. Heft 20 (1998) 649-654.J. Association of Operative Millers-Bulletin..012 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Eustace and J. Kent.L. corn and coarse grains milling. W. W. Curran.Paul. W. W. Tegeler. J. Baltensperger. Die Mühle + Mischfuttertechnik. Cereal Chemistry 63 (1986) 431-435.G. 14. Powder Technology 115 (2001) 243-255.und Doppelvermahlung. Owens. 18. February (1999) 7229-7230. 13. 17. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Owens. S.212-213.104/1.: State-of-the-Art Grain Milling Technology. Handreck.: Technology of cereals.E. Minnesota (2005) p. Hibbs: Wheat Flour Milling.: Verschiedene Walzenstuhlbeschüttungen und deren Auswirkungen auf Produktanfall und Mineralstoffgehalt Teil 2: Versuche an nicht geputztem Grieß als Einzel. ICC Standard No. Wingfield.: Wheat. Senge: Intensives Aufschroten von Weizen im Achtwalzenstuhl. Heft 18 (1998) 593-595.2298/APT0940025F UDC:664. Woodhead Publishing Ltd. 11.. H.: Advances in Process Technology. circles and speeds. model MDDL.C. C. W. Gwirtz: The effect of cloth tension on sifting performance. Posner. Association of Operative Millers-Bulletin.APTEFF..: Application of size reduction theory to roller mill design and operation. V. Zwingelberg. 25-34 Original scientific paper 3. 5. October (2001) 7706-7707. Dexter: Effect of smooth roll grinding conditions on reduction of hard red spring wheat farina. M. Wanzenried. In Cereals Processing Technology.. Oxford (1975). 40. Und II. St. Cambridge (2001) pp.: Eight-High Roller Mills vs. Scanlon.G. Four-High Roller Mills The Pros and Cons.E. Cereal Foods World 36 (1991) 368-374. H. 15. Association of Operative Millers-Bulletin. 27-52. Zwingelberg. May (1994) 6379-6381. Dexter and C. 6. Ferrer: Multiple sieve sifter performance using various combinations of feed rates. Journal of Food Process Engineering 7 (1984) 91-110.W. P. Die Mühle + Mischfuttertechnik. 16. Webb and S. and B. Schrot. 10.. Arzt: Verschiedene Walzenstuhlbeschüttungen und deren Auswirkungen auf Produktanfall und Mineralstoffgehalt Teil 1: Versuche beim I.M. 7. Die Mühle + Mischfuttertechnik. Eugster. December (1991) 5977-5981. Ed. Pötschke and Ch.N. E. 19.762:66. L. 33 . and A.: Benefits and results with 8-roller mill. Haque.G. E. G. 9. N. J. 12.C. January (2001) 7583-7591. Biliaderis: Particle-size related physical properties of flour produced by smooth roll reduction of hard red spring wheat Farina. Association of Operative Millers – Bulletin. H. and J. and A.71-11:664. Bunn. Scanlon. 4.. Association of Operative Millers-Bulletin. Schrot und als Doppelvermahlung beim I. Campbell. Cereal Chemistry 65 (1988) 486-492..S. Determination of ash in cereals and cereal products. Pergamon Press.G. M. Heft 26 (1999) 818-826. B. 8. Hook: On predicting roller milling performance Part II:The breakage function. AACC.
40. 25-34 Original scientific paper ЕФЕКТИ МЛЕВЕЊА ПШЕНИЧНОГ ГРИЗА У КЛАСИЧНОМ И ПОСТУПКУ СА ОСМОВАЉНОМ СТОЛИЦОМ Александар З. Одговарајућим прилагођавањем процесних параметара могу се у поступку са осмоваљном столицом остварити ефекти уситњавања блиски ефектима у класичном поступку. Вукмировић Испитивана је могућност рационализације технолошког поступка млевења пшенице укључивањем осмоваљне столице на пролазиштима млевења гриза 1М и 2М. При истом вођењу ваљака и при употреби истог слога сита за просејавање млива. у поступку са осмоваљном столицом остварује се мањи принос брашна него у класичном поступку (5-8%). што доприноси смањењу специфичног утрошка енергије за уситњавање.762:66. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.012 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. док је специфични утрошак енергије по јединици масе брашна већи. при томе није констатована промена садржаја пепела у брашну. Received 11 June 2009 Accepted 15 September 2009 34 . Нижим вођењем ваљака у поступку са осмоваљном столицом разлика у оствареном приносу брашна у поменутим поступцима се смањује без промене садржаја пепела у брашну. Фиштеш и Ђуро М.APTEFF.2298/APT0940025F UDC:664. што доприноси рационализацији технолошког поступка млевења пшенице.71-11:664. а истовремено се остварују значајне инвестиционе и енергетске уштеде. Корекцијом слога сита у поступку са осмоваљном столицом (повећањем величине отвора сејног ткива за одсејавање брашна) значајно се повећава принос брашна у поменутом поступку. Такође.
B. Nevena M. the concentration of sugar beet molasses was varied 40 to 80%. Vjera S. through the cell walls and surface tissue which act as a semi-permeable membrane. 40. Serbia 35 .2298/APT0940035K UDC:634. 3 and 5 hours of immersion were observed.rs.126+664. Mišljenović.rs. Pribiš. megamum@uns. Koprivica. Sc. Dr. apple. the content of minerals was increased to a great extent that enhanced their nutritive value.. gordanak@uns. Lević. Sc. Dr. Ljubinko B. Osmotic dehydration was conducted at constant temperature of 55°C and atmospheric pressure.ac.. 35-46 Original scientific paper CHANGES IN NUTRITIVE AND TEXTURAL QUALITY OF APPLE OSMODEHYDRATED IN SUGAR BEET MOLASSES AND SACCHAROSE SOLUTIONS Gordana B. in order to obtain a better quality final product. at the same time there is a diffusion of solute from osmotic solution into fruits and vegetables (2). Res.ac. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. In other words. fruits and vegetables are dipped in a hypertonic aqueous solution whereupon part of moisture flows from fruits and vegetables as a consequence of the difference in osmotic pressure of water in the plant tissue and hypertonic aqueous solution. During the experiment.92 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. University of Novi Sad. 21000 Novi Sad. Gordana B.15:543. Res. and the most important kinetic parametars of the osmotic dehydration. the concentration of saccharose solutions was varied in the range of 30 to 70%. saccharose. nevenam@uns. Prof. Textural quality parameter was evaluated from the maximum cut force.11:664. KEY WORDS: Osmotical dehydration. The aim of osmotic dehydration is a partial removal of water from the material with a simultaneous reduction of solid gain.APTEFF. as these structures are only partially permeable. It was found that the samples dehydrated in saccharose solutions had a softer and more gentle texture – the maximum force load decreased threefold as compared to the other samples. Pribiš The paper describes texture and mineral content of apple. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Koprivica. B. sugar beet molasses INTRODUCTION Osmotic dehydration is used as pretreatment in the process of extension of the sustainability of fruit and vegetable drying. after 1. However.854:664. osmotically dehydrated in sugar beet molasses as compared to apples treated in saccharose solution.rs.ac.. in the samples which were treated in sugar beet molasses. Faculty of Technology... Mišljenović. Lević and Vjera S. Ljubinko B. Assist. In the first phase of the process. During osmotic dehydration. Prof. tested at Instron testing machine. Nevena M. Assist. osmotic dehydration is a process for concentrating fruit and vegetables (1).
1.15:543.126+664. and sugar beet molasses (from sugar factory in Bač. Molasses has a high content of solids (around 80%) and contains. 20 mm in height and diameter with sharp apple corer. So far. Dehydration rate is the highest at the beginning of the process of osmotic dehydration because of the large differences between osmotic pressure in the solution and the plant tissue. The choice of optimal hypertonic aqueous solution appears to be the key problem in osmotic dehydration. high pressure. 1% rafinose. In Serbia. 7). the apples were stored at 4ºC and then thoroughly washed and cut into cylindrical shapes. confectionery and meat processing industry (1. from is not possible to get the crystal sugar by usual procedures of crystallization. 5% proteins. 36 . Sugar beet molasses is a cheap material available in large quantities and could be used as a replacement for saccharose. 0. sugar beet molasses emerges as a suitable raw-material for the preparation of hypertonic solutions. the size and geometry of plant tissue. used in the process.25% glucose and fructose. dehydrated fruits and vegetables can be used directly in human nutrition or as a material for further drying to the appropriate moisture content (5). on the mechanical properties and mineral composition and nutritional quality of treated apples. centrifugal force. 5). The rate of diffusion of water from plant tissue depends on several factors such as: temperature and concentration of osmotic solution. Serbia) with 40. 10). 40. were purchased on the local market. organic acids and bases (11). but to a much smaller extent.APTEFF. EXPERIMENTAL Apples for the experiment. in average. Hence.92 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. ultrasound. sugar beet molasses has not yet been used as an ingredient in food industry. 35-46 Original scientific paper In addition to these two dominant processes a diffusion of cell juices from the plant tissue into osmotic solution occurs.by applying vacuum. as well as a small resistance to mass transfer (8). Besides saccharose. 60 and 80% solid content. The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of hypertonic solution (sugar beet molasses and sucrose solutions). 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.5% nucleosides. 51% saccharose. 50% and 70%) that were prepared by mixing commercial sugar with heated distilled water (30ºC) to complete dissolution. Osmotic solutions were saccharose aqueous solutions (solid content: 30%. pure saccharose or its combinations with other sugars and sodium-chloride has been proposed as the best solution for hypertonic aqueous solutions (9. (1). 6% betaine. Solutions were made by mixing pure molasses with distilled water.2298/APT0940035K UDC:634.11:664. the extensive research activities have been going on with the aim of introducing molasses as a valuable ingredient in bakery. Partially. etc.854:664. Molasses is the last syrup. purine and pyramidine bases. 4). The increase of the mass transfer rate during osmotic dehydration can be achieved in several ways . weight ratio of solution and plant tissue and the degree of solution mixing (6. Prior to the treatment. which is considered to be minor but also affects the nutritive value of osmo-dehydrated fruits and vegetables (3.
The immersion lasted for 1. the samples were washed with water and gently blotted to remove excessive water from the surface.15:543. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Saccharose solutions had a concentration of 30% (in the study indicated as S1). Serbia) at 105°C for 24h. dry matter content and content of some mineral matter (K. until constant weight was attained. dry matter growth (SG) (15). samples of apple were dipped into different concentrations of the hypertonic saccharose solutions and sugar beet molasses. During the process the values of water content were followed as well as the changes in weight and in the content of dry matter. The next step was to measure the mass of the samples. Ca. 1. while the concentrations of sugar beet molasses solutions were 40% (in the further study indicated as M1). The samples were kept in an oven (Instrumentaria Sutjeska. Temperature monitoring Osmotic solution T Samples Thermostatic bath Pumps Fig. All analytical measurements were carried out in accordance to AOAC methods (14). The content of mineral matter were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS 30 – Carl Zeis (12-Cacak) and the texture of apple was determined by Instron M4301 (13). Na and Mg) were determined.2298/APT0940035K UDC:634. 50% (S2) and 70% (S3). Setup for osmotic dehydration The material to hypertonic solution ratio was 1:4. 3 and 5 hours. 40. After measuring the initial mass. 35-46 Original scientific paper Osmotic dehydration was carried out at 55ºC under atmospheric pressure. After osmotic dehydration. These values allowed calculation of the following parameters: water loss (WL). 60% (M2) and 80% solid content (M3).854:664.126+664.92 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. ⎡g⎤ w − w WR ⎢ ⎥ = o wo ⎣g⎦  37 .11:664. The solid content of osmotic solutions was determined refractometrically (12).APTEFF. After measuring the mass. weight reduction (WR).
the rate of weight reduction (RWR ). 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. g/g initial sample weight 2.2298/APT0940035K UDC:634.624 WL x 102.161 45.693 25. ⎡ g ⎤ WR RWR ⎢ ⎥= t ⎣ g ⋅ min ⎦ ⎡ g ⎤ SG RSG ⎢ ⎥= t ⎣ g ⋅ min ⎦   ⎡ g ⎤ WL RWL ⎢ ⎥= t ⎣ g ⋅ min ⎦ where t is the duration time of osmotic dehydration.634 SG x 102. g/g initial sample weight 17. u .034 39.483 32.126+664. On the basis of these parameters.477 22.258  60 % 80 % 38 .854:664.155 17.92 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 40 % Time.weight of the sample after osmotic dehydration (g).11:664.471 2.540 55.15:543.182 2. h 1 3 5 1 3 5 1 3 5 WR x 102.APTEFF.690 42.299 35.216 2.weight of dry matter in the fresh sample (g).506 52. g/g initial sample weight 15. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Kinetics of osmotic dehydration Table 1.905 1. W .036 2.760 32.410 1.initial weight of the sample (g).951 4. 40.433 36. the rate of growth of dry matter (RSG) and the rate of water loss (RWL) during osmotic dehydration are calculated.m.weight of dry matter in the sample after osmotic dehydration (g).298 24. uo .539 2. % d.851 37. Kinetic parametars of osmotic dehydration of apple in sugar beet molasses Concentration of molasses.203 26. 35-46 Original scientific paper ⎡ g ⎤ u − uo SG ⎢ ⎥ = wo ⎣g⎦  ⎡g⎤ WL ⎢ ⎥ = WR + SG ⎣g⎦  where: Wo .566 19.
The cause of this is a greater driving force in the beginning of the process of osmotic dehydration.716 WL x 102.919 50 % 70 % The process of osmotic dehydration decreased mass of the samples. % d. The rate of weight reduction is greater when 80% molasses and 70% sucrose solution were used as the osmotic solution in that case the value of mass reduction being almost equal.263 25.647 40.820 36. Water loss is defined as the sum of weight reduction and solid gain.481 4. The SG value indicates the degree of penetration of solids from the osmotic solution to the apple sample.827 4.244 15. h 1 3 5 1 3 5 1 3 5 WR x 102. The apple dehydrated in the 80% sugar beat molasses shows the greatest mass loss of 52.445 27.178 29. g/g initial sample weight 13.203 SG x 102.126+664. The rate of weight reduction is the highest in the first hour and 3 hours.805 14.202 20.181 2.e.927 53.832 24.2298/APT0940035K UDC:634.438 1. 30 % Time. 35-46 Original scientific paper Tables 1 and 2 are show the changes of kinetic parameters during osmotic dehydration of apples depending on the concentration of sugar beet molasses and sucrose solutions as well as duration of osmotic dehydration process.854:664.216 3. Higher concentration of sugar beet molasses caused greater loss of water from the samples.m.92 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. In all samples WL was increased with increasing dehydration time.565 41. It shows a tendency to increase with increasing the immersion time.15:543. weight reduction (WR) increasing with time and increase in concentration of sugar beet molasses. g/g initial sample weight 0. Mass transfer rate during osmotic dehydration Tables 3 and 4 show the rate of mass transfer during osmotic dehydration as a function of time and concentration of sugar beet molasses and sucrose solution.151 32. greater difference in the osmotic pressures between surrounding hypertonic solutions and the plant tissue.634 x 10-2g/g of the initial sample mass.531 22. i.001 19. Loss of water is fast at the beginning of the process of osmotic dehydration. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.446 49. The results show that the osmotic dehydration was most intensive at the beginning of the process. g/g initial sample weight 12. after the process has a tendency of stabilization.201 1. Table 2.APTEFF. 40. Kinetic parametars of osmotic dehydration of apple in saccharose solutions Concentration of saccharose solution. 39 .973 2.11:664.349 38. while increasing the concentration of osmotic solution reduces the increase of dry matter.300 1.
w.· min) 21.6 18.96 16. g/(g i.54 Rate of SG x 105.93 19.w. show the changes of the contents of the analyzed mineral components (K.39 21. % d.67 4.854:664.7 9. Rate of mass transfer in osmotic dehydration of apple in saccharose solutions Concentration of saccharose solution. · min) 36.29 17.9 16.7 11. h 1 3 5 1 3 5 1 3 5 Rate of WR x 104.4 Rate of SG x 105.94 40. Since saccharose solution does not contain mineral component. % d. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 40 % Time. g/(g i.71 13.33 32.88 15. because sugar beet molasses is rich in minerals and other biogenic substances. 35-46 Original scientific paper Table 3.w. On the other hand.97 18. g/(g i.34 7.w.s.15:543. · min) 22.68 19.s.13 12. Na.93 36.72 Rate of WL x 104.4 14.19 32. organs and organisms of plants and animals (10).m.75 Rate of WL x 104. a decrease in their contents was observed during osmotic dehydration.48 45.34 15. · min) 7. and due to the diffusion of these substances from the hypertonic solution into the sample. 30 % Time. Figures 2-5.s.7 25.31 6.72 29.s.APTEFF.8 12. 40 .3 8.w. 40.126+664.1 41.11:664.84 17. g/(g i.45 6.16 19.s.2298/APT0940035K UDC:634.42 20. g/(g i.57 12.16 14.· min) 25.92 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.14 13.09 42.s.07 8.m.25 21.53 15.w. an increase in the content of these components takes place in the treated apple.78 6. g/(g i. Ca and Mg) in the apples dehydrated in saccharose solutions and sugar beet molasses. · min) 29.49 14.97 50% 70% Mineral composition of apple before and after osmotic dehydration It is well known that the minerals in solution have irreplaceable importance for normal functioning and revitalization of certain cell elements.06 43. Rate of mass transfer in osmotic dehydration of apple in sugar beet molasses Concentration of molasses.36 16.51 36. h 1 3 5 1 3 5 1 3 5 Rate of WR x 104.94 23.6 13.49 10.42 60% 80% Table 4.25 18.
APTEFF. 3. h 3 1 -50 0 50 100 loss/increase in the content of Na. while the smallest losses of K occured in the sample S1. Loss/increase in the content of K in the apples during osmotic dehydration 5 Time.92 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.11:664. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.15:543.2298/APT0940035K UDC:634. led to the largest loss in K content in apple (34.126+664. after 5 hours. 40. % saccharose-30% saccharose-70% molasses-60% saccharose-50% molasses-40% molasses-80% Fig.854:664. Loss/increase in the content of Na in the apples during osmotic dehydration From the results we can conclude that the content of K decreased with extending immersion time. % saccharose-30% saccharose-70% molasses-60% saccharose-50% molasses-40% molasses-80% Fig. 2.77%). Osmotic dehydration in solution S2. h 3 1 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 loss/increase in the content of K. 35-46 Original scientific paper 5 Time. 41 .
At the end of the process of osmotic dehydration. but very similar results were achieved in the application of molasses with 60% of dry matter as osmotic agent.126+664.15:543. The content of Na was the lowest in the apple dehydrated in S2 solution (50%) and the highest in the apple treated in the saccharose solution with 30% of dry matter (S1). The increase of the content of Ca was the most expressed in the sample dehydrated in 80% molasses. h 3 1 -50 0 50 100 150 200 loss/increase in the content of Ca. the minimum loss was 26. which means that the amount of Ca in that sample was about 2. 35-46 Original scientific paper also after 5 hours (19. during the process of osmotic dehydration was the smallest in the hypertonic solution with the lowest concentration of dry matter. 4.5 times higher in comparison to the amount of minerals in the starting. After 3 hours of immersion. Loss / increase in the content of Ca in the apples during osmotic dehydration 42 .99%. 5 Time.11:664. the maximum increase was 83.91% and the maximum was 39. and it was 142. after 5 h immersion. Expressed in percentage. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.01%.92 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.68%). 40.43%.06 mg/100g.2298/APT0940035K UDC:634. and after 5 h of the process the increase was the highest in apple dehydrated in M2 solution (48. after 5 h.24%). non-dehydrated sample. % saccharose-30% molasses-40% saccharose-50% molasses-60% saccharose-70% molasses-80% Fig.APTEFF. the loss of Ca.16%. content of K was the highest in the apple treated in the M3 solution and it was 159.34% and the highest in the sample S3 (37.4%). As in the previous two cases. and after 5 h it was 18. The loss was minimal in the S1 solution.854:664. and it was in the apple dehydrated in 80% molasses (M3). After the first hour of immersion the increase of Na content was the highest in the M1 solution and it was 24.
about 2. The results of analysis of apple samples obtained by osmotic dehydration in sugar beet molasses after 1. 35-46 Original scientific paper 5 Time. shown in Figure 3 and related to the content of Mg in the apple sample after 1.854:664. 43 .e. a general conclusion that the use of a sugar beet molasses as hypertonic solution has a significant advantage in comparison to the sucrose solution at all concentration and all immersion time. Loss / increase in the content of Mg in the apples during osmotic dehydration A very similar conclusion can be drawn on the basis of the results. It is shown as an example of dehydrated apples in the sugar beet molasses and sucrose solution with the highest concentrations of dry matter.14% in the sample dehydrated in S3 solution. On the basis of presented results. The best results were achieved by applying 80% molasses as osmotic medium. The loss of this mineral was quite large and after 5 h was 41. In comparison with the losses of other minerals (K. There is no important difference in the strength between nondehydrated apples and osmotically dehydrated in sugar beet molasses. 3 and 5 h of immersion. in the sample dehydrated in M3 solution.15:543.126+664. Based on the measured cutting force (mechanical properties of texture) it can be concluded that the samples osmodehydrated in sucrose solutions were softer and gentler because the cutting force was three times smaller in comparison to other samples of apples.2298/APT0940035K UDC:634. 3 and 5 h of immersion. i. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.11:664. h 3 1 -50 0 50 100 loss/increase in the content of Mg.2 times higher in comparison to that before the osmotic dehydration.92 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 5. % saccharose-30% saccharose-70% molasses-60% saccharose-50% molasses-40% molasses-80% 150 Fig. The quantity of the mineral was. Table 5 presents the results of texture determination in nondehydrated and osmotically dehydrated apples. the decrease in Mg content was the highest. indicate a significant increase in Mg content in the final product. Na and Ca). 40.APTEFF.
7. some advantages of applying molasses as hypertonic solution. Na. which is very desirable and the candying effect of fruit is avoided. Water loss and weight reduction after 5 h of dehydration are higher in comparison to the dehydration over a shorter period of time. the final product has approximately the same as raw material. 8.3 9.2 3.6 10.4 2. 2.0 7.1 9.9 8. 4.15:543. By analyzing the content of mineral components (K.47 Osmotically dehydrated apple. 44 .3 10. Therefore.2298/APT0940035K UDC:634.0 2.0 10. CONCLUSION The process of osmotic dehydration is the most intensive in the first hour. while the osmotic solutions of sugar beet molasses increase the amount of mineral substances in the apple.6 9.2 7.7 3.3 10.7 2.25 Apple dehydrated in molasses (80% solid content) 10. 3.5 3. N Apple dehydrated in saccharose solution (70% solid content) 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This research is part of the project supported by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.7 6.5 7. and therefore increase its nutritive properties. TR – 20112. 35-46 Original scientific paper Table 5. is 6-22 times faster than the increase of dry matter.92 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.6 2.6 1.5 8. average Nondehydrated apple 9. Ca and Mg) in the samples osmotically dehydrated in saccharose solutions and sugar beet molasses.4 8. depending on the applied concentration of osmotic solution.126+664.1 8.8 2.6 9. 2008-2010. 9. were observed.66 Sample 1.1 7.3 9.11:664. 6.854:664. 40. Apples osmotically dehydrated in pure saccharose solution had a softer and more gentle texture in comparison to the apple dehydrated in sugar beet molasses with 80% of dry matter.7 8. Osmotic dehydration of apple with saccharose solutions decreases the content of mineral substances in the fruit tissue.0 9. is enriched with the Ca2+ ions from molasses which bind to the R-COO– groups of pectic matter in apple. 5.APTEFF. During osmotic dehydration of apple at 55° C water loss. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. in sugar beet molasses. 10. Cutting force for different samples of apple Cutting force.1 2.
D.. G. 1..APTEFF. 40. Le Maguer: Osmotic dehydration of foods: mass transfer and modeling aspects. S. N. XIII Savetovanje o biotehnologiji. M. 3 (2007) 132-135. Lj. London (1980). Mišljenović.. J.: Osmotic dehydration: review and future directions. Karadžić. A. Lj.. Filipčev. Kuljanin: Osmotski tretman oblikovanog korena mrkve u saharozi i melasi. 9. Koprivica.. M. 13. V. 1-2 (1989) 10 -21. Pribiš. Filipčev: Karakteristike hleba sa jabukom osmotski dehidriranom u melasi šećerne repe. Sinobad: Istraživanja u cilju unapređenja industrije šećera Jugoslavije. M. Le Maguer.L..11:664. Washington (2000). S.A. T. 5. Filipčev. 3 (2007) 120-123. Mizrahi. Lević. O.. Lj.2298/APT0940035K UDC:634. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 48. Kuljanin: Influence of nutrients present in sugar beet molasses and saccharose solutions on the quality of osmodehydrated carrot. Ind. Official Methods of Analysis. Novi Sad (1992). PTEP. PTEP 11.. S. N.126+664. 45 . M. Kabić: Melasa šećerne repe kao pogodan hipertonični rastvor za osmotski predtretman jabuke. Mascheroni: Rate of water loss and sugar uptake during the osmotic dehydration of pineapple.: Food Texture Measurement. 283309. G. Food reviews International 18. 7. B. 2. Gianotti. 5 (2005) 761-770. PTEP 11. Petkova. PTEP 13. G. Tehnološki fakultet. 3. B. Lević. Pribiš.. Journal of Food Engineering 49 (2001) 163-173.H. Filipović. R. Proceedings of the symposium in food preservation process.854:664. 5 (2006) 154-157. Applied Science Publishers LTD. Study on apple osmotic treatments. S. Kuljanin: Prenos mase tokom osmotske dehidratacije jabuke i mrkve u melasi šećerne repe. Lević. Journal of Food Engineering 49 (2001) 87-96. Šimurina.. Milić. 15. 10. T. L. Lević. USA. M. Koprivica. J.Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 10. University in Belgrade Hem. V.. Zbornik radova 13 (2008) 323-331. N. J. B. 35-46 Original scientific paper REFERENCES 1. Kuljanin: Priprema voća postupkom osmotske dehidratacije u melasi šećerne repe sa ciljem njegove primene u pekarskoj industriji. Šušić. V. 8. D. Filipović. 6. Mišljenović. AOAC. Brennan. Sachetti. G. Čačak.92 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Simović-Šoronja. Shi. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Della Rosa: Succrose – salt combined effects on mass transfer kinetics and product acceptability. Eichler. V. T. Obradović i koautori: Metode za laboratorijsku kontrolu procesa proizvodnje fabrika šećera. 12. PTEP 12. Ramallo. 4 (2002) 305-335. Lević. Development in Food Analysis Techniques-2. V.15:543. LJ. Cuq: Osmotic dehydration in gel systems. T... Lj.. 28-29. Lević. 4 (2008) 211-214. 43. Lj. 11. 4. 14. 2 (2009) 184 -187. Brussels (1988): CERFCI vol.
сила сечења је три пута мања у односу на остале узорке јабуке.92 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Током осмотске дехидратације.APTEFF. Осмотска дехидратација је извођена на атмосферском притиску и константној температури осмотског раствора од 55ºЦ. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Левић и Вјера С. 40. сочнији и нежнији . Љубинко Б. Током експеримента мењана је концентрација меласе шећерне репе од 40 дo 80% и раствора сахарозе у опсегу 30-70% а праћене су и промене најважнијих кинетичких параметара осмотске дехидратације након 1. Прибиш У раду су испитивани текстура и минерални састав јабуке осмотски дехидриране у хипертоничним растворима меласе шећерне репе у поређењу са својствима јабуке третиране у растворима сахарозе. у узорцима третираним у меласи шећерне репе дошло је до значајног повећања садржаја минералних материја па се самим тим повећала и њена нутритивна вредност.15:543. Невена М.2298/APT0940035K UDC:634. Мишљеновић. Утврђено је да је осмотска дехидратација прихватљив поступак делимичног уклањања воде из свеже јабуке . На основу измерених сила сечења (механичке особине текстуре) закључено је да су узорци након осмотске дехидратације у растворима сахарозе изразито мекши.ниво влаге је 4-5 пута мањи у односу на ниво влаге у свежем узорку.854:664. Received 18 June 2009 Accepted 28 August 2009 46 . Копривица.11:664. 3 и 5 сати трајања имерзије.126+664. 35-46 Original scientific paper ПРОМЕНА НУТРИТИВНОГ И ТЕКСТУРАЛНОГ КВАЛИТЕТА ЈАБУКЕ ПРИ ОСМОТСКОЈ ДЕХИДРАТАЦИЈИ У МЕЛАСИ ШЕЋЕРНЕ РЕПЕ И РАСТВОРИМА САХАРОЗЕ Гордана Б.
milk-based kombucha inoculum. Spasenija D.3:663. containing a number of useful compounds (1). This paper describes the manufacture of fermented milk beverages with 0.. Dr. lactose) is possible. application of other sugars (glucose. As far as lactose fermentation by kombucha is concerned.. Belloso-Morales and Hernández-Sánchez (2003) described the production of beverage from cheese whey (4). Radomir V. Spasenija D. (2001) reported findings of metabolic activity of kombucha on milk (3). Eva S. product quality INTRODUCTION Kombucha is well-known symbiotic association of several yeast species and acetic bacteria. KEY WORDS: Kombucha. Sigmoidal fermentation profiles were noticed with traditional kombucha inoculums and linear with milk-based kombucha inoculums. Lončar et al. Prof. (2009) investigated milk fermentation using kombucha inoculums with black. Malbaša. Kolarov. In addition to sucrose. 40. Milanović and Ljiljana A. Malbaša. Assist. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Dr. Kolarov In this investigation fermented milk beverages with 0. University of Novi Sad. Lončar. Faculty of Technology. Dr. Lončar. 5). Ljiljana A.. Chemical content and physico-chemical characteristics of kombucha fermented milk beverages were typical and yoghurt-like for all obtained products. (2009) shows significantly longer durations of kombucha fermentations on milk comparing to probiotic yoghurt fermentation (1.9% of milk fat using 10 and 15% (v/v) of traditional kombucha inoculum and also milk-based komDr. Prof. whose metabolic activity on tea sweetened with sucrose produces a pleasant refreshing beverage. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. 47-52 Original scientific paper USE OF MILK-BASED KOMBUCHA INOCULUM FOR MILK FERMENTATION Radomir V. 21000 Novi Sad.88:637.. This may have major effect on the formation of lactic acid as product (2). Prof. The best textural and sensory characteristics possesed beverage obtained in fermentation of milk using 10% (v/v) of milk-based kombucha inoculum. only a few investigations have been reported. Assoc. Serbia 47 . green tea and Jerusalem artichoke tubers extract (5). whilst. Prof. milk fermentation.047 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40..2298/APT0940047M UDC: 637.9% of milk fat were produced using 10 and 15% (v/v) of traditional and milk-based kombucha inoculum by application of appropriate technological process.5. Eva S. Milanović.APTEFF.146. Malbaša et al. fructose. (2001) and Malbaša et al. Investigations of Lončar et al. Milk fermentation using two types and concentrations of kombucha inoculum were stopped when the pH reached 4.
homogenized by mixing. 40. 48 . consistency. Novi Sad.) was applied for production of fermented milk beverages (6).3:663. Two amounts of traditional kombucha inoculum (5) obtained on sweetened black tea of 10 and 15% (v/v) were used.5. T10% and T15% were used as inoculums for the next fermentation on milk following the procedure described above. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In Fig. Possible marks for each separate characteristic were in a range from 1 to 5.Xplus (Micro Stable System. 3. The obtained gels were cooled to 8oC. 1 are presented fermentation curves for both inoculums and their concentrations. Kombucha culture Local kombucha culture containing Acetobacter xylinum and at least five yeast strains (Saccharomycodes ludwigii.3% protein and 4.88:637.APTEFF. Saccharomyces cerevisiae. odour and taste. who assessed each particular element of quality as follows: appearance.2298/APT0940047M UDC: 637. Further. The fermentations lasted up to reach pH 4. Syneresis of whey was analyzed by method of Atamer et al.047 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. England) at 4oC. was used for the fermentation.146. and packed in plastic glasses. Textural characteristics were investigated using Texture analyser TA. 47-52 Original scientific paper bucha inoculum by application of appropriate technological process. Water holding capacity (WHC) (%) represents the amount of whey drained after centrifugation of 20 g of sample during 30 minutes at room temperature. Torulopsis sp. Sensory characteristics of obtained products were examined by qualified evaluators. EXPERIMENTAL Milk Homogenised and pasteurized cow`s milk with 0. produced in Novosadska mlekara. Serbia. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Inoculum amounts were 10% (v/v) of T10% and 15% (v/v) of T15%. colour. Two beverages marked T10% and T15% were obtained. Beverages marked MB10% and MB15% were obtained. It investigates quality of obtained products comparing chemical composition. Saccharomyces bisporus. and Zygosaccharomyces sp.9% fat.8% lactose. Methods of analysis The chemical content of obtained products was analyzed using standard methods (7). physico-chemical. textural and sensory characteristics. (8). Production of beverages Fermented milk-based kombucha beverages were produced from milk inoculated at 43oC.
86 3.86 3.01 0.2298/APT0940047M UDC: 637. Chemical content of obtained beverages is presented in table 1. Fermentations with milk-based kombucha inoculums were for about two times shorter. pH changes during kombucha fermentation on milk Fermentations with traditional kombucha inoculum were stopped when pH reached 4. Obtained results with milk-based inoculums are in accordance to investigations of Lončar et al. 47-52 Original scientific paper 6.72 28.13 0. (2002).52 0. It needed about 12.66 31.APTEFF.0 T10% T15% MB10% MB15% pH 5.3:663. 9). 40.88 3.88:637.55 0.89 3.146.61 0. 1.09 0. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. The reason for such behaviour was absence of period for adaptation to substrate which was necessary for microorganisms in traditional kombucha inoculum. Table 1.6 10.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time [hours] Fig. During first 6 to 7 hours were not noticed pH changes which caused sigmoidal fermentation curves.5 hours for both inoculum concentrations.06 0.047 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.5 6.6 11.44 0.82 31. pH changes were almost linear.84 27. where is proved that higher inoculum concentration affects shorter fermentation time (3. The very important fact is reasonably shorter fermentation with milk-based kombucha inoculum primarily for the economic reasons. and in MB10% and MB15% is slightly higher.6 9.2 Dry matter content is approximatly the same in T10% and T15%.5.5 5.0 4. (2001) and Milanović et al. Chemical content of fermented milk beverages Beverage Component(%) T10% T15% MB10% MB15% Dry matter Fat Total proteins Ash Acidity (SHo) 9. In MB15% is measured the highest dry matter content which 49 .
0 36. Table 2. The same manner was found for the viscosity index.098 -6. In table 4 are presented the results of sensory analysis. The maximum value of cohesiveness was noticed also for MB10%. Average chemical content of obtained fermented beverages is in a range of results obtained in earlier investigations of possibility of kombucha application in production of fermented milk beverages (5).3:663. Values of textural parameters of quality of MB10% were significantly higher in comparison to the other produced fermented milk beverages and that characteristics recommend this sample for further investigation and production.774 701.0 34. Consistency value indicates higher density of the product.5 29.340 -1.106 Beverage T15% MB10% 15.88:637. Physico-chemical characteristics of fermented milk beverages Parameter Beverage T15% MB10% 34.611 -5. Textural characteristics of obtained products are presented in table 3. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.APTEFF.047 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. The same explanation could be used for the ash and protein content which is higher in MB10% and MB15%. Higher negative value represents more cohesive sample. The same pattern was for the consistency.0 35.5 MB15% 30.2298/APT0940047M UDC: 637. 47-52 Original scientific paper is logical because of applied inoculum that itself contains the higher amount of dry matter.678 -24.616 444.559 29.235 -32.146.924 433. In table 2 are presented some physico-chemical characteristics of fermented milk beverage.3 32.9% milk fat with concentrated kombucha inoculums (10).140 MB15% 15.0 Syneresis (mL) Water holding capacity (WHC) (%) T10% 35. 50 . 40. Textural characteristics of fermented milk beverages Characteristic T10% 15. Higher WHC indicates better quality of products but it was not possible to point any of produced beverages in a view of this parameter. Similar results obtained Duraković et al. Sensory characteristics of fermented milk products are the most important for consumers. Table 3.3 Values of syneresis were in narrow interval as well as water holding capacity (WHC).525 408.777 Firmness (g) Consistency (gs) Cohesivity (g) Index of viscosity (gs) Results presented in table 3 show that the highest firmness had MB10% and in the other samples firmness was very similar.158 -5.725 -11.359 -1. (2008) who investigated fermentation of milk with 0. Values of acidity expressed in SHo were higher in samples T15% and MB15% which means that inoculum concentration affects acidity of product.
88:637.. and taste of MB10% and MB15% was characterized as mild and refreshing. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Financial support from the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of Serbia is highly acknowledged (Grant TR-20008).. Belloso-Morales. J.047 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. G. The best sensory total mark is for MB10% which has the best textural characteristics too (Table 3). 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 1-2 (2001) 13-17. Prehrambena industrija – Mleko i mlečni proizvodi 12.2298/APT0940047M UDC: 637. C. The best textural and sensory characteristics had beverage obtained in fermentation of milk using 10% (v/v) of milk-based kombucha inoculum which is potentially very interesting for further investigations. E. kombucha and health: A Review. Sensory characteristics of fermented milk beverages Characteristic T10% 5 5 4 4. Reiss. Carić. S.APTEFF. colour and consistency of products were characteristic for the yoghurt-like products. Panić: Metabolička aktivnost čajne gljive u mleku. Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel Untersuchung und Forschung 198 (1994) 258-261.5 5 4 5 MB15% 5 5 5 5 4. Dufresne. Appearance. 4. and H.: Influence of different sugars on the metabolism of the tea fungus. Revista Latinoamericana de Microbiologia 45. 47-52 Original scientific paper Table 4. 40. R.5 4 Beverage T15% MB10% 5 5 5 5 4 5 4. M. It shortened milk fermentation for almost two times. and E.5 Appearance Colour Consistency Odour Taste Scores of sensory analysis indicate that usage of milk-based kombucha inoculum affect better characteristics of fermented milk beverage (Table 4). REFERENCES 1. 3. 51 . Lončar. Malbaša. 1-2 (2003) 5-11. Hernandez–Sanches: Manufacture of a beverage from cheese whey using a tea fungus fermentation. and M.146. CONCLUSION Milk-based kombucha inoculum is better than traditional one because of economic reasons. Farnworth: Tea.. but at all it was better composed in MB10%. Milanović. 2.3:663. Food Research International 33 (2000) 409-421. Chemical content and physico-chemical characteristics of kombucha fermented milk beverages were typical for all obtained products. Odour also was more intensive and typical in products obtained using milk-based kombucha inoculums for fermentation.
Carić. i J.9% млечне масти користећи 10 и 15% (v/v) традиционалног и млечно ферментисаног инокулума комбухе применом одговарајућег технолошког процеса. Vucelja: Standard Methods of Analysing Milk and Dairy Products (in Serbian). Duraković.. Hauk. Gavarić: Kvalitat jogurta proizvedenog iz UF mleka. S. M.. Спасенија Д.88:637. Faculty of Technology. 7. and D.. Novi Sad (2000). Iličić. Cvetković: Investigation of tea fungus microbe associations. Kolarov: Milk – based beverages obtained by Kombucha application.APTEFF.. ПРИМЕНА МЛЕЧНО-ФЕРМЕНТИСАНОГ ИНОКУЛУМА КОМБУХЕ ЗА ФЕРМЕНТАЦИЈУ МЛЕКА Радомир В. Carić. Prehrambena industrija. Acta Periodica Technologica 32 (2001) 133-138. Ева С. M. M.5. Tekić. S. S. Food Chemistry 112 (2009) 178-184.. 40. У свим ферментацијама је процес заустављан када је вредност pH достигла 4.. M. Received 9 July 2009 Accepted 9 September 2009 52 .Mleko i mlečni proizvodi 13. Đurrić. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Коларов У овом истраживању су произведени ферментисани млечни производи од млека са 0.3:663. Zbornik Matice srpske za prirodne nauke. R. Markov. Lenđel: Funkcionalni niskoenergetski fermentisani mlečni napitak proizveden uz primenu kombuhe. M.. S. Уочене су сигмоидалне ферментационе криве где је коришћен традиционални инокулум комбухе и линеарне за млечно ферментисани инокулум комбухе. Dobrić: Primena koncentrata čajne gljive u proizvodnji fermentisanih mlečnih napitaka. 1-2 (2002) 8-13. and D.. Milanović. Лончар.J. Carić. M. Carić.. 10.mleko i mlečni proizvodi 19. Љиљана А. Milanović. Malbaša. Најбоље текстуралне и сензорне карактеристике је имао напитак произведен ферментацијом млека са 10% (v/v) млечно ферментисаног инокулума. M. M. E. Matica srpska Novi Sad 91 (1996) 19-26. E. 1-2 (2008) 66-73... M. 47-52 Original scientific paper 5. S. 6. Malbaša..2298/APT0940047M UDC: 637. Milanović. 9.. K.047 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 8. Milanović. Malbaša..L. I. Atamer. M. Хемијски састав и физичко-хемијске карактеристике комбуха ферментисаних млечних производа су били типични и слични јогурту код свих производа... S... Panić.D. Milanović. Lončar. Iličić. M.. and Lj. R. M. Малбаша.V. Prehrambena industrija . Carić M. Милановић. The yeasts. Djurić. Lončar.146. i D. i D. R.
. and the contetn of flavan-3-ols between 66. Institute for Food Technology. and therefore the interest in the natural antioxidants has steadily been increasing (1-3). University of Novi Sad.6 and 82.60 µg/mL of GSE showed antioxidant activity of 39.2 and 91.061. Anamarija I.2298/APT0940053M UDC: 634. The results showed that the GSE of white varietes could be considered as a good functional food ingredient. All tested GSEs exhibited good antioxidant activity. 21000 Novi Sad. and their antioxidant activity on the stable DPPH radical. Prof. Jasna M. in contrast to the white varietes.81 µg/ml) exhibited similar antioxidant activity (33. Vulić. white grape variety. Prof. The IC50 value for raspberry juice was 4.01:66. 21000 Novi Sad. Čanadanović-Brunet.18 mg raspberry juice/mg DPPH. Content of total polyphenols in GSEs ranged between 81. Dr. 53-61 Original scientific paper ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WHITE GRAPE SEED EXTRACTS ON DPPH RADICALS Anamarija I. it was used for further experiments. 40.53. Ćetković. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. Italian Riesling and Župljanka. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of a large number of polyphenolic compounds isolated from plants have been studied (4-8).2%. antioxidant activity. KEY WORDS: Grape seed extract. obtained from two white grape varieties. The same juice with the threefold concentration of vitamin C (1. Čanadanović-Brunet. Antioxidant activity of the same amount of juice without added antioxidants was lower (15. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1.076:631. Faculty of Technology. respectivelly. HPLC results showed that the most abundant components in the extract were (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin for both grape varieties.645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.. University of Novi Sad. Gordana S.7%). IC50 values for the GSEs of Italian Riesling and Župljanka were 0. The influence of the addition of GSE to raspberry juice on the DPPH radical was also examined.8% (w/w). The raspberry juice with addition of 0.34:543. Since the GSE of Italian Riesling possesed stronger antioxidant activity. Đilas.. Dr. B. grape seeds and skin Dr. Dr.APTEFF. This paper presents the results of polyphenols content of ethyl acetate extract of grape seeds. Prof. Jasna M.0% (w/w).9%). polyphenolics INTRODUCTION The use of synthetic antioxidants in the food has been under scrutiny for toxicological reasons.8. Jelena J. Serbia. Djilas. Sonja M.. Green tea. Mandić. Mandić. Sonja M.95 mg sample/mg DPPH radical. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.79 and 0.Sc. Ćetković and Jelena J. Gordana S. Serbia 53 . Vulić Composition and antioxidant activity of grape seed extract (GSE) obtained from red grape varietes are very well documented.
1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Gallen. antiinflammatory. and the freshly obtained juice was two times diluted with water and used in the antioxidant assay procedure. he sample. The biological. The average sugar content in grapes was 17.8. gallic acids. 10).01:66. and (-)-epigallocatechin) linked with C4-C8 or C4-C6 bonds. The seeds were separated from other pomace components (skin and stems). anti-viral and estrogenic activities. (11). The aim of this work was to determine the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity on DPPH radical of GSEs obtained from two white grape varieties.645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase (9). pomace of Vitis vinifera cultivars. (-)-epicatechin-O-gallate. EXPERIMENTAL Chemicals and Samples ll solvents used for the extraction and spectrophotometric determination were of analytic grade. 40. the influence of the addition of GSE to a raspberry juice on the DPPH radical was examined.076:631. Acetonitrile and methanol. anticarcinogenic.2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil stable radical (DPPH). Also.APTEFF.4%. After pressing. proanthocyanidins exhibit vasodilatory. (-)-epicatechin. 2. Croatia). at maximum temperature 40ºC. Switzerland). the pomace was sampled for experiments. The grapes used for processing were harvested at optium technological maturity. Composition and antioxidant activity of grape seed extract (GSE) obtained from red grape varietes are very well documented. (+)-catechin and (±)-epicatechin were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co. cardioprotective. Germany). 53-61 Original scientific paper are considered as the remarkable rich sources of polyphenolics (6). Juice was separated from the pulp.34:543. Extraction procedure The extraction was carried out according to the method described by Pekić et al. gradient grade for chromatography and vanillin were obtained from Merck (Darmstadt. Besides the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity. and stored at 24°C prior to extraction. antibacterial.0%. established by the laboratory in the “Navip” winery. Louis. The obtained extract was filtrated. pharmacological and medicinal properties of the bioflavonoids and proanthocyanidins have been extensively reviewed. in contrast to the white varietes (9. 100 g of grape seeds was extracted with 400 mL of 90% ethyl acetate in a sealed bottle at room temperature for 48 h. Italian Riesling and Župljanka. with occasional mixing. aspberry sample was purchased from a local market.061. and the acid content 6.2298/APT0940053M UDC: 634. olygomers and polymers of flavan-3-ols ((+)-catechin.53. Czech Republic) and ethyl acetate from Kemika (Zagreb. dried at room temperature. as well as they act as inhibitors of the enzymes phospholipase A2. as judged by the indices of sugar and acid contents. (St. anti-allergic. Italian Riesling and Župljanka. immunestimulating. is a mixture of proanthocyanidines: monomers. MO). and the solvent was removed by evaporation under the reduced pressure to the volume of approximately 20 mL. Methanol and ethanol were purchased from Lachema (Neratovice. LiChrosolv. The GSE rich in polyphenols. Folin-Ciocalteau reagent was obtained from Fluka (St. The concentrated ethyl acetate solution was mixed with a five-fold volume of chloroform and the formed precipitate was 54 . were collected at the “Navip” winery.
The column was operated at room temperature (22°C). The GSE was dissolved in 10% (v/v) methanol in water and the obtained concentration was 1. 4. The peak areas from the chromatograms were plotted against the known concentrations of the standards. Roth. The results were presented as mean values with the standard deviations (SD).5 mm i. The detection was performed at 277 nm and the absorption spectra of the compounds were recorded between 210 and 400 nm. and (±)-epicatechin) a stock solution was made from the commercial standards dissolved in 10% (v/v) methanol in water to obtain the concentration of 1.01:66. HPLC Analysis of GSE HPLC analyses were conducted on a Hewlett-Packard Liquid Chromatograph HP 1090 equipped with Diode Array Detector (DAD). The solvent gradient was formed by varying the proportion of the solvent A (1% acetic acid in water..45 µm pore size nylon filters (Rotilabo–Spritzenfilter 13 mm.300 mL/min. 10% A.d. All analyses were performed in triplicate and the results were averaged. The equations generated via linear regression were used to establish the concentrations of the phenolic compounds in the extracts.2298/APT0940053M UDC: 634. 53-61 Original scientific paper separated by filtration through a nutsch filter B-4. protected by guard column (Zorbax SB-C18. The sample injection volume was 10 µL.005-0. (+)-catechin.53. USA) was used throughout this research. prepared at five different concentrations ranged between 0. The diluted stock solutions were used for calibration.14). 87% A. For each component. Agilent.0 mg/mL. The amount of total flavan-3-ols was assayed spectrophotometrically by the vanillin method using (+)-catechin as a standard (13. 20-30 min. 95% A. 30-46 min.061. the calibration of (+)-catechin was used. (gallic acid. and the injection was performed manually. 5 µm. When reference compounds were not available. Phenolic components in a sample extract were identified by matching the retention time and their spectral characteristics against those of the standards. 1 mL of c(DPPH radical) = 90 μmol/L 55 .1 and 3.5 μg/mL. Gallic acid was employed as a calibration standard and the results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents in grams per 1 kg of dry seed weight. 87-78% A.6 x 12. The flow rate was set at 0. 10 min. 95-87% A.APTEFF.645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.34:543.).076:631. v/v) to the solvent B (acetonitrile) (15). The values were expressed as catechin equivalents in grams per 1 kg of dry seed weight. 5 µm.0 x 250 mm i. 3. Germany) before injecting them into the HPLC system. The precipitate was washed with chloroform. The external standard method was a technique used for quantification. The solvent linear gradient elution programme was as follows: 0-20 min. Total phenolics and flavan-3-ols in GSE The amount of the total soluble polyphenols in the GSE was determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteau method (12). The column was equilibrated to the initial conditions. 40. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.0 mg/mL. 78-10% A.200 mg/mL. The purity of the peaks was determined to ensure the identification.8. dried in a vacuum desiccator and the yield of obtained GSE was calculated.d. A reversed-phase column (Zorbax SBC18. 55-65 min. 46-55 min. All solutions were filtered through 0. The final concentrations were in the range of 0. Spectrophotometric assay for DPPH radical In a test tube containing 3 mL of methanolic GSE solution. Karlsruhe.
(11) for the same grape variety. 53-61 Original scientific paper (dissolved in 95% methanol in water. as regards 56 . as regards 81. along with the variations from season to season (18-20).05-0. Solution of vitamin C was prepared at five different concentrations ranging from 0.07 g/kg of dry seeds.92±0. 1.84-4.0 mL of fresh raspberry juice. vitamin C. Comparing the yields obtained from the methanolic extracts.83±0.20 to 2. 40.APTEFF. (21) for the white grape varieties. The yield of the GSE extract obtained with ethyl acetate for the Italian Riesling was 6. The absorbance was read at 515 nm using 95% methanolic solution as a reference solution (16).7 g/kg of dry seeds) reported by Pekić et al. the total soluble polyphenols of the obtained GSE is expressed as gallic acid equivalents and for the Italian Riesling it was 4. The differences in the GSE yields could be observed due to the extraction method used.53 g/kg of dry seeds.01 ± 0.645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. the yields were similar to or higher than those obtained in this research.20 g/kg of dry seeds.6% (w/w GSE).53. reported by Revilla et al.8. v/v) was added (test sample). and the juice with the addition of 0.50 mg/mL. In this paper.34:543.30 g/kg of dry seeds. The content of flavan-3-ols in GSE was 5. The blank was prepared by adding 1 mL of DPPH radical solution to 3 mL of 95% methanol.2298/APT0940053M UDC: 634. The reaction mixture was allowed to stay in the dark at room temperature for 60 minutes. These differences could be attributed to the variations due to the seasons within the grape variety.5-5.75 g/kg of dry seeds. differed from the procedure given for GSE only in concentration range. in order to prepare the stock solution. ethanol.20 g/kg of dry seeds. acetone and ethyl acetate. genetic potential of the individual species for the polyphenol biosynthesis and maturation stage may affect polyphenol content in seeds.28 g/kg of dry seeds.0% (w/w GSE) for the Italian Riesling.03 ± 0. and 4.80±0. two times diluted with water.%DPPHrem The values of the calculated IC50 were expressed as mg GSE/mg of DPPH radical. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Proanthocyanidins from the grape seeds are extracted with the methanol.64±0. was further diluted to 50 mL with methanol.00 μg/mL.6-4. as regards 82. The yield of the GSE extract obtained with ethyl acetate for the Župljanka was 7. The IC50 value is the concentration of antioxidant.81 µg/mL vitamin C. which corresponds to 0. Determination of DPPH scavenging activity of raspberry juice. or with their mixtures for analytical and preparative purposes (17).8% (w/w GSE). and it was higher than the yields (3. Additionally. required for 50% scavenging of DPPH radical in the specified time period. The percentage of the remaining DPPH radical (%DPPHrem) and antioxidant activity (%AA) were calculated for each concentration of the GSE from the obtained absorbance for the sample (As) and the blank (A0) using the following equations: %DPPHrem = (As / A0)·100 %AA = 100 . 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.076:631.01:66.60 µg/mL GSE or 1. Procedure for the scavenging activity of rasperry juice was as follows: 2 mL of raspberry juice. Content of total soluble polyphenols for the Župljanka was 5. The final concentrations used for the assay were in the range of 0.061. as regards 91.
(+)-catechin (25. due to the fact that despite of the higher yield and total polyphenolics content of Župljanka the content of flavan-3-ols was lower. with amount of 32. HPLC chromatogram of a GSE recorded at 277 nm. 5. and procyanidin-B5. (18) was on average three times lower determined by HPLC than the one obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. In addition. 26. and 30. procyanidin-B1. 3. procyanidin-B3 (20. 2.4). procyanidin-C1.5). Fig. Procyanidin-B5 (49. followed by (−)-epicatechin. (+)-catechin.93% for the Župljanka. and 10. min): 1.53. higher reactivity was observed in procyanidins which are highly polymerized and lower reactivity was observed in catechins which are highly esterified by gallic acid. procyanidin-B2.72% for the Italian Riesling.3 ± 0. 7.645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. procyanidin-B4 (27. followed by (−)-epicatechin. 53-61 Original scientific paper 66. procyanidin-B2 (29. The content of the total phenolic compounds determined by HPLC in GSE was 150 ± 2. 22. 8.5).2 ± 1.10 mg/g GSE and 114 ± 2. dimer gallate.6).8. respectivelly.2% (w/w GSE) for the Župljanka. Under the described chromatographic conditions.061. 1. 4. procyanidin-C1 (39.01:66. (−)-epicatechin (33.0). dimer gallate (42.30%.90 mg/g GSE. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. dimers 57 .1). The separation of the phenolic compounds in GSE was achieved within 60 min. The content of phenolic compounds in the ethyl acetate extracts reported by Guendez et al.13%.9) A HPLC chromatogram of GSE is shown in Fig 1. the components were eluted in the following order: gallic acid. procyanidin-B4.076:631. Peak assignment (tR. (−)-epicatechin.3). the differences in the sensitivity to the flavan-3-ols assay were observed. According to their results.8 ± 0. 40. These results are in agreement with the results obtained in this research. It could be assumed that lower results of polyphenolics content obtained by HPLC determination are due to the fact that only monomers. procyanidinB3.APTEFF. (17). 6.1).34:543. epicatechin was more reactive than catechin. It may be concluded that the GSE of Župljanka contains higher amounts of taninns than the GSE of Italian Riesling. for the Italian Riesling and Župljanka. 9. A dominant compound was (+)-Catechin. The obtained results are in accordance with the results of Nakamura et al. gallic acid (9.2298/APT0940053M UDC: 634.6 ± 1. procyanidin-B1 (22.4).
With increasing concentrations of GSE.4 1.95 mg sample/mg DPPH radical.4 0.2%. 53-61 Original scientific paper and trimers of procyanidins could be determined. 100 Italian Riesling 90 80 70 Župljanka AA (%) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.2 1.7%. 2.645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.8. while the obtained higher results for spectrophotometric assay are owing to the presence of highly polymerized procyanidins and other substances in extract.2298/APT0940053M UDC: 634.076:631. Since the better antioxidant activity was obtained for the Italian Rieslings GSE.34:543. respectively.6 Concentration (µg/mL) Fig. The same juice with the threefold concentration of vitamin C (1.01:66. The antioxidant activities of different concentrations of GSEs of Italian Riesling and Župljanka on DPPH radical The IC50 values for the raspberry juice and vitamin C solution were 4. were determined. GSE exerts better antioxidant activity on DPPH radical in comparison with juice containing threefold concentration of vitamin C and juice without the addition of antioxidant. Italian Riesling and Župljanka. obtained from white grape varieties. antioxidant activity on investigated free radical increased. and it is in the same range as the values obtained by Bakkalbaşi et al (22) for the GSEs of the white grape varieties using acetone for the extraction (0. The antioxidant activities of different concentrations of GSEs of Italian Riesling and Župljanka are presented on Fig.81 µg/ml) exhibited similar activity (33. respectivelly.9%) on DPPH radical. CONCLUSION The high flavan-3-ols content and the antioxidant activity on stable DPPH radical of the GSEs. the extract of Italian Riesling was used for the further investigation. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.8 1 1.6 0. Antioxidant activity of GSE is further confirmed through the addition of GSE to 58 . Antioxidant activity of GSE is assessed by scavenging of the stable DPPH radical.60 µg/mL of GSE showed the antioxidant activity of 39.APTEFF.79 and 0. The raspberry juice with addition of 0.52–0. The IC50 for the GSEs of Italian Riesling and Župljanka were 0.53.88 mg/mg DPPH. 40. 2. Antioxidant activity of the same amount of juice without any addition of antioxidants was 15.2 0.82 mg sample/mg DPPH radical).061.18 and 1.
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Glories: Concentration and Compositional Changes of Procyanidins in Grape Seeds and Skin of White Vitis vinifera Varieties. Iland and G. 20.M.K. Eur. Art: Major Flavan-3-ol Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Seeds from Different Grape Cultivars Grown in Turkey. Guendez. Espin.72%). cv. Food Res.34:543. Li. у сок од малине на исту радикалску врсту. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 79 (1999) 1601-1606. Ђилас. Мандић. Pilbrow.2 и 91. Escribano-Bailon. Kovač: The phenolic Composition of Table Grapes. Santos-Buelga and G.A. Troup.53.R. док су екстракти семена сорти белог грожђа мање испитиване.A. 19. H. Утврђен је утицај додатка екстракта. Liq.076:631. 22. У раду су приказани резултати одређивања садржаја полифенолних једињења и антиоксидативна активност етилацетатног екстракта семена две сорте белог грожђа. Soler-Rivas and H.. 89 (2005) 1-9.. Hutton. S. RSC Publishing. C. Alonso and V. Tsuji and Y. Analysis and Process Influence. Вулић Састав и антоксидативне особине екстраката семена из сорти црног грожђа су детаљно описане у литератури.. J. Kennedy. а за екстракт сорте Жупљанка 0. 6 (2000) 244-254. E. Сви испитивани екстракти показали су добру антиоксидативну активност. Wichers: Characterization of the Total Free Radical Scavenger Capacity of Vegetable Oils and Oil Fractions Using 2. J. Nakamura. J. T. and C. P. Makris and P. J. Hunter. E. De Freitas.6 до 82. (+)-катехина (32.R. Италијански ризлинг и Жупљанка. а садржај флаван-3-ола је био између 66.17 ± 1.R.79. Садржај укупних полифенолних једињења у екстрактима износио је од 81. Hewitt. Amsterdam (1995) pp.. Aslanova and N. G.30%) и (-)-епикатехина (22. U.8 % (w/w). утврђени су HPLC методом.APTEFF.2298/APT0940053M UDC: 634. J. Садржаји најзаступљенијих компонената.J. and Y. 40. R. Agric. Elsevier Science. Ed. Jones: Development of Seed Polyphenols in Berries from Vitis vinifera L.Yemi. E. O. Escalona.G. K. J. Health Sci. Гордана С. 15. Ћетковић и Јелена Ј. W. Ristić. D.. Јасна М. Eds. Austral. Чанадановић-Брунет. Santos-Buelga: Polyphenol Extraction from Foods. M. G. Technol. D. 1579-1596.P. 17. R. Food Agric. J.95 mg узорка/mg DPPH. Kallithraka. 25 (2002) 397-407. Bakkalbasi.C. 1-16. Пошто је екстракт семена грожђа сорте Италијански ризлинг по60 .01:66. C. Food Chem. Вредност IC50 за екстракт семена грожђа сорте Италијански ризлинг износила је 0. 53-61 Original scientific paper 14.) seed extracts: Correlation with Antiradical Activity. Williamson. V. 16.061.0 % (w/w). J.P. S. 48 (2000) 648-656.2-diphenyl1-picrylhydrazyl Radical. 21. C. на DPPH радикалe. Y.8.P.J. Соња М. Shiraz. Food Chem. Health Foods and Grape Seed Oils. Grape Wine Res. АНТИОКСИДАТИВНА АКТИВНОСТ ЕКСТРАКАТА СЕМЕНА БЕЛОГ ГРОЖЂА НА DPPH РАДИКАЛE Анамарија И.. Sci. D. R. 18. Revilla.. Chromatogr. in Methods in Polyphenol Analysis. 221 (2005) 792-797. Fitzloff: Determination of Catechins in Commercial Grape Seed Extract. D. Fong. J. Tonogai: Analysis of Proanthocyanidins in Grape Seed Extracts. in Food Flavors: Generation. (2003) pp. 49 (2003) 45-54.645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.30 ± 0. као антиоксиданта.Cambridge. Singletary and J. Kefalas: Determination of Low Molecular Weight Polyphenolic Constituents in Grape (Vitis vinifera sp. Charalambous.
2%. Антиоксидативна активност исте количине сока без додатка антиоксиданата је била знатно нижа и износила је 15.9%) имао је и сок од малине са додатком витамина Ц у три пута већој концентрацији (1. IC50 вредност за сок од малине износила је 4. Сличну антиоксидативну активност (33.8. Received 25 June 2009 Accepted 28 August 2009 61 .34:543. Сок од малине са додатком екстракта од 0.60 µg/ml показао је антиоксидативну активност од 39. 40.061.81 µg/ml).645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.076:631.18 mg узорка/mg DPPH.2298/APT0940053M UDC: 634.53. он је коришћен за даља испитивања. Наведени резултати испитивања указују на могућност коришћења екстракта семена сорти белог грожђа као доброг функционалног додатка.7%.APTEFF. 53-61 Original scientific paper казао бољу антиоксидативну активност.01:66.
milk fat content. Faculty of Technology. Katarina G.88:637.ac. consistency. Staphylococcus aureus and Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been proved. M. Spasenija D. kombucha. consistency. Duraković B. textural characteristics INTRODUCTION Fermented milk beverages are very important in human nutrition due to their high nutritive value and high content of valuable components. 3). The aim of this research was to examine the influence of fat content. Milanović. flavourings addition. Iličić. while higher amount of inoculum in beverages has an opposite effect on textural characteristics of samples during storage. Prof. consistency. 40. cohesiveness and viscosity index after production and during 10 days of storage. and kombucha inoculum concentration on textural characteristics of fermented milk beverages: firmness. coca-cola. Vladimir R. due to products of metabolitic activity. (1). topinambure extract. 21000 Novi Sad.. Mirela D. burns. Milanović. Escherichia coli.Sc. University of Novi Sad. Katarina G. Product of this cultivation is a pleasant. Iličić. fermentation.. fermentation type. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. arteriosclerosis. problems with metabolism and immune system. slightly sour and slightly carbonated refreshment beverage.. senadm@uns. starter culture. wine.Sc. reuma. molasses.Sc. cohesiveness and viscosity index. herbs and whey (2. The dairy beverages included in this group of food products differ by kind of milk.. KEY WORDS: Milk. Besides refreshment effect. Vukić. Duraković and Vladimir R. etc. additives. Kombucha is a symbiosis of yeast and acetic acid bacteria.rs. Kombucha is used to treat headache.3:663. skin injuries. such as: milk composition. The behaviour of gel formed during fermentation of milk is influenced by a great number of factors. 63-69 Original scientific paper TEXTURAL CHARACTERISTICS ОF FERMENTED MILK BEVERAGES PRODUCED BY KOMBUCHA Spasenija D.146. Antibiotic activity of kombucha towards Helicobacter pylori. Higher fat content of beverage affects the firmness. Serbia 63 . The previous findings showed that kombucha can be cultivated on different substrates such as black and green tea. Organic acids produced during Dr. M. kombucha beverage has a wide range of prophylactic and therapeutic properties. mostly due to the production of acetic acid during fermentation (4-6). etc.2298/APT0940063M UDC: 637. etc.APTEFF. beer.05 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. which is traditionally cultivated on black tea with sucrose addition. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Mirela D. Vukić Rheological properties of fermented dairy products are very important parameters of the product quality.
rheological properties of fermented dairy products affect significantly the quality of the product. In the case of low fat products.2% of fat content („AD IMLEK Beograd . Fermented milk beverages were produced from milk with 1. „DSM Food Specialites“ Netherlands.2 Inoculum (%) 10 15 10 15 Fermented milk beverage samples were analyzed by Texture Analyser TA XP (Stable Micro System. 40.0% and 2.005%.2% fat 15% I Fat content (%) 1.Novosadska mlekara division“ Novi Sad) was used for dietary fermented milk beverages production in the laboratory conditions.146. 0.2298/APT0940063M UDC: 637. 8).APTEFF.2 2.2% fat content according to the technological process previously described in the literature (10). behaviour of proteins during the gelation process is of particular importance (9).0% fat 10% I 1. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.0 2. Firmness. as C-atom source was concentrated by microfiltration (using ceramic membrane . using a back extrusion cell (A/BE) disc (diameter 35 mm. homogenized milk of 1. speed 10 mm s-1) and an extension bar. especially contents of fat and proteins.3:663.0% and 2. consistency. Generally. The viscosity and gel structure are influenced by a great number of factors. England) through a single compression test. using 5 kg load cell. The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of obtained beverage pointed to the posibilities and necesity of further technological investigations of this group of high-nutritive functional milk beverages. 64 .2% fat 10% I 2.0 1. The aim of this research was to examine the influence of different milk fat content and kombucha inoculum concentration on textural characteristics of fermented milk beverages: firmness.88:637. Godalming. The role of kombucha in detoxication is probably connected with the ability of glucuronic acid to bind toxins. 63-69 Original scientific paper fermentation are responsible for most of the characteristics of kombucha. Kombucha fermented beverage is suitable for milk fermentation (7. distance 30 mm. consistency. Plan of experiment is presented in Table 1.pores diameter 200 nm. pressure 40 kPa and fluid flow 5 L/min).05 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. EXPERIMENTAL Pasteurized. Plan of experiment No 1 2 3 4 Sample 1. cohesiveness and index of viscosity were measured at 5°C during 10 days of storage . Table 1. cohesiveness and viscosity index after production and during 10 days of storage. including milk composition. The following materials were used for fermentation: 1) probiotic starter culture – Delvo-Yog MY-721.0% fat 15% I 2. 2) inoculum (I) – tea fungus cultivated in black tea with addition of sucrose (substrate). temperature 25°C.
The obtained results show that higher fat content affects the increase of beverage firmness.00 13.APTEFF.3:663. Consistency Fig. while the higher amount of inoculum in beverage decreases the firmness of samples during storage.00 0 5 time (day) 10 Fig. after production and during storage for 5 and 10 days.6% higher in sample 3 (2.2% of fat by adding 10% and 15% of kombucha inoculum.00 12. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.e. after production and during storage is presented in Fig.0% fat 15% I 2. 2 presents the change of consistency of samples produced from milk of 1. The highest increase of firmness during storage was determined in sample 3 (2.2% fat 10% I) than in the other samples. A decrease of firmness after storage was found in sample 2 (1. The biggest difference in firmness was noticed on the fifth day of storage and it was by 22.00 16. Firmness of samples after production and during storage The firmness of sample 1 (1. and the lowest value after 10 days (13.00 firmness (g) 1. i.2298/APT0940063M UDC: 637. 1.88:637. 18. 40. It is known that the increase of milk fat increases the firmness of yoghurt samples (11).2% milk fat by adding 10% and 15% of kombucha inoculum.2% fat 10% I).05 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.58 g).2% fat 10% I 2. 1.0% fat 15% I) was the highest (14.00 17.0% fat 15% I).00 1. while the increase of inoculum amount results in a decrease of firmness due to dilution. lower dry matter content in the sample.146. 63-69 Original scientific paper RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Firmness The change of firmness in samples obtained from milk of 1.0% fat 10% I 15.0% and 2.0% and 2. 65 .85 g).2% fat 15% I 14.
and the measured values were in the range from -7.2% fat 10% I 2. Consistency of fermented milk beverage with 1.0% between 5 and 10 days.72 g after production to -12. the consistency of this sample decreased during storage. Samples produced from milk of 2.0% fat is 23% on average during the storage.146.00 430.0% of fat shows an opposite trend compared to milk with 2. The obtained results show that higher 66 .00 390. 63-69 Original scientific paper 490.0% fat 15% I).00 450.2% fat 10% I).00 370.2298/APT0940063M UDC: 637.00 350. It can be seen that the obtained value of consistency for the sample produced from milk with 2.00 470.53 g) was found for sample 2 (1.0% fat 15% I).0% fat 10% I 1.07 g) and after 10 days of storage (-9. The difference of cohesiveness values during storage between samples produced from milk of 1. 40.05 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.02 gs).60 g after 10 days of storage. while the increase of inoculum amount leads to a decrease of the consistency value of samples during storage. The lowest cohesiveness after production (-6. 3 shows the change of cohesiveness of fermented milk beverage samples during 10 days storage. It is obvious that the increase of milk fat content results in an increase of the consistency level.00 410. and it is significantly lower than for samples made from milk of 2. 2.2% of fat.3:663. Fermented milk beverage sample made with 10% of inoculum showed the highest cohesiveness during storage.2% fat 15% I consistency (gs) Fig.0% fat 15% I 2. The highest increase of consistency during storage was found for sample 3 (2. means the higher the product density.APTEFF.00 0 5 time (day) 10 1. increases by 29. Consistency of samples after production and during storage The consistency value indicates the density of the product. However. and after 10 days the consistency value was the lowest (367. It is evident that the higher the value of the consistency. The highest consistency value after production (426.88:637.2% fat have greater cohesiveness after production.2% fat (63%).34 gs) was found with sample 2 (1. The results show the same trend as in the firmness analysis of fermented milk beverages.2% of fat and 15% of kombucha inoculum. Cohesiveness Fig.
4.00 -12.e. The viscosity index after production and after 10 days of 67 .0% fat 10% I 1. 40.00 -9.3:663. while the effect of inoculum amount increase is opposite.00 -7.00 0 5 time (day) 10 1.00 cohesiveness (g) -8.00 -6.00 -7. means the higher viscosity index (Fig.2% fat 10% I 2. Viscosity index of samples after production and during storage Similarly to cohesiveness. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.00 -8.146.00 index of viscosity (gs) -4.00 -10.00 -3. 4). -5.00 -2. i.00 -5.0% fat 15% I 2.00 -13.00 -6. 63-69 Original scientific paper milk fat content affects the increase of cohesiveness. 3.2% fat 15% I Fig.00 -11.2% fat 15% I Fig.APTEFF.88:637.0% fat 15% I 2. the cohesiveness of produced fermented milk beverage decreases.2298/APT0940063M UDC: 637.0% fat 10% I 1.00 -10.2% fat 10% I 2.00 -9.00 0 5 time (day) 10 1. the lower measured value of the viscosity index. Cohesiveness of samples after production and during storage Viscosity index -1.05 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.00 -11.
Ledford: Determination and characterization of the antimicrobial activity of the fermented tea Kombucha.K. (2004) p.146. S. respectively. 40. Samples made from milk of 2. Cambridge. M. Generally. Burleson. E. Malbaša. Malbaša and D. M. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48. Lončar.Y.3:663.Longevity. A.0%. 68 .. Prehrambena industrija – Mleko i mlečni proizvodi 12 (2001) 13-17. Woodhead publishing limited. Steinkraus and R. 619. 5. Robinson: Yoghurt Science and Technology.K. and Organs in C57-BL/6 Mice: A Pilot Study. Malbaša i M. Food Chemistry 108 (2008) 926-932. 63-69 Original scientific paper storage was measured in sample 3 (2.9% fat using concentrated tea fungus inoculum. A. Lončar. Tamime.70 gs and -10. The lowest viscosity index after production (-1. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft und Technologie 31 (1998) 291-296. E. 8. 6.2% milk fat had higher viscosity index after production. Zhu.48 gs) and after 10 days storage (-3. REFERENCES 1. Dobrić: Primena koncentrata čajne gljive u proizvodnji fermentisanih mlečnih napitaka. Holmes and C. Carić. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. The obtained values are similar to the results of fermented milk beverages obtained from milk of 0.0% fat content.68 gs. Carić. Sreeramulu. G. and W. M. R. -2. 4.05 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Nutrition 16 (2000) 755-761.H. Iličić and Lj. Panić: Metabolička aktivnost čajne gljive u mleku. Knol: Kombucha Fermentation and Its Antimicrobial Activity..88:637. England. Lončar.APTEFF. R. E. Geist: Effects of Chronic Kombucha Ingestion on Open-field Behaviors. Malbaša. Milanović. M.. Milanović. Kolarov: Milk-based beverages obtained by Kombucha application.2298/APT0940063M UDC: 637. the sample produced from milk of 2.. L. M.5% and 3. A.J. C. K. Hartman. and R..2% fat with addition of 10% kombucha inoculum has the best textural characteristics during storage. CONCLUSION Samples that contained higher level of fat had much better textural characteristics from those of fermented milk beverages produced from milk of 1. Djurić. Lončar. Greenwalt.. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This research is part of the project TR-20008 which is financially suported by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia. S. 3. 2. Carić. R. Significant change of textural characteristics was noticed during the first 5 days of storage.2% fat 10% I). E. regarding the decrease of textural characteristic values at increased concentrations of inoculum (10). M. 7.0% fat 15% I). Milanović. R. Prehrambena industrija – Mleko i mlečni proizvodi 13 (2002) 8-13. E. S. M.96 gs) was determined in sample 2 (1. M. Food Chemistry 112 (2009) 178-184. Y. Appetitive Behaviors. 6 (2000) 2589-2594. 1. Došenović: Effect of sucrose concentration on kombucha fermentation on molasses. Djurić. and I. Panić..
19. M. S. Највеће промене текстуралних карактеристика у узорцима уочавају се током првих 5 дана складиштења. Đurić. Iličić. кохезивност и индекс вискозитета.2298/APT0940063M UDC: 637. Iličić. Вукић Реолошке особине ферментисаних млечних производа представљају веома важан фактор за квалитет производа. S. M.88:637. 10. Prehrambena industrija – Mleko i mlečni prozvodi 19 (2008) 79-83. конзистенције.146. Šašić: Teksturalne karakteristike fermentisanih mlečnih proizvoda.3:663.APTEFF. 40. Prehrambena industrija – Mleko i mlečni proizvodi 19 (2008) 66-73. Дураковић и Владимир Р. ''Second European Workshop on Food Engineering and Technology''. M. као што су: састав млека. конзистенцију. кохезивности и индекса вискозитета узорака. У раду је испитан утицај садржаја млечне масти (1. Lenđel: Funkcionalni niskoenergetski fermentisani mlečni napitak proizveden uz primenu kombuhe. Carić.0% и 2. M. Duraković. Својства гела добијеног ферментацијом млека зависе од различитих фактора. Milanović. D.05 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. након производње и током 10 дана складиштења. Милановић. Massy. 11. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Iličić. Carić.. Received 22 July 2009 Accepted 1 October 2009 69 . аромe. Tekić. 63-69 Original scientific paper 9. Катарина Г. Đurić.2%). M. M.: Improvement of probiotic yoghurt characteristics by transglutaminase application. M. Ферментисани млечни напици произведени са већом концентрацијом инокулума комбухе имају ниже вредности текстуралних карактеристика. Добијени резултати показују да повећање садржаја млечне масти доводи до повећања чврстоће. и различитих концентрација инокулума комбухе (10% и 15%) на текстуралне особине ферментисаних млечних производа: чврстоћу. Иличић. Milanović. Book of Abstracts p.. M. итд. ТЕКСТУРАЛНЕ ОСОБИНЕ ФЕРМЕНТИСАНИХ МЛЕЧНИХ НАПИТАКА ДОБИЈЕНИХ ПРИМЕНОМ КОМБУХЕ Спасенија Д. Tekić i J. Мирела Д. стартер култура. 26-27 May 2008. K. M.
Both email@example.com/APT0940071P UDC:633. Amongst other authors. Agricultural Research Council. Serbia.and over-processing result in decreased availability of amino acids (4). Sophia E.040. as well as the effect that processing has on the availability of the amino acids contained therein.and over-processed FFSB when protein solubility is used as an indicator of the extent of heat treatment. degree of processing.APTEFF. Also.34:66. Private Bag X2. extent of heat treatment. thus making them fit for use in monogastric diets..645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. without taking into consideration specific regional differences. Dragan Palić. 21000 Novi Sad. 71-77 Original scientific paper PROTOCOL FOR USING PROTEIN SOLUBILITY AS AN INDICATOR OF FULL-FAT SOYBEAN HEAT TREATMENT Dragan V. One of the major concerns is: what happens when FFSB is under. Sc.uns. In this paper. Holmes (1). KEY WORDS: Full-fat soybeans. M. against which the protein solubility of heat treated FFSB would be determined. Coetzee. Ruiz et al.rs. ARC-Animal Production Institute. Palić and Sophia E. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Irene 0062. The problem relating to the availability of the amino acids in the heat-treated soybeans arises due to the fact that only an optimum level of heat treatment will produce maximal availability of the amino acids to the animal. a protocol was proposed for establishing unit ranges for defining under-. 40. A comparatively mild heating leads to partial protein degradation (denaturation of tertiary and quaternary structures). a problem represents the lack of a standard with known value of protein solubility. Processing of the raw FFSB by means of heat destroys the anti-nutrients. Coetzee When the degree of full-fat soybean (FFSB) processing is determined using protein solubility as an indicator of heat treatment extent. adequately. This arises due to both the presence of biologically active substances with an anti-nutrient action.and over-processing is easy Dr.or over-processed? Is the one more detrimental than the other? To define under. protein solubility INTRODUCTION The use of full-fat soybeans (FFSB) in animal feeds has been limited because of the uncertainty of the exact availability of the amino acids. a special practical problem imposes the fact that universal ranges of units for describing the degree of FFSB processing are used globally. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1.ac. (2) and Zarkadas et al. which are contained in raw soybean. Institute for Food Technology. dragan.2:543. (3) showed that moderate heating is necessary to increase the digestibility of soybean protein for nonruminants. allowing more effective penetration by digestion enzymes. South Africa 71 .
The result is that protein digestibility is reduced and swelling of the pancreas occurs. adequately. caused by the production of additional trypsin and chymotrypsin. 71-77 Original scientific paper in theoretical terms.34:66. established that some of commonly used methods. Special practical problem imposes the fact that universal ranges of units for PSKOH. 4. 2. when protein solubility is used as an indicator of the extent of heat treatment. 40. the solution is to use an “indirect” standard. but is it easy to define it in practice? The following mechanisms are involved in under. This is because the Maillard reaction takes place. NSI and PDI methods would be the prefferd choice. which can be obtained through in vivo trial with animals. against which the protein solubility of processed FFSB would be determined. The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for establishing unit ranges for defining under-.645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Palic et al. have limitations. well. (5. Therefore. is to maintain optimum balance between degradation of anti-nutrients on the one hand and maintenance of protein digestibility on the other. 6.2298/APT0940071P UDC:633. proteins are more than partially denaturated and amino acid availability is reduced. the proposed protocol for establishing the degree of FFSB processing. that some of the methods are very complicated to perform. for describing the under-. such as TIA and Lysine availability. 5. consists of the following steps. e.and over processed FFSB. i. 72 . 6). Over-processing: In this process. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. PDI and NSI methods. A problem represents the fact that there is a lack of a standard with known protein solubility.e. the objective of heating processes for full-fat soybeans. As a consequence.2:543. as they can be used only to determine the under-processed FFSB. 3. are used globally. intended for inclusion in diets for poultry and pigs.and over-processed FFSB. It also binds and inactivates the pancreatic enzyme trypsin (4). Commonly used methods for assessing the processed FFSB quality are those for the determination of: 1. affecting both endogenous and exogenous amino acid losses. when protein solubility is used as an indicator of heat treatment extent. Urease Activity Index (UAI) Trypsin Inhibitor Activity (TIA) Protein Solubility in KOH (PSKOH) Nitrogen Solubility Index (NSI) Protein Dispersibility Index (PDI) Lysine availability In a critical assessments of methods. reducing sugars react with the epsilon-amino group of lysine (4).and over-processing: Under-processing: Residual trypsin inhibitor mediates its effects via the digestive processes. and concluded that protein solubility is the best indicator for FFSB quality control and that therefore PSKOH. EXPERIMENTAL In the absence of a standard with known value of protein solubility. without taking into consideration specific regional differences (7).APTEFF. UAI.040.g.
140. a total of 384 male Ross broilers were randomly allocated to 48 pens. are established.and overprocessed FFSB. has been chosen. i. An illustration of the relation between in vivo animal performance. using industrial „Insta-Pro 2000R“ single screw extruder at 8 temperatures: 110. On arrival. 136.e. the values X and Y of PSKOH (%) for those two samples. for describing under-. unknown FFSB sample. 40. on day 14. In this study. as described by Palic (8). as a model-method for determining protein solubility as an indicator of the extent of soybean processing. adequately.2:543. In vivo trial Samples of FFSB produced in Step 1 are fed to animals and their performance is monitored. 127. raw soybeans. such that initial average weight and weight distribution were similar for all pens. samples of FFSB processed at different temperatures. in the period from 0 to 14 days of age. all broilers were sorted into equal weight groups. represent the border-points of the range of adequately-processed FFSB. Consequently.645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 145. is produced.34:66. each containing 8 birds. Step 3. were processed by dry extrusion. The average body weight gain (ADWG).2298/APT0940071P UDC:633. with the processing time ranging between 30 and 40 seconds. whose PSKOH protein solubility value falls between X and Y points. exposed to different extents of heat. In the work presented. Raw soybeans processing A number. Eight samples of FFSB processed in Step 1 were analysed for PSKOH in duplicates by five laboratories. They were allocated to one of eight dietary treatments containing the processed FFSB. Step 4. 71-77 Original scientific paper Step 1. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. with moisture of 10-11%. were monitored as production parameters. In this study. measured by average daily weight gain (g). but not less than five. 120. 151 and 165°C. Assuming that the FFSB samples at 135oC and 145oC are adequately processed. would be assessed as adequately-processed. and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Step 2.APTEFF. Establishing ranges of units for chosen method for describing the degree of FFSB processing The ranges of units for chosen method. and assigned at random to the different treatment pens. 73 . and the PSKOH values (in %) is shown in Figure 1. the Protein solubility in potassium hydroxide (PSKOH).040. Choice of laboratory method A laboratory method for determining protein solubility is chosen.
645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. and the KOH protein solubility (%) for FFSB samples processed at different temperatures Statistical analysis.05).94 22. Average body weight gain (ABWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) for chickens fed FFSB processed at different temperatures in the period from 0 to 14 days of age Temperature (oC) 110°C 120°C 127°C 136°C 140°C 145°C 151°C 164°C SEM1 LSD2 CV%3 ABWG (g) 87. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block with five replicates per treatment.232 11.0bc 108. Treatment means were separated using Fishers' protected t-test least significant difference (LSD) at the 5 % level of significance. Illustration of the relation between in vivo animal performance.529a 1.081 0.081d 1.b.768c 1. 2LSD = Least significant difference. SEM = Standard error of the means.81 19.891cd 0.0a 97.5 1 Values in the same column with different superscript differ significantly (P<0.040.2b 79.0bc 138. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results of the in vivo trial are shown in Table 1 and Figure 2. 71-77 Original scientific paper 100 90 Average daily weight gain (g) 110 80 105 100 95 60 90 50 85 80 115 125 135 Temperatures (°C) AWG KOH 145 165 40 70 KOH (%) X Y Fig 1.0a 123. Table 1. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.466a 1.c.679c 1.2298/APT0940071P 120 115 UDC:633.d 74 .8c 7. Data were analyzed using the statistical program SAS/STAT (9). 40.1 FCR (kg/kg) 2.APTEFF.893cd 1.8bc 96.382a 1. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences between treatments.3a 132.2:543. measured by average daily weight gain (g).34:66. 3CV% = Coefficient of variation a.
2 60 50 110 1. However. 140oC and 145oC and that there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). Table 2.6 70 1.05). and feed conversion ratio on day 14.2 2.040. a relation between the temperature of extruding and the in vivo assessment of the degree of FFSB processing has been derived and is shown in Table 2. 2. the difference between the groups that received the FFSB processed at 1270C and 136oC.0 170 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 Temperature (ºC) In-vivo body weight gain In-vivo FCR Fig.34:66. of broiler chickens fed FFSB processed at different temperatures Statistical analysis of the results showed that the best performance was achieved by chickens that were fed the FFSB processed at 136oC.processed Over-processed 136 – 145 > 145 The results of the protein solubility in potassium hydroxide (PSKOH) are shown in Table 3. Average daily body weight gain in the period from 0 to 14 days of age.2298/APT0940071P 150 140 UDC:633. Based on these parameters. 40.APTEFF. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 75 Feed conversion ratio (kg/kg) .0 130 120 Body weight gain (g) 1. were significant (P<0. Relation between the temperature of extruding and the in vivo assessment of the degree of FFSB processing Degree of FFSB processing Under-processed Temperature of extrusion (oC) < 136 Adequately .645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 71-77 Original scientific paper 2.8 110 100 90 1. as well as at 145oC and 151oC.4 80 Well prosessed FFSB range 1.2:543.
77 % and 67% respectively. ACKNOWLEGMENT This study has been supported by the Protein Research Foundation of South Africa. REFERENCES 1. The numerical value of the units for the method(s) established by using the proposed protocol.51 73. 14-15 April 1987. Holmes. Results of the determination of protein solubility in potassium hydroxide (PSKOH) in FFSB samples processed by dry extrusion at different temperatures Temperature (oC) 110°C 120°C 127°C 136°C 140°C 145°C 151°C 164°C 1 PSKOH (%)1 90. regardless of what the globally accepted unit ranges for the specific method(s) are. have been established. take into consideration regional differences such as soybean quality and may be safely applied for FFSB quality control.APTEFF.645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.87 67. B: Quality control of raw materials and final products in fullfat soybean production. Table 4. obtained at five laboratories (Table 3).87 76.2:543.99 61. 76 . Book of Abstracts. shown in Table 4. can be established.2298/APT0940071P UDC:633. or for the practical application. p. 246. represented adequately-processed FFSB (Table 1). of Fullfat Soybean Regional Conference.77% <67% Using the protocol described in this study.05 Mean values of the results obtained in five laboratories FFBS samples processed at temperatures between 136oC and 145oC.040.51 % and 67.14%. The mean values for PSKOH for these two samples. the following ranges.21 86. were 76.14 67. Therefore. the ranges for any laboratory method which uses protein solubility as an indicator of the extent of FFSB heat treatment. Milan. Proc. for describing the degree of FFSB processing when PSKOH method is used.45 89. Ranges for describing the degree of FFSB processing using PSKOH method Degree of FFSB processing Under-processed PSKOH (%) >77% Adequately. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.processed Over-processed CONCLUSION 67% . 71-77 Original scientific paper Table 3. 40.34:66.
SAS/STAT User's Guide. XI International Feed Technology Symposium.: Fullfat Soya Handbook. када се растворљивост протеина користи као индикатор степена термичког третмана. ПОСТУПАК ЗА КОРИШЋЕЊЕ РАСТВОРЉИВОСТИ ПРОТЕИНА КАО ИНДИКАТОРА ТЕРМИЧКОГ ТРЕТМАНА ПУНОМАСНЕ СОЈЕ Драган В. Coetzee and O. Vrnjacka Banja. 30 March–3 June 2005. D. Cary. 1st International Congress on Food Technology. 1. J. Wiseman: Influence of processing of full fat soya beans included in diet for piglets. L.2298/APT0940071P UDC:633. Moloto.040. примењује опсег јединица које су глобално прихваћене. Poult. S. не водећи при томе рачуна о регионалним разликама у квалитету сирове соје.. O: Critical assessment of laboratory methods for full-fat soybean quality control. Quality and Safety.. 71-77 Original scientific paper 2. F. Performance. D: Quality control of processed full-fat soybeans using protein solubility in KOH: Critical review and modification of the method. SAS Institute Inc. 7. N. American Soybean Association. Coetzee Када се растворљивост протеина користи као индикатор степена термичке обраде пуномасне соје. Palic. Brussels (1989) p. NC:SAS Institute (1999). Diaz: Quality Control Parameters for Commercial Full-Fat Soybeans Processed by Two Different Methods and Fed to Broilers. 13-15 November 2007.APTEFF. Vrnjacka Banja. Appl. Palic. N. O.6. Sredanovic. 4. проблем представља недостатак стандарда у односу на који би се одређивала растворљивост протеина обрађеног сојиног зрна. Djuragic: Quality control of full-fat soybeans using urease activity: critical assessment of the method. 11th International Feed Technology Symposium. E. K.34:66. 96. and J. Палић и Sophia E. Version 8. 6. 5. Zarkadas. S. 3. Acta Periodica Technologica.106. Proceedings p. У овом раду је предложен поступак за утврђивање опсега јединица за дефинисање недовољно.. 9. Res. Ruiz. Djuragic. Proceedings p. Novi Sad. Received 17 June 2009 Accepted 28 September 2009 77 . Monary. 40. Animal Feed Science and Technology 118 (2005) 109-119. 30 March – 3 June 2005. S. J.645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Посебан практичан проблем представља чињеница да се за изражавање различитих степена термичког третмана. адекватно и сувише термички обрађене пуномасне соје. 13 (2004) 443-450. Palic. de Belalcazar and G.. Proceedings p. Levic. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 197. Palic. 39 (2008) 47-53. D. D: Quality control of processed full-fat soybeans: Choice of method. J.2:543. 8.
21000 Novi Sad. RMSE = 37. (R2 = 0. The equation OMD (in_vivo) = 198. M. 79-86 Original scientific paper COMPARISON OF THREE IN VITRO METHODS FOR DETERMINING AND PREDICTING THE ORGANIC MATTER DIGESTIBILITY OF COMPLETE DIETS FOR RUMINANTS Dragan V. which is important because of the fact that rumen liquor. Serbia. complete diets.2+636.98 x OMD (in_vitro_T&T). South Africa 79 .36 + 0.36) has been derived for Gas production procedure.05). the prediction equation OMD (in_vivo) = -17. while the equation OMD (in_vivo) = 102 + 0. Irene 0062. the organic matter digestibility (OMD) of six complete diets for ruminants has been determined in-vivo in trials with sheep and in-vitro using two-stage Tilley and Terry (T&T) method. RMSE = 27. prediction INTRODUCTION Energy value of ruminant feeds and its bio-availability is of great importance for animal feed manufactures and end users. and in-vivo values predicted.085. in vitro techniques. (R2 = 0. The results of this study showed that the OMD of complete diets for ruminants can be successfully determined. The obtained in vitro results were regressed against determined in-vivo values to derive prediction equations.59) has been obtained. Klaas-Jan Leeuw.21. RMSE = 66. GP and EDOM techniques were 684.71 x OMD (in_vitro_GP).3:636. KEY WORDS: Ruminants.30) has been generated for multi-enzyme incubation technique. Dragan Palić.ac.86.3 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. organic matter digestibility. Sc. dragan. 685 and 710 g OM/kgDM respectively and did not differ significantly (P>0. Palić and Klaas-Jan Leeuw In this study. needed for the in-vitro twostage T&T and GP techniques is not always available to analytical laboratories. The mean OMD values obtained in vivo and using T&T.. Private Bag X2. Agricultural Research Council. gas production (GP) technique and multi-enzyme incubation (EDOM) procedures.085.APTEFF.uns.75.1/.2298/APT0940079P UDC:636.55:636. (R2 = firstname.lastname@example.org x OMD (in_vitro_EDOM). The most accurate way of obtaining information on digestibility of organic matter of feeds for ruminants is by conducting in vivo digestibility experiDr. 716. ARC-Animal Production Institute. using multi-enzyme incubation procedure. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.98 + 0. Institute for Food Technology. since the value of organic matter digestibility is very close to the corresponding digestibility of energy (2).rs. The amount of available energy in feeds for ruminants is described either by its metabolisable energy or by organic matter digestibility (1). Using the T&T technique. 40. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1.
(7) for determining the OMD of compound feeds for ruminants and to develop equations for predicting the in vivo OMD of complete diets for ruminants using results obtained by in vitro T&T. multi-enzyme incubation procedure of Hvelplund et al. In vitro methods for determining organic matter digestibility (OMD) by the use of rumen liquor fermentation techniques have become well established despite the limitations on the use of rumen liquor for digestibility studies and the request for fistulated animals (which are not available to all laboratories) for the collection of fresh rumen liquor.55:636. In the first. after which rumen liquor is added. The chemical composition of the diets was determined by the Official Methods of AOAC International (9). 0. An amount of 200 mg of dried sample is introduced into a special piston-syringe.e. as well as by three in vitro methods.APTEFF. The second stage involves digestion with pepsin-HCl for 48 hours at 38oC. Apart from the above-mentioned two references. 79-86 Original scientific paper ments.3:636. GP and EDOM techniques. The alternative to rumen liquor is the use of incubation of feeds with exogenous enzymes. for 48 hours at 38oC in the dark. The OMD is calculated as the difference between the organic matter in the original sample and in the residue. laboratory methods for routine prediction of the in vivo organic matter digestibility of ruminant feeds are an irreplaceable tool for routine quality control in the feed industry.3 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. which can be divided into those that make up the structure of the plant (cell-wall constituents) and the material within the cells (cell-content constituents). Enzymes therefore need to remove the cell contents and to solubilise unlignified and moderately lignified cell-wall to a significant extent. This method has two main stages. The OMD of investigated diets was determined in the in vivo trial. Since this method is expensive and time consuming. Hvelplund et al. The production of gas is measured during a 24-hour incubation at 39oC and the OMD is calculated from the following equation: 80 . which has the aim to mimic the digestive processes in the animal. Cell content is essentially completely digestible in vivo. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. In vitro procedures used for OMD determination were: Two-stage method (3). Enzymes can break down different parts of the plant constituents.2298/APT0940079P UDC:636. with a few used for compound feeds (6). Palic and Muller (8) demonstrated the ability of this method to determine the OMD of a variety of other feedstuffs for ruminants. (7) used a multi-enzymatic incubation method for estimating the enzymatic digestibility of organic matter (EDOM) of straws. EXPERIMENTAL Six complete diets for ruminants were used in this study. Gas Production technique (4).2+636. The aim of this study was to compare the two rumen-fluid-based methods. whereas cell-wall constituents vary in digestibility (5). Widely accepted in vitro rumen liquor fermentation procedures for determining the organic matter digestibility of ruminant feeds are the two-stage Tilley and Terry (T&T) method (3) and Gas Production (GP) technique developed by Menke and Steingass (4).5 g of dried sample is incubated anaerobically with rumen liquor inoculum in a buffered sollution. Most enzymatic methods for organic matter digestibility determination have been developed for forage feedstuffs.085.1/.085. more citations of this method in the literature have not been found. 40. the twostage in vitro method (3) and gas production (4) with the under-utilized.. i.
04 CP (%) 9.09 1.08 The organic matter digestibility of complete diets for ruminants determined in in vivo trial and by three in vitro procedures is shown in Table 2. The residue was dried and ashed.00 8. In vivo organic matter digestibility was determined according to Steg et al. Data was analysed using the statistical programme GenStat (11). hemicellulase and amyloglucosidase) first at 40oC for 19 hours and then at 60oC for 19 hours.65 x CA where: gp = Gas produced (ml) CP = Crude protein (%) CA = Crude ash (%) EDOM procedure (7).24 87.1/. 81 .99 13. The organic matter contents of both feed and faeces were measured and their difference represened the digestible organic matter.889 x gp + 0.07 87.45 14. cellobiase.085.3 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.69 1. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The chemical composition of studied diets is shown in Table 1.55:636.085.5 g of sample is incubated with pepsin-HCl solution for 24 hours at 40oC to dissolve protein.35 86.88 + 0.34 CA (%) 6.45 x CP + 0. while the feed was standardized at 1000 g of dry matter daily for each animal.44 13. and the insoluble organic matter in the sample was determined as the difference. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940079P UDC:636. (10) using four castrated adult male sheep per diet. Water was freely available at all times.2+636.39 85.45 86. An 11-day adaptation period during which the animals were fed the trial ration was followed by a 10-day collection period during which the exact amounts of feed.07 1.72 7.40 CF (%) 1. residues and the faecal production were recorded.37 7. 40. Table 1. followed by incubation with a buffered enzyme solution (consisting of cellulase. 79-86 Original scientific paper OMD (%) = 14. Chemical composition (%) of complete diets used in the study Diet 1 2 3 4 5 6 DM = Dry matter CP = Crude protein CF = Crude fibre CA = Crude ash DM (%) 89.APTEFF.45 1.33 9.29 2.20 8. About 0.3:636.69 6.52 21.
71 x OMD (in_vitro_GP) R2 = 0. for predicting the in vivo OMD using Multienzyme incubation (EDOM) method. to predict the in vivo OMD from the results of in vitro T&T method has been obtained: OMD (in_vivo) = -17. OMD (in_vivo) = 198.1 75. RMSE = 27. 40.085.36 + 0.05). R2 = 0.3 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.82 x OMD (in_vitro_EDOM) R2 = 0. The following equation. shown also on Figure 2. RMSE = 66.98 x OMD (in_vitro_T&T). 716.30 82 . The values obtained by laboratory procedures were then regressed against determined in vivo values and the functions for each in vitro procedure for predicting the in vivo OMD of complete diets have been derived. GP and EDOM procedures were 684.APTEFF.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mean SD5 1 2 In vivo 595 716 674 710 781 628 684a 66. resulted in the following equation. was as follows: OMD (in_vivo) = 102 + 0. T&T.3:636.75.085.21. 685 and 710 g OM/kg DM respectively. and did not differ significantly (P>0.59 The regression of the OMD results obtained by Gas production method against the in vivo values. shown also on Figure 2. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940079P UDC:636.7 Means of three replicates Two-stage in vitro method (3) 3 Gas production method (4) 4 Multi-enzyme incubation method (7) 5 SD = Standard deviation a Means with same subscript in a row do not differ significantly (P>0. RMSE = 37.98 + 0. 79-86 Original scientific paper Table 2.36 The equation. shown also in Figure 1. The OMD of complete diets for ruminants (g OM/kg DM) determined in vivo and by three in vitro methods Diet Organic matter digestibility (g OM/kg DM)1 T & T2 GP3 EDOM4 625 665 622 756 686 781 724 618 726 776 708 708 749 609 801 664 599 624 716a 685a 710a 58.9 43.2+636.1/.05) The mean values obtained by in-vivo.55:636.86.
2298/APT0940079P UDC:636.3 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.085. Relationship between the OMD values of compound feeds for ruminants determined in vivo and by in vitro T&T method Fig. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 2.085.APTEFF. 79-86 Original scientific paper Fig.2+636. 40.1/.55:636. Relationship between the OMD values of complete diets for ruminants determined in vivo and by in vitro GP method 83 .3:636. 1.
A low correlation between Gas production and in vivo results (R2 = 0.21) was somehow unexpected. (7) used in this study. might have an advantage over the above-mentioned. needed for the in vitro Tilley and Terry and Gas Production techniques.90 using 24 energy-rich feeds. Further work. since Palic and Muller (8). is not always available to analytical laboratories.APTEFF.55:636. The prediction of OMD of compound feeds for ruminants by the use of enzymes have been up to date applied mostly to forages. using a multi-enzyme incubation procedure. The procedure of Hvelplund et al. whereas Aufrere and Michalet-Doreau (6) found an R2 = 0. with inclusion of more samples of complete diets. as it uses multienzyme incubation and therefore may better mimic the digestion in the animal gastrointestinal tract. 84 .81 for the relationship between the OMD values determined in vivo and by in vitro Gas production method.87 between in vivo and in vitro values. closely followed by the two-stage T&T procedure. 79-86 Original scientific paper Fig. reported a correlation of R2 = 0. is needed to confirm the results of this study. investigating the OMD of feedstuffs for ruminants.085. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.3:636.085.2298/APT0940079P UDC:636.1/.2+636. the authors used single-enzyme incubations. followed by the treatment of 12 complete diets with cellulase. the results of this study yielded a clear reference point and showed that the organic matter digestibility (OMD) of complete diets for ruminants can be successfully determined. using incubation with pepsin-HCl. established an R2 = 0. Relationship between the OMD values of complete diets for ruminants determined in vivo and by in vitro EDOM method The organic matter digestibility of complete diets for ruminants in this study was predicted best by EDOM method. 3. CONCLUSION Although conducted on a small number of samples.3 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. and the in vivo OMD successfully predicted. 40. Dowman and Collins (12). and in those seldom cases. This is important because of the fact that rumen liquor. Enzymatic methods have been much less studied with energy and protein feeds (6).
Murray: Prediction of the organic matter digestibility of grass silage. CABI publishing. Savremena Poljoprivreda 55.W. N. A. Offer and I. AOAC INTERNATIONAL. 79-86 Original scientific paper REFERENCES 1. 5.and H. ID-DLO. G. Barber. Steg. Harding. 28 (1988) 7-55. In: Forage Evaluation in Ruminant Nutrition. 12. Palic.C. M. коришћењем двостепене Tilley и Terry (Т&Т) (3) методе.085.B. p.. у огледима на овцама. Butterworths.H. 7.. J. J. 9. Hvelplund.1/. D. C.. Grassl. 18 (1963) 104-111. AOAC INTERNATIONAL.A. Steingass: Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Feed Sci. M. E. Eds.. Terry: A two stage method for the in vitro digestion of forage crops.I. Baird and D. Aufrere. R. 70. Tech. Feed Sci. Hemel Hempstead. D.S. Hindle: Prediction of the digestibility of feedstuffs: recent developments. D.and M. Givens. T. New York (2000) p. M.A. and R. Michalet-Doreau. Tilley. S. Cole. D. UK (2007).J. Anim. I. Introduction. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Proceedings vol. Средње вредности сварљивости органске материје добијене in vivo и коришћењем Т&Т.A. 20 (1988) 203-218. Dev. 17th Edition. Collins: The use of enzymes to predict the digestibility of animal feeds. M. Axford and H. Annual report. In: Feedstuffs Evaluation. 26. VSN International. Kridis. 10. P. M. 11. Res. K. Murray. Sci. 4. 6. Official Methods of Analysis. E. F. 2. Predicting the nutritive value of compound feeds for ruminants. J. 3-4 Aug 1990. 40. K. A.085. D. Haresign and D.. Payne. 1–2 (2006) 127-132. F. Owen. Thomas. ПОРЕЂЕЊЕ ТРИ IN VITRO МЕТОДЕ ЗА ОДРЕЂИВАЊЕ И ПРОЦЕНУ СВАРЉИВОСТИ ОРГАНСКЕ МАТЕРИЈЕ У ПОТПУНИМ СМЕШАМА ЗА ПРЕЖИВАРЕ Драган Палић и Klaas-Jan Leeuw У овом раду је одређена сварљивост органске материје (OMD) у шест потпуних смеша за преживаре и то in vivo. B: Comparison of methods for predicting digestibility of feeds. 28 (1990) 115-128.H. Gaithersburg. London (1990) p.APTEFF. USA (2000). Theodorou: Enzyme techniques for estimating digestibility..A.I. The Netherlands (1987).2+636. van der Merwe. Food Agric 33 (1982) 689-696. MD 20877-2417. and B. технике мерења продукције гаса (GP) (4) и поcтупка мулти-ензимске инкубације (EDOM) (7).3 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. G. W. Arusha.2298/APT0940079P UDC:636. Weisberg and K.3:636. R. Tech. M. Soegaard: Use of in vitro digestibility methods to estimate in vivo digestibility of straws. Dowman.W.D. Eds. J. и in vitro. Soc.55:636. Anim. J. Soutar: GenStat for Windows (10th Edition). Jones. R. 155. B. GP и EDOM in vitro 85 . Smits and V. Givens. Brit. Muller: Prediction of the in vivo organic matter digestibility of feedstuffs for ruminants using in vitro techniques. Anim.M. 301 3. Menke. TSAP Science Conference. H. D.A. Omed. 8.
неопходан за Т&Т и GP методе. RMSE=37.2+636.30).36). 716.75. 79-86 Original scientific paper метода износиле су 684. RMSE=66. што је веома важно с обзиром на чињеницу да буражни сок.59.1/. Регресионом анализом добијене су једначине за предвиђање in vivo OMD на основу резултата добијених in vitro методама.2298/APT0940079P UDC:636.82 x OMD (in_vitro_EDOM). 40. RMSE = 27. За Т&Т методу добијена је једначина OMD (in_vivo) = -17. (R2= 0. Резултати овога рада показују да се сварљивист органске материје потпуних смешa за преживаре може успешно одредити. коришћењем мулти-ензимске инкубационе методе.3:636.085. Received 17 June 2009 Accepted 28 Septembar 2009 86 .98 x OMD (in_vitro_T&T).86. није увек доступан аналитичким лабораторијама.55:636. и њене in vivo вредности успешно предвидети. док је за EDOM методу изведена једначина OMD (in_vivo)= 102 + 0.APTEFF. за GP технику OMD (in_vivo)=198.36 + 0.71 x OMD (in_vitro_GP).98 + 0.3 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.085.05). (R2=0. (R2=0. 685 и 710 g органске материје/кг суве материје и нису се значајно разликовале (P>0. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.21.
APTEFF. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Conducted research on the health benefits of lactic acid-producing bacteria and postuDr. yoghurt. manufacturing methods. viable lactic acid bacteria. such as Bulgaria. This study is concerned with the lactic acid bacteria (L. such as has been developed for other dairy products. Elie Metchnikoff. Gordana B. Metchnikoff (12. Yoghurt and other fermented dairy products have long been a staple in the diets of cultures of the Middle East. 13) is the first researcher who proposed fermented dairy products with beneficial properties. Senior research fellow. 11050 Novi Beograd. bulgaricus and S. however that have bearing on yoghurt quality.28%). Yet.05 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. JPS Dairy Institute. as a result of research done by Dr. KEY WORDS: LAB. Serbia.04/. Autoput 3. Dr. ingredients and consumer preferences that exist.2298/APT0940087P UDC: 637. This situation makes yoghurt an interesting. 40. the recognition of yoghurts special health benefits did not become apparent in Western Europe and North America until the 20th century.delbrueckii subsp. Niketić. Predominant samples of yoghurt were with 11-107/ml lactic acid lactococci (44. Autoput 3. Russia and Eastern European countries. whose armies were sustained by this healthful food.rs. it is unlikely that a uniform yoghurt quality concept will ever emerge. The present investigation was undertaken to isolate from commercial yoghurt the strains involved in its manufacture and determine the characteristics of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.146. Since a number of producers are recognized within the broad category entitled yoghurt. varieties. Since these factors will always play an important role. dpesic@sbb. 87-94 Original scientific paper COMPOSITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMERCIAL YOGHURT BASED ON QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF VIABLE LACTIC ACID BACTERIA Dragana Pešić-Mikulec and Gordana B. probiotics INTRODUCTION One of the first records of yoghurt consumption comes from the Middle East during the times of the Conqueror Genghis Khan in the 13th century. challenging. 11050 Novi Beograd. Dr. Asia.bulgaricus. but also a confusing area to work in. Department of Food Microbiology.3:637. Research fellow. Institute of Veterinary Research. Dragana Pešić Mikulec. There are a number of common denominators. Niketić Yoghurt quality is particularly difficult to standardize because of the many forms. thermophilus) growth in yoghurt from involving different procedures and with the determination of the number of lactic acid bacteria in dependence of the temperature and acidity in the period of storage. Serbia 87 .
Streptococcus thermophilus grows faster and produces both acid and carbon dioxide.bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The yoghurt mixture coagulates during fermentation due to the drop in pH. These microorganisms are ultimately responsible for the formation of typical yoghurt flavor and texture.U. 40. High cell numbers to about 5-107 C. Although they can grow independently. Much emphasis is placed on yoghurt flavor. Initial counts of Lactobacillus and Streptococcus in the samples of yoghurts were in the range from 8 to 1x106 /g resp. EXPERIMENTAL Yoghurt production Yoghurt is made by fermenting milk with friendly bacteria. The format and carbon dioxide produced stimulates growth of lactobacilli.APTEFF. such as the Bulgarians. 87-94 Original scientific paper lated that the longevity of peoples of certain cultures. The lactobacilli are responsible for a further decrease to pH 4.bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.F. was stabilized when the strains were enterapped. The baccilli/cocci ratio in the pre-fermented milk. The following fermentation products contribute to flavor: • lactic acid • acetaldehyde 88 .7. the proteolytic activity of lactobacilli produces stimulatory peptides and amino acids for use by streptococci. Yoghurt is made by fermenting milk with friendly bacteria. was related to their high consumption of yoghurt and fermented dairy products. unstable with free cells. The specific objectives of the study were: a) to determine the effect of cell lactis acid bacteria L.0. thermophilus on growth in yoghurt from a different producers and b) to determine the number of lactic acid bacteria of the temperature and acidity in the period of storage (1. Product quality and satisfaction of consumer expectation are discussed since they are essential for the continued successful growth of the yoghurt market.146.2). The starter culture for most yoghurt production is a symbiotic blend of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. The yoghurt starter cultures play an important role during the production of yoghurt. Yoghurt consumption in Serbia has increased during the last decade. Yoghurt that contains live bacterial cultures may help to live longer and may fortify immune system.05 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. and texture. On the other hand. mainly Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. The streptococci are responsible for the initial pH drop of the yoghurt mix to approximately 5. Ratio of Lactobacillus : Streptococcus at the start of the test varied from 1:1 to 1: 2. This process gives yoghurt its refreshingly tart flavor and unique pudding like texture.3:637. in Serbia mainly with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. body. The benefits of yoghurt depends for „live active cultures“ or „living yoghurt cultures“.2298/APT0940087P UDC: 637.delbrueckii subsp. Yoghurt is a traditional food and beverage in many countries and especially in Serbia.04/. bulgaricus in relation 50:50. The yoghurt qualities were judged to be satisfactory without defective taste. ml-1 with a steady bacilli/cocci ratio were present in the effluent milk. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. The milk sugar or lactose is fermented by these bacteria to lactic acid which causes the characteristic curd to form. the rate of acid production is much higher when used together than either of the two organisms grown individually.0.
Strains of lactic acid lactococci were an aerobically transferred three times at 370C for 48 h (BBLGas Pak System). Commercial yoghurt samples were used with no modifications. Total bacterial count was determined by direct counting on a microscope glass. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. bulgaricus and S. as well as in the follow-up of both populations during the production and later ripening of yoghurt. Microorganisms Strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. The samples were from Belgrade trade market. Material for the research was 70 samples of yoghurt from 9 different dairy producers.bulgaricus. M17 agar plates were used for the detection of streptococci. 20oC.2298/APT0940087P UDC: 637.146. bulgaricus isolated from commercial products were used. MRS agar plate was incubated at 37oC without further adjustment. Cultures enumerated in this study were lactic acid starter cultured used for manufactured of yoghurt. which give yoghurt its characteristic flavor. Cultured media for the enumeration of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. To evaluate the factors that might be responsible for excessive acid development during yoghurt storage. Reconstituted milk powder was used for the storage lactic acid bacteria in the refrigerator. Duplicate plates were prepared for each medium for the required dilutions (7. bulgaricus mixtures Yoghurt was sampled 1 day after manufacture and the samples were taken in the market. 9). 89 . 12.APTEFF. The use of these media is important for the control of the relation between these two microorganisms in the yoghurt production starter medium. Each plate was overplayed with the same solid medium and then incubated at 30-37oC. used for the isolation lactobacilli (3. The number of lactobacilli was determined on the MRS agar (6) and the number of streptococci was determined on M17 agar medium after 48 h of incubation was investigated. As a laboratory control we used the mixed cultures of L. 40. During the yoghurt fermentation some flavors are produced. 87-94 Original scientific paper • acetic acid • diacetyl The acid also restricts the growth of food poisoning bacteria. 8) and MRS (5. Plates or tube prepared with MRS agar were placed in plastic bags in anaerobe conditions and then incubated. coliform. Plates were examined after 48 and 72 h.05 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Samples from 2 replicate experiments were processed. and analyzed weekly for 288 hours to monitor changes in acidity (oSH). There are at present several culture media for the differential enumeration of mixtures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.thermophilus. yeasts and moulds. total viable Lactobacillus and Streptococcus.04/.delbrueckii subsp. mixing 1 g of yoghurt in 10 ml saline solution and effective successive dilutions from 10 -2 to 10-6. 6) solid agar plates. making use of the different morphologies of the colonies as a means of different enumeration. The species designation of isolated was confirmed by Gram stain colonial appearance. Lactic acid bacteria were enumerated using Elliker (7.3:637. 9 brands of plain commercial yoghurt were purchased from local retail markets and stored at 8. 4).
The growth of these cultures at different initial pH in Elliker medium shows that the optimum pH for pure and mixed cultures is from 6.00 40.146.00 37. 40.6. bulgaricus isolated from commercial yoghurt were grown at 43oC in M.1 ml samples on Elliker agar medium and by direct microscopic count on the microscope slade.44 1:1 (I) (II) (III) (IV) (V) (VI) (VII) (VIII) (IX) Control 40. Culture medium and growth conditions Enumeration of microorganisms: Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.04/. trehalose. thermoresistence to 63oC. maltose and manitol.00 39.0.00 42. hydrolysis of arginine. sucrose. Relationship between Streptococcus and Lactobacillus levels and average acidity Producers Acidity (oSH) Lactobacillus (L) 65 70 73 55 50 65 50 67 71 50 Streptococcus (S) 45 30 27 54 50 45 50 43 29 50 Relation S/L 1 : 1.4 1 : 2.00 42.bulgaricus were enumerated by surface spreading 0. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2 1:1 1 : 1. catalasa reaction. 87-94 Original scientific paper Microorganisms: Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.55 1 : 2. growth in NaCl 2%.00 41.33 1 : 2. acid production from lactose. The API system was incubated at 37oC for 72 h.7 1 : 1.R. and growth at pH 9.00 32. and M17 agar.2298/APT0940087P UDC: 637.44 1:1 1 : 1.00 43. The optimum temperature of the mixed culture was 45oC. Table 1.00 90 . RESULT AND DISCUSSION The optimum growth temperature for Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.S. Isolation and identification: The lactis acid bacteria were isolated by API system for lactobacili and streptococi identification. In Table 1 the results of the chemical analyses and total bacterial count (on the microscope slide) in yoghurt from different producers are shown. The various colonies formed were identified. bulgaricus occurred at 45oC and Streptococcus thermophilus has its optimum between 40oC and 45oC.05 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.5 to 8. growth at 50oC. Criteria examined included: Gram reaction.3:637.APTEFF.00 38. cell morphology.
2298/APT0940087P UDC: 637. 87-94 Original scientific paper 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Lactobacillus (L) Streptococcus (S) Fig. 91 . Material for the research were 70 samples of yoghurt from 9 different dairy producers.delbrueckii subsp. The requirement of Serbian Regulation is a minimum number od 106 viable yoghurt organisms (L.0. 63.04/. There was a wide range in the total number of LAB.46 to 45. It is apparent that strain of bother Streptococcus and Lactobacillus vary in their survival and in their ability to maintain a higher oSH in yoghurt during storage.3:637. Predominant samples of yoghurt were with 11107/ml LAB (44. 40. The commercial samples were from the Belgrade trade market.delbrueckii subsp.74 at 12oC. thermophilus) must be present The ratio of the yoghurt organisms is also important in determining the quality of yoghurt. bulgaricus and S. Coliforms.05 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. In this study we determined the effect of cell for lactic acid bacteria (L. 28%) of examined samples.146. There were consistent differences in oSH among brands with means ranging from 54.28 at 8oC. thermophilus) on growth in yoghurt from a different procedures and made a quantitative estimation of the number of lactic acid bacteria the temperature and acidity in the period of storage.1 to 40.1.96 at 20oC indicating that it was possible for the pH of yoghurt to remain ≥ 8. 1.7. yeasts or moulds were not detected at any time during storage.14o SH.APTEFF. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Lactic acid bacteria are broadly used as a starter cultures for industrial production of fermented food. The decrease in counts of Streptococcus and Lactobacillus in most of brand stored at 20oC. Relationship between viable count of Streptococci/ Lactobacilli in the different commercial yoghurt samples The results of a brief microbiological evaluation of yoghurt and of a consumer preference survey are presented also in Fig. MRS solid agar plates for isolation of lactobacilli and M17 agar plates for the isolation of streptococci. All brands showed initial counts of Lactobacillus and Streptococcus in the range 8 to 1x106/g resp. bulgaricus and S.1 to 47. Ratio of Lactobacillus: Streptococcus at the start of the test varied from 1 : 1 to 1 : 2. Yoghurt taste is most satisfactory after 72 hours of storage at 8oC when acidity was 44. 64. Lactic acid bacteria were enumerate using Elliker solid medium agar plates.
92 .10 47. homogenization. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 40.96 51. yoghurt culture. Temperature storage of yoghurt and the number of viable lactobacilli and streptococci at the corresponding pH Temperature storage (oC) 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 12 20 20 20 20 Time of storage (hours) 72 120 192 288 72 120 192 288 72 120 192 288 Number of viable lactobacilli and streptococci in the samples of yoghurt (in 000000) 1-10 11-100 101-200 201-300 301-400 1 3 2 4 0 4 2 3 1 0 5 4 1 0 0 8 2 0 0 0 2 2 2 3 1 5 2 1 1 1 4 3 3 0 0 7 3 0 0 0 3 1 5 1 0 3 2 4 0 0 7 2 1 0 0 8 2 0 0 0 Acidity (oSH) 44.2298/APT0940087P UDC: 637. 87-94 Original scientific paper Table 2.146. heat treatment. It has been known for many years that lactic acid bacteria may positively influence the gastrointestinal tract of human and other mammals.21 The product is resulting from milk by fermentation with a mixed starter culture consisting only Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.24 54.46 59.10 45. 14. There are numerous factors which affect consistency including milk composition. 7). The beneficial effects include the inhibition of undesirable microorganisms. reduction in cholesterol level and reduction of the risk of colon cancer (10.52 64. the ratio of Streptococcus thermophilus to Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.05 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 7). 14). Lactic acid bacteria are broadly used as starter cultures for industrial production of fermented food. 11.bulgaricus should be in the range of 1:1 to 3:1. there has been renewed interest in the study of the nutritional and therapeutic aspects of dairy products (12. use of stabilizer. A majority of reviewed papers suggested potential therapeutic benefit following the consumption of fermented dairy products containing viable lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count and decreased coliform count in the intestine as observed in the analysis. The beneficial effect of normal gut flora temporarily brings yoghurt live microorganisms which have probiotics effects (3. 13. Both organisms produce lactic acid as the main fermentation products.28 51. Consistency is an important attribute in evaluating the quality of yoghurt.APTEFF. CONCLUSION During the past two decades. While numerous researchers have suggested that lactic cultures and cultured dairy products provide several nutritional and therapeutic benefits to the consumer there exist a few reports in which some of the benefits have been questioned.74 53.04/.00 63. For a proper flavor development.14 40. bulgaricus constantly changing.3:637.84 52. bulgaricus and these two organisms have a symbiotic relationship during the manufacture of yoghurt with the ratio of Streptococcus thermophilus to Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. and mechanical handling of the yoghurt.
Veringa: Symbiosis in yoghurt. 8. 12.G.. Y. M. Journal of Dairy Research 33 (1966) 299. Journal of Dairy Research 72. 3. 6. 14. Stephanova-Kondratenko. Barbour Anne E. F. Printed in Great Britain by Wheaton and Co.. Hayes. Rogosa.D. 13.L. Manca M. R. Speck: Identification of compounds causing symbiotic growth of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in milk. 5 (1974) p. McLachlan. 149.146.L.B. Kelly: Significance of frictional heating for effects of high pressure homogenization on milk.A.APTEFF.bulgaricus and Streptococcus Salivarius subsp.157. 93 . Exeter.G..C. Clunies. De Man. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 8 (1997) 50-54. Galesloot. 152. A.C. thermophilus isolated from Argentina. Dairy Ind. Modler . Hassing. 4 (1986) 57-95. (1908). Oliver: Growth and sugars utilization by mixed cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Washington D. Translated by Mitchell.Ltd. 4.Y. A. Priest: The preservation of lactobacilli: A comparison of three methods. 10. 11. UK (1907). Boyanova L. Milk Dairy J. M. 15. Robinson: Yoghurt science and technology. F. de Nadra. E.G.04/. J. I. Yoghurt in the United Kingdom: Chemical and microbiological analyses.J. Letters in Applied Microbiology 2.. T.P. 39. Milchwissenchaft 43. N. bulgaricus strains: preliminary report Letters in Applied Microbiology 48 (2009) 579-584. Neth.K. M.. G.. 22 (1968) 50-63. Optimistic studies New York: Putman’s Sons.K. Cultured Dairy Products Journal 24. Heineman Ltd.: A Medium for the Cultivation of Lactobacilli.3:637. Amoroso M. Sinha R. H. Emmons: Changes in acidity and starter bacteria in commercial yoghurts during storage. Mitov: Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.. 23 (1960) 130-135. American Public Health Association: Standard methods for the examination of dairy products. Bact.. R. Sharpe. G.. 9. Datta. Davis J. Smith: Microstructure of yoghurt as affected by heat treatment of milk. M. Metchnikoff... Deeth. J.A. UK (1985) 23-210. 7 (1987) 413-417. Revised Edition. Tamime A.307. 161-183.J. D.S. Metchnikoff. Oliver: Culture medimu for differential enumeration of lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt. Milchwissenchaft 42.C..2298/APT0940087P UDC: 637. The prolongation of life: Optimistic Studies..London.. Bautista E. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.C de Portillo. 13 th ed American Public Health Association.177.. M. 154. 2 (1989) 12-14. Dahya. A. 7. Peral M. Appl.C. 4 (2005) 1−7. E. USA (1972). H. Kakuda.Parnell E.W. 87-94 Original scientific paper REFERENCES 1. Amoroso. 8 (1988) 490-491.E. 5. H.150.05 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 40. 2.
04/. однос и број бактерија млечне киселине (L.7 код свежих узорака јогурта. Одређиван је број бактерија млечне киселине у различитим комерцијалним узорцима јогурта. Однос бактерија млечне киселине Streptococcus и Lactobacillus износио је од 1:1 до 1: 2. Квалитет узорака јогурта одређиван је у зависности од температуре и времена чувања. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.APTEFF. Received 5 May 2009 Accepted 2 September 2009 94 .146. Никетић Квалитет јогурта је тешко стандардизовати због великог броја и врста бактерија млечне киселине у процесу производње.2298/APT0940087P UDC: 637. Код већег броја узорака јогурта нађено је 11-107/мл живих бактерија млечне киселине.05 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Због свих ових особина уједначеност квалитета јогурта тешко се постиже. Испитивања у овом раду обухватила су изолацију. Укус и арома јогурта били су задовољавајући након 72 часа при температури складиштења од 8оC. 40. thermophilus) које се користе за производњу одређених варијетета јогурта карактеристичних за поднебље Србије.3:637. delbrueckii subsp. да би даљим складиштењем на неповољним температурама дошло до поремећаја односа до 3:1 стартер култура јогурта. bulgaricus и S. 87-94 Original scientific paper КВАНТИТАТИВНО ОДРЕЂИВАЊЕ БАКТЕРИЈА МЛЕЧНЕ КИСЕЛИНЕ КОМЕРЦИЈАЛНИХ УЗОРАКА ЈОГУРТА Драгана Пешић-Микулец и Гордана Б.
depectinisation. Aleksandra N. minor quantity Slađana M..Sc.5 g and 1 g of phenolic compounds per liter of clarified apple juice) was examined on stable 1. respectively.2298/APT0940095S UDC: 664.11:663. Šumić and Milan S. as well as total dry matter.. proteins and nucleic acids. 95-102 Original scientific paper ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF POLYPHENOL-ENRICHED APPLE JUICE Slađana M. M. total sugars and brown component content were determined. phenolic compounds. Savatović.3% of proteins.496 mg/ml and 6. 12-14% of carbohydrates. Nikolić This paper shows that it is possible to improve antioxidant activity of apple juice by extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple pomace. Savatović. such as lipids. 21000 Novi Sad. and their addition to the apple juice. The most important industrial utilization of apple is the juice production. reducing sugar.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals. total sugars. Aleksandra N.Sc. M. dietary supplements and food fortification may be an alternative route to the consumption of minor plant components that may have health benefits. Tepić. antioxidant activity INRODUCTION Different studies have shown that free radicals present in the human organism cause oxidative damage to various biomolecules. ash. as waste. Šumić. Tepić.. the clarified juice was obtained. Milan S. Apples contain 85% of water. acidity. reducing sugar. In raw and clarified apple juice soluble solids. Faculty of Technology. was 0. Nikolić. Also.1 g. additional clarification and filtration.Sc.. B.645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. KEY WORDS: Apple. Assist.81:543.. acidity. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Zdravko M.05 g. apple pomace. B.Sc. The antioxidant activity of clarified and polyphenol-enriched clarified juice (with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0. After thermal treatment of raw apple juice. 40. Phenolic and other phytochemical antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables are bioactive compounds capable of neutralizing free radicals and may play a major role in the prevention of certain diseases (1).505 mg/g. cellulose and starch content in apple mash and pomace. Apple (Malus domestica) has been the leading fruit variety according to its world production. apple juice. total pectins. The total cotent of phenolics in clarified apple juice and apple pomace extract. Zdravko M. Serbia 95 . and thus are involved in the initiation phase of degenerative disease. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that polyphenol-enriched clarified juice was more effective on DPPH radicals than the clarified apple juice. about 0. Raw apple juice was prepared by pressing of apple mash. 0. determined spectrophotometrically using the FolinCiocalteu reagent. 0. University of Novi Sad.APTEFF.
APTEFF, 40, 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940095S
UDC: 664.11:663.81:543.645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40, 95-102 Original scientific paper
of lipids (<0.1%), minerals and vitamins (2). The differences in chemical composition of apples are due to the region of growth, variety, ripening state during harvesting, agronomic and environmental conditions. About 80% of apple carbohydrates are soluble sugars: sucrose (~ 2.1%), glucose (2.4%) and fructose (5.9%). Apples contain about 2.4% of total dietary fibers, and it is proved that they contain sorbitol (2). Malic acid is the predominant organic acid in apples (80-90% of total acids), and its content varies depending on the variety, ripeness, and environmental conditions during growing and storage. The phenolic compounds content in apples is 36 ± 19 mg/kg fresh weight (3). The most important groups of phenolic antioxidants present are flavonols (with quercetin glycosides as the main representative), monomeric and oligomeric flavanols, dihydrochalcones (e.g., phloridzin), anthocyanins, p-hydroxycinnamic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids (3, 4). Apples are not rich in vitamin C (its content in fresh fruit can be only a few miligrams) (5). The technological process of apple juice production at industrial scale include raw material preparation for processing, mashing, pressing, thermal treatment, depectinization, clarification, filtration, pasteurization and packing. The raw material preparation for further processing consists of washing and inspection. During processing, losses of antioxidant components occur, especially due to the exposure of raw material to oxygen and thermal treatment of raw material and juice. The conventional apple juice production (direct pressing of apple mash or pressing after mash depectinization) results in a juice poor in phenolics and with only 3-10% of the antioxidant activity of fresh apples. The fact that in conventional apple juice production techniques most of the phenolics do not get deteriorated or lost during juice manufacture, but remain in the pomace, suggests that pomace can be considered as a source of phenolic antioxidants. Several possibilities exist in the juice production chain to enhance the phenolic content of apple juice, by the choice of cultivation methods, raw material, production methods, processing, storage and distribution conditions (3). Also, the juice with a high content of phenolic bioactive components can be produced by enrichment with phenolics from other sources. For this reasons, the possibility of utilization of apple pomace antioxidant compounds by their extraction, and enrichment of clarified juice, was examined in this work. The objectives of this study were: (I) to obtain raw and clarified apple juice; (II) to determine soluble solids, acidity, sugar and brown component content in obtained juices; (III) to determine chemical compositions of apple mash and apple pomace; (IV) to perform an extraction of pomace obtained after direct pressing of apple mash; (V) to determine phenolic content of apple pomace and clarified apple juice spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent; (VI) to obtain polyphenol-enriched apple juice, by adding pomace extract to the previously produced clarified juice, and (VII) to compare the antioxidant activity of clarified and polyphenol-enriched clarified juice on stable 1,1diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals.
EXPERIMENTAL Chemicals and samples
Methanol and sodium carbonate were obtained from „Zorka” Šabac (Serbia). 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and gallic acid were purchased 96
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from Sigma Chemical Co. (USA). These chemicals were of analytical reagent grade. Other chemicals and solvents used were of the highest analytical grade. For apple juice production in laboratory conditions Red Delicious variety (from a local market) was used.
Apple juice production
Apples were washed and mashed, and the mash was pressed using laboratory cider press. The obtained raw apple juice was heated to 85-90°C and treated with 0.04 g/l Rapidase Pro (DSM) at 45-50°C, during 1.5 hours. After depectinization, enzyme was inactivated by heating the raw juice up to 85-90°C/2-3 min., cooled and treated with gelatine and bentonite solutions (0.005% and 0.05%, respectively). The clarified juice was filtered through Büchner funnel using vacuum, filled into PET bottles and stored at -18°C. Apple pomace that remained after juice production was stored in PE bags at -18°C.
Determination of soluble solids, acidity, sugar and brown component content in raw and clarified apple juice
In raw and clarified apple juice soluble solids, acidity and sugar content were determined according to valid Regulations (6). Brown component was assayed by measuring absorbance of the sample extract at 380 nm (7).
Determination of chemical compositions of apple mash and apple pomace
In apple mash and pomace total dry matter, ash, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars, total pectins, cellulose and starch content were determined according to valid Regulations (6). Cellulose content was determined according to Kirschner-Gannak (7).
Sample of apple pomace (20 g) was extracted at room temperature using an ultrasonic bath, Heidolph DIAX 900 (Heidolph Instruments GmbH, Kelheim, Germany). The extraction was performed three times with different amounts of 80% methanol: 160 ml in 60 min, 80 ml in 60 min, 80 ml in 30 min. The total extraction time was 150 min. The obtained three extracts were combined and evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure. The yield of extract was 2.65 g.
Total phenolics in apple pomace extract and clarified apple juice were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (8). The reaction mixture was prepared by mixing 0.1 ml of water solution of extract (concentration 50 mg/ml) or 0.1 ml juice, 7.9 ml of distilled water, 0.5 ml of the Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent and 1.5 ml of 20% sodium carbonate. After 2 h, the absorbance at 750 nm (UV-1800 spectrophotometer, Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) was obtained against blank prepared in a similar manner, by replacing the extract 97
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with distilled water. The total phenolic content, expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of apple pomace extract or per ml of apple juice, was determined using calibration curve of gallic acid standard.
Apple juice enrichment
Apple pomace extract was added to the previously produced clarified juice in the concentrations 0.05 g, 0.1 g, 0.5 g and 1g of phenolic compounds per liter of apple juice.
DPPH radical-scavenging spectrophotometric assay
The potential antioxidant activity of apple juice was assessed on the basis of the scavenging activity of the stable DPPH free radicals according to the method of Yen and Chen (9). The juice (1 ml) was diluted with distilled water. The range of the investigated juice concentration was 5-50%. An aliquot (1 ml) of diluted juice was added to 3 ml of absolute methanol and 1 ml of methanolic DPPH solution (concentration 0.3 mmol/l). The mixture was shaken and left at room temperature for 10 min, then the absorbance was measured at 517 nm using a UV-1800 spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan). The blank probe contained all components except the radicals. The antioxidant activity on the basis of the capability to scavenge the DPPH radicals (AADPPH) was estimated from the differences in absorbance of DPPH solution with or without juice (control) and the inhibition percent was calculated using the following equation: AADPPH (%) = (AControl - ASample)/AControl × 100 where AControl is the absorbance of the control reaction (containing all reagents except the juice) and ASample is the absorbance in the presence of the juice. The values of antioxidant activity were investigated for the various concentrations of the juice.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Chemical composition of raw and clarified apple juice is given in Table 1. As previously said, the chemical composition of apples depends on the number of parameters. The yield of raw apple juice was 55.6%. The differences in chemical composition of raw and clarified apple juice are due to the influence of different treatments during juice production.
Table 1. Chemical composition of raw and clarified apple juice Component Soluble solids (g/100g) Acidity (g malic acid/100g) Reducing sugars (g/100g) Total sugars (g/100g) Brown component (μg K2Cr2O7/ml) Raw juice 15.15 0.21 11.41 13.67 117.5 Clarified juice 15.25 0.22 14.14 14.42 98.0
APTEFF, 40, 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940095S
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As can be seen from Table 1, soluble solids of raw apple juice were somewhat lower than in clarified juice (15.15% and 15.25%, respectively). Acidity of raw juice was also lower than that of clarified juice (0.21 g/100g and 0.22 g/100g of dry matter, respectively). Results of chemical composition of raw and clarified apple juice are in accordance with the available literature (5). According to Hui et al. (5), dry matter content in apple is somewhat lower than obtained in this research. Chemical compositions of apple mash and apple pomace are given in Table 2.
Table 2. Chemical composition of apple mash and pomace Component Total dry matter (%) Ash (g/100g) Acidity (% malic acid) Reducing sugar (g/100g) Total sugars (g/100g) Total pectins (g/100g Ca-pectate) Cellulose (g/100g) Starch (g/100g) Apple mash 14.95 0.29 0.17 11.68 11.85 0.54 0.71 0.87 Apple pomace 18.65 0.35 0.15 11.5 13.3 0.19 1.58 2.11
The Folin-Ciocalteu method is a rapid and widely-used assay to investigate the total phenolic content. The content of total soluble phenolics of clarified apple juice and apple pomace extract was expressed as gallic acid equivalent and it was 0.496 mg/ml and 6.505 mg/g, respectively. The potential antioxidant activity of apple juice was assessed on the basis of the scavenging activity of the stable DPPH free radicals. Antioxidant activity of clarified apple juice without and with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0.05 g, 0.1 g, 0.5 g and 1g of phenolic compounds per liter of apple juice is shown in Fig. 1.
100 80 60 AADPPH (%) 40 20 0 5 10 25 50 juice juice + 0,05 g polyphenolic compounds per 1l juice + 0,1 g polyphenolic compounds per 1l juice + 0,5 g polyphenolic compounds per 1l juice + 1 g polyphenolic compounds per 1l
Juice concentration (%)
Fig. 1. Antioxidant activity of clarified apple juice without and with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0.05 g, 0.1 g, 0.5 g and 1g of phenolic compounds per liter of apple juice
8 times higher than that of the corresponding clarified juice. This indicates that enriched apple juice.22 g/100g of dry matter. had an antioxidant activity that was 3. at the juice concentration of 5%. CONCLUSION • • • • • • • The differences in chemical composition of raw and clarified apple juice are due to the influence of different treatments during juice production. respectively. determined based on antioxidant activities. Thus.5 g of phenolic compounds per liter of apple juice.15% and 15. at juice concentration 5%. with addition of 0.77% and 8.5 g of phenolic compounds per liter of apple juice. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 40.496 mg/ml and 6. respectively).25%. it can be concluded that apple juice without addition of apple pomace extract was less effective on DPPH radicals than with addition of apple pomace extract. 95-102 Original scientific paper Based on the DPPH radical-scavenging spectrophotometric measurments.11:663.81:543. respectively). Apple juice without addition of apple pomace extract was less effective on DPPH radicals than with addition of apple pomace extract.94%.16%. With increasing concentrations of added phenolic compounds ranged from 0. It was observed that with increasing concentrations of added phenolic compounds to the juice antioxidant activity increased.8 times higher than that of the corresponding clarified juice. ranging from 0.05 g and 0. were 13. had an antioxidant activity that was 3. it is a challenging option to search for methods in which the phenolics may be extracted from the pomace and later added to the final apple juice. at juice concentration of 5%. 10. The IC50 value is a parameter used to measure antioxidative activity and it is defined as the juice concentration required for 50% scavenging of DPPH radicals under experimental condition employed. respectively. The IC50 values of apple juice without and with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0. it can be observed that apple juice showed dose-dependent antioxidant activity (AADPPH). The content of total soluble phenolics of clarified apple juice and apple pomace extract was expressed as gallic acid equivalent and it was 0. The fact that phenolic compounds that contribute to antioxidant activity preferentially remain in the pomace offers a possibility for apple juice optimization with respect to phenolic content and antioxidant activity. With increasing concentrations of added phenolic compounds.21 g/100g and 0. AADPPH increased from 36.89%. Raw juice acidity was also lower than in clarified juice (0. AADPPH increased from 36.505 mg/g.42% to 90. Also.2298/APT0940095S UDC: 664. The enriched apple juice by adding apple pomace extract in the concentration of 0.42% to 90.APTEFF. A smaller IC50 value corresponds to a higher antioxidant activity.1 g of phenolic compounds per liter of apple juice.94%.05 g to 1 g per liter of apple juice. 100 . Soluble solids of raw apple juice were somewhat lower than in clarified juice (15.645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.05 g to 1 g per liter of apple juice.
and H. Tehnološki fakultet. Матични сок је произведен стандардним поступком производње – пресовањем каше од јабука. J. Lamuela-Raventos: Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. одређен је садржај суве материје. Chen: Antioxidant activity of various tea extracts in relation to their antimutagenicity. J. Agric. У матичном и бистром соку одређен је садржај киселина. шећера и смеђе компоненте. Skrede and W. Саватовић.81:543. USA (2006) pp.2298/APT0940095S UDC: 664. J.P. Novi Sad (2001) p. 40. 2.L. Singleton.M.C.nal. 9. пектина и пепела у каши и тропу јабука. износи 0. povrća i pečurki i osvežavajućih bezalkoholnih pića. Int. A. 4. Садржај укупних полифенолних једињења у бистром соку од јабука и екстракту тропа. 8. 23011. Yen.S. 1. S.: Priručnik za kontrolu kvaliteta svežeg i prerađenog voća. шећера. M.. Dekker. 7.gov/fnic/foodcomp 3.the millennium's Health. C. B. http://www.APTEFF. целулозе. 43 (1995) 27-32. Food Sci. Službeni list SFRJ 29/83. скроба. 50 (2002) 7211-7219.M. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing. Тепић.: Nutritional Values of Fruits. Moreno. киселина.V. 95-102 Original scientific paper ACKNOWLEDGEMENT These results are part of the project No. Enzymo. Cano. Pravilnik o metodama uzimanja uzoraka i vršenja hemijskih i fizičkih analiza radi kontrole kvaliteta proizvoda od voća i povrća. Ancos and M. одређен спектрофотометријски. which is financially supported by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia. 5. Kapoor: Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables . Escarpa. 6. Jongen: Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice. Agric. Teresa. депектинизације. Такође. Hui.Y. бистрења и филтрирања добијен је бистри сок. G. суве материје. Effect of existing production methods.30-31. Gonzalez: High-performance liquid chromatography with diodearray detection for the performance of phenolic compounds in peel and pulp from different apple varieties. АНТИОКСИДАТИВНА АКТИВНОСТ СОКА ОД ЈАБУКА ОБОГАЋЕНОГ ПОЛИФЕНОЛНИМ ЈЕДИЊЕЊИМА Слађана М. Eds. A.. REFERENCES 1. Chrom. Николић У овом раду испитана је могућност побољшања антиоксидативне активности сока од јабука додатком полифенолних једињења екстрахованих из тропа. споредног производа насталог приликом добијања сока од јабука. методом по Folin-Ciocalteu. C. Food Chem. Lj. R. Iowa.C and H. Orthofer and R. Након термичке обраде матичног сока. 299 (1999) 152-178.496 mg/ml 101 .F. G.H. Tech.11:663. and M. J. Vračar. Александра Н.645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Y. in Handbook of fruits and fruit processing. Food Chem. Шумић и Милан С.A. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Meth. van der Sluis. Kaur. Здравко М.usda.79.P. 36 (2001) 703-725. 823 (1998) 331-337.
као и бистрог сока од јабука обогаћеног полифенолним једињењима (са додатком екстракта тропа у концентрацијама 0.645 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 0.5 g и 1 g полифенолних једињења po 1l бистрог сока) испитана је на стабилне 1.APTEFF.1 g.05 g. Обогаћени сок од јабука показао је израженију антиоксидативну активност на DPPH радикале од сока без додатка екстракта тропа. Received 9 July 2009 Accepted 11 September 2009 102 .11:663.81:543. Антиоксидативна активност бистрог сока.1-дифенил-2-пикрилхидразил (DPPH) радикале. 95-102 Original scientific paper и 6.505 mg/g.2298/APT0940095S UDC: 664. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 0. 40.
correlation between certain parameters of chemical composition was established. fats and oils. Dietary fiber content is one of the most important parameters of technological quality and physiological value of dry beans and other legumes (6). 5). Aleksandra N.APTEFF. Prof. along with proteins.641 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Serbia 103 . Tepić. 4. pectins. gums and polysaccharides from seaweeds or bacteria. but are a combination of chemically heterogeneous substances such as celluloses. email@example.com/APT0940103V UDC: 664. A chemical definition describes dietary fibers as non-starch polysaccharides.. they are one of the basic parameters of dry beans technological quality and nutritive value. M. Mirjana A. Using statistical analyses. Also. 21000 Novi Sad. carbohydrates. physical characteristics. Assist. 2). Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. Vasić. gum arabic). also referred to as structural components of cell walls are also classified as dietary fibers: secreted gums (e. Aleksandra N. Zdravko M. Biserka L. They are one of the most important sources of plant proteins. The most commonly used definition of dietary fibers is the following: "dietary fibres are oligosaccharides. Faculty of Technology. hemicelluloses. reserve gums (bean gums. 21000 Novi Sad. chemical composition. certain minerals and vitamins (3.g. Jelica M. carbohydrates.ns. Celluloses. Maksima Gorkog 30. Jelica M. Vujičić. in which "dietary fibers" correspond to the plant wall residues that are resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis in the small intestine. senior research associate. Šumić. Physical characteristics and the main chemical composition of sixteen dry bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris) had been examined in this study.. The definition of dietary fibers is still controversial and several definitions have been suggested. guar gums) and polyDr. lignins.Sc. The most widely accepted definition is a physiological one. Serbia.ac.Sc. soluble and insoluble fibers. Šumić Dietary fibers are one of the main nutritive components. KEY WORDS: Dry beans.652:543. Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops.844:635. 103-110 Original scientific paper DIETARY FIBER CONTENT IN SOME DRY BEANS Mirjana A. Dr. Dietary fibers do not constitute a defined chemical group. dietary fibers INTRODUCTION Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are very important in human diet (1. B.yu. minerals and vitamins. Gvozdanović-Varga. polysaccharides and the (hydrophilic) derivatives which cannot be digested by the human digestive enzymes to absorbable components in the upper alimentary tract" (7). 40. Vasić. Dr. hemicelluloses and pectins. Biserka L. Tepić. Vujičić. scientific associate... Gvozdanović-Varga and Zdravko M.
and 1000 seed mass are given in Tables 1 and 2. Aster.2298/APT0940103V UDC: 664. varietis with determinate growth (I type of habitus) have been grown. Five varieties were indeterminate. and pectin compounds (14. 40. while three of them upright (II type of habitus). which is from Phaseolus coccineus. Panonski tetovac.641 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Chemical analyses included total dry matter (11). except for Igman.APTEFF. agar. Zlatko. According to the seed length-to-width and thickness-towidth ratio. Their relative relationship regarding the total dietary fiber content was also examined. 15). cellulose according to KirschnerGannak method (13). 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Belko. prevention of digestive system carcinogenic diseases. Naya Nayahit. All samples were grown at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops. The aim of this paper is to compare dietary fiber content in Serbian and bean varieties from other countries. EXPERIMENTAL Sixteen dry beans varieties . 103-110 Original scientific paper saccharides from seaweeds (carrageenans. The origin. All beans are from Phaseolus vulgaris species. Dry beans were milled and stored in hermetically closed jars. Classification according to color of seed coat was performed visually. Rimski Šančevi. eleven domestic and five foreign varieties were chosen for the study. decrease in blood cholesterol and glucose level. and these were the samples of this research. Determination of shape of bean seeds was conducted by the method of Dekaprelevic (3).domestic (Levač. in 2006. alginates). Igman and Prelom) were examined in this work. like prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The hierarhical cluster method of the multivariate analysis was used to classify the tested varieties according to the chemical composition of all dietary fiber. Galeb. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION As has been said above. the examined genotypes were classified into five botanical forms or groups (10). total dietary fibers (12). Slavonski Zeleni) and foreign (Spinel. internationally recognized market class from the Balkan Peninsula with IV type of growth (17). Dietary fibers show a number of health benefits. The physical analyses of dry bean seeds were done in sample of 50 seeds. Balkan. Since then.652:543. etc (9). Sremac. Physical measurements were done in whole seeds. some workers also include resistant starch (fractions of starch that are not digested by small intestinal enzymes). In Serbia.844:635. Jovandeka. Variety Levač is typical tetovac. intensive research of the role and importance of these compounds has been done (8). status. 104 . and Spinel was type III of growth. seed color and shape. Hierarchical clustering of varieties (Single linkage method or nearest neighbour by Euclidean distance for Distance metric) was done using a computer statistical package STATISTICA. while foreign varieties were chosen due to their origin and wide dispersion (16). C-20. Dvadesetica. constipation prevention. Domestic varieties have been currently used in the industry (2). type of habitus. Novi Sad. Pearson coefficient of correlation among traits were calculated.
seed shape and seed size according to mass of 1000 seeds are quality traits. The seeds had one of four shape forms (Table 2). subcompr.8 349.8 317. The variation in 1000-seed mass from 161.0 329.7 168. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.7 223. semi-flat semi-flat ellipsoid ellipsoid kidney cylindr.3 339.0 353.2 405. important market characteristics and a stable cultivar trait (4.9 394. Table 2. and most had white seeds. cylindr. Examined species could be distinguished according to seed color. ellipticus ellipticus compressus oblongus oblongus ellipticus ellipticus ellipticus 1000 seed mass 592.APTEFF.0 294.8 g to 648.1 105 . 103-110 Original scientific paper Table 1. 40.2298/APT0940103V UDC: 664.844:635.652:543. 18).7 412. The main characteristics of dry bean samples No. Seed color and shape and 1000 seed mass of dry bean samples No.5 g measured in this study indicates that the tested genotypes differed significantly in their seed size.641 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. ellipsoid ellipsoid ellipsoid Form compressus oblongus subcompr. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Genotype Levač Aster Spinel Panonski tetovac Balkan Naya nayahit Dvadesetica Sremac Jovandeka Galeb Prelom Belko Seed colour English white white white white white black white greenish-yellow seed coat patterns white white white Form albus albus albus albus albus niger albus griseus versicolor albus albus albus Seed shape English kidney cylindr. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Genotype Levač Aster Spinel Panonski tetovac Balkan Naya nayahit Dvadesetica Sremac Jovandeka Galeb Prelom Belko C-20 Igman Zlatko Slavonski zeleni Origin of genotype Serbia IFVCNS Serbia IFVCNS USA Serbia IVCSP Serbia IFVCNS USA Serbia IFVCNS Serbia IFVCNS Serbia Serbia IVCSP Bulgaria Serbia IFVCNS USA Bosnia and Herzegovina Serbia IFVCNS Serbia Status Variety Variety Variety Variety Variety Variety Variety Variety Landraces Variety Variety Variety Variety Variety Variety Landraces Type of habitus IV I III I I II I I I I II I II I I I Seed color.
57 90. pectic acid and protopectin are characterized as insoluble.08 2.46 91.48 0.12 0. protopectin. cellulose and pectin content (g/100g dry matter) in dry bean samples Genotype Levač Aster Spinel Panonski tetovac Balkan Naya nayahit Dvadesetica Sremac Jovandeka Galeb Prelom Belko C-20 Igman Zlatko Slavonski zeleni Mean Dry matter 90.46 0.38 0.2 648.58 30.71 2. (6) and Todorović et al. resistant to digestion and absorption in human intestine.22 26.24 0.12 33. In this research.42 0. It consists of soluble (sugars.10 As dietary fibers are compounds from edible parts of plants. 103-110 Original scientific paper Table 2. hemicellulose. (2). 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.92 Cellulose 4.85 91. 13 14 15 16 Genotype C-20 Igman Zlatko Slavonski zeleni Seed colour English white white gold-yellow greenish-yellow Form albus albus aureus griseus Seed shape English ellipsoid ellipsoid cylindr.27 1.16 3.22 1.12 2. they have a growing importance in the diet of modern people.20 0.47 pectin 0.47 0.19 2.19 2. Total dietary fiber (TDF). which are higher values than those given by Kojnov (3).04 1.15 1.14 23.33 3.23 1.45 0. and pectin as soluble dietary fiber. the lowest dry matter was measured in the variety C20.47 4.51 0. Costa et al.41 0.19 1.02 2.76 26.93 19.2298/APT0940103V UDC: 664.35 0.20 4. cellulose.652:543. In our research. Table 3.32 0. cylindr.29 4.19 1.28 0.69 91.62 1.77 2.27 91.32 90.0 342. being exposed to stress and environmental pollution.04 1. and the highest in Igman (Table 3).23 0. etc.84 3.35 0.93 3.24 2.14 1. acids.43 total 2.00 91. and prone to complete or partial fermentation in human colon.) and insoluble compounds (starch.84 4.38 0. 40.83 90.96 31.51 0.80 90.66 0.5 380.31 0.17 1.61 0.47 0.05 5.45 3.36 4.73 1.65 90. Continuation No.38 0.67 92.99 2.05 91.15 4.78 0.25 1.68 5.20 27.88 3.45 92.19 1.30 Pectins pectic acid protopectin 0. 106 .17 1.19 1.16 0.641 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.844:635.15 1.61 90.97 30.98 30.46 90.28 0.5 Dry matter symbolizes the content of chemical compounds out of water. etc.69 19.).30 1.65 4.87 0.62 21.11 90.54 0.82 27.55 25.59 0.87 1.00 0.93 2.59 0.05 TDF 21.APTEFF.46 0.34 0. Form ellipticus ellipticus oblongus oblongus 1000 seed mass 179.23 4.74 17.50 25.52 4.19 1.00 2. cellulose.
APTEFF, 40, 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940103V
UDC: 664.844:635.652:543.641 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40, 103-110 Original scientific paper
According to the literature, dry beans contain 15-25% of TDF (19, 20, 21, 6), which was also confirmed by this research (Table 3). Examined dry bean varieties contained 17.98-33.76 % (in dry matter), with mean value of 25.92%. According to the results of this work, dry beans can be characterized as rich in dietary fibers. Dry beans belong to cellulose-rich foods. Vasić et al. (22) reported cellulose content in dry beans of 3.83-5.43%, Granito et al. (21) 4.65-5.61%, while Tepić et al. (5) reported 3.47-3.89%. In this research, cellulose content in dry beans was in the range from 3.18% for Jovandeka to 5.04% for Igman. The mean value of 4.30% agrees well with the literature data. Pectin compounds are of polysaccharide origin, and are considered as soluble fibers. They can be found in all fruits and vegetables. Pectin compounds have beneficial effects in human organism, as lowering fats and cholesterol absorption, influencing the maintenance of glucose level in blood, increase the feces mass, thus preventing cardiovascular and digestion system carcinogenic diseases, etc. (9, 8). Because of the importance of pectins, dry beans should be included in the diet. Among examined dry bean varieties, Igman contained the least pectin compounds (1.21%) (Table 3). Panonski Tetovac was the variety richest in pectin compounds, with 2.91%. In average, the examined dry beans had 2.10% of total pectin compounds. Pectin content was the lowest for Igman, and highest for Aster (0.30 and 0.60%, respectively); lowest and highest pectic acid content was for Igman (0.11%) and Aster (0.24%), respectively; the poorest in protopectin was Igman (0.80%) and richest Panonski Tetovac (2.25%). The mutual correspondence between different pectin compounds is more obvious after the analyses of correlation between all features (Table 4). All pectin compounds are in significant correlation with total pectin content, with protopectin being in almost complete correlation (r = 0.95). Pectic acid and pectin are also in high correlation. However, they are not in correlation with protopectin.
Table 4. Pearson's coefficients of correlation between examined dry bean features
Dry matter Seed shape Pectic acid 0.25 Seed color 1000 seed mass Cellulose Habitus Total pectins 0.25 1.00
Origin Habitus Seed color Seed shape 1000 seed mass Dry matter TDF Cellulose Total pectins
0.25 1.00 -0.29 0.44 -
0.25 1.00 -0.22 -0.60* -0.29
1.00 0.36 0.35 0.24 1.00 0.51* -0.21 0.42 1.0 0.21 -0.28 1.00 -
APTEFF, 40, 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940103V
UDC: 664.844:635.652:543.641 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40, 103-110 Original scientific paper
Table 4. Continuation
Total pectins Dry matter Seed shape Pectic acid 1.00 0.35 Seed color 1000 seed mass
Pectin 0.23 Pectic acid 0.28 Protopectin -0.22 *p = 0,05, r = 0.05
-0.23 -0.23 -0.25
0.43 0.21 -
-0.23 -0.24 -0.23
0.52* 0.57* 0.95*
1.00 0.70* 0.23
Among mutual correlation between pectin compounds, only two more signifficant correlations were observed – (dry matter content : 1000 seed mass) and (seed color : cellulose content) (Table 3). The dependence between seed color and cellulose content was also observed in previous investigations (3, 18, 16), especially when they were more detailed and connected with edible and technological quality of seeds (4, 17). In the research aiming at examining a larger number of genotypes, the most effective way of perceiveing the whole set of data is the use of some methods of multivariate analyses. The hierarhical cluster method (Single linkage method or nearest neighbor) of multivariate analysis was used to classify the tested varieties according to the chemical composition of all dietary fiber, out of origin, type of habitus and seed color and shape. The dendogram or Cluster Tree (Figure 1.) was constructed using the Euclidien distance.
Fig. 1. Dendogram of connection of examined dry bean varieties depending on their dry matter and dietary fiber content
The distances are not high (1.5), but from cluster tree, there are clearly distinguisheable three groups, with four members and four genotypes, which make a separate group. In each separate group, one genotype with colored seed, of domestic and foreign variety, of different type of growth is placed, which points out that TDF content was not in correlation with the main morphological features of dry beans. The dendogram starts with 108
APTEFF, 40, 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940103V
UDC: 664.844:635.652:543.641 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40, 103-110 Original scientific paper
the group of varieties with lowest TDF content, and ends up with the group of varieties containing a maximum of TDF. The most distant, i.e. the most different from other varieties, was Belko, with the highest TDF, and Igman with highest dry matter.
According to the correlation between pectin compounds content in dry beans, their mutual correspondence was observed. Two more significant correlations, between dry matter-to-1000 seed mass, and seed colour-to-cellulose content, were also noticed. The hierarchical cluster method of multivariate analyses showed that TDF content was not in correlation with the main morphological features of eleven examined dry beans varieties, which should be a subject of further research in dietary fiber distribution in dry bean seeds. However, on the basis of total dietary fiber content, dry beans can be characterized as dietary fiber-rich food.
This research is part of the Project No. 20077, supported by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.
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12. AOAC Official Method 985.29. Total Dietary Fibre in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric method. 13. Vračar, Lj.: Priručnik za kontrolu kvaliteta svežeg i prerađenog voća, povrća i pečurki i osvežavajućih bezalkoholnih pića. Tehnološki Fakultet, Novi Sad (2001) pp 79-82. 14. Dische, Z.: Modification of the carbazole reaction of hexaronic acids for the study of polyuronides. J. Biol. Chem. 183 (1950) p. 489. 15. International Federation of Fruit Juice Producers. I.F.J.U. - Analyses 26 (1964) 1-6. 16. Vasić Mirjana: Genetička divergentnost pasulja. Genetic divergence in a bean collection. Zadužbina Andrejević, Beograd (2004) p. 94. 17. Vasić, M., Mihailovic, V., Mikic, A., and J. Gvozdanović-Varga: Serbian bean market classes. 6th European Conference on Grain Legumes "Integrating legume biology for sustainable agriculture", November 2007, Lisbon, Portugal, Book of Abstracts, p. 117. 18. De La Cuadra, C., De Ron, A.M., ans R. Schachl (editors): Handbook on evaluation of Phaseolus germplasm, PHASELIEU-FAIR-PL97-3463, Misión Biológica de Galicia, Spania (2001) 109. 19. www.usaid.gov 20. Garcia O., Infante R., and C. Rivera: Determination of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fibre in two new varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. using chemical and enzymatic gravimetric methods. Food Chem. 59 (1997) 171-174. 21. Granito, M., Michel, C., Frías, J., Champ, M., and M. Guerra: Fermented Phaseolus vulgaris: acceptability and intestinal effects. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 220 (2005) 182186. 22. Vasić, M., Gvozdanović-Varga, J., and J. Navalušić: Determining chemical composition of bean seed by multivariate analysis. Proc. XXXIV ESNA annual meeting. Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro (2004) pp. 300-304.
САДРЖАЈ ДИЈЕТЕТСКИХ ВЛАКАНА У НЕКИМ СОРТАМА ПАСУЉА Александра Н. Тепић, Мирјана А. Васић, Бисерка Л. Вујичић, Јелица М. Гвоздановић-Варга и Здравко М. Шумић
Дијететска влакна се сматрају основним хранљивим компонентама, заједно са протеинима, мастима, угљеним хидратима, минералима и витаминима. Један од основних параметара технолошког квалитета и нутритивне вредности пасуља је и садржај дијететских влакана. У раду су испитане физичке карактеристике и садржај основних компоненти хемијског састава шеснаест сорти пасуља селекције Научног института за ратарство и повртарство, са посебним освртом на садржај дијететских влакана. Статистичком анализом утврђена је корелација између појединих параметара хемијског састава. Received 1 July 2009 Accepted 6 October 2009
sixty-two strains of LAB were isolated and characterized. Dragiša S. Žugić-Petrović. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. being applied to phenotypical characteristics of the isolates. In addition. sourdough. Savić.. The identification based on a phenotypic characterization that was carried out by using a set of 36 tests. which were grouped in eight clusters.2298/APT0940111Z UDC: 664. Spontaneous sourdough fermentation begins with aerobic fermentation immediately upon mixing flour and Tanja D.654. 16000 Leskovac. B. 111-122 Original scientific paper THE EVOLUTION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA COMMUNITY DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATURE SOURDOUGH Tanja D.APTEFF.64.Sc.7 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. It is an ancient way to improve flavor..ni. Žugić-Petrović. Laboratory for Food Science and Biotechnology. Nataša M. KEY WORDS: Lactic acid bacteria. preceding sourdough or a commercial starter culture. Heterofermentative lactobacilli were in majority in both propagation step two and a mature sourdough participating 56% and 70% of total bacterial count. Dr. Both nutritional and technological quality could be considerably enhanced in cereal foods rich in dietary fibers by utilizing sourdough.ac. Bulevar oslobodjenja 124. The stable ecological system in rye sourdough could be established from the second propagation step onward. The predominant genera of LAB during the development of sourdough were lactobacilli. respectively. additive-free image. texture and microbiological shelflife of bread and has a natural. Savić In order to follow the composition and changes in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population of rye flour sourdough that was continuously propagated by a repeated inoculation. Principal Component Analysis INTRODUCTION Sourdough fermentation is a process in which a mixture of flour and water is fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast. Joković. The LAB were the only bacteria detected.1:664.rs. showed that the lactobacilli contained in the two sourdough steps did not clearly belong to any known species of the genus Lactobacillus.Sc.3/. Joković and Dragiša S. both at the end of the second propagation step and in the stage of mature sourdough (after two weeks of continuous daily refreshment). Prof. Serbia 111 . The LAB included in sourdough fermentation may originate from flour (spontaneous fermentation). the structure of the bacterial population were monitored by two statistical techniques (Hierachical Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis).016. Faculty of Technology..40. savic@junis. Hierachical Cluster Analysis. M. Nataša M.
APTEFF,40, 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940111Z
UDC: 664.654.1:664.64.016.3/.7 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40, 111-122 Original scientific paper
water. Once oxygen is depleted, anaerobic fermentation begins with the growth of LAB and yeasts. The production of acids by LAB enables their rapid growth when the pH value has dropped to low for other microorganisms to grow. So, the LAB become the most abound microflora in the sourdough, and they are therefore responsible for the final stages of sourdough (1, 2). This type of processing is still the basic practice for preparing so-named predoughs. When the fermented dough is used as an inoculum for a succeeding fermentation run, the adaptation of the microbial assotiation to the process becomes greater (2). The microflora of spontaneously fermented dough depends on the microflora of raw materials, and is variable in terms of kind, origin and storage conditions of the flour, as well as the technological parameters of the fermentation process applied. The impact of these parameters during a continuous propagation of sourdough causes the selection of a characteristic microbiota (3). The wholemeal rye flour may contain 104-106 cfu of unspecified bacteria per gram (1, 4, 5), in which 102 - 103 cfu g-1 belong to LAB (5). According to our previous research (1), LAB participated in one third of rye flour bacterial populations were detected on MRS agar. In mature sourdough, LAB ranged between 107 and 108 cfu g-1 (6). Microbiological studies have revealed that more than 50 species of LAB occur in sourdough (2). Sourdough LAB originate generally from the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus or Weissella and the majority of the strains belong to the genus Lactobacillus (3). Since sourdough is a suitable substrate for most lactobacilli, more than half of the species in this genus occur in sourdoughs or in related cereal fermentations (7). Homofermentative (Lb. acidophylus, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, Lb. amilovorus), as well as heterofermentative (Lb. sanfranciscensis, Lb. panis, Lb. pontis) lactobacilli, were found in rye spontaneously fermented sourdoughs (8, 9). The isolation of the strains from microbial communities and their identification is still a necessary approach when the characterization of physiological and technological properties of microbial community members is of interest, as in the case of sourdoughs. Sourdoughs are microbial systems that have not been thoroughly investigated and new species of LAB may occur in this ecosystem due to the continuous propagation in the sourdough system (9). In this paper, the composition and changes in LAB microflora of a rye flour sourdough that was continuously propagated by a repeated inoculation, were examined. The results represent the resumption of those previously obtained (1). Statistical procedures applied to physiological characteristics of the isolates were used to represent the composition of LAB and detect physiological factors affecting their differentiation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS Sourdough production and propagation
Doughs were made by mixing 100 g rye flour ("Žitopromet" Zaječar, Serbia with 11.7 % and 0.99 % water and ash content, respectively) and 60 cm3 of sterile tap water in aseptic conditions (prior to work a mixer dish and blades were moistened with ethanol and flamed). Sourdough formation started by a spontanous fermentation followed by se112
APTEFF,40, 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940111Z
UDC: 664.654.1:664.64.016.3/.7 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40, 111-122 Original scientific paper
veral propagation steps using 10% of previously fermented dough (calculated on a total dough weight) as inoculum for the next fermentation. Each of the sourdoughs were fermenting for 24 h at 30oC.
Enumeration and isolation of lactic acid bacteria
For isolation end enumeration of the bacteria, 10 g of dough were homogenized with 90 cm3 of sterile 0.85% saline. Serial dilution was spread plated on MRS (Torlak, Belgrade, Serbia) and incubated under the anaerobic incubation (GasPak, BBL, Cockeysville) at 30oC for 48 h. The isolation of bacteria was done both at the end of the second propagation step and after two weeks of a daily refreshment (the mature sourdough stage). After enumeration, the colonies were randomly isolated from MRS plates, transferred to MRS broth and, after the incubation (48 h, 30oC), purified three times by streaking on the MRS agar and then checked for morphology, Gram stain and catalase test (determined by transferring fresh colonies from agar medium to a glass slide and adding 5% H2O2). Each of Gram positive and catalase negative cultures were separated for further examination.
Physiological characterisation of lactic acid bacteria
A set of 36 tests (including morphology, Gram staining characteristic and a catalase test) was used to clasify the isolates. The tests used to determine catalase activity, gas production, arginine and esculine hydrolisis, the ability to acidify, cloth and reduce lacmus milk (1%), growth at different temperatures (15oC and 45oC) and the concentration of NaCl (4, 6.5 and 8%) were performed by using previously described methods (6, 10). Other tests were observing the growth on entero and citrate agar (HIMEDIA, Mombai, India) and the ability to form diacetyl (11) and exopolysaccharides (formation of slimy colonies on MRS agar with sucrose as carbon source, 20 g/dm3). Acid production from carbohydrates (L-arabinose, D-xylose, galactose, mannitol, trehalose, mannose, raffinose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, glucose, fructose, rhamnose, sorbose, ribose, salicin, cellobiose, melibiose, inuline, sorbitol, Sigma) was evaluated by the procedure as follows: filter sterilized solution of sugar was added to basal MRS medium (without glucose) and with 0.16 g/dm3 bromcresol-purple to a final concentration of 10 g/dm3. The filter sterillized (0.22 μm, Millipore, Saint-Quentin, France) sugar solution was dispensed (0.9 cm3) in the microtube (1.5 cm3). The cells suspension (0.1 cm3) obtained by centrifuging 5 cm3 of 16-h old MRS broth culture and resuspension of the sediment in 5 cm3 sterile saline was used to inoculate microtube. The apperance of yellow color in medium after the incubation (48 h at 30oC) was considered as a positive result.
Determination of TTA and pH
Total titrable acidity (TTA) and pH of sourdough were determined on an aliquot of 10 g sourdough, blended with 90 cm3 destilled water. The pH of this suspension was determined by using HANNA HI 9025 meter. For TTA determination, the same aliquot was titrated against 0.1M NaOH to final pH 8.5. TTA was expressed as the amount (cm3) of NaOH used. 113
APTEFF,40, 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940111Z
UDC: 664.654.1:664.64.016.3/.7 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40, 111-122 Original scientific paper
The relationship among the isolated strains was determined by Hierachical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using Statistica 7.0 (StatSoft Inc. USA) for Windows. The results of phenotypical tests were coded as + positive, - negative or +- weak positive or delayed (positive after 7 days of incubation) reaction. For morphology, three codes were used – cocci, + long bacillus cells and +- common bacillus cells. HCA was carried out using the algorithm Unweighed Pair-Group „Average Linkage Analysis“. Distances between the clusters were assessed using „Percent of dissagreement« and its translation in »similarity level“ assuming that 0% disagreement=100% similarity. PCA was implemented using the state-of-the-art algorithm known as NIPALS (None Linear Iterative Partial Least Squares).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The total cell count of the continuous rye flour fermentations was determined over 3 propagation steps (PS) and in the stage of mature sourdough (MD) after two weeks of daily propagations. The additional characterization was achieved by the pH and TTA measurement at the end of the first three propagation steps, as well as in mature sourdough (Figure 1). The significant increase of the number of bacteria was observed only at the end of the first 24 h fermentation after flour and water mixing, reaching the level of ca 8 log cfu g-1 which varied slightly during the propagation period and the formation of the MD (Figure 1). The pH values that reached 3.7 at the end of PS2 were maintained till the end of the study, and TTA were ca 13 from the second refreshment onward (Figure 1), thus demonstrating the acid production in the sourdough.
Fig. 1. The kinetics of pH (■), TTA (▲) and the number of lactic acid bacteria (•) in start dough (SD), sourdough et the end of propagation steps (PS1, PS2 and PS3) and mature sourdough (MD) after two weeks of continuous daily propagations
The acidity, the viable count, and the composition of LAB microflora during repeated succeeding spontaneus fermentations were related to the first 2-propagation step. The lac114
APTEFF,40, 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940111Z
UDC: 664.654.1:664.64.016.3/.7 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40, 111-122 Original scientific paper
tic acid bacteria did not dominate microflora in the initial dough (as a consequence of not dominating in rye flour, as well), making one-third of bacterial population that can be detected on MRS agar (Figure 2A), but their acid resistance enabled them to continue growing during a natural sourdough fermentation. The LAB dominated the entire sourdough microflora (ca 80%, Figure 2A) at the end of the first propagation step, but maximum values of acidification were not achieved yet. Maximum acidification was achieved and varied slightly after the second propagation steps (Figure 1) when LAB were the only bacteria found in sourdough (Figure 4A). The number of bacteria found in sourdough (8.0-8.7 log cfu g-1) during all propagation steps was in accordance with previously published results where counts of soudoughs LAB determined by enumeration on MRS ranged between 107-108 (6, 9). It can be assumed that the stable ecosystem of mature sourdough could be established from the second propagation step onward, when the pH and total titrable acidity of sourdoughs were ca 3.5 and ca 13, respectively as the consequence of the action of LAB that were at the level of 8.0-8.7 log cfu g-1.
Fig. 2. Participation of LAB in microflora determined on MRS (A), and particule genera in lactic acid bacteria population (B) in rye flour - RF, propagation steps 1 - PS1 (1) and 2 - PS2 and mature sourdough - MD
On the basis of the tests applied, sourdough anaerobe and/or facultative anaerobe isolates fall within well-recognised LAB genera. The strains of genera Enterococcus found in rye flour remained in the first two propagation steps, and the participation of enterococci in LAB count were significantly reduced from 70% in rye flour to 3% in PS2, and were not detected in MD (Figure 2B). Some enterococi were reported as common inhabitants of vegetables (12) and were isolated from rye flour (E. faecium, E. avium, E. casseliflavus and E. durans - 4) and sourdoughs (4, 6). Greater LAB diversity was observed at the end of the first 24 h fermentation and 6 genera were detected: Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Weisella, Pediococcus and Lactobacillus (1). It was shown (16) that in the sourdough obtained by continuous daily refreshments at 30oC, subdominant LAB such as E. faecium and P. pentosaceus are stronger acidifiers than Lb. sanfranciscensis at the beginning of the sourdough production. Those species inhibiting indigenous microorganisms other than LAB by lowering 115
In fact.64. facultatively heterofermentative (Lb. A rather stable association of lactobacilli was a result of the selective pressure exerted by the environmental conditions through a continuous propagation.2298/APT0940111Z UDC: 664. respectively. acidophylus). lactobacilli were detected totaling up to one-third of the entire LAB community and all of these were homofermentative. The similarity among strains of LAB isolated from PS2 and MD. After the second refreshment. were rod-shaped. adding flour and water at regular intervals (14).654. A high percentage of disagreement was accounted between our isolates and the obligately homofermentative (Lb. After the first propagation step. 14) that rye and wheat sourdoughs microbial populations were dominated mainly by bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus. 111-122 Original scientific paper the pH. pontis. allowing a direct comparison between the groups and detecting physiological factors affecting the differentiation. panis) lactobacilli commonly isolated from sourdoughs. especially in fermentations of non-sterilized substrates. Lb. The techniques appeared to be very effective in representation of the composition and a relative position of LAB communities. Environmental parameters lead to a well-adapted. while MD microflora consisted only of the strains belonging to the genus Lactobacillus (Figure 2B). The one remaining LAB isolate was coccus-shaped. while the phenotypic characteristics of the clusters are summarized in Table 1. With the increasing fermentation time. This confirmed the already published reports (9. The heterofermentative lactobacilli were first detected at the end of PS2 (56%) and in MD participate with 70 % of bacterial count. This kind of representation had significant advantages.) of mature sourdoughs. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. is summarized in the dendrogram shown in Figure 3.3/. lactobacilli comprised the greatest group of LAB (97%). The identification of lactobacilli strains was not possible because they did not conform to any species description. fermentum. Nevertheless. Lb. since it is well known that it is very difficult to distinguish lactobacilli by their physiological properties (9.APTEFF. the profiles were not identical but very similar.1:664. once lactobacilli colonized dough this determined a rapid decrement of LAB cocci which remained at subdominant concentrations or at the concentration that enabled their detection (13). 16). 116 . Nine diferent LAB clusters were identified at the 80% similarity level. Their most crucial role was played at the beginning of the sourdough production (13). fructivorans. might prepare the environment for the establishment of typical species (e. Lb. Lb.g. 1). and physiological properties could not be assorted to reference organisms from other habitats as a result of adaptation to different environments. Lactobacillus spp. as well as from propagation step 1 (our previous work. stable flora within this dough. in most papers statistical analysis was based on clustering of isolates and on the presentation of distribution of isolates in graphical formats. There is no work reporting on the prevalence of enterococci strains in the sourdough environments at the stage of mature sourdough. Statistical procedures based on phenotypic properties have been commonly used for the analysis of sourdough microbial communities (6. Lb. sanfransciscensis.7 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. The main goal of this paper was not to fully identify the isolates. Within the clusters.016. a shift towards the predominance of hetrofermentative lactobacilli was reported in rye sourdough (14). amilovorus and Lb. 6. and all.40. plantarum) and obligately heterofermentative (Lb. All of these were Gram-positive and catalase-negative. 16). but one. brevis. Thirty-two and thirty strains were isolated at the end of PS2 and MD.
016.5 % and 8 % NaCl. Enterococci isolated from PS1 and PS2 were comprised in one cluster with ca 78% interspecies similarity level (Figure 3). It was not possible to identify lactobacilli isolates on the species level scoring the results of the tests applied with the species literature description (6. maltose and sucrose and could not be grown on entero agar (Table 1).40. Eight strains of cluster VIII were the only lactobacilli that could grow in the presence of 6. the enterococci isolated from PS2 showed to be different in fermentation mannose and raffinose.5% NaCl (12. 19). Note: Grouping was performed by Hierachical Cluster Analysis using „Unweighed Pair-Group Average Analysis“ algorithm All isolated lactobacilli grown at 45oC produced acid on glucose. The heterofermentative lactobacilli of PS2 and MD dominated LAB microflora with 56% and 70% of total bacterial count. The lactobacilli of this cluster from PS2 and MD explicitly differed from those from PS1 (1) in producing acid from mannitol.3/. Another lactobacilli cluster from PS1. respectively. When compared to those from PS1 (1). Dendrogram of similarities based on phenotypic tests of 80 LAB strains isolated at the end of propagation steps 1 (1) and 2. Only the homofermentative lactobacilli of cluster VII showed the imposibillity of growing both in milk and fermenting lactose (Table 1). 18.64. 3.654.1:664. 111-122 Original scientific paper Fig. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. One of two lactobacilli types of isolates from PS1 clustered together with isolates from PS2 and MD with ca 80% interspecies similarity level (cluster VII on Figure 3 and Table 1). containing only two isolates.APTEFF. The coccoid isolate from PS2 deemed to belong to genus Enterococcus according to its ability to hydrolise esculine and to grow at 15oC and 45oC. 8. 117 . as well as in disability to grow in the presence of 8% NaCl (Table 1). and from mature sourdough.7 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. was separated in cluster I and showed to be most related to cluster II (ca 70 % similarity level) consisting of five isolates from PS2. as well as to grow in entero agar and in the presence of 6.2298/APT0940111Z UDC: 664. 17). The identification of enterococcus was not possible because they could not be related to known species description.
2298/APT0940111Z UDC: 664. Physiological and biochemical characteristics of the clusters of the lactic acid bacteria isolates from sourdoughs after propagation step 1 (1) and 2 and from mature sourdough Cluster No Number of LAB1 Morphology2 CO2 from glucose Growth at 45oC 15oC Arginine hydrolysis Esculin hydrolysis Growth with 4%NaCl 6. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.5%NaCl 8%NaCl Growth in milk3 Entero agar Citrate agar Diacetile EPS production Acid from L-arabinose D-xilose galactose mannitol trehalose mannose rafinose lactose fructose rhamnose sorbose ribose salicine celobiose melibiose inuline sorbitol I 2+0+0 B + + +a + + + +* + + + -* w w w II 0+5+0 B + + +ac + w + w + + + +* w w* III 0+4+6 B + + -* -* +* -a* + + + + -* + IV 0+5+8 B w + + -* +acr* + -* +* + + w* +* V 0+6+5 B w + + w* + +acr* +* w + + +* + + + w + + +* VI 0+3+2 BL w + + + + + r + + w + + + w VII 8+5+4 B w* + + w* -* -* -* -* + +* -* + + -* -* VIII 0+3+5 BS w + + + + + +acr + -* r + + + w + +* + + + IX 8+1+0 C + + + + + + +acr + -* +* w + +* +* +* +* +* + + + + + - + positive. The plot of the first two components (Figure 4) made it possible to separate the 71 lactobacilli strains (10 from PS1.40. BL: long rods 3 acidification (a).7 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. and the third from mature sourdough 2 C: cocci.negative.weakly positive. 31 from PS2 and 30 from MD) into distinct groups (Figure 4A). . the second from propagation step 2. clothing (c) and reducing (r) of lacmus milk.3/.APTEFF. PCA was performed in order to evaluate the similarity among lactobacilli isolates and detect physiological characteristics affecting their differentiation. Enterococus cluster 118 .properties differ among strains of the same type In addition.654. 1 the first number represents number of isolates from propagation step 1.64. sucrose and glucose. B: rods. 111-122 Original scientific paper Table 1. All strains produce acid from maltose. 1% * .1:664. The physiological characteristics for isolated strains showed that four principal components (PC) were able to explain 50 % of the variance (data not shown).016. w .
According to Figure 4B. Ne119 . as well as growth on citrate agar. growth at 15 oC and 45 oC. raffinose.3/. The prediction interval ellipse desribes the area in which a single new observation can be expected to fall with the probability of 90 % (a coefficient that controlled the ellipse was chosen to be 0.APTEFF. growth in medium containing 6.40.016. as a measure of dispersion.7 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.5 % NaCl. salicin and ribose. clearly separated clusters VII and VIII from other lactobacilli types. Each cluster of strains was represented by the prediction interval ellipse for its samples. 111-122 Original scientific paper was explicitly separated from all lactobacilli (data not shown) and was not included in further statistical analysis. fructose and mannose. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. and from mature sourdough Note: The explained variance by PC1 and PC2 were 21 % and 12 %. VI and VII from clusters V and VIII (Figure 4A). Only PC3 which explained 15% of the variation (data not shown) was defined by the cell shape (long or common rods). PC1 distinguished the strains according to CO2 production.9). galactose.2298/APT0940111Z UDC: 664. Numbers represent clusters from Figure 2 The clusters formed by HCA analysis (Figure 3) can be observed on plots from the PCA (Figure 4A). lactobacilli from clusters I and II formed by HCA could not be clearly separated by PCA and made a single ellipse (I-II) representing related isolates. Figure 4. had low loadings on PC1 and PC2 (close to zero).64. it could be concluded that these properties had no significant influence on the attained classification of isolates. III. As shown in Figure 4A.654. respectively. Therefore. Scores plot (A) and loadings plot (B .the loadings less than 0. while PC2 (account 12 % of total variance) separated clusters I-II. and showed the prediction interval for a single new observation (13). PC2 differentiated the strains according to their growth in milk and fermentation of celobiose. The coordinates for the ellipse were computed from the data and a number of observations given. The growth in medium supplemented with 4% NaCl and acid formation from galactose. trehalose. The Principal component 1 (PC1) that explained 21 % of total variance in the data. sucrose. arabinose.5 not presented) from PCA of the physiological properties of lactobacilli isolated at the end of propagation steps 1 (1) and 2. as well as the acid production from mannose.1:664.
40. the ribose and citrate fermentation had a significant influence on PC3 and PC4. 111-122 Original scientific paper vertheless... D. pentoses (arabinose. 24 (2007) 165-174. J. Food Microbiol.016. rRNK sequencing and GC spectrum) is necessary to reveal whether the isolates belonged to some hitherto unknown species of the genus Lactobacillus. and F. IV and VI) which were located in the upper right part of the graph. Savić. K. K. Hammes. were characterized by disability to grow in 8% NaCl. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This research was supported under the project PTR 2042 by the Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia. with the ability to hydrolyze esculin. 5 (2007) 38-45. to ferment sorbitol and to form diacetyl. Two thermophilic isolates from PS1 and the majority of strains isolated after PS2 (clusters I-II. Principal component 1 from PCA succeeded in differentiating homo.APTEFF. J. Six strains isolated from PS2 and five strains from MD were located in the lower right part of the graph (cluster V). Table 1). Dal Belo: Impact of sourdough on the texture of bread. W.1:664. melibiose. PCA differentiated strains on the base of.3/. The strains grouped in the lower left part of the graph represented cluster VIII.7 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. This cluster comprised homofermentative lactobacilli and was located among other heterofermentative clusters (III. 2. mainly. Rosenheim. L.F.A. Culture Collect. respectively (data not shown) and they could not be omitted from further studies of the classification of isolates. III. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 120 .L. V and VI). Ryan. M. 3.64. REFERENCES 1. Further investigation of the isolates (for example DNA-DNA hybridization. raffinose. They displayed a high activity in milk and arginine hydrolysis. The isolates from this cluster showed growth in 8% NaCl.2298/APT0940111Z UDC: 664. The lactobacilli of cluster VII were assembled in the upper left part of the graph (Figure 4A) that displayed homofermentetative bacilli with the ability to ferment fructose and mannose but not lactose. Trends Food Sci..654. Seitter and S.H. M. M. ferment inuline. Vogelmann: Microbial ecology of cereal fermentations. pentose fermentation (Figure 4B) and the bias was introduced because the strains from cluster I-II ferment arabinose (Table 1). Francis. Brandt. CONCLUSION In this study. xilose and arabinose (Figure 4B. T.J. Joković: Profile of lactic acid bacteria in rye flour and sourdough. Although the strains may differ. 16 (2005) 4-11. E. Table 1). Škrinjar and N. the statistical analyses provided indices for the evaluation of the distances among the population members and their differentiation. IV.P.from heterofermentative isolates with the exception of only cluster I-II. Technol. Arendt. xylose or ribose) were usually fermented by obligately heterofermentative and seldom by homofermentative lactic acid bacteria. and some strains had the potential to produce diacetile (Figure 4B. Savić.
Microbiol. W. A. 6. and H. Diekmann: Die Mikroflora eines Langzeit-Sauerteiges. with a Biochemical Key. Springer. Manero. Springer. Tulsa.html 14.F.bacterio. peptide and lipid metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in sourdough. P.654. Salovaara.. Syst. 11. in The Procaryotes (vol 4). A. A. Ehrmann.F. WEB: http://www. J. Inc. Vogel: Lactobacillus frumenti sp. Food Microbiol. Microbiol.. 320-403 18. Food Protect. M.statsoft. Food Microbiol. OK: StatSoft.. (2004) pp. Evolut. 9. Rocha. and R. H. Müller. Ricciardi: A statistical procedure for the analysis of microbial communities based on phenotypic properties of isolates. Food Microbiol. Electronic Statistics Textbook. 7. M. Israelsen: Cloning.2298/APT0940111Z UDC: 664. Microbiol. Meth. S. Dworkin. 17. Lebens. Ricciardi.F. London (2007) pp. 179. Valmorri. Int. J. M. Ed. J. nov.APTEFF. J. Blanch: Identification of Enterococcus spp. W. London (2007) pp. Ed. Untersuch. S.cict. D.html) 13. Strohmar. 431-451.3/. L. Stolz. Vogel: Monitoring the growth of Lactobacillus species during a rye flour fermentation. Ehrmann.1:664. E. 19. Hertel: The genera Lactobacillus and Carnobacterium. Zeit. Leblanc.: Lactic acid bacteria in cereal-based products. Bacteriology. Parente. Gänzle. M. 50 (2000) 2127-2133. and characterization of the Lactococcus lactis pfl gene. Paraggio and P. M.com/textbook/stathome. 98 (2005) 63-72.64. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Food Microbiol. S. M. 10 (1999) 4425-4430. Müller. Anonymous: Nomenclature et principales sources d'isolement des espèces du genre Enterococcus (http://www. 18 (2001) 217-227.: Enterococcus. Malcata: On the microbiological profile of traditional portoguese sourdough. H. M. 15.Salminen. and A. E. in The Procaryotes (vol 4). expression. 65. G. A. 18 (1997) 5884–5891. M. 10. Eds. 24 (2007) 128-138. Vrang and H. 16. Romano: Phenotypic characterisation of lactic acid bacteria from sourdoughs for Altamura brad produced in Apulia (southern Italy). and A. J. Piraino. A. and A. 194 (1992) 536-540. (2006). a new lactic acid bacterium isolated from rye-bran fermentations with a long fermentation period. J. F. Ouwehand. 17 (2000) 241250. Settanni. Mastrangelo and G. von Wright and A. New York. Hansen: The microbial stability of two bakery sourdoughs made from conventionally and organically grown rye Food Microbiol. Hammes.. Arnau. 12. 121 . 49 (2002) 121–134. M. and X. 24 (2007) 592–600. encoding pyruvate formatelyase. Vogel: Carbohydrate. P. Wolfrum. Parente. 175-204. Environ. Rosemquist. N. StatSoft. 5. and R.fr/bacdico/ee/tenterococcusisolement. Madsen.G.. Vermeulenb.. App. Suzzi: Identification of subdominant sourdough lactic acid bacteria and their evolution during laboratoryscale fermentations. in Lactic acid bacteria Microbiological and Functional Aspects.7 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. USA: Marcel Dekker. Jorgensen. 8. Dworkin. M.. Forscg. and R. 111-122 Original scientific paper 4. and C.016.40. Corsetti. 62 (1999) 1416-1429. Int.
2298/APT0940111Z UDC: 664.64. као и у фази зрелог киселог теста. Жугић-Петровић.1:664. Јоковић и Драгиша С. као и у фази зрелог киселог теста (након 2 седмице свакодневног сукцесивног премешавања). Хетероферментативни лактобацили доминирају од другог премешавања.7 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. односно 70% у укупном броју БМК.016. Род БМК који доминира у току развоја киселог теста су лактобацили и који су груписани у 7 група. Идентификација на основу фенотипских и физиолошких својстава (применом 36 теста) показала је да се лактобацили иззоловани из киселих теста не могу јасно сврстати у до сада познате врсте рода Lactobacillus.654. Наташа М. БМК су једини микроорганизми изоловани на крају другог премешавања. Received 28 August 2009 Accepted 6 October 2009 122 .3/. 111-122 Original scientific paper РАЗВОЈ ПОПУЛАЦИЈЕ БАКТЕРИЈА МЛЕЧНЕ КИСЕЛИНЕ У ТОКУ ФОРМИРАЊА ЗРЕЛОГ КИСЕЛОГ ТЕСТА Тања Д.APTEFF. при чему учествују са 56%. Стабилни еколошки систем у киселом тесту припремљеном од ражаног брашна успоставља се након другог премешавања. праћена је структура бактеријске популације у киселом тесту применом две статистиче технике (хијерархијска кластер анализа и анализа главних компоненти) на фенотипска својства изолата.40. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Савић У циљу праћења састава и промена популације бактерија млечне киселине (БМК) у киселом тесту припремљеног сукцесивним свакодневним премешавањем теста од ражаног брашна. 62 сојева БМК је изоловано и окарактерисано. Поред тога.
CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY AND PROCESS ENGINEERING .
mechanically robust. Radeka. Lončar. Trg Dositeja Obradovica 6. Dimičeva 12. University of Novi Sad. 21000 Novi Sad.3. 1000 Ljubljana. Eva S. Rudić and Jonjaua G. Radeka. Petrović. Snezana B.. Faculty of Technical Sciences.. The newly design coatings showed an interesting decolourisation performance (over 30 % after 24 h). has been extensively investigated. Photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 coatings was evaluated by aqueous solution of methylene blue as model dye. 125-133 Original scientific paper DETERMINATION OF THE PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF TiO2 COATINGS ON CLAY ROOFING TILE SUBSTRATES . of the fired clay roofing tiles substrate were prepared by using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) M-600 and M-4000. D. Jonjaua G.. Rutile is the stable phase while anatase and brookite are metastable. after irradiation with UV light. surfactants and carcinogens in aqueous systems and in the air (1-7). Ognjen Lj. Ognjen Rudic. Titania occurs in three crystalline forms: brookite. Prof. Prof. in the case of porous substrates. should be renewed by a preadsorption process. Dept. University of Novi Sad. Sc. Prof.APTEFF.. clay roofing tile. anatase and rutile. Skapin. photocatalytic activity INTRODUCTION Semiconductor photocatalysis (SPC) has attracted a great deal of attention over the last 30 years. Faculty of Technology.74:666. Ranogajec. Assoc. Dr.titania) appeared to be the most suitable photocatalytic semiconducting material due to its high stability toward photocorrosion and relatively favorable band-gap energy. Ranogajec The photocatalytically active mesoporous coatings. Skapin. Miroslava M.2298/APT0940125L UDC: 666. It appeared that the procedure of photocatalytic activity determination. Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute.3. Anatase TiO2 has become the foremost semiconductor material for SPC application since it is biologically inert. Slovenia 125 . Lončar. Serbia. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. of Civil Engineering. relatively inexpensive and highly reactive. B. glass). Dr. KEY WORDS: ТiO2 coatings.017:666.052:549. Sc.METHYLENE BLUE AS MODEL POLLUTANT Eva S..514 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. The application of semiconductor in heterogeneous photocatalysis in order to eliminate various pollutants including many pesticides. Serbia. Petrovic. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 . 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. The coatings were deposited using spray technique followed by thermal treatment. based on titanium dioxide sols (Degussa). Miroslava M. B. Andrea S. The results were compared with the photocatalytic efficiency of some commercial self-cleaning products (clay roofing tiles. 40. 21000 Novi Sad. Ph.. Snežana B. Dr. as the structure directing agents. Andrea S. deposited on the top of the coatings.
ceramic roofing tiles as a porous material. 11. Mesoporous coatings are predicted to have great potential to increase the photocatalytic activity by enlarging the specific surface area (18). These species are strong enough to oxidize and decompose organic materials or smelling gas and kill bacteria (5. as well as chromatographic investigations. The present research was focused on obtaining mesoporous coatings using TiO2 and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) of different molecular weight.514 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 2. This fact presents the perceived effectiveness of the MB test. also adsorb a certain quantity of MB solution decreasing its concentration. • Inorganic gases (22). 8-11) or visible light (artificial solar and sunlight) (1. In order to assess the contribution of the photocatalytic activity of the prepared mesoporous titania coating. These values were compared with the activity of the commercial products (clay roofing tiles and glass samples). The process is predominantly determined by the fundamental physical properties of the SPC material surface. 23). methylene blue (MB) originates from the fact that it is mainly nontoxic and convenient for the use as a dye.017:666. MB exibits strong absorption in the visible light (λmax =664 nm. The widespread application of. High surface area and interconnectivity in the porous network of mesoporous coatings are desirable in order to optimize the activity of the surface and provide diffusion. Major attention has been devoted to the selection of a suitable sample preparation.3. The functionality of these coatings have been tested by the photocatalytic decomposition of MB in aqueous solution. ε664 = 7.4×104 M-1 cm-1) but not in the UVA region. The precursory adsorption of methylene blue was established until the adsorption process of the dye was complete. 20). but still allowing the latter to diffuse from the adsorption sites to the TiO2 surface. 126 . the assessment of decomposition processes of dyes by decoloration measurements is still a subject of discussion. without photocalytic coating. 40. They can be classified into three categories: • Dyestuffs (19. Namely.2298/APT0940125L UDC: 666.APTEFF. • Organic compounds (21). 125-133 Original scientific paper Photocatalytic chemical reactions occur on the surface of an SPC material. Dyes are degraded by TiO2 under the influence of UV or solar light. which is considered by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) as a standard test for photocatalytic surfaces (16. as a structure directing agent applied on ceramic roofing tile surface. 12-17).3. After that the decomposition rate of the dye under the UVA light irradiation (photocatalytic activity) was determined by recording its absorption spectrum. The photocatalyst generates electron/hole pairs which are capable to initiate a series of chemical reactions when it is illuminated by appropriate light source: UV light (λ≤387 nm) (4. To assess the photocatalytic efficiency of a TiO2 coating a broad range of pollutants. the photocatalytic tests were modified compared to the tests where a non-porous substrate was used. However.052:549. 5. The decomposition is assessed by decoloration measurements (color removal ratio). can be used. The coatings with a greater surface area can improve the degradation rate of organic pollutants by the adsorption and the concentration of the reactants. Pairs of photo-generated hole (h+) and electron (e-) induce the formation of aggressive species such as hydroxyl or superoxide radicals from the moisture and atmospheric oxygen. 15-17). charge or light transfer or reactant access into the cavities. both of organic and inorganic nature. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.74:666. for example. 13.
3.514 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. The procedure was continued in the dark with the test solutions of MB (10 μmol/L) for 24 h up to 36 h (until the adsorption of the dye was completed). sol. Germany) and PEG (HOCH2(CH2OCH2)nCH2OH) with molecular weight 600 (M-600) or 4000 (M-4000).5. the adsorption of the dye was complete and the test samples were irradiated with UVA light (Osram Eversun lamp / I= 0. They were subsequently heated in an oven at: 290oC for 30 minutes. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 coatings. in the procedure adjusted to porous substrate. 3. 127 . Three layers of the photocatalytic sol were deposited by spray technique on the top of the clay roofing tiles. (Baker. 2.0 mass%. dry matter content 30. Frankfurt.3. and at 400oC for 30 minutes. by the surface of the mesoporous titania coatings and tile substrate. case of the sol based on 2. the degree of adsorption of the dissolved MB molecules.d.5 mass% TiO2 and PEG 4000 (marked as NM 4000). The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 coatings was evaluated by examining the discoloration of the methylene blue. 2. The maximum irradiation of the lamp is in the range of 320-380 nm.W 2730 X. Novi Bečej. respectively. The stability of the suspension is essential to achieve the necessary consistency. The part of the tile was drowned into the MB solution of the same concentration. Titania particle size in colloidal dispersion was reported to be (d-50= 50-100 nm). The clay roofing tiles produced in the industrial conditions (a. A cylindrically shaped glass cell with the inner diameter of 3 cm and a height of 6 cm was attached to the substrate using silicon glue. The used raw material for the tile production was based on illite-kaolinite clay material and carbonates (dolomite. The photocatlyic sol was frequently stirred in order to obtain stable coating solution. 60.5 cm) and used as substrates for photocatalytic coating preparation. Both the test cell and substrate are marked as a test sample. The concentration of MB for the pre-adsorption test and for the photocatalytic test was 20 and 10 μmol/L. member of Nexe group. Fig. Twelve milliliters of the MB for the pre-adsorption test were poured into the test cell.2298/APT0940125L UDC: 666.5 x 3. Drying of the photocatalytic sol layers lasted 30 min at 25oC and 50% air RH.5 mass % TiO2 aqueous (deionised water) colloidal dispersion (VP Disp. was measured by a pre-adsorption test. Degussa.5 and 24 h. As first. The emission spectrum of the lamp light and absorption spectrum of MB are shown in Fig.052:549. 40. 120 and 150 min were less than 5%.5. Preparation of TiO2 layer on clay roofing tile substrate.5 x1. It is evident that the absorption spectrum of MB is not in the range of the emission spectrum of the lamp.017:666. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 1a and 1b. The photocatlytic dispersion. Serbia ) were cut in the form of square-shaped slabs (dimensions 3.0 +/-1. as follows.74:666. The adsorption was considered complete if the differences in the concentration of MB measured after 30. The adsorbtion of the MB (20 μmol/L) by the tile sample proceeded in the dark for 12 h. Tile substrate. calcite).5 mass% TiO2 and PEG 600 (marked as NM 600). In the above procedure. 125-133 Original scientific paper EXPERIMENTAL Photocatalytic dispersion. Germany).APTEFF. was prepared by mixing 2. Polet. the sol based on 2. and pH value 5-7.67 mW/cm2/ distance between the UV lamp and the reactor 18 cm) for 1.
1. England / water as the reference sample) by measuring absorption spectra of MB (λ=664 nm) as a function of the irradiation time.017:666. Absorption spectrum of MB and the emission spectrum of the light source The photocatalytic activity of the materials was monitored on a UV/VIS spectrophotometer (Evolution 600 / Thermoscientific. Photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 coatings was calculated using the relation 1: TiO2 activity = [(co – c)/co] x [c1/co] x 100  where co is the concentration of the test solution of MB before irradiation: c is the concentration of MB after UV irradiation. 125-133 Original scientific paper a) b) Fig.3.052:549. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 2. as well as on the commercial self-cleaning products (clay roofing tile-E / Germany.74:666. b) schematic view of the measurements Fig. 128 .3. glass-SG / France). The concentrations c and c1 were determined from the calibration curves showing the dependence of the absorbance at λmax (664 nm) of MB solutions as a function of the concentration of MB solutions.2298/APT0940125L UDC: 666. Measurement of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 coating: a) in the protective box.514 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. For each experiment four measurements were performed. and c1 is the concentration of MB after the preadsorption test. The above procedure was applied on the clay roofing tile samples with mesoporous coatings (NM 600. 40.APTEFF. NM 4000) and clay roofing tiles without catalyst-mesoporous coating (marked as N).
2298/APT0940125L UDC: 666. Polet.052:549. 4. and MB irradiation test (determination of the photocatalytic activity). Fig. Evidentlly. SEM micrograph of the mesoporous TiO2 coating NM 4000 (x5000) The photocatalytic activities of the TiO2 coatings were evaluated by using the aqueous solution of the MB. The decrease of the concentration of MB solution at 614 nm and 664 nm. 3 shows the SEM micrograph of the sample NM 4000 (thickness about 3 μm).74:666. 27). 129 . Both coatings have an average pore size diameters about 10 nm. during irradiation time. Besides stable mineral phases. anortite or diopside. Fig. (MB)2. As a consequence of dimerization the size of the MB molecules increases. 125-133 Original scientific paper RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The clay roofing tiles (a.d. During the firing procedure stable secondary mineral phases as gehlenite. 40.017:666. The photocatalytic activity of the mesoporous coatings can be defined as a two step process: pre-adsorption (elimination of the influence of MB adsorption) (20. which can be an important step in the catalysis since diffusion towards and from catalyst surface is an important step in the decolorization of MB solution. according to DIN 52980:2007-11 (25) and ISO/DIS 10678 (23). In the case of the NM 4000 samples the pore size distribution was wider. Like many thiazine dyes. a certain amount of ″active centers″ are present on the porous tile surfaces. The thickness of the coatings NM 600 and NM 4000 was about 3 μm.APTEFF. 26. MB has a tendency to dimerise. 3.3.514 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. The dimer of MB. member of the Nexe group) are complex materials with total porosity of about 13%. The mesoporous TiO2 coatings based on PEG 600 (NM 600) and PEG 4000 (NM 4000) have similar surface area (≈100 cm2/g). Fig. clearly shows that the sample NM 600 is active. the porosity of the tiles increases the consumption of the applied titania dispersion prepared for self-cleaning and decreases the photocatalytic activity of the formed titania coating. Maximum absorption appeares at λ=664 nm and gradually decreases during the irradiation time. with a higher amount of small pores (24). are formed. The decrease of the absorption maximum at 614 nm indicates that the photocatalytic coating possesses a photonic efficiency for degradation. has an absorption maximum at 614 nm (28).3. These centers can influence different adsorption processes.
Photocatalytic activity of tested samples during the irradiation time Several conclusions can be drawn from Fig.514 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. NM 4000 and E.3. consequently. these differences are greater up to 3. Dependance of the absorbance spectra of MB solution (10 μmol/L) in contact with NM 600 on UVA irradiation time The photocatalytic activities of the samples were calculated from equation 1. consequently. The active catalyst sites were probably blocked by the formation of the intermediate products and.5 h of irradiation. Namely. These results demonstrate the fact that samples NM 600 and NM 4000 are the most active ones. 40.017:666. no significant differences in the activity were obtained after 24h irradiation time of the samples NM 600. the decrease of the MB concentration in aqueous solution was more pronounced. the photocatalytic activity of these systems was decreased. 4. This conclusion is in concordance with our previous investigation (29). a deactivation phenomenon was observed. 5. NM 4000 and E.APTEFF. 5. 100 80 N SG NM 600 E NM 4000 Activity (%) 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time (h) Fig. The MB molecules were probably more adsorbed (24) in the case of these samples due to the fact that the coatings have a higher surface area and. the samples NM 130 . were compared with the values for the commercial self-cleaning products: glass. clay roofing tiles-E and clay roofing tiles without mesoporous TiO2 coating (N). The activity of the commercial glass-SG was lower in comparison with the samples NM 600. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Fig. NM 4000. Firstly.052:549.74:666. The activities of the samples NM 600.2298/APT0940125L UDC: 666. Later (after 24h irradiation). 5.SG. Secondly. 125-133 Original scientific paper Fig.3.
After 24h of irradiation the efficiency of the prepared mesoporous coating NM 600.mesoporous coating (N). Chem. Y. S. Mater. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Schmidt. this procedure was not possible to apply in the case of the commercial products (the reference samples for these experiments were missing). Photochem. Energy Mater. J. Naumann. Akarsu: Application of spray techniques for new photocatalytic gradient films on plastics.514 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Sol. J. Chem. to evaluate the dye decolorization. Ma.step process: pre-adsorption. and photocatalytic test. Ruan.74:666. 4. B 110 (2006) 18324-18331. W. Wu. F. M. Müller and M. The MB test should include the pre-adsorption test. A.. Mcgrady: Method of Rapid Assessment of Photocatalytic Activities of Self-Cleaning Films. Xu and M. Fig. CONCLUSION The photocatalytic activity of the samples based on 2.2298/APT0940125L UDC: 666. clay roofing tiles without catalyst .. The activities of the mesoporous coatings NM 600 and NM 4000 were higher up to 3. 3. was carried out with the irradiated samples without catalyst (N).5 mass% TiO2 and PEG 4000 (NM 4000). Mills.5 h of irradiation time than the activities of the commercial samples. The obtained results indicate that decolorisation of the MB was not negligible. due to an adsorption process. T. and J. Wang and M. It seems that MB is not an ideal model pollutant. Gao. T. especially in the case of porous materials such as ceramic roofing tiles. 131 . probably the surface of the clay roofing tiles has also some redox potentional. 5.052:549. J. Sol. Zhao: Surface state of TiO2 nanoparticles and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous TiO2 dispersions. Yesodharan: Photocatalytic degradation of pesticide contaminants in water. REFERENCES 1. A control photocatalytic experiment. Cells 86 (2005) 309-348. 5. Phys. Phys. Unfortunately. Photobiol.and S.017:666. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This study is a part of the Project Eureka. Their efficiency in regard to the MB degradation was found to vary significantly in the laboratory conditions. NM 4000 was equal to the values of the commercial self-cleaning ceramic roofing tiles (E). More reliable values of the photocatalytic activity could be the difference between the activity values of NM 600 and N samples / NM 4000 and N samples.3.3. A: Chem. Thin Solid Films 502 (2006) 132-137. 40. while the activity of the commercial self-cleaning glass (SG) was significantly lower. Yao: Photodegradation of rhodamine B by TiO2 thin film.5 mass% TiO2 and PEG 600 (NM 600). H. 116 (1998) 167-170. S. 2. Devipriya. This study suggested that porous substrate without titania coating.APTEFF. E!3969. also undergoes a decolorization phenomenon of the MB aqueous solution. 125-133 Original scientific paper 600 and NM 4000 can be partially regenerated by washing with water (rainfall simulation).. financially supported by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia. 2. 69 (2001) 7-9. B.S. commercial roofing tiles (E) and commercial glass (SG) were determined as a two . Zhang.
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App. 27.. Wat. Ducman. 125-133 Original scientific paper 22. R.Петровић. Ranogajec. M. ISO/DIS 10678: Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics. Ranogajec: Characteristics of self-cleaning TiO2 coating on clay roofing tiles.APTEFF. Roam. O. 25. Раногајец Фотокаталитички активне мезопорозне превлаке нанете на површину глиненог црепа направљене су од сола титанијум диоксида (Degussa.254.. J.C. M. 20th Congress of Society of Chemists and Тechnologists of Macedonia. C. Bekiari and P. Рудић и Јоњауа Г. Res. A. Radeka. Skarpin. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Marinković-Nedučin. Cracow. Cat.74:666. Lončar.P. V. Скапин. J. A: Chemistry 127 (1999) 123-134. Андреа С. Mills. Materials 146 (2007) 514-519.. Hadnađev. Germany) и поли(етилен гликола-PEG) М-600 и М-4000 који је носилац мезопорозне структуре.2298/APT0940125L UDC: 666. 26. 30. 40. Lianos: Study of the conditions affecting dye adsorption on titania films and of their effect on dye photodegadation rates. R. A. E. Мирослава М. Превлака је нанета коришћењем спреј технике и термичког третмана. након зрачења UV зрацима. McFarlane: Adsorption and photocatalysed destruction of cationic and anionic dyes on mesoporous titania films: Reactions at the air-solid interface. Фотокаталитичка активност TiO2 превлака је процењена коришћењем метлен плавог као модeл боје. O′Rourke and M. Ohrid. Wang: Photobleaching of methylene blue sensitized by TiO2: an ambiguous system?. 23.D. B: Enviromental 89 (2009) 189-195. V. p. Strataki. DIN 52980/2008: Photocatalytic activity of surfaces: Determination of photocatalytic activity by degradation of methylene blue. J. 28. G. Photochem. стакло).514 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.190-191. Huang: Adsorption characteristics of dichlorovos onto hydrous titanium dioxide surface. 24. 7 (1996) 1670-1676. Haz. J. standard under development. Lu. Zorić.3. Огњен Љ. A. Снежана Б. Marinković-Nedučin. And Photobiol. M. N. Sheik. Book of abstracts. and J. D. Новоформирана превлака је показала значајан ниво обезбојавања раствора (преко 30% после 24h). постављене на превлаку. M.3. Chen and C.. advanced technical ceramics): Determination of photocatalytic activity of surfaces in an aqueous medium by degradation of methylene blue. J. Zorić: Photocatalytic and Superhydrophilic Phenomena of TiO2 Coated Clay Roofing Tiles.052:549. Mills. Установљено је да поступак одређивања фотокаталитичке активности за случај порозног црепа би требало да буде иновиран увођењем процеса предадсорпције. Радека. Лончар. Programme and Book of Abstracts. 17-20 September 2008. 29. Received 25 August 2009 Accepted 7 October 2009 133 . 21-25 June 2009.N. Ecers 11th International Conference and Exhibition of the European Ceramic Society.017:666. ОДРЕЂИВАЊЕ ФОТОКАТАЛИТИЧКЕ АКТИВНОСТИ ТiO2 ПРЕВЛАКА НА ЦРЕПУ КОРИШЋЕЊЕМ МЕТИЛЕН ПЛАВОГ КАО МОДЕЛ ПОЛУТАНТА Ева С. Резултати су поређени са резултатима фотокаталитичке активности неких комерцијалних производа (глинени цреп. Rudić and D. p.
This work describes cleaning procedures for ceramic tubular membrane (50 nm) fouled with whey proteins. Recently. 135-144 Original scientific paper MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF FLUX RECOVERY DURING CHEMICAL CLEANING OF TUBULAR MEMBRANE FOULED WITH WHEY PROTEINS Nataša Lj.5% w/w P3-ultrasil 67 and 1.4%w/w and 1. as well as the change of the effective pore diameter and deposit thickness during cleaning are estimated by applying these models.4%w/w NaOH solution. alkali cleaning... 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.uns.011+66.ac.2% P3-ultrasil 69+0.Sc. However.uns.8 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.Sc. five parameter and six parameter kinetic models were suggested for alkali and detergent cleaning. respectively. Assist. popovics@tf. mathematical modelling was performed to obtain models which allow deeper insight into the mechanisms involved during cleaning procedures.rs. detergent cleaning INTRODUCTION Membrane separation processes are commonly used in the dairy industry as they alone provide possibility for achieving both the fractionation and concentration without phase change while preserving physical and chemical characteristics of the main dairy components. 40. Popović and Jelena Dj. the application of ultrafiltration and microfiltration has become increasingly widespread for the production of whey protein concentrate. 0. membrane cleaning is an essential step in maintaining the permeability and selectivity of membrane processes. a product with high nutritional value. nlukic@tf. University of Novi Sad.rs.75 P3-ultrasil 67) were used as chemical cleaning agents. M. jmarkovic@tf. B. Marković Membrane process efficiency in the dairy industry is impaired by the formation of deposits during filtration processes.013.8%w/w P3-ultrasil 69+0. Consequently.uns. fouling is mainly governed by pore plugging and gradual adsorption of whey proteins at the membrane surface (1). kinetic models.ac. KEY WORDS: Ceramic membrane. Svetlana S. Jelena Marković. whey proteins..2298/APT0940135L UDC: 637..0%w/w NaOH) and the mixture of two commercial detergents (0..2%w/w. The caustic solutions (0. Svetlana Popović. membrane application is often restricted by membrane fouling. Faculty of Technology.02:542. The results showed that the best flux recovery was achieved with 0.. The changes of total and specific resistances. After analyzing the experimental data. Also. B. Assist.Sc. Lukić.816:66. which inevitably leads to flux decrease throughout the membrane.ac. During ultra and microfiltration of whey. 21000 Novi Sad.rs.APTEFF. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. Serbia 135 . Nataša Lukić. Junior Res.
France). During an experimental run.011+66. The main objective of this work was to propose kinetic models for alkali and detergent cleaning of tubular ceramic membrane that was fouled with whey proteins. Flow rate and transmembrane pressure (TMP) across the membrane module were simultaneously adjusted by a bypass valve and the main flow valve. with 7 mm ID and 10 mm OD (Pall Exekia. The total filtration area of the membrane was 46. Italy). 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. with mean pore size of 50 nm made of ZrO2 layer on an α-alumina support. Mathematical models of cleaning give the possibility of getting a deeper insight into the present cleaning mechanisms.APTEFF.2298/APT0940135L UDC: 637. 7-9) have proposed models which describe mechanisms of membrane cleaning by applying certain chemical agents. The permeate was collected and weighted continuously on a digital balance (EW 1500-2M. was investigated. 1. Experimental apparatus The experiments were carried out using Membralox™ monotubular ceramic membrane. 250 mm long. made of stainless steel. Kern. 1. 136 . 40. EXPERIMENTAL Experimental apparatus and materials The schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus. the permeate and the retentate were recycled back to the feed reservoir to avoid feed concentrating. 135-144 Original scientific paper Chemical methods are mainly used and most efficient cleaning agents are: alkali solutions (2-4) and formulated detergents (5.02:542.8 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Fig.013. The membrane. Some authors (2. is shown in Fig. The TMP was monitored with manometers and the flow rate was measured using a rotameter. Germany) and the data were transmitted to a personal computer (PC). 6). The feed solution was circulated by a rotary vane pump PO511 (Cmf.2 cm2.816:66. The feed solution temperature was kept constant and measured by a digital thermometer mounted inside the feed reservoir.
816:66.011+66. 137 .0% (w/w) lactose.8%w/w P3-Ultrasil 69+0. chemical cleaning. Cleaning solutions viscosity are supposed to be equal to the viscosity of water (5.APTEFF. Kinetic model which estimates time change of total resistance (Rtf). The operating conditions are briefly outlined in Table 1. Operating conditions for the experimental procedure Step Pure water flux measurement Fouling Rinsing Cleaning Rinsing Pure water flux measurement v (m/s) 1.2% P3-Ultrasil 69+0. at 50°C). The pH value of the prepared feed solution was 6. Furthermore.8% (w/w) protein.73 0. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.3% (w/w) fat. and pure water flux measurement. rinsing. Two alkaline cleaning agents were used during membrane cleaning: sodium hydroxide and a mixture of commercially available detergents P3-Ultrasil 67 and P3-Ultrasil 69 (Henkel. Serbia) of the following composition: 11. fouling.02:542. Since the enzymes in detergents show the highest activity at 50°C. the cross flow velocity during rinsing and cleaning steps was higher to enhance removal of the fouling layer from the membrane surface. Operating conditions Each experiment consisted of the following steps: pure water flux measurement. due to the deposition of fouling material at surface and inside pores of the membrane. The feed solution was prepared by dissolving the whey powder in deionised water to obtain a concentration of 10 g/L. Germany).3% (w/w) water.4%w/w and 1. 135-144 Original scientific paper A reconstituted whey solution from a whey powder (donated by Novosadska mlekara.2298/APT0940135L UDC: 637. The cross flow velocity during fouling was low to intensify formation of the fouling layer. 9. 75. However.2%w/w. which should be reduced during chemical cleaning. Deionized water was used for rinsing steps which were performed before and after each fouling experiment occurred.75 P3-Ultrasil 67. Studied concentrations of alkali solution were 0. was employed for all fouling experiments. According to the manufacturer. all cleaning steps were performed at this temperature.73 TMP (kPa) 30 30 30 / 30 30 t (min) 30 60 30 / 30 30 T (°C) 25 25 25 50 25 25 Feed stream Water Whey (10g/L) Water NaOH/ Ultrasil P3 Water Water Kinetic model The total resistance (Rtf). was chosen as a value that represents fouling intensity in the most suitable way. was introduced.73 1. 3. Table 1.0%w/w.5%w/w P3-Ultrasil 67 and 1.73 / 1. P3-Ultrasil 67 is a neutral detergent which consists of alkylaminoxide (15-30%) and proteolytic enzyme (<5%) while P3-Ultrasil 69 is a mild alkaline detergent which consists of phosphonates (5-15%) and salts of organic acids (5-15%).8 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.5% (w/w) ash and 2.47·10-4Pa·s. while detergent solutions were prepared using the following concentrations: 0. rinsing.43 1. 0. 40.0 for all experiments.013.
The total resistance (Eq. [5a]) and as a function of third order (detergent cleaning Eq.  Rtf = Rm + R f = Rm + Rcp + Rc + Rin The model involves Darcy’s equation: J cs = TMP μ cs Rtf Rm = TMP μw J w  also used to calculate the initial membrane resistance: Jw =  The resistance due to concentration polarization was omitted since the membrane was rinsed with deionized water. parameters ka (in the case of alkali cleaning) and kd (in the case of detergent cleaning) can be calculated using conditions at the end of the cleaning process: 2 alkali cleaning [8a] k a = d e2 (t end ) p 3 a t end + p 4 a t end + p 5 a detergent cleaning kd = d 2 e ( (t )( p end ) 3 3 d end t +p t 2 4 d end + p 5 d t end + p6 d ) [8b] Detailed description of the applied calculation procedure can be found in other papers (10. 40.013.011+66.  with Eqs. [5a] and [5b].8 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. ) can be presented as the sum of the individual resistances: the resistance of membrane (Rm). the resistance due to concentration polarization (Rcp). . the hydraulic resistance of deposits at the membrane surface (Rc) and the resistance due to in-pore fouling (Rin). 11).APTEFF. [5b]): [5a] alkali cleaning Rin = p 3 a t 2 + p 4 a t + p 5 a detergent cleaning TMP μ w Rm ⇒ Rin = p3 d t 3 + p4 d t 2 + p5 d t + p6 d [5b] After replacing all specific resistances into Eq. The cake resistance (Rc) was calculated assuming a firstorder change of time derivate of the cake deposit (7): dRc  = − p1 Rc ⇒ Rc = exp(− p1t + p 2 ) dt The resistance due to in-pore fouling can be determined as a function of second order (alkali cleaning Eq. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 135-144 Original scientific paper the model predicts the change of the effective pore diameter and deposit thickness during cleaning.2298/APT0940135L UDC: 637.02:542. the kinetic model attains the form: [6a] alkali cleaning Rtf = Rm + exp( − p1t + p 2 ) + p3 a t 2 + p4 a t + p5 a detergent cleaning Rtf = Rm + exp( − p1t + p2 ) + p3 d t 3 + p4 d t 2 + p5 d t + p6 d [6b] Modified Karmen-Kozeny equation shows the connection between effective pore diameter (de) and the in-pore resistance: 36hk (1 − ε )2 l −  Rin = = k ⋅ de 2 2 ε3d e Combining Eq.816:66. Mathematical models for effective pore diameter result from equations [5a] and [5b] using the determined k values: 138 .
approximately 8.2% P3-Ultrasil 69+0. min Fig.5 [9a] 0. Rinsing with deionized water (a-series in Fig. significant permeate flux decline occurred during filtration of reconstituted whey solution until the pseudo-steady state.APTEFF. can be associated with the gradual adsorption of protein deposits on and inside the membrane surface.816:66. 40.75% P3-Ultrasil 67 10 20 30 40 50 60 t.4% NaOH 1. chemical cleaning and final rinsing) are given in Fig.2% NaOH 0. yet at a smaller rate. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.5 ⎛ ⎞ kd de ( t ) = ⎜ ⎜ p t3 + p t2 + p t + p ⎟ ⎟ 4d 5d 6d ⎠ ⎝ 3d Deposit thickness during cleaning (δ(t)) can be estimated as follows: d − d e (t ) d e (t ) = d o − 2δ(t ) ⇒ δ(t ) = o 2 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fouling of membrane [9b]  Since the fouling steps were carried out under the same operating conditions. It can be observed that the flux decline is sharp within the first few minutes due to the formation of the concentration polarization layer.8 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. the same extent of fouling was achieved in each experiment.8% P3-Ultrasil 69+0. 2. Permeate flux during fouling Cleaning of membrane The permeate fluxes achieved during the steps that followed the fouling experiments (rinsing. as shown in Fig.1% of the initial value. 3.0% NaOH 0. was reached. 200 180 160 -2 1 Permeate flux Lm h 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0.2298/APT0940135L UDC: 637. As expected. 2.011+66. Further flux decline.5% P3-Ultrasil 67 1. 3) was implemented so that loosely bound deposits are removed 139 . 135-144 Original scientific paper alkali cleaning detergent cleaning ⎛ ⎞ ka de ( t ) = ⎜ ⎜ p t2 + p t + p ⎟ ⎟ 4a 5a ⎠ ⎝ 3a 0 .02:542.013.
chemical cleaning was needed. from Eq. 3.4%w/w alkali solution.2% P3-Ultrasil 69+0. 3 as b-series. The resistance of the membrane. which can save large amounts of chemicals compared to 1. even a slight increase was noticed. 140 . Since the achieved rinsing efficiency was close to 20%. was determined applying Eq. min 50 60 70 80 90 100 (a) (b) Fig. dm3m-2h-1 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 10 20 30 40 B t.0% NaOH a) 0. dm3m-2h-1 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 10 20 30 40 A Flux recovery. Rin. 4) show considerable decrease of the total resistance at the beginning of cleaning.1) on Eq. 135-144 Original scientific paper from the membrane surface.011+66.5% P3-Ultrasil 67 1. 4b). Considerable increase in permeate flux.2298/APT0940135L UDC: 637. are given in Fig. Rc. Flux curves during final rinsing. that followed cleaning steps. are given in Fig. can be observed. The results (ten representative points in Fig. 3 as c-series. the decrease weakened till the end of cleaning. through applying Levenberg-Marquardt method (ORIGIN 6.total and specific resistances The total resistance. 40.816:66. Considerably higher flux recovery was achieved during cleaning with NaOH solutions compared to detergent solutions. Permeate flux curves for the NaOH solutions and for detergent solutions. min 50 60 70 80 90 100 t. Further.8% P3-Ultrasil 69+0.8 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Mathematical modelling .013. from Eq. recommended by the membrane manufacturer. Mathematical modelling. especially with 1% w/w solution of NaOH. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.  and the inpore resistance. was carried out using the Rtf data in order to estimate parameter values for both alkali and detergent cleaning. 4a).  to the pure water flux measurements.75% P3-Ultrasil 67 c) 350 300 Pre-rinsing Chemical cleaning b) 350 Final rinsing 300 a) b) c) Pre-rinsing Chemical cleaning Final rinsing Flux recovery. compared to the flux obtained during cleaning. The parameter values were than used to calculate total and specific resistances (the cake resistance. during cleaning. [6a] and [6b].0%w/w NaOH. Flux recovery during alkali (a) and detergent cleaning (b) Detailed information about rinsing efficiency can be found elsewhere (12). during chemical cleaning was determined according to Eq.APTEFF. 0. as alkali cleaning progressed (Fig.2% NaOH 0. It can be noticed that the permeate flux increased within the first few minutes and more or less remained constant during the rest of cleaning time. .02:542. while in the case of detergent cleaning (Fig. Rtf. These results indicate significant influence of the final rinsing on flux recovery.4% NaOH 1. Rm. [5a] and [5b]). which is less than required. The highest flux recovery was achieved by cleaning with 0.
38 27.4% w/w caustic solution and 0. Model parameters for alkali and detergent cleaning NaOH concentration p1 1. Statistical parameters obtained for all cases of cleaning solutions are presented in Table 2.99754 2.75%w/w Mathematical modelling .5% w/w P3-ultrasil 67 (Fig.011+66.00E+012 1.96)·1010 0.63±0)·1010 P2 27.10±4. Total and specific resistances during alkali (a) and detergent cleaning (b) Since the resulting curves for total and specific resistances show similar trends during cleaning.47±5.36 p3a (4.9±0.86)·1010 (111. 4. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.68±7.21)·1011 (406.5%w/w 1. By analyzing specific resistances an exponential decrease of the cake resistance within a few minutes was observed.00E+012 5.12±4. 4). min (a) Cleaning time.8+0.21)·108 (-3.4% NaOH Total and particular resistances (m-1) 3.54±1.50E+012 3.00E+012 Rtf Rin Rm Rc 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Cleaning agent: 0.98±3.APTEFF.99)·109 (5. which manifests as the in-pore resistance according to the Carmen-Kozeny Eq.68±3. Model parameters 141 .88)·109 p5a (1.44±1. 40.16)·108 (6. re-fouling was noticed during second half of detergent cleaning.00E+012 0.49±8.44±2.00E+012 6.00E+011 0. only two representative cases are presented: cleaning with 0.8 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.6±6.88)·107 p4a (3.2+0.59)·108 (17.74±7.72±0.2%w/w 0.65±0 2. min (b) Fig. The in-pore resistance decreased slowly during the alkali cleaning. 135-144 Original scientific paper B Total and particular resistances.49±1.00E+012 Rtf Rin 4.00E+012 3.07±0) (4.85±0.26±0.816:66.08)·107 (6.58 1±0.03 p2 (29.00E+000 0 5 10 15 20 25 Rm Rc 30 35 Cleaning time.4%w/w 1%w/w Ultrasil (69+67) concentration 0.8% w/w P3-ultrasil 69+0.60)·1010 (1.58±2.00E+012 UDC: 637.15±0) 26.07 30±0.013.50E+012 1. Table 2.00E+000 0 Rtf=4.00E+012 1.86±1.8+0.12 p1 (15.5% w/w Ultrasil(69+67) Rtf=Rm+exp(-P1*t+P2)+P3d*t^3+P4d*t^2+P5d*t+P6d Goodness of fit: R^2 = 0.51)·1010 p6d (38.26)·1010 p4d (-81.94E11+exp(-P1*t+P2)+P3a*t^2+P4a*t+P5a Goodness of fit: R^2 = 0.10)·109 (-7.02:542. .50E+012 2.98675 5.70±2.83)·1010 p5d (145.18±5.effective pore diameter and thickness of the layer Protein adsorption within membrane pores leads to pore narrowing.5)·108 p3d (13.35)·1010 (-3.2298/APT0940135L 4.00E+012 2. However. m-1 A Cleaning agent: 0.
m 4. so it can be concluded that higher concentration of alkali solution is unnecessary. respectively.4% NaOH 1. [8a] and [8b]) and the results (changes in effective pore diameter and deposit thickness) are shown in Fig.00E-008 Effective pore diameter.8% P3-Ultrasil 69+0.011+66.2% P3-Ultrasil 69+0. It is worth mentioning that the lowest deposit thickness is achieved for cleaning with 1%w/w alkali solution but after 20 min of cleaning the deposit thickness is the same as for 0.2% NaOH 0.4%w/w alkali solution.4% NaOH A 1. By analysing deposit thickness it can be concluded that some amount of proteins remains in the pores throughout the entire cleaning process.4%w/w NaOH was proved to have the highest cleaning strength which guaranties almost full flux recovery. a maximum pore diameter after 20 min cleaning period was achieved with 0.8 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.013. further rinsing with deionized water contributes to the enhancement of cleaning. Alkali solution of 0. 5. 5a and Fig. 5b. 5. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Effective pore diameter and deposit thickness during A) alkali and B) detergent cleaning CONCLUSION Defining mathematical model for both alkali and detergent cleaning gives possibility to predict changes in total and specific resistances with time as well as the changes of the effective pore diameter and deposit thickness.5% P3-Ultrasil 67 1. min Cleaning time.2298/APT0940135L UDC: 637. m 1.0% NaOH B 0. However. This confirms previous statement that it is unnecessary to use higher concentrations of alkalis. min Fig. A five parameter model for alkali cleaning and a six parameter model for the detergent cleaning were suggested.2% NaOH 0.00E-008 Deposit thickness.2% P3-Ultrasil 69+0.50E-008 2.00E-008 2.75% P3-Ultrasil 67 4.40E-008 1.00E-008 1.75% P3-Ultrasil 67 2.816:66.4%w/w alkali solution.50E-008 0. The models confirm the decrease of total resistance within a first few minutes and almost complete elimination of the cake resistance. 40.00E-009 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 3. The in-pore resistance decreased during alkali cleaning whereas during detergent cleaning even an increase was observed. Deposits are present inside pores regardless of the applied cleaning solution and its concentration.00E-008 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Cleaning time.8% P3-Ultrasil 69+0.00E-008 8.00E-009 6. 142 .02:542.60E-008 1.50E-008 3.80E-008 0. 135-144 Original scientific paper were obtained by fitting experimental data (Eq.0% NaOH 0.5% P3-Ultrasil 67 1.APTEFF.20E-008 1. It can be noticed that even though deposits are present within pores after cleaning. It can be noticed that the greatest effective pore diameter was achieved during 30 min cleaning period with 1%w/w alkali solution.00E-009 4.
. 126 (1992) 325-330. Desalination 218 (2008) 313-322. A. 5. S. R. M.2298/APT0940135L UDC: 637. Šijački. H. M. E.. M. 3. University of Novi Sad. D. L.816:66.8 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Riera. Milanović. Matzinos. M. Roffel: Development of a dynamic model for cleaning ultrafiltration membranes fouled by surface water. S. J. and R.. F.J. M. 2008..: Flux recovery of ceramic tubular membranes fouled with whey proteins: Some aspects of membrane cleaning. and B. Journal of Membrane Science 105 (1995) 147-157. Lukić N... M. 142045). Journal of Membrane Science 208 (2002) 23-30. 117 (1996) 175-187. 94 (2009) 307-315. Tekić. 10. Wiley. Nigam. Food Eng. S. Lj. Popović. 135-144 Original scientific paper ACKNOWLEGMENT This research was financially supported by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Project No. 4. Sci. Bansal.G.D.A. S. B. Álvarez Effect of ionic strength on rinsing and alkaline cleaning of ultrafiltration inorganic membranes fouled with whey proteins. 2. B. Food Eng. M. S.. and I..: Mechanisms of flux decline during ultrafiltration of dairy products and influence of pH on flux rates of whey and buttermilk. N. 9. Journal of Membrane Science 289 (2007) 26-31.. Acta Peroiodica Technologica 39 (2008) 101-109. S. Fane: Enzymatic and detergent cleaning of a polysulfone membrane fouled with BSA and whey. M. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. J. A. Chen: Fouling and cleaning of whey protein concentrate fouled ultrafiltration membranes. Desalination 144 (2002) 319-324. REFERENCES 1. MSc Thesis.. Iličić. J. S.APTEFF. Zondervan. 6. Alvarez. 8. 11. R. Alvarez: Utilization of enzymatic detergents to clean inorganic membranes fouled by whey proteins.M. and M. 7. Djurić: Kinetic models for alkali and detergent cleaning of ceramic tubular membrane fould with whey proteins. and P. Membr.S. 40.: Flux Regeneration after Membrane Filtration of Whey Proteins. Bird. J. E. Ramachandra Rao. and M.02:542. and R. 53 (2002) 143-152.013. G. P. Muñoz-Aguado. Separation and Purification Technology 41 (2005) 147-154. Fryer: An analytical model for the cleaning of food process plant. and J. 12. Bartlett. O. Bird. and X.011+66. R. Argüello. 143 . and A. Howell: An experimnetal study for the development of a qualitative membrane cleaning model. In: IChemE Symposium Series No. Betlem. H. S. Bartlett: Measuring and modelling flux recovery during the chemical cleaning of MF membranes for the processing of whey protein concentrate. Popović. M. Popović. Bird.
респективно.013. Након анализе експерименталних података.4% раствором NaOH-а. Такође су предложени модели који описују чишћење мембрана алкалним растворима и растворима детерџента. Поповић и Јелена Ђ.2298/APT0940135L UDC: 637. Дефинисање модела омогућује процену промене укупног и појединачних отпора као и промене ефективног пречника пора и дебљине слоја адсорбованог унутар пора мембране током времена.8 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.816:66.APTEFF. модели са укупно пет и шест параметара су предложени за алкално чишћење и чишћење детерџентом. 40.011+66. Марковић У индустрији млека мембране се чисте веома често због интензивног прљања мембрана протеинима. Резултати су показали да се најбоља регенерација флукса постиже 0. 135-144 Original scientific paper МАТЕМАТИЧКО МОДЕЛОВАЊЕ РЕГЕНЕРАЦИЈЕ ФЛУКСА ТОКОМ ХЕМИЈСКОГ ЧИШЋЕЊА ТУБУЛАРНЕ МЕМБРАНЕ ЗАПРЉАНЕ ПРОТЕИНИМА СУРУТКЕ Наташа Љ.02:542. У овом раду описан је поступак хемијског чишћења цевне керамичке мембране запрљане протеинима сурутке. Светлана С. Лукић. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Received 17 June 2009 Accepted 9 September 2009 144 .
APTEFF. 21000 Novi Sad. Dr. which provides high osmotic pressure in the solution (2). mass transfer kinetic. Dr. Res. 60 and 80%) at 50°C and under atmospheric pressure.. B.ac. Mass transfer coefficients were calculated using Hawkes and Flink’s model and the results indicate that the diffusion of water and solids was the most intensive during the first three hours of dehydration. weight reduction. Koprivica. mainly of fruits and vegetables. Ljubinko B.ac. red cabbage.filipcev@fins.Sc. Gordana B. Res. minerals. University of Novi Sad. 40.5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. firstname.lastname@example.org. Kuljanin. Filipčev and Tatjana A.. Serbia 145 .. is performed by immersing them in various hypertonic solutions.. Gordana B.rs. primarily due to the high content of dry matter (80%). Tatjana A. Sugar beet molasses appears to be an excellent medium for osmotic dehydration.012. sugar beet molasses INTRODUCTION Osmotic dehydration is an effective way to reduce the water content in plant and animal tissue with minimal negative effect on nutritive and sensorial properties of the final product. Prof. a method has been developed for osmotic drying in sugar beet molasses as hypertonic solution. Koprivica. Nevena M. The kinetic parameters were determined after 1. Filipčev. The most important kinetic parameters of the process were determined: water loss. 145-154 Original scientific paper OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF RED CABBAGE IN SUGAR BEET MOLASSES – MASS TRANSFER KINETICS Nevena M. Mišljenović . 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.. characterized by high contents of vitamins. normalized solid content and normalized moisture content.ns.2298/APT0940145M UDC:635. Bulеvar Cara Lazara 1. as well as the specific chemical composition.rs. Faculty of Technology.15:66.rs.078:664. Lević. megamum@uns. Assist. Assist. sodium chloride solutions and their combinations are usually used as hypertonic solution (1). B..ac. KEY WORDS: Osmotic dehydration. solid uptake.rs. antioxidants and betain (3). M.Sc. gordanak@uns. Concentrated saccharose solution. 3 and 5 hours. Bojana V.Sc. The best results were obtained at the sugar beet molasses of 80% as an osmotic medium. Osmotic dehydration. bojana. Bojana V. nevenam@uns. Kuljanin The paper describes a study of osmotic dehydration of red cabbage in sugar beet molasses of different concentrations (40. Ljubinko B. Assist.ac.34:635. Res.rs. At the Faculty of Technology in Novi Sad. Prof. Lević. Mišljenović.
078:664.APTEFF. However. normalized moisture content (NMC) and normalized solid content (NSC) were calculated as follows: ⎡g ⎤ w − w WR ⎢ ⎥ = o wo ⎣g ⎦ ⎡ g ⎤ u − uo SG ⎢ ⎥ = wo ⎣g⎦ WL   ⎡ g ⎤ = WR + SG ⎢g⎥ ⎣ ⎦  146 . the penetration of mineral substances. dehydration time. water loss (WL). solids gain (SG). Red cabbage after osmotic dehydration in sugar beet molasses can be used in the baker industry for the production of a nutritionally valuable food. three main process variables are usually measured: moisture content. the tendency is to increase the diffusion of water from the sample into the surrounding solution and decrease penetration of solids from the solution into the plant tissue. as well as the ratio of material to osmotic solution. etc. 6). to the tissue can be considered as favorable because the nutritional value of thus treated fruits and vegetables is higher (8). which is derived from sugar beet molasses. It results from the largest difference of osmotic pressure between the osmotic solution and the cell sap of the material and small mass transfer resistance at this stage of the process (9). During osmotic dehydration. in the case when sugar beet molasses is used as hypertonic solution. rate of mass transfer and overall mass transfer coefficients for water and solute were determined in this paper. The rate and dewatering degree of the material and changes in its chemical composition depend on the sort of the osmotic solution used. and type of apparatus. change in weight and change in soluble solids.2298/APT0940145M UDC:635.5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. taste. Kinetic parameters. Antioxidative potential of breads were significantly increased (10). not completely selective.012. vitamins. 145-154 Original scientific paper The complex cellular structure of plant tissue acts as a. 5. 40. on the other hand (7). Breads are darker and with a very pleasant. the kind and the size of raw material. temperature. weight reduction (WR).15:66. semi-permeable membrane. which allows two main countercurrent flows: water from the plant tissue flows into the osmotic solution whereas osmotic solute diffuses from the solution to the tissue (4.34:635. Mass transfer model During the osmotic dehydration process. Of these. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. The influence of different concentrations of sugar beet molasses and dehydration time on the efficiency of osmotic dehydration process of red cabbage was examined in this study. Rate of osmotic dehydration is the highest at the beginning of the process. caramel-specific.
Serbia and stored at 4°C. For dilution of sugar beet molasses distilled water were used. rate of solid gain (RSG) and the rate of water loss (RWL) were calculated. dimension 1x1 cm. Xo – initial moisture content of the fresh sample before osmotic treatment (g).15:66. ⎡ g ⎤ WR RWR ⎢ ⎥ = ⎣g ⋅ s⎦ θ ⎡ g ⎤ SG RSG ⎢ ⎥ = ⎣g ⋅s⎦ θ ⎡ g ⎤ WL RWL ⎢ ⎥ = ⎣g ⋅ s⎦ θ EXPERIMENTAL    Red cabbage was purchased on a local market in Novi Sad. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. X – moisture content in the sample after osmotic dehydration (g).kwθ -0.5  where kw (s-0. Under static conditions mass transfer coefficients depend on the solution concentration and contact temperature. 147 .2298/APT0940145M UDC:635. 145-154 Original scientific paper NMC = X/Xo NSC = u/uo   where: wo– initial sample weight (g). the red cabbage was thoroughly washed and cut into cubes.5  NSC = 1 + ksθ -0. w – sample weight after osmotic dehydration (g). the rate of weight reduction (RWR).5) represent the overall mass transfer coefficients for water and solute respectively.APTEFF. Osmotic dehydration was conducted in an apparatus at 55°C under atmospheric pressure (Fig. and θ (s) is the dehydration time. 60 and 80% dry matter) were used as osmotic solution. Prior to the treatment.5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 40. A model was proposed by Hawkes and Flink (9) to describe the kinetics of moisture loss and solid gain: NMC = 1 .34:635. Based on the above parameters. uo – initial solid content in the fresh sample (g).078:664. Sugar beet molasses in different concentrations (40. u – solid content in the sample after osmotic dehydration (g).012. 1). Sugar beet molasses was obtained from the sugar factory Bač.5) and ks (s-0. Serbia.
148 . Moisture content of the samples was determined by the oven drying method according to AOAC (12). Kinetic parameters were determined after 1. Solid gain. 1. 40. The red cabbage dehydrated in the 80% molasses for 5 hours. the cabbage pieces were removed from the osmotic solutions. Serbia) at 105°C for 24 hours until a constant weight was attained (11). and when the immersion time was 5 hours.2298/APT0940145M UDC:635.012. lost about 45% of the initial weight. during the osmotic dehydration of red cabbage.15:66. Finally.35%) was achieved when 80% solid content sugar beet molasses was used as the osmotic solution. 145-154 Original scientific paper Temperature monitoring Osmotic solution T Samples Thermostatic bath Pumps Fig. The samples were kept in an oven (Instrumentaria Sutjeska. Higher value of WR parameter was found when the immersion time and concentration of sugar beet molasses were higher. The highest value of dry matter content in red cabbage (29.078:664. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. washed with water and gently blotted to remove excessive water.5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Apparatus for osmotic dehydration The material to solution ratio was 1:4 (w/w). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 1 shows changes in dry matter content in the samples of red cabbage during osmotic dehydration as a function of the concentration and dehydration time. In addition to the changes of dry matter content. The samples were weighed. mass of the samples was reduced. the changes in kinetic parameters during the osmotic dehydration of red cabbage are also shown in the table 1. showed a tendency to increase with increasing the immersion time and concentration of molasses. The SG value indicates the degree of penetration of solids from the osmotic solution in the samples.34:635. During the dehydration. The increase in concentration and immersion time during the osmotic dehydration resulted in higher content of dry matter in the samples of red cabbage. 3 and 5 hours.APTEFF.
46 19. minimizing the penetration of substances from the osmotic solution into the vegetable tissue. g/g initial sample weight WL.44 24. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.253377 0.195852 0. The mass transfer rate was the most intensive when sugar beet molasses with 80% solid content was used as osmotic solution. Changes of dry matter content and the kinetic parameters during osmotic dehydration of red cabbage in the sugar beet molasses Concentration of molasses. i.321789 0.48 24.263828 0.15:66.34 16.375188 0. 2 is a theoretical case which shows the situation when the rate of water loss is equal to the rate of solid gain.067584 0. (%) WR.444238 0.049435 0.536192 Increasing the dehydration time caused greater loss of water from the sample. The highest water loss (WL) (0. 40.012. Time.042771 0. The rate of mass reduction.17 16. m.35 0.416758 0. by the greater difference between the osmotic pressures of the hypertonic solution and the plant tissue.6 times faster than the solid gain. 145-154 Original scientific paper Penetration of the solute from the osmotic solution into the sample can be limited by applying starch edible coatings (13).2298/APT0940145M UDC:635.62 29. g/g initial sample weight 1 40 % 3 5 1 60 % 3 5 1 80% 3 5 13.63 17.262369 0.349175 0. and therefore the driving force for dehydration was higher.163918 0. (h) Dry matter.031934 0.075422 0.The results of this work indicated that water loss from the samples was faster than the penetration of the solute into the samples (Fig. The increase in the rate of solid gain is directly dependent on the concentration of osmotic solution and inversely proportional to the size of sugar molecules (4. The results show that the osmotic dehydration was the most intensive at the beginning of the process. 149 .18 23.287306 0. The objective of osmotic dehydration is the removal of water from plant tissue and.235882 0. 2). The slope of the straight line indicates the ratio of water loss and solid gain rates. Broken line in Fig. Table 1. at the same time.079420 0.5362 g / g of initial sample weight) was observed in the sample which was dehydrated in molasses with 80% solid content for 5 hours.059420 0. the rate of water loss and the rate of solid gain were the highest during the first hour of the process.214393 0.442271 0.368816 0. Higher concentrations of molasses increased the osmotic pressure in the hypertonic solution. During the dehydration of red cabbage in sugar beet molasses (40% of dry matter) water loss was 6. and after the third hour showed a stabilization tendency. 9). which can be explained by greater driving force during the process of osmotic dehydration.e.APTEFF.078:664.5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. % d. Mass transfer rate decreased continuously from the first to the third hour. Table 2 shows the mass transfer rate during the osmotic dehydration as a function of the immersion time and concentration of sugar beet molasses.051424 0.34:635.067084 0. g/g initial sample weight SG.456772 0.210605 0.
g/(g i.4688x + 0.10%.9 6.3683 R2 = 1 y = 0.82 1.85 3.54 8.4399 R2 = 0.43 2.37 13.*s) Fig. Extensive dehydration took place within the first 3 h.7 7.s.078:664.9988 y = 0.5606x + 0. Comparison of the RWL with the RSG during the process of osmotic dehydration of red cabbage in sugar beet molasses (● .44 2.79 7. 2.32 1.46 7. the water diffusion slowed down and for the next two hours the water content was reduced by 3 . ■ .012. After the third hour.41 5. m.15:66.33 4.62 2.s.98 60 % 1 3 5 80% 1 3 5 i.s.36 2.87 5.09 2.46 5. an increase in the dehydration rate was observed. during which the water removal ranged between 30 and 50% of the initial moisture content in the plant tissue.s.s.64 3. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.04 4. The results of this work indicated that the time of dehydration can be limited to 3 hours.APTEFF. % d.80% sugar beet molasses) Typical results of the change of the dehydration parameters (NMC and NSC) for the red cabbage immersed in sugar beet molasses (40%.*s) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 6 y = 0.·s)·105 40 % 1 3 5 4. During 5 hours of dehydration there was the diffusion of the solute from the osmotic solution into the plant tissue.w.5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. (h) Rate of weight reduction.0. g/(g i.w.08 5.s.05 3.60% sugar beet molasses.w. 145-154 Original scientific paper Table 2. 40.2298/APT0940145M UDC:635. Mass transfer rate during osmotic dehydration of red cabbage in sugar beet molasses Concentration of molasses.w.w. Time. g/(g i. 60% and 80%) at 55°C are shown in Fig.w.·s)·105 Rate of solids gain.34:635. although the most 150 .41 4. – initial sample weight 8 RWL*10 (g/g i.96 3.40% sugar beet molasses.9017 R2 = 1 5 10 12 14 16 18 RSG*10 (g/g i. With increase of the solution concentration.55 2. ▲ .3 11. 3.·s)·106 Rate of water loss.6603x .
Mass transfer coefficients depend on the temperature and concentration of hypertonic solution.2298/APT0940145M UDC:635. A increase in the mass transfer coefficient was observed for water and solute with increasing concentration of the osmotic solution of sugar beet molasses. 3.50 60 % molasses 80 % molasses 80 % molasses 60 % molasses 40 % molasses NMC NSC NSC 1.45 0.0 NMC 0. the dependence of these coefficients was studied as a function of the duration of immersion time and concentrations of sugar beet molasses.6 40 % molasses 2. Higher values of mass transfer coefficients for water in the samples obtained during the first hour of osmotic dehydration can be explained by a higher driving force during the process.60 0. whereas in the sample dehydrated in 40% molasses. in the samples dehydrated in sugar beet molasses with 60% and 80% solid content.34:635. during the diffusion of free water. Influence of dehydration time and concentration of osmotic media on the NMC and NSC parameters The overall mass transfer coefficients for water and solute was determined on the basis of equations 6 and 7 (Fig. 4 and 5).e. 145-154 Original scientific paper intensive diffusion took place within the first 3 hours of the process.APTEFF.80 0.75 1.3 0.7 1. 40.70 1.4 1. (14) indicated that the diffusion of the solute into the plant tissue can be limited by lowering the temperature to 45 °C. 0.40 50 100 150 200 250 300 Time (min) Fig.5 1. since the selectivity of the semi-permeable cell membrane of plant tissue reduces at the temperatures above 45°C.8 0. Lazarides et al. by the higher concentration gradient of moisture in the initial stages of osmotic dehydration. 151 .5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.55 0.012. i.9 0. the increase in solute diffusion was very small.078:664. At a constant temperature. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.15:66.65 1. After the third hour of the process. The mass transfer coefficient decreased with the immersion time. the diffusion continued at a greater rate.
003 0. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940145M UDC:635.012 0. 4. 40.004 0.008 -0. Mass transfer coefficient for water during osmotic dehydration of red cabbage in sugar beet molasses at 55°C 0.006 0.15:66.006 0.078:664. Mass transfer coefficient for solute during osmotic dehydration of red cabbage in sugar beet molasses at 55° 152 .APTEFF.01 0.012.002 0 1 3 Time (h) 5 Fig.5 ) 40% sugar beet molasses 60% sugar beet molasses 80% sugar beet molasses Ks (s 0.002 0.005 0. 5.34:635. 145-154 Original scientific paper 0.5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.004 40% sugar beet molasses 60% sugar beet molasses 0.001 0 1 3 5 80% sugar beet molasses Kw (s-0.5) Time (h) Fig.
London: Sheffield Academic Press (1997). TR – 20112. Lenart and H. in Engineering and food (Part 2) (G77-G80). 153 . 3 (2007). Hemijska Industrija 43. Koprivica G.. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This research is part of the project supported by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia. R. Moreira. S. Higher solution concentration caused higher water loss.. A. 2008-2010.: Osmotic dehydration of sugar beet in combined aqueous solutions of sucrose and sodium chloride. Mišljenović. N. and K.. and A.5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 4. which is very desirable in order to avoid the effect of sugar penetration into the sample.34:635. Lević LJ. N. Sereno: Evaluation of mass transfer coefficients and volumetric shrinkage during osmotic dehydration of apple using sucrose solutions in static and non-static conditions. H. Osmotic dehydration was the most intensive in the first hour of dehydration.APTEFF. 40. 2. in Engineering and food (Part 2) (G73-G76). After 3 hours of dehydration the rate of mass transfer decreased so that the processing time can be limited to 3 hours. Journal of Food Engineering 57 (2003) 25–31. Šušić S. Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 12. 4 (2008) 215-218. Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 11. V. 145-154 Original scientific paper CONCLUSION Sugar beet molasses seems to be a osmotic solution suitable for the osmotic dehydration of red cabbage. Kowalska. 8. Lenart: Mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of plant tissue. Eds. Sinobad: Istraživanja u cilju unapređenja industrije šećera Jugoslavije. and A. A.2298/APT0940145M UDC:635. 6.15:66. 3. Jowitt. M. M. Lazarides: On the use of edible coatings to monitor osmotic dehydration kinetics for minimal solids uptake. K. Matuska M. Pribiš: Osmotsko sušenje jabuke u rastvorima saharoze i melase šećerne repe: promena nutritivnih karakteristika finalnog proizvoda. S.078:664. and V.012. REFERENCES 1. Salvatori. Lj. 5. London: Sheffield Academic Press (1997). and Z. Rastogi. A. Gyura. Lević. J. Jowitt. Andres. Raghavarao: Mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of carrot: comparison of different methods for estimation of effective diffusivities. Lj. A. Filipović and T. Properties of Water in Food. Eds. R. D. Journal of Food Engineering 78 (2007) 47-51. 132-135. 1-2 (1989) 10 -21. Chiralt and P. Journal of Food Engineering 72 (2006) 85-91. Petkova and V. M. Warsaw (1998) 131-142. Zavargo. Jokić. Kuljanin: Osmotski tretman oblikovanog korena mrkve u saharozi i melasi.. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.. About seven times higher was the rate of water loss than the rate of solid gain. N. 9. R. 7.. Lević. In Proceedings of the IX seminar. Fito: Concentration profiles in apple tissue during osmotic dehydration. higher solids gain and higher mass reduction of red cabbage.
Milić. Lević Lj.2298/APT0940145M UDC:635. Šimurina and T. N. S. Бојана В. 3 (2008) 124-126. Filipčev.. Љубинко Б. E. 60 и 80 %). Obradović: Metode za laboratorijsku kontrolu procesa proizvodnje fabrika šećera. G. Tehnološki fakultet Novi Sad. i T. Novi Sad (1992). Mišljenović. Lazarides. Kuljanin: Effect of starch as an edible coating material on the process of osmotic dehydration of carrot in saccharose solution and sugar beet molasses. на температури од 55oC и атмосферском притиску. Гордана Б. Најбољи резултати дехидратације су постигнути кад је као осмотски раствор коришћена 80% меласа шећерне репе. 145-154 Original scientific paper 10. 12. губитак масе. H. and N. Koprivica. 14. B.. AOAC. Journal of Food Engineering 30 (1996) 61-74. Коефицијенти преноса масе. Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 12. M. Левић. Филипчев и Татјана А. V. указују да је дифузија воде и растворка најинтензивнија у прва три сата дехидратације. 11. N.34:635. 13. нормални садржај суве материје и нормални садржај влаге. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. ОСМОТСКА ДЕХИДРАТАЦИЈА ЦРВЕНОГ КУПУСА У МЕЛАСИ ШЕЋЕРНE РЕПE – КИНЕТИКА ПРЕНОСА МАСЕ Невена М. Filipčev. Куљанин У раду је проучавана осмотска дехидратација црвеног купуса у раствору меласе шећерне репе различитих концентрација (40. Lević. Washington. 3 и 5 сати дехидратације.. Pribiš. Kuljanin: Promena antioksidativnog potencijala finih kvasnih peciva pri dodavanju voća i povrća osmotski dehidriranom u melasi šećerne repe.APTEFF..5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Mavroudis: Kinetics of osmotic dehydration of a highly shrinking vegetable tissue in a salt – free medium. Karadžić. Received 16 June 2009 Accepted 13 October 2009 154 .. Мишљеновић . Acta Periodica Technologica 39 (2008) 29-36.012. одрeђени према моделу Hawkes-а и Flina–а. V. Official Methods of Analysis (2000).078:664. Кинетички параметри процеса су одређени након 1. прираст суве материје. 40.15:66. Lj. У раду су одређени најважнији кинетички параметри процеса: губитак влаге. Копривица. O. B. USA.
Assoc. Vitković Polymer composite pipes with glass fiber reinforcement have today a wide usage in the chemical and process industries. Also. Serbia. Dr. Marina R. 40..21:539. Putić.189. 155-163 Original scientific paper DETERMINATION OF TENSION STRENGTH IN THE LONGITUDINAL AND CIRCUMFERENTIONAL DIRECTION IN GLASS-POLYESTER COMPOSITE PIPES Slaviša S. The advantages are in relatively small mass with good strentgh/stiffness ratio.2298/APT0940155P UDC: 678. Belgrade Polytechnic. The basic subject of this paper is the determination and distribution of stresses and strains in longitudinal and circumferentional directions of glass-polyester pipes under tension test. KEY WORDS: Glass-polyester composite pipe. Stamenović.. Marina Stamenović. Bajčeta and Dragana D. 11000 Belgrade.Sc. 11000 Belgrade. design and production of glass-polyester composite pipe does not give enough information about the behavior of pipes during the internal pressure.. reservoirs.rs. Serbia. B. Branislav B. tension test. slavisa@tmf. the micromechanical analysis on fracture surfaces was done by SEM. Prof. The basic hypothesis is that the current standard of choice.7+666. which provided the knowledge about models and mechanisms of fracture on applyed loading.bg. Branislav Bajčeta. Sc. the tension strengths in both directions are determined out.APTEFF. tanks.41 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. pressure vessels are made of these materials. Serbia 155 . 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Brankova 17. B.ac. The basic subject of this paper is to determine distribution of streses and strains in the longitudinal and circumferentional direction of glass-polyester composite pipe of defined construction subjected to tension. ring test. good static and dynamic properties. micromechanical analysis INTRODUCTION Traditional materials in the chemical and process industries are today successfully replaced by composite materials. as well as good resistance to corrosion. Sc. More and more pipes. Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy. Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy. Belgrade. Karnegijeva 4. M. Tension test was performed on an electro-mechanical test machine on flat samples and rings obtained by cutting of pipes produced by the method “Filament winding” with glass fibers reinforcement ±55°. Also. Karnegijeva 4. and this problem is still connected to the individual investigations which are conducted in individual world laboratories. Slaviša Putić. Dragana Vitković..
(right) rings P-BR 156 . and boron-epoxy composite pipe is approximately 45°÷55° (1). they investigated the influence of stress distribution on creeep.189. the authors also tested composite pipes subjected to internal pressure and found the values of stresses and strains in both directions. 155-163 Original scientific paper An example of research is the paper (1) in which authors studied the dependence of reinforcement angle in polymer composite pipes subjected to internal pressure.21:539. Also. carbon-epoxy. Experiments were carried out with internal pressure and stresses and strains were measured in the logitudinal and circumferential directions.highly reactive.D. 1. Mechanical properties of glass-polyester pipes with angle of reinforcement of ±54° and 90° were tested (2). EXPERIMENTAL Composite pipes have been fabricated in the lab conditions. There is a resemblance between the paper (2) and presented experiment. Certificate was given for “COLPOLY 7510” for the type: UP/SOM. The analysis showed that angle of reinforcement has a great influence on the pipe strength and the optimal value for glass-epoxy.7+666. The producers of reinforced glass fibers are A. (left) flat samples R-BR. Scheme of cutting of the test pipes. Hoffman’s criteria of crack was used. In (3).2298/APT0940155P UDC: 678. The properties of used glass-polyester pipes were given in the official certificates of the particular producers of components. Fig. 40. Deviation of this values increase the possibility of finall fracture. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. with low viscose polyester on the basis of ortophthalic acid and standard glycol. The subject of paper (4) is also the determination of stresses and strains in the longitudinal and circumferentional directions. conected with the investigation of crack initiation and propagation.41 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Thermo-reactive resin was used as matrix by the producer “Color”-Medvode (Slovenia). The final result was the knowledge about stress in both directions which does not cause cracks in the pipe and their propagation until the final fracture. The relationship between stress in circumferentional and longitudinal direction (2:1) in the case of different angle of reinforcement has been checked out. “OHIS” and “Vidoe Smilevski-Bato” from Gostivar (Macedonia) by certificate confirm “E” glass with 1% of alkali.APTEFF.
. and rings. The testing was defined by standard ASTM D 3039 (5. 2.7+666.APTEFF. 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0.5 mm (average values of all tested samples).0 Strain. according to the Equation  for the rings (circumferentional direction): R m . Testing of flat test specimens was done on a servo-hydraulic testing machine SCHENCK TREBEL RM 100. the flat specimens 250x25(20 gage area)x3. The specimens for tests.41 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 40. Displacements were measured by double extensiometer HOTTINGER DD1. and the rings φ70x35x3. P-BR).2298/APT0940155P UDC: 678.0 1. with ±55° angle of glass fibers reinforcement. Fig. Fig.l = Pmax b⋅d  157 . (flat specimens. and ring test on the servo-hydraulic testing machine INSTRON 1332 with the controller INSTRON FAST TRACK 80800. Ar 001) by the tools with diamond top and the moving speed which lowers the heating of the sample. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Comparison of the stress-strain (σ–ε) diagrams from the two tests Tensile strength was calculated according to the Equation  for flat test specimens (longitudinal direction). 6).0 0. and.5 2. 1. 2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION During the test the diagrams stress-strains (σ-ε) were plotted. R-BR. using of hydraulic jaws. Loading was registered with measuring cell of the capacity of 100 kN.0 5 4 1 2 6 3 P-BR Stress.5 mm. ε (%) Fig.189.21:539.5 3. σ (MPa) 6 5 2 1 4 3 R-BR 2. Six flat test specimens (P-BR) and six rings (R-BR) were tested.5 1. The cut was done on machine type NC-2010 (Nr 95110. 155-163 Original scientific paper The pipes were made by the method “Filament Winding”. were cut from the samples of pipes according to the standard dimensions.
c) (GPa) was calculated using Equation .c.57 2. and the average value of module of elasticity 9.l. mm.55 3. The explanation for higher deviation of result of the module of elasticity is the fact that it was relatively more difficult to determine precisely the module elasticity because of the relatively unstable linear part of diagram in Fig. minimal deviation is 0.47 47. According to the results of six tested specimens.90 7. is the thickness of test specimen (flat specimens or rings). in MPa. except for the test specimen R-BR-4. 155-163 Original scientific paper R m . R-BR) The calculated values of tensile strength and module of elasticity in the longitudinal direction are shown in Table 1.8 MPa.APTEFF. it is known that because of the angle of winding fibers and different distribution of tension along the axis of fibers.72 13.61 57. 40. there is relatively small deviation of measured and average values for tensile strength and module of elasticity.12 52. all the 158 . is the maximal applied load force.08 2.54 10.41 15.50 3.5% for test specimen R-BR6.l (MPa) 46 48 43 44 52 54 Module of elasticity El (GPa) 8. maximal 25. and which crashed much earlier than the others during the test.90 12. maximal 13.62 15.75 R-BR-1 R-BR-2 R-BR-3 R-BR-4 R-BR-5 R-BR-6 59. is the width of test specimen (flat specimens or rings).62 15. Table 1.41 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.73 53. As for the tension strength.90 8. kN.15 54.2298/APT0940155P UDC: 678.81 2. and d.45 3.0% for test specimen R-BR-6. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Pmax.21:539.72 The relative agreement of the obtained values of maximal load force Pmax can be noticed. c ) = 1 Δσ ΔP = ⋅ Δε Δε 2 ⋅ b ⋅ d  Tension strentgh in longitudinal direction (flat samples.85 Tensile strength Rm. in MPa.70 GPa.72 3. E( l . is the tensile strength in the longitudinal direction. That is the reason why this test specimen has the smallest maximal load force. As for module of elasticity.74 2.7+666.48 14. is the tensile strength in the circumferentional direction.48 Cross section A0 (mm2) Maximal load force Pmax (kN) 2.c = Pmax 2 ⋅b ⋅d  where: Rm.47 2.20 9. the average value of tension strength is 47. mm.4% for test specimen R-BR-2. Test results of flat samples Sample Width of test Thickness of test specimen specimen b (mm) d (mm) 16. b.8% for test specimen R-BR-5.189. Rm. Module of elasticity E(l. For tension strength minimal deviation is 0. and the relationship ΔΡ/Δε was determined by linear regression of rectilinear parts of obtained stressesstrains curves.95 3. 2 and relatively small starting curve stress-strain (σ–ε). It can be concluded that for this kind of mechanical testing.15 3. which is of smaller geometrical dimensions area.
4. 3. Delamination of layers is certainly a phenomenon of destruction of these test samples. 3).APTEFF. The result of that is the different moment of breaking fibers. that is. the local deformations were spreading.21:539.41 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 4) which matches the interlaminar shear stress. Delamination under the interlaminar shear stress. Fig. The confirmation of these conclusions is the SEM micrograph shown in Fig. resulting in progressive delamination and final fracture. The increase of stress brought to the debonding and cracks between fiber-matrix connection and macro-cracks which cause fracture. Important influence of shear components of tension can be seen in the dependence of tension-strain (σ–ε).2298/APT0940155P UDC: 678. The fracture was followed by strong acoustic effect which was a consequence of the break of a great number of fibers. SEM micrograph 159 . which is not linear (Fig.189. 5. but pipe still carried out the loading. Delamination of test specimen during the load Fig. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Fibers that break easier cause disturbance in the zone of breaking and local tensions occur next to the broken fiber. 2) for most of composites. Different time of fibers breaking shown by SEM Fig. so that it leads to different maximal loading force on the fracture.7+666. The delamination has the appearance (Fig. where under the higher magnification we can see the previously mentioned phenomenon. With further increase of load force. 5. 155-163 Original scientific paper fibers are not loaded in the same way. some fibers break under lower and some under higher loading (Fig. Non-linear characteristics occurred on approximately 20÷25% of value of maximal stress. the whole groups of fibers broke. The result of that is the break of fibers and local delamination. 40.
35 3.8% for the ring P-BR-2. 160 .2 GPa according to results of six tested rings. The fibers did not crack on exactly determined surfaces but randomly in all directions.0 35. Also. That is also the confirmation of the important participation of shear components of tension.5 MPa.86 19. and the average module of elasticity 13.0 35. As for the analysis of the break itself. The nonlinearity occurred on approximately 40% of the value of maximal load force.0 Thickness of ring s (mm) 3.s (mm2) Maximal load force Pmax (kN) 19. so a specially made tools were used. leaving one group of fibers still together. As for the module of elasticity. because of relatively unstable linear part on the diagram and small starting curving of curve stress-strain (Fig.1 13.9 13. was spreading further and caused the occurrence of macro-crack.47 15.0 35. crossed ±45°). 2. are not linear for this testing either. curved ring and earlier crack. maximal 15.189. It is characteristic that all tested rings had evident break with cracking of fibers in two directions (conditionally..48 21. 7).0% for the rings P-BR-5 and P-BR-6.5 The relative agreement of the obtained values of maximal load forces Pmax can be seen. stretching and bursting of fibers is characteristic which can be a consequence of the lack of matrix (Fig. maximal 3. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. For the module of elasticity the fact that it was relatively difficult to determine precisely module of elasticity.15 3. 155-163 Original scientific paper Tension strentgh in circumferentional direction (ring samples.0 241. there were certain irregularities in the measurements that affected the results. the stresses-strains (σ-ε) curves shown in Fig. The results of testing of all ring samples Sample Width of ring b (mm) 35.5 234. It must be taken in consideration that the test was done by modified and specific method of testing of rings for tensile strength. except for the test ring specimen P-BR-3. P-BR) The calculated values of tension strength in circumferentional direction and module of elasticity are shown in Table 2. It is assumed that because of this there is slightly irregularly set tool inside the ring which caused irregular increase of force.APTEFF.21 Tensile strentgh Rm.0 12.9% for the ring P-BR-1.13 18.8 P-BR-1 P-BR-2 P-BR-3 P-BR-4 P-BR-5 P-BR-6 234.5 220.45 Cross section 2. 6) and strong acoustic effect.41 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Because of that.2298/APT0940155P UDC: 678. which caused increased concentration of tension.5 231.5 227. minimal deviation is 0. where the smallest value was obtained (Table 2).35 3.3 3. Minimal deviation is 1.47 17.7+666. Table 2.0 35. This ring cracked earlier than the others during the testing. 2).0 35. 40.6 12. The explanation of the presented results is relatively similar as with flat samples (RBR).c (MPa) 82 79 70 88 93 71 Module of elasticity Ec (GPa) 13.2% for the ring P-BR-5.21:539. The average value of tension strength in the circumferentional direction is 80. so its calculated tension strength in circumferentional direction is the smallest. The starting crack initiated in one of the layers by the breaking of connection fiber-matrix or cracking of fiber. it has to be said that it occurred with a great stretch of ring samples (Fig.5 13.b.25 3. Also.
4. 10 module of elasticity from both tests. This kind of presentation is justified having in mind the condition of tension in pipes (cylindrical samples) and the fact that in the circumferentional direction there are twice as high stresses compared to the longitudinal direction. In our experiment this ratio is approximately 1.41 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 8).21:539. 9 the comparative calculated tension strengths and Fig. Fig.7. 7. It was real to expect that higher values would be obtained for the module of elasticity in the circumferentional direction than for those in the longitudinal direction.7+666.189. In this case their relation is approximately 1. Fig. On the other hand. 40. causing delamination. 2 shows comparative stress-strain (σ–ε) diagrams.APTEFF. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 8. 161 . it was expected because the structure of composite pipe is neither heterogeneous nor homogenous. and composite materials have different and specific mechanisms of damages and breaking. Delamination is a phenomenon of the destruction of all rings (Fig. Delamination of rings Comparison and analysis of results of the two tension tests Now we compare and analyze the results obtained in the both tests. Fig. 155-163 Original scientific paper Fig.2298/APT0940155P UDC: 678. 6. Straining of rings during the testing Fig. Some major differences in the values of module of elasticity obtained in the two tests do not exist. Stretching and bursting of fibers under the lack of matrix With a further increase of the loading and tension of macro-crack spread in the adjacent layers. but the ring still carried out the loading.
2. In the previously standard tests. The decrease of the curve slope occurred with increase of tension load in both tests. based on Fig. these properties were determined to get some starting points for further tests. 40. The cause of this nonlinearity in the beginning shows the fact that because of tension in the longitudinal direction sliping of fibers occurred. It occurred at approximately 20÷25% of value of the maximal load force for samples R-BR and 40% for samples P-BR. but it is continued in the whole process.21:539. Also.2298/APT0940155P UDC: 678. 10. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. performed on flat test specimens and rings.APTEFF. c) 6 6 5 Sa R P-B 3 m Sa 4 BR P3 pl e 2 1 BR R- m pl e 2 1 BR R- Fig. The nonlinearity of diagram stress-strain was found (σ–ε) in both tests.8% compared to 3. which the wound fibers where 162 Module of elasticity E(l. This nonlinearity occurred in the first part of the curve. 9.0%). Fig. 2 the following conclusion can be drawn: 1. Comparative presentation of the tension strength obtained in the two tests Fig. Besides the determination of the curve defining the module of elasticity is difficult. On the other hand. Linear part at the beginning of the curve for samples R-BR is much lower than for samples P-BR. and this caused first cracks between the fibers and matrix and creation of zones of increased concentration of tension. during the streching of rings strength of wound fibers was higher and they carried the loading. Comparative presentation of the module of elasticity obtained in the two tests CONCLUSION The aim of the paper was the determination and distribution of streseses in glasspolyester composite pipes in the circumferentional and longitudinal directions. Thus. maximal deviations of the calculated modules of elasticity for R-BR was much higher (25. We can explain the fact that the curve slope and values of tension strength of the samples P-BR are higher than for samples R-BR.189.41 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.7+666. 155-163 Original scientific paper 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 5 4 Tension st rength Rm (M Pa) (l. As a result. the tension strentgh in both directions were calculated. (GPa ) c) 100 90 80 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 . 2 can be used to explain the mechanisms of damage and crack behavior during the loading in both tension tests. During the loading of samples P-BR the matrix was streching until it cracked.
M. : Mechanical Characterization Of Filament Wound Composite Tubes By Internal Pressure Testing. 5. Annual Book of ASTM Standard. but equally lead to the final crack. Philadelphia.15.. Ji-Hui: Effects of winding angle on the strength of composite pipe under internal pressure. на основу које су претпостављени модели и механизми настанка лома услед примењених оптерећења. Struct. Бранислав Б.41 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. ОДРЕЂИВАЊЕ ЗАТЕЗНЕ ЧВРСТОЋЕ У УЗДУЖНОМ И ОБИМНОМ ПРАВЦУ У СТАКЛО-ПОЛИЕСТЕР КОМПОЗИТНИМ ЦЕВИМА Славиша С. Такође. Микромеханичка анализа је изведена на површинама прелома коришћењем СЕМ. ASTM D 3039-76. Guan. Karpuz. The case of samples R-BR is different. REFERENCES 1. Z. Предмет овог рада је одређивање и расподела напона и деформација у уздужном и обимном (тангенцијалном) правцу стакло-полиестер цеви при испитивању затезањем. C. Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Fiber-Resin Composites. but the following layers took over the loading. Polym. Received 22 July 2009 Accepted 22 September 2009 163 . 28. 2. It is obvious that samples P-BR have higher tension strentgh. : Creep Analysis of Polymeric Pipes Under Internal Pressure. са намотавањем стакленог ојачања под углом ±55°. Стаменовић. P. 155-163 Original scientific paper 3. growing part. Vol. Boot. 40. Витковић Цеви од полимерних композита са стакленим ојачањем данас имају широку примену у хемијској и процесној индустрији. 2 (1995) 108-110. Annual book of ASTM Standards.21:539. Марина Р. Mater. W. Ai-Qing. Испитивање затезањем је изведено на електромеханичким кидалицама на равним узорцима и прстеновима сеченим од цеви произведених методом намотавања.03. v 36 (1980) 734-739. Master of Science Thesis. This means that after the first cracks there was dominant shear stress which caused progressive delaminating and gradually. Путић. Ni. Eng.APTEFF. Wang. but also withstand higher strains. Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering. 6. American Society for Testing and Materials.. Wuhan Ligong Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Wuhan University of Technology 28. Бајчета и Драгана Д. there is seen almost linearity (to approximately 90% of maximal tension). It can be concluded that even at a higher tension. Yi-Wen. Sci. Zhu. P.2298/APT0940155P UDC: 678. University of Ankara (2005) 104.189. Flueler. 4. 3 (2006) 10-13. Farshad: Arrest of rapid crack propagation in polymer pipes.7+666. carrying the loading. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. J. 41 6 (2004) 955-961. одређена је и затезна чврстоћа у оба наведена правца. The crack appeared on the thickness of the ring. (1999). 3. PA. slight curving was seen. and with these curves in the second.
Prof.1. 40. Marjanović and Zvonimir J.2 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 24000 Subotica. Saša I. we have investigated the effect of L-ascorbic acid as the reaction medium as well as the pre-reducing agent in speciation of arsenic by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry in order to determine monomethyl arsonic acid (MMA) in the presence of inorganic forms of arsenic. Prof. By using arsenic based pesticides. Saša I. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Monomethyl arsonic acid (MMA) and dimethyl arsinic acid (DMA) are better absorbed and also better assimilated (incorporated) by plants than arsenic inorganic compounds (11). because of varying degrees of toxicity of different species.16:546. Zvonimir J. speciation. Dr. Serbia. disposal of industrial and other waste products. while in non-contaminated soil average concentration is 5. even when grown on contaminated ground (6). Faculty of Technology.164. and environmental samples. Nikola J. In this study. fossil fuel burning. Marjanović. Arsenic concentration in the parts of plants used for human nutrition is usually low. B.Sc.. Dr.. Suturović. Serbia 165 . while in marine organisms it is in the range of 1-30 mg kg-1 of arsenic (13) as arsenobetaine (14).APTEFF. lakes and groundAleksandar R.. L-ascorbic acid. Suturović1 Arsenic speciation. Arsenic concentration in marine water systems is in the range of 2 . Zmaj Jovina 30. fertilizers.033:628. besides total arsenic content determination. For such purpose hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry can be used based on the generation of certain types of hydride. high toxicity of arsenic demands continuous determination of total arsenic as well as its different species in the environment. atomic absorption spectrometry. Jovanić. KEY WORDS: Total arsenic.. hydride generation INTRODUCTION Although content of arsenic in lithosphere (without atmosphere and hydrosphere) is relatively low (5·10-4 mass %) (1). Jovanić.6 mg kg-1 (3. 165-175 Original scientific paper THE USE OF L-ASCORBIC ACID IN SPECIATION OF ARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN DRINKING WATER Aleksandar R.1 and 40 mg kg-1 (2). Stanić. irrigation. humans are exposed to the action of arsenic in the environment (5). Reported concentrations of arsenic in soil are between 0. despite the fact that higher concentrations are found in plants grown on contaminated soil near mines and smelteries (7-10). Institute of Public Health. 21000 Novi Sad.2298/APT0940165S UDC: 628. depending on the pH value and pretreatment in different reaction media. M. Bulеvar Cara Lazara 1. is very important in analysis of water. Stanić. Nikola J. foodstuffs. University of Novi Sad.Sc.4).3 μg/l (12). Rivers.19:577.
1mg/ml MMA and 0. 37).164. 27. there are no data about the L-ascorbic acid usage in the determination of MMA in the presence of inorganic forms of arsenic by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry. Possible method used in the speciation of arsenic compounds is atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation. (44) reported KI utilization in the determinations of total inorganic arsenic forms. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. cardiovascular and gastrointestinal changes. 45. drinking water of Bangladesh and West Bengal. 31) or in combination with KI (33. regardless of arsenic forms and without request of arsenic speciation. and arsenite is apparently more toxic than arsenate. in the presence of thiourea (28. arsenic is genotoxic and mutagenic (20. foodstuffs. Department of Health and Human Services. 36. directive of WHO (World Health Organization) and EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) prescribe maximum contaminant level of arsenic in drinking water of 10 μg/l.3 μg/kg of inorganic form per day. In other cases. 21). these standards define only total arsenic MRL (Maximum Residue Level). 40. as a limit under which there are no toxic effects in case of human oral consumption longer than one year (24). Arsenic speciation can be very important in the analysis of water. In this paper. 29.6495 mg/ml NaAsO2 (Merck).05 μS cm-1. 22. Also. Inorganic forms are highly toxic. 38). However.033:628. To the best of our knowledge.1. L-ascorbic acid is also used as pre-reducing agent for the determination of total arsenic and total inorganic forms [As(III) and As(V)]. U.039376g original solid disodium methyl arsonate hexahydrate >99% (Chem 166 . 23). 46). mixture of L-ascorbic acid and KI was used for reduction of inorganic As(V) and organic compound arsenic MMA by using cryogenic or HPLC separation (26.2298/APT0940165S UDC: 628. Anderson et al. and it is based on the generation of certain types of hydride. respiratory. Arsenic is one of the elements of public concern because of its highly toxic and carcinogenic properties (I group) (16-19).S.2 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.16:546. 34. The methylated organic species (MMA) and (DMA) are less toxic than the inorganic forms (20. India contains more than 100 μg/l of arsenic (15). The aim of this work was to explore the impact and the possible use of L-ascorbic acid as the reaction medium and the pre-reducing agent for hydride generation of different arsenic compounds in the process of speciation.19:577. depending on the pH value and pretreatment in different reaction media. The Serbian Regulation on Hygienic Propriety of Drinking Water (25). and environmental samples.APTEFF. Exposure to arsenic can cause a variety of adverse health effects. Besides. including dermal. 165-175 Original scientific paper water contain up to 100 μg/l of arsenic. besides of total arsenic analysis. specifies the level of 0. 6. European Union regulation (Directive EU 98/83/EC). in order to determine MMA in the presence of inorganic forms of arsenic. 32. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry in toxicological profile for arsenic. Until now L-ascorbic acid was used as a chemical agent for arsenic preservation and stabilization in samples with arsenic concentrations 1mg/ml (30. EXPERIMENTAL All chemicals were of analytical grade unless otherwise specified. Water used was obtained from a purification system (Elga) and the conductivity of reagent water was 0. The arsenic stock solutions were prepared as follows: 1 mg/ml As(V) (As2O5·2H2O in H2O) (Carlo Erba Analytical). results of the study on the effect of L-ascorbic acid as the reaction medium and the pre-reducing agent are given.
arsenate-As(V).2298/APT0940165S UDC: 628. potassium iodide p. Using nitrogen.164. CH3AsH2 from MMA (boiling point 2ºC) and (CH3)2AsH from DMA (boiling point 35. while the response for As(V) and MMA was low. higher values of analytical signals (Fig. are 9. water solutions of arsenic compounds or solutions of arsenic compounds with hydrochloric acid. hydrochloric acid 37% (Merck).a. 167 . L-ascorbic acid or KI were introduced. through channel for acid were introduced different concentrations of L-ascorbic acid. (Zorka Pharma). tartaric and citric acid. 1.a. 1).25.6ºC) (47).1.60. acetic acid.APTEFF. Analyses were performed on an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer Shimadzu AA-680 with Hydride Vapour Generation (HVG-1 3 channels. The sample solutions were pumped into a manifold where they reacted with acid and sodium tetrahydroborate solution.028568g original solid sodium cacodylat trihydrat >98% (Fluka) were dissolved in 10 ml reagent water. All obtained signals were lower than in case when hydrochloric acid was used in hydride generation as reported previously (27). 165-175 Original scientific paper Service) were dissolved in 10 ml reagent water. (Fluka). 2. calibration curve was made using standard solution of As(III). The effect of 1-10% L-ascorbic acid on the absorbance signals. L-ascorbic acid p. in the absence or presence of HCl in sample is shown in Fig.16:546. Protonation and the formation of arsines are pH dependent. The absorption signals of As(III) and DMA increased with the increase of L-ascorbic acid concentration. The obtained results were similar to those obtained by applying the other organic acids like oxalic acid. Sodium hydroxide p. Shimadzu) connected to the instrument. (Fluka).a. (Zorka Pharma). Reagent water without detected presence of arsenic compounds and drinking water with 3 and 4 μg/l of total arsenic were used as samples. They were also in accordance with the investigation of Anderson et al. 1mg/ml DMA and 0. (44). 6.19:577. the generated arsines were swept to a gas-liquid separator and then to a heated T-shaped absorption cell. After appropriate investigation and statistical treatment (“t”-test).23. Under these conditions reduction products (arsines) appear. The pK values of arsenite-As(III). caused by the different degrees of protonation of arsenic compounds. 1. In the case when HCl was present in the sample. During the determination of MMA it was necessary to wait longer for the hydride generation and extended washing of hydride system was also necessary. sodium tetrahydroborate p. The possibility of using L-ascorbic acid in speciation of As(V) and MMA in drinking water was investigated on three channels system with peristaltic pump (HVG-1) for hydride generation. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. AsH3 from arsenite-As(III) and arsenate-As(V) (boiling point 55ºC). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION During investigation of the influence of L-ascorbic acid on hydride generation. MMA and DMA. 40. 2. Working standard solutions were prepared daily by diluting appropriate volumes of stock solution in reagent water.2 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.a. respectively (47).033:628.19. Hydrochloric acid was introduced through the second channel and through the third channel reduction solution of sodium tetrahydroborate. Through the channel for the sample aspiration. dashed line) were obtained and maximum values of relative sensitivity were obtained when lower concentrations of L-ascorbic acid was used (Fig.
1. Three-channel system: the first channel with sample of arsenic (10 μg/l As each) in water (dashed line.5% NaOH Similar effect was observed in the case when KI was added as pre-reducing agent in the samples (Fig.16:546. There was no reduction of arsenic(V) compounds and MMA.APTEFF. 2.1 mol/dm3 HCl were added to the sample (Fig. As(V).19:577. the second channel with different concentrations of L-ascorbic acid and the third channel with 0. D M A D M A + 0 . MMA and DMA. sample in 0. MMA and DMA.4% NaBH4 in 0.5% NaOH 168 . 1.5ml 40% KI in water (dashed line. the second channel with different concentrations of L-ascorbic acid and the third channel with 0. sample in 0. 2. 40. 1 m o l/l H C l A s (V ) A s ( V ) + 0 . MMA was reduced partially when KI and 0. As(V).a s c o r b ic a c id m a s s c o n c e n tr a tio n (% ) 2 4 6 8 10 12 Fig.4% NaBH4 in 0. 2).1 mol/l HCl). Effect of L-ascorbic acid concentration on the absorption signals of As(III).2 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 165-175 Original scientific paper MMA M M A + 0 .164. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. dashed line). because pH value was not sufficiently low. Effect of L-ascorbic acid concentration on the absorption signals of As(III). Three-channel system: the first channel with sample of arsenic (10 μg/l As each) + 1.1 mol/l HCl).033:628. Because of the relatively high pH value.1 m o l/l H C L A s (V ) A s (V )+ 0 . 1 m o l/l H C l 100 80 60 Abs 40 20 0 0 -2 0 L . 1 m o l/ l H C l M M A M M A + 0 .2298/APT0940165S UDC: 628.1 m o l/l H C L A s (III) A s (III)+ 0 . 1 m o l/l H C l A s (III) A s ( I I I) + 0 . the reduction of As(V) practically was not observed.1 m o l/l H C L DMA D M A + 0 .1 m o l/l H C L 120 100 80 60 Abs 40 20 0 0 -2 0 L -a s c o r b i c a c id m a s s c o n c e n tr a tio n (% ) 2 4 6 8 10 12 Fig.
5 %.5 3 3 .19:577. M M A +KI A s (V )+ K I A s (III )+ K I D M A+KI M M A + K I+ L -a s c o rb ic a c id A s (V )+ K I+ L -a s c o rb ic a c id A s (III)+ K I+ L -a s c o rb ic a c id D M A + K I+ L -a s c o rb ic a c id 280 230 180 Abs 130 80 30 -2 0 0 0 . 44).2 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.5 Fig. Effect of KI mass concentration on the absorption signals of As(III). while when L-ascorbic acid was added. 3.164. As(V). Reduction of As(V) was complete in the presence of L-ascorbic acid.APTEFF.1. 3.5-3% and results of this experiment are shown in Fig. was studied. As(V).4% NaBH4 in 0.5 1 1 . 169 . Three-channel system: the first channel with sample arsenic (20 μg/l As each) + different concentration KI in 2 mol/l HCl (dashed line. sample with Lascorbic acid). DMA and MMA. DMA was not reduced. because the pH value of the solution was too low. 40. Burguera et al. neither hydride was generated. DMA was not reduced. in their investigation (47) reported similar observations. the second channel with 5 mol/l HCl and the third channel with 0. neither hydride was generated.5% NaOH The influence of the time needed for complete reduction of As (V) and MMA under optimized experimental conditions is shown in Fig. Fig. As(III) is the reduction form of arsenic and the presence of KI or Lascorbic acid has no efect on reduction and generation of its hydride. in order to determine MMA in the presence of inorganic forms of arsenic. 3. These characteristics of As(V) and MMA were used for the arsenic speciation. In the absence of L-ascorbic acid in the sample. dashed line). 165-175 Original scientific paper The effect of potassium iodide concentration on the degree of As(III).033:628. reduction of MMA was low or there was no reduction.2298/APT0940165S UDC: 628.5 % KI 2 2 . 4. for As(III) and As(V) in the absence of L-ascorbic acid (44). 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Similar results were obtained by Anderson et al. 4 shows that at least 10 minutes were needed for the complete reduction of MMA and about 40 minutes for arsenate-As(V). KI concentration varied within the range of 0. In the presence of L-ascorbic acid. DMA and MMA reduction. reduction of MMA was complete.16:546. The results of this investigation has shown that very good arsenic reduction was obtained when the KI concentration was about 1. without or with L-ascorbic acid (Fig. because of the solution pH value (42.
1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. MMA and DMA. As(V).2298/APT0940165S UDC: 628.19:577.1mol/l HCl B-0. the second channel with 5 mol/l HCl and the third channel with 0. 40. As(V).4% NaBH4 in 0. 4.2 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 5.6%NaBH4+5 mol/l HCl C-0. C and D 170 . Three-channel system: the first channel with sample of arsenic (20 μg/l As each) + 0.164.1.5% NaOH MMA As(III) 280 As(V) DMA A-0. Effect of different reaction media on the generation of arsines of As(III).4%NaBH4+0.4%NaBH4+5 mol/l HCl 230 180 Abs 130 80 30 -20 A B C combination NaBH4-HCl D Fig.16:546.APTEFF. B. Effect of time needed for reduction with KI on the absorption signals of As(III). 165-175 Original scientific paper A s(V ) A s(III) DM A MMA 280 230 180 Abs 130 80 30 -2 0 0 10 20 30 tim e (m in ) 40 50 60 70 Fig. MMA and DMA.033:628.125ml 40% KI in 5 mol/l HCl.1mol/l HCl D-0. the second and third channels are described as A. Three-channel system: the first channel with sample arsenic (20 μg/l As each) + 1ml 40% KI + 1ml 5% L-ascorbic acid in 2 mol/l HCl.6%NaBH4+0.
5 3.19:577. Concentration of MMA was obtained as the difference between As(III)+As(V)+MMA in the presence of KI and L-ascorbic acid and As(III)+As(V) in the presence of KI only. four experimental conditions were applied (A.0 101. Table 1. The condition “D” was used for the determination of total inorganic arsenic [As(III) and As(V)]. % recovery and % RSD Sample typea Analyzed speciesb Total arsenic concentration (ppb) before spiking 0.7 92. c-recovery of analyzed species Results reported in this study showed that the recovery of added spike was 82-101% and RSD (%) was 3. despite of the presence of L-ascorbic acid.2 2.0 1.0 8. for determination As(V) only KI is added. C and D) as shown in Fig.drinking water.164. 5. As(III) and DMA behave equally both in the presence and in the absence of L-ascorbic acid.07 was obtained.0 3. 40.3 11.0 17. After separate examination of all standard solutions (As(III).reaction media is D (Fig.3 1.1 1.3 2.5 87. α=0. It was confirmed that the addition of L-ascorbic acid to the samples as the pre-reducing agent enables the arsine generation from MMA and it was shown that these analyses can be used in speciation of arsenic compounds.7 a.033:628. for calibration range of 0. 5). number of replicate was n=10.0 8.7 14. Under condition of “D” (Fig.0 Added (ppb) As(V) MMA Total arsenic concentration (ppb) after spiking 8.3 88.0 4.0 8.4 2.8 92.0 0. for determination As(V)+MMA KI+L-ascorbic acid are added.0 8. so investigation under chosen conditions had no effect. Namely. so As(III) was chosen for the calibration curves definition. As(V) and MMA) for calibration curves construction and after the conduction of “t”-test (ttab=2. b.0 0. the aim was to obtain minimal value of the analytical signal of MMA. B.0 3. MMA signal was low. The results are shown in Table 1.004-0. two different samples were analyzed (reagent and drinking water).APTEFF.1 90.7 Recoveryc (%) (n=5) RSD (%) (n=5) RW DW RW RW DW RW DW As(V) As(V) As(V) As(V)+MMA As(V)+MMA As(V)+MMA As(V)+MMA 8.1 10. not the maximal difference between the analytical signals of MMA and of inorganic arsenic compounds.7 7.018 mg/l t value of 0.05).16:546.0 4.0 4. while hydride was not generated in case of DMA (because of low pH) and only the content of As(V) and MMA were determined. In the case when Lascorbic acid was added. MMA was determined too. 165-175 Original scientific paper In an attempt to find optimal experimental conditions under which L-ascorbic acid was used in process of speciation of As(V) and MMA.1.0 4. Under investigated conditions As(III) was completely reduced and its hydryde was generated.0 0.0 8.6 89.0 8.10. Ascorbic acid is frequently applied as a prereductant for As(V) and MMA together with iodide in order to prevent the liberation of 171 .2298/APT0940165S UDC: 628.0 8.RW-reagent water and DW. which are acceptable results for this level of content (ppb). 5).0 4. Using appropriate conditions developed in this study. Results for water samples. Values of “t”-test indicate that there is no significant difference between the previously mentioned standard solutions. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.1 2.2 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.0 4.0 4.6.21-2. degree of freedom was 18.
Carbonell-Barrachina. Naučna knjiga. in order to determine MMA in the presence of inorganic forms of arsenic. 124. Kabata-Pendias.G.. 6. E. 165-175 Original scientific paper iodine. S. 9. 7 (1985) 131-133. F. 15 (1993) 135-144.A. 8. Beograd (1986) p. 333.7-30. Rüssel Fresenius’: Determination of total arsenic and speciation of arseno-betaine in marine fish by means of reaction-headspace gas chro172 . antimony and bizmuth in soils and pasture herbage in some old metalliferous mining areas in England. and A. A. Xu. Health.. and I. O′Neill.2298/APT0940165S UDC: 628.K.J.16:546. Mar. Baldo and J. Health. The detailed conclusions about the L-ascorbic acid influence could be obtained by the investigations of kinetics of these chemical reactions. 5. 67 (1999) 377-390. American Chemical Society.G.APTEFF. Burló. 12 (1977) 311-320.L. 7. which entered into the process of reduction of arsenic compounds again. J. Pollut. J. 105-121.. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Li. 47 (1999) 2288-2294. García-Iglesias: Geochemical characterization of mercury mining spoil heaps in the area of Mieres (Asturias. Explor. 13.. L. Ordóñez. Bull. Agric. Woolson Ed.R. Lopez. Thornton: Arsenic in garden soils and vegetable crops in Cornwall. Bowen H. 4. and I. Environmental Impact and Health Efect. Arsenijević.164. Based on the results obtained by the determination of As(V) and MMA in water samples it can be concluded that L-ascorbic acid can be used as the reaction medium and the pre-reducing agent for hydride generation of different arsenic compounds in the process of speciation. A. Academic Press. 3.: The Heavy Elements: Chemistry. U. REFERENCES 1. Pollut. 2. Hunt. Washington.Linzon and B.E.N. Environ. 28 (1994) 33-38. Fergusson. 10. Allen: Arsenical Pesticides. Thornton: Arsenic. A.2 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 40. In reference (35) it was mentioned that there is a possibility that this phenomenon is the result of better protonation in the presence of L-ascorbic acid or easier approach of the pre-reducing agent (KI) to methylated arsenic compounds. Sandberg. It is evident that in the process of reduction agent iodine was made and it was reduced with L-ascorbic acid into iodide.033:628..R. England: implications for human health.: Trace Elements in Soils and Plants.: Opšta i neorganska hemija. Geochem. J.: Heavy Metals in Soils. D. R. The influence of ascorbic acid on the generation of hydrides of various arsenic species has not been previously studied in detail.19:577. P. northern Spain). Ballin. E. Temple. New York (1979) p.. J. Oxford (1990) pp. Chai: Contamination of vegetation and soil by arsenic emissions from secondary lead smelters. New York (1990) pp. Martinez-Romero and F. Food Chem. E. Boca Raton (2000) p.M. C. A. G. CRC Press. Environ.O. S. and I.J. Environ. J.. Howard: Arsenic speciation and distribution in the Carnum estuary following the acute discharge of contaminated water from a difused mine. Valero.1. X. Geochem. Martinez-Sanchez: Arsenic toxicity and accumulation in turnipas affected by arsenic chemical speciation. 11. D. J. 82. Pergamon Press. 12.: Environmental Geochemistry of The Elements. Loredo. Wiley. Geochem.. P. Gallego. DC (1975) p. Kruse and H. 225.
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животних намирница и узорака из животне средине. 51. Циљ овог рада је да се испита могућност коришћења Л-аскорбинске киселине при одређивању органског облика арсена. Water Works Assoc. Feldman.19:577.L. Anal. Analyst 111 (1986) 1143-1152. Arsenic (V) and Total Arsenic by Continuous Flow HG-AAS in Thai Fruit Wines and Distilled Spirits. 165-175 Original scientific paper line electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with in situ preconcentration on Zr-coated graphite tubes. 48. 90 (1998) 103-113. Атомска апсорпциона спектрометрија са грађењем хидрида је метода којом је могуће одредити различите облике арсена применом различитих услова стварања хидрида. Burguera. Analytica Chimica Acta 374 (1998) 231-240. Culbard: Selective reduction of arsenic species by continuous hydride generation. Talanta 45 (1998) 531–542. 40.1. S. Rivas and P.2298/APT0940165S UDC: 628. C.APTEFF. J.. R. Chanthai. M. Anderson.. монометил арсонске киселине (ММА). 45.16:546. C. ASEAN Food Journal 14 (2007) 181-196. Danvirutai: Speciation Analysis of Arsenic (III). M.. H.K. Станић. Edwards.: Improvements in the arsine accumulation-helium glow detector procedure for determining traces of arsenic.Eaton. 44. Taylor: Considerations in As analysis and speciation. указује се потреба да се осим одређивања садржаја укупног арсена изведе и одређивање различитих облика арсена. Саша И. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 46. L.W. M. R.. у води за пиће у присуству неорганског арсена (Аs(III) и As(V)). 6 (1979) 664–669. Chem. A. N. Carrero: On-line cryogenic trapping with microwave heating for the determination and speciation of arsenic by flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. J. C. Ruangviriyachai and P.033:628. Никола Ј. McNeill. Chen. S.D. Burguera. Марјановић и Звонимир Ј.E. 47. M. Thompson and E. Patel.C. Suwamat. Received 18 May 2009 Accepted 28 July 2009 175 . Л-аскорбинска киселина се може употребити као реакциони медијум. Frey. Antweiler and H. Сутуровић Приликом анализе различитих врста узорака вода. односно као прередукциони агенс у стварању хидрида арсена током специјације. Am. Јованић. ПРИМЕНА Л-АСКОРБИНСКЕ КИСЕЛИНЕ ПРИ ОДРЕЂИВАЊУ РАЗЛИЧИТИХ ОБЛИКА АРСЕНА У ВОДИ ЗА ПИЋЕ Александар Р.164.
and so on. When natural coagulant from common bean was applied the highest coagulation activity. known as distillery wastewater. Serbia 177 . 14. at pH 6. natural coagulants INTRODUCTION Sugar beet and intermediates from beet-processing are very good raw materials for bioethanol production.05 and 0.. Šćiban.1:628.345 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. KEY WORDS: Tick juice stillage. Due to the large volume of these effluent and presence of certain hardly biodegradable compounds. the highest turbidity removal resulting in 24% coagulation activity was achieved and this was more efficient than when alum or natural coagulant were used.034. Assoc.2298/APT0940177S UDC: 628. Antov. Prof.3%. that is comparable with molasses (1). alum. due to their content of fermentable sugars which can be directly used for fermentation without any pretreatment. when common bean natural coagulant was used simultaneously with alum. an average molasses based distillery generates 15 L of spent wash per 1 L of ethanol produced (2). The production and characteristics of spent wash are highly variable and dependent on feedstock and various aspects of the ethanol production process. which is more favourable for economic and environmental reasons.5 ml/l. but only a little lower coagulation activities were obtained by the dose of 0. is highly loaded and causes extensive soil and water pollution. Mirjana G. 177-182 Original scientific paper TREATMENT OF SUGAR BEET THICK JUICE SPENT WASH BY CHEMICAL AND NATURAL COAGULANTS Marina B.2:664. Mile T. Raw extraction juice has the lowest price from beet-processing intermediates.5 is reached with analum dose of 1 g/l. Elimination of pollutants from distillery effluent is becoming increasingly important from the environmetal point of view. Klašnja. Šćiban. Effluent originating after alcohol distillation. the treatment of this stream is rather chalDr.APTEFF. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Assoc. Molasses is a traditional raw material for distilleries. but its disadvantage is low storability. The highest coagulation activity at pH 6. Mile T. Prof. stillage. Marina B. spent wash. Klašnja and Mirjana G..10 g/l. Faculty of Technology. For example.3. 40. University of Novi Sad. Dr. Prof. Thick juice is more expensive than extraction juice but its storability is excellent. Antov The possibility of treatment of wastewater from bioethanol production by aluminium sulfate and natural coagulant extracted from common bean seed was studied. but it is not sufficient for bioethanol production as a fuel. Dr. email@example.com. coagulation.5 is reached with a dose of 0. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1.. However. 21000 Novi Sad.
Moreover. after bioethanol production experiments (1).1005 Average value 4. Novi Sad. 6) .5 8540 .3.74 2. a number of novel phisico-chemical and biological treatments have been conducted (3).5 9322 32345 3150 29220 87600 995 It can be seen from Table 1 that the thick juice spent wash is highly acidic in nature. 177-182 Original scientific paper lenging by conventional methods. Our previous studies indicated the ability of extract from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed to act as a natural coagulant (4).TKN (mg/l) Range 4.68 – 4. The disadvantage of this process is the presence of aluminium in the obtained sludge. An amount of 10 g/l of a smaller fraction was suspended in 0.APTEFF. Typical characteristic of thick juice spent wash Parameter pH Settleable matter (ml/l) Suspended solids . in the treatment of thick juice spent wash.2298/APT0940177S UDC: 628.TS (mg/l) Total fixed residue at 550 oC (mg/l) Total volatile residue (mg/l) Chemical oxygen demand . 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.SS (mg/l) Total solids .85 1.29630 85230 . common bean natural coagulant will be investigated for its suitability to substitute alum in thick juice spent wash treatment. thick juice spent wash is much easier for treatment than the molasses one.034. In this study. and highly loaded with organic matter. Therefore.the large advantage of thick juice spent wash is that it does not contain coloured pigments. These suspended solids have poor settleability. Table 1.8 – 3.5 mol/l NaCl solution. 40. It contains high suspended solids. Faculty of Technology. The main objective of the present study is preliminary investigation of the usage of aluminium sulfate and/or natural coagulants from common bean. Aluminium sulfate (alum) an inorganic salt is the most widely used coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. Natural coagulants were obtained in this way: white common bean seeds were ground and sieved through the sieve with pore size of 0. This suspension was stirred for 10 minutes on a magnetic stirrer in 178 . which causes further environmental problems.90000 980 .9815 31900 .32830 2937 . Analysis of the data demonstrated that the thick juice spent wash has a little better characteristics than molasses spent wash (5. Coagulants Al2(SO4)3x18H2O (alum) was used as 5% sollution.3200 28963 . The characteristics of wastewaters are shown in Table 1. EXPERIMENTAL Wastewater Wastewater was collected from the Laboratory for ethanol and yeast.4 mm.345 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. the obtained sludge can not be used as a feed. Because these pigments are hardly biodegradable. which is indicated by very small amount of settleable matter.1:628.COD (mgO2/l) Total Kjeldahl nitrogen . to improve the existing treatments. making about 30% of total solids.2:664.
034. COD and TKN were analyzed in conformity to Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (7). Because of that. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Coagulation with alum As the first step in our investigation was studied the influence of pH and alum dose on efficiency of the coagulation-flocculation process. 179 . the suspensions were left to allow sedimentation. The residual COD in the blank was CODB. The highest coagulation activity at pH 6.5 to 7. Then. but only a little lower coagulation activities were obtained by doses of 0. total fixed residue at 550 oC.2298/APT0940177S UDC: 628. 177-182 Original scientific paper order to extract active coagulant components.5 is achieved with analum dose of 1 g/l. A volume of 100 ml of wastewater was filled in four 500 ml bakers.50 before coagulation. The residual COD of sample was CODS. This might be expected considering that recommended pH range for alum application is from 5. settleable matter.10 g/l. suspended solids. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. the pH value of wastewater was adjusted to 6. Coagulation test Jar test was carried out to evaluate coagulation activity of alum and natural coagulant. After 1 hour of sedimentation. the suspension was filtered through arugged filter paper.345 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.3. Coagulation activity was calculated as follows: Coagulation activity (%) = 100⋅(CODB – CODS)/CODB Analytical methods  pH.crude extract was stored in a fridge at 5ºC. The same coagulation test was performed with no coagulant as the blank. The obtained filtrate . Coagulation with low alum dose is very favourable because of lower treatment costs and lower aluminium concentration in the obtained sludge. an aliquot of 10 ml of clarified sample was collected from the top of the beaker and pH and COD were determinated. The coagulants were added to the beakers at different doses.64. 40. Table 3 shows an important improving of removing of colloidal particles from investigated wastewater by alum. After that.1:628. The stirring speed was then reduced to 80 rpm and was kept for 30 minutes.APTEFF. The application of alum at the original wastewater pH was not appropriate because of the very low coagulation activity achieved. The results of these experiments are presented in Table 3.05 and 0. Table 2 shows theeffect of different doses of alum on the coagulation activity at the original wastewater pH of 4. total solids. and the content was stirred at 200 rpm for 1 minute. Before coagulation the pH was adjusted by 1 mol/l NaOH or 1 mol/l HCl to a desired value.2:664.
The optimum pH for coagulation with natural coagulants from common bean was above 9 (Šćiban et al.64 4. The highest coagulation activity of natural coagulants at pH 6.25 No effect In the further experiment.94 NE* 10. Effect of alum dosage on coagulation activity at pH 6.150 0.000 * Coagulation activity (%) 7.000 2.150 0.3 NE* 5. the effect of natural coagulant doses was investigated with simultaneous addition of fixed dose of alum 0.500 1.25 ml/l.050 0.000 5.8 NE NE No effect In the next experiments.013 0. Table 4. Effect of alum dosage on coagulation activity at pH 4.14 5.345 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.9 14..5 ml/l.000 10.50 6.050 0.45 6.500 1.50 6.250 0. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.250 0.000 3.2:664. 177-182 Original scientific paper Table 2.64 Alum dosage (g/l) 0. Table 4 shows the effect of different doses of natural coagulants on the coagulation activity at pH 6.1:628.40 6. but the adjusment to this pH requires large amount of an alkaline solution. Effect of natural coagulant dosage on coagulation activity at pH 6.000 2.52 5.37 6.23 pH in water after treatment 6.78 12. 40. 180 .100 0.5 mg common bean seed.5 is achieved with a dose of 0.025 0.250 0.100 0.93 5.3.500 * Coagulation activity (%) 3.50 Natural coagulant dosage (ml/l) 0. 1).50 Alum dosage (g/l) 0.99 3.034.APTEFF. respectively. natural coagulant was added solely to wastewater at pH 6.05 g/l (Fig.2298/APT0940177S UDC: 628.50. and this pH is not appropriate for alum coagulation.31 6.99 NE* NE NE pH of water after treatment 4.00 * Coagulation activity (%) 10. and only a little lower coagulation activity was obtained at a dose of 0.58 No effect Table 3. 2005).50.02 NE 3.70 8.62 4.64 4.70 10. to obtaine these doses of natural coagulant it was necessary to extract 5 mg and 2.30 NE 4.65 4.
Regarding its biodegradability.034. S. P. 1.2:664.25 0. when common bean natural coagulant was used simultaneously with alum.. Jevtić Mučibabić: Bioethanol production from thick juice as intermediate of sugar beet processing.J. The highest coagulation activity was obtained when natural coagulant and alum were added to wastewater simultaneously. Biotechnol. 181 .1:628.0 Natural coagulant dose (ml/l) with natural coagulant with alum + natural coagulant with 0. 177-182 Original scientific paper 30 Coagulation activity (%) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0. J. Zavargo and R.F. food grade and renewable nature. Rodrigez.345 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. J. Dodić S. Beltran F. Progress 61 (2001) 462-467. common bean could be used as a substitute for conventional chemical coagulants such as alum. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. respectively. Garcia-Araya and J. Z.5 1. 2. Rivas: Treatment of high strength distillery wastewater (cherry stillage) by integrated aerobic biological oxidation and ozonation. Ranković.APTEFF.05 g/l of alum Fig. common bean has a bright future as a source of coagulant for both water and wastewater treatment. E.M. J. 20009) is greatly acknowledged.05 g/l of alum Very good removal efficiency of organic matter from water was achieved when alum and natural coagulant were applied in combination 0. Popov. with addition of 0.3. Effect of natural coagulant dosage on coagulation activity at pH 6.M. more efficient removal of suspended solids was achieved. According to the results. REFERENCES 1. the higher turbidity removal was achieved in comparison to sole application of alum or natural coagulant. Dodić. Moreover. 40.05 g/l and 0. the maximal achievable coagulation activity in this wastewater can be about 32% (see ratio suspended solids : total volatile residues from Table 1).25 ml/l. Although the coagulation activity achieved might seem relatively low at the first sight. Biomass Bioenergy 33 (2009) 822-827.2298/APT0940177S UDC: 628. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The financial support of the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Project No.. CONCLUSION When natural coagulant from common bean was applied for wastewater treatment.50. Alvarez.
Menage.2298/APT0940177S UDC: 628. Шћибан. M.05 и 0.APTEFF. J.5. Water Res. Environ. Preeti. 1992. AWWA. Pant D. Најбоља коагулациона активност је постигнута на рН 6. 5. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Gupta and G.S. постигнута је коагулациона активност од 14.B. ТРЕТМАН ЏИБРЕ ОД ГУСТОГ СОКА ХЕМИЈСКИМ И ПРИРОДНИМ КОАГУЛАНТИМА Марина Б. Adholeya: Biological approaches for treatment of distillery wastewater: A review. 177-182 Original scientific paper 3. Washington DC.5 ml/l. Klašnja and J..034. IWA Publishing. and A. Acta Periodica Technol. APHA.2:664. 6. Biores. тако и са становишта заштите животне средине. Technol. Када је примењен само природни коагулант на рН 6. Миле Т. а само нешто мање коагулационе активности су остварене са дозама од 0. 36 (2005) 81-87.345 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 78 (2006) 76–85. S.. 41 (2007) 721-730. WEF. 98 (2007) 2321-2334. Антов У раду је испитивана могућност третмана отпадне воде од производње биоетанола алуминијум сулфатом и природним коагулантима екстрахованим из зрна пасуља. Stojimirović: Investigation of coagulation activity of natural coagulants from seeds of different leguminose species. постигнута је највећа коагулациона активност од 24%. and A. Received 25 August 2009 Accepted 6 October 2009 182 .1 g/l. 7.3% са дозом од 0.3. 4. Када се природни коагулант применио истовремено са алуминијум сулфатом. M.K. која је боља од коагулационих активности постигнутих појединачном применом алуминијум сулфата и природног коагуланта. Клашња и Мирјана Г.5 са дозом алуминијум сулфата од 1 g/l. Pandit: Enhancement in biodegradability of distillery wastewater using enzymatic pretreatment.1:628.S. Šćiban. што је веома погодно како са економског. C. Singh: Biodegradation of distillery spent wash in anaerobic hybrid reactor. 40. Kumar G.
Čolović.rs.82:661. expanding the experimental data from C1 up to C8. B. Ivana M. liquid circulation time.6) and split rectangular airlift reactor (SR-ALR) (7). bubble behavior and mass transfer rates. Tokić and Predrag S. University of Novi Sad. Serbia. Čolović. isijacki@uns. which differs considerably from water.069. 21000 Novi Sad. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. The only property of these solutions. hydro-dynamics.011:66. in the bubble column (BC) (1.. as chemical reactors and as contactors in the wastewater treatments.. KEY WORDS: Bubble columns. the addition of alcohol influences volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa). 21000 Novi Sad. Šijački. Sc.722 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Milenko S. Tokić.6). B. Dilute alcohol solutions are important. the properties of the liquid phase strongly affect hydrodynamics. Radmilo R. The increase in both the alcohol concentration and the length of the straight chain of alcohol molecule results in the increase of kLa. The influence of alcohols on the gas holdup is proportional to their concentration and to the length of the carbon chain in the alcohol molecule. Also. The suggested correlations have shown good agreement between the calculated and the experimental data. Sc. 3). beside the superficial gas velocity. external loop airlift reactor (EL-ALR) (4). dilute alcohol solutions. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. draft tube air lift reactor (DT-ALR) (5.ac. Sc. Kojić Simple empirical correlations were developed to predict gas holdup.2298/APT0940183S UDC: 66. new experiments were conducted with diluted alcohol solutions to n-octanol. The proposed empirical correlations include. B. Serbia 183 . is their surface tension (2). University of Novi Sad. Sc. Predrag S. They can be used to simulate the liquid phase behavior in bioreactors and in coal liquefaction (1). Serbia. 21 000 Novi Sad. Faculty of Technology. Radmilo R. In these contactors. the EL-ALR (4) and in the DT-ALR (5. Šijački. the alcohol chain length as the only factor to characterize the liquid phase.APTEFF. draft tube airlift reactors. mass transfer INTRODUCTION Bubble columns and airlift reactors have important applications as bioreactors (in biomass production or production of different metabolites). as the liquid phase. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Milenko S. B. Kojić. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. Also. 183-192 Original scientific paper SIMPLE CORRELATIONS FOR BUBBLE COLUMNS AND DRAFT TUBE AIRLIFT REACTORS WITH DILUTE ALCOHOL SOLUTIONS Ivana M. continuous BC (1). 40. Food Institute.. Faculty of Technology. downcomer liquid velocity and volumetric mass transfer coefficient in dilute alcohol solutions in bubble columns and draft tube airlift reactors with single orifice sparger.. in the BC (3).
8). The concentrations of the alcohols and the physical properties of the liquid phase at 20°C are summarized in Table 1. in order to include the effect of solution concentration on physical properties. EXPERIMENTAL The experiments were conducted at 20±1°C and atmospheric pressure in a glass DT-ALR. The surface tension gradient (-dσ/dCA) was estimated from the slope of the experimental σ versus CA curve (Fig. was used as the gas phase. Some of the correlations can be used for predicting hydrodynamics and mass transfer in aqueous solutions of alcohols with an acceptable error (3. 6. or the surface tension gradient can be used in correlations (6. the main issue was choosing a representative characteristic of the liquid phase.722 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. with no major influence on hydrodynamics. The air. 5. liquid circulation time. 6. Surface tensions of liquid phases were obtained by tensiometer (Torsion Balance Model OS) with ±0.1 kg/m3 accuracy. Tap water and diluted alcohol solutions from methanol to n-octanol were used as the liquid phase. sparged through a single orifice into the draft tube. 2). 10). so far (3. it is obvious that the only physical property that is to be different from water is the surface tension (3. It has been shown that increasing alcohol concentration above the limiting value. 6. 8) were broadened by additional experiments. 5. 8). the concentration is chosen equal to n-propanol.0001 N/m accuracy. 183-192 Original scientific paper Only a few studies on the hydrodynamics and mass transfer in dilute alcohol solutions in bubble columns and draft tube airlift reactors with single orifice sparger have been published. with geometrical details presented in Fig. in BCs and DT-ALR.069. 9). 9). conducted in DT-ALR with dilute alcohol solutions from methanol to n-octanol. The concentration of each alcohol was chosen based on the research of Keitel (11).82:661. only enhances the bubble coalescence and liquid phase frothing (2. In order to improve the correlations and validate their form. the existing experimental data (3. 184 .2298/APT0940183S UDC: 66. 40. 5. as the change in viscosity and density is negligible. In deriving the correlation. The correlations for prediction of gas holdup and volumetric mass transfer coefficient were proposed in various forms based on investigations in different systems. as the value of the upper limiting concentration. downcomer liquid velocity and volumetric mass transfer coefficient. 5.011:66. In case of isopropanol. In the case of addition of alcohols. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Densities of liquids were measured by a densitometer AP PAAR DMA46 with ±0. with aqueous solutions of alcohols and with a single orifice sparger as a gas distributor. 1.APTEFF. The aim of this paper was to propose simple correlations that could be used to predict the main characteristics: gas holdup.
1. 2.APTEFF.2298/APT0940183S UDC: 66.011:66.722 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.82:661. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 40.069. 183-192 Original scientific paper Fig. Experimental setup Fig. Evolution of surface tension with concentration of aqueous alcohol solutions 185 .
In these studies experiments were conducted in BCs and DT-ALR with single orifice as air sparger and with dilute alcohol solutions as the liquid phase. wt % Density ρ.9 71. beside the ones obtained in these experiments.2 0. By applying the regression analysis (13) on these experimental data the correlation was obtained in the following form: N dσ e − = 0. 40.199 1.06 999.APTEFF. and having in mind the connection between sur186 .10-3 N m2/mol 0.46 0. Surface tension and surface tension gradient of used liquid phases at 20 C Liquid Concentration CA. Assuming the linear relation: surface tension vs.0 Surface Tension Gradient . 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.067 0. Albijanić et al.025 0. a representative characteristic of diluted alcohol solutions might be surface tension.99.141 15.7 69. (8).9 67.7 71.99 999. As already mentioned.2298/APT0940183S UDC: 66.002 0. Albijanić (5). Fig. was used to determine the liquid velocity in the downcomer (12).036 0.205 tap water Methanol Ethanol n-propanol Isopropanol n-butanol n-pentanol n-hexanol n-heptanol n-octanol 0 3.006 0.10 998.96 999.002 1000 921.8 71. were taken from the experiments of Pošarac and Tekić (3).0034 ⋅ dC A CN 1.82:661. 2 shows evolution of surface tension with the concentration of alcohol solution. The mean relative error of this method was ±5%. The gas holdup values along the column were obtained by measuring the differential pressure at five points (in the draft tube and in the downcomer) using the piezometric tubes.0057 0.011 0. (6) and Camarasa et al.722 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.87 999. 10-3 N/m 72. 183-192 Original scientific paper o Table 1.4 66. with the surface tension gradient as a slope.069. The aerated dispersion height without foam was used for calculating the overall gas holdup.011:66. The relative average error of the measurement was up to 2%.082 1.89 999.96 The overall gas holdup was determined by the volume expansion technique with an error less than 10%.036 0.985 4.31⋅ C  with the coefficient of determination R2=0.080 0.61 988. The processed data in this investigation. developed for this purpose.4 71. kg/m3 Surface Tension σ. A hot probe method.1 70. The surface tension gradient was estimated from the slopes of these experimental curves (Table 1). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The main aim of this paper was to suggest simple empirical correlations to predict crucial hydrodynamic and mass transfer quantities.74 999.8 65. alcohol solution concentration.0051 0. It is obvious that the surface tension gradient is a function of CN-value.dσ/dCA.
and the surface tension and the surface tension gradient on the other..11 ± 12.4% 1.11 ± 9.4% -0.8% R2 0. with the same number of C-atoms.29 ± 3. 6.9% 5. Table 2 contains the values of the estimated parameters in the proposed equations.4 4.5% -0.6 tC (s) WLD(m/s) kLa (s-1) For the gas holdup.94 0.15 ± 11. (6) as the only available data. liquid circulation time.16 ± 6.6 3. 8): p y = p1U G 2 (1 + C N ) p3 where y represents: ε G . Table 2. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Recently. suggests that the CN-value could be the only variable which expresses the influence of dilute alcohol solutions on hydrodynamics and mass transfer.  An additional corroboration of the suggested equations was performed through the comparison of the experimental and calculated values in the case of n-propanol and isopropanol.18 ± 5.89 0. 3).41 ± 9.46 ± 4.82:661.the coefficient of determination (R2) and the errors of parameters (expressed as a % of a value).6% 0.58 ± 5.8 2. along with the standard quantifiers .2% 0.86 ± 2.27 ± 7. 2 predicted about 68% of experimental data with an error of 20% or less (Fig. Values of correlation parameters for the gas holdup.06 ± 16.5% p2 ± Error(p2) 0.2% -0.722 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.1% 0.0 22.63 ± 9.1% 0.7% 1.3% -0. A strong relation between the CN-value. it can be concluded that surface tension is also a function of CN-value.4 1.3% -0. Eq.90 n 349 24 36 34 29 45 65 159 δ (%) 26.91 0.24 ± 3.3% 3.09 ± 19. Zeppieri came to the same conclusion. liquid velocity and volumetric mass transfer coefficient y (Eq.1% -0. WLD or k L a .4% 0.61 ± 6.7% 2.16 ± 6.011:66. i.2) εG Regime I II III I II III p1± Error(p1) 1.6% 0.12 ± 8.APTEFF.93 0. regime II (stagnant swarm of bubbles in the downcomer) and regime III (circulation of bubbles through the column). So.45 ± 14. 40.87 0.2% p3 ± Error(p3) 0. 183-192 Original scientific paper face tension gradient and the CN-value.16 ± 6.5% 3.98 0. t C .07 ± 5. on one hand.18 ± 5.2% 0. A good agreement is achieved.8% 1.74 ± 5.069. 187 . The parameters for liquid circulation time were calculated based on data of Albijanić (5) and Albijanić et al. regardless of the structural differences between these two alcohols.9 3. he noticed the relation between the surface tension and CN-value (14).9 2.93 0. The parameters for liquid circulation time and liquid velocity (Table 2) were calculated for three different bubble regimes: regime I (small bubbles in the downcomer).7% 0. simple correlations were introduced by processing the data obtained in our experiments and the experiments of other authors (3.2298/APT0940183S UDC: 66. 5.56 ± 7.e.
4 and Fig. a significantly smaller error was achieved for the higher superficial gas velocities. 3. 183-192 Original scientific paper Fig. The correlation for volumetric mass transfer coefficient predicts about 52% of experimental data.APTEFF.2298/APT0940183S UDC: 66.722 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 6). 40.82:661. 2) and experimental values of gas holdup Comparison between calculated and experimental values both of circulation time and liquid velocity is given in Fig. in a range of 20% error (Fig.011:66. However. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 5. Comparison between calculated (Eq. 188 .069.
4. 4) calculated (Eq.069.2298/APT0940183S UDC: 66. 183-192 Original scientific paper Fig.82:661.011:66. Comparison between calculated and experimental values of gas holdup Fig. Comparison between (Eq. 40. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.722 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.APTEFF. 4) and experimental values of downcomer liquid velocity 189 .5.
Notation: CA = concentration of alcohol. 1/s CN = number of C-atoms in alcohol molecule chain tc = liquid circulation time.82:661. wt% kLa = volumetric mass transfer coefficient.APTEFF. mm UG = superficial gas velocity. Comparison between calculated (Eq. 4) and experimental values of volumetric mass transfer coefficient CONCLUSION Simple correlations were proposed for prediction of basic hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics of BCs and DT-ALRs with dilute alcohol solutions (from methanol to n-octanol) and with single orifice as a gas distributor.011:66.2298/APT0940183S UDC: 66. as the only variable to specify the physical properties of dilute alcohol solutions.069.722 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. A good agreement between the experimental and the calculated data was achieved. 142045). m/s 190 . (Project No. s d = diameter of the orifice. The correlations include the number of C-atoms in a molecule chain. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This research was supported by the Ministry for Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia. Based on the simplicity of the proposed correlations it is to be expected that their useful application in reactors design. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. 183-192 Original scientific paper Fig. 40. 6.
12. Y. 6. Freitas. Acta Periodica Technologica. Bouzidi. Thesis. and J..: Untersuchungen zum Stoffaustauch in Gas-Flüssig-Dispersionen in Rührschlaufenreaktor und Blasensäule. AIChE J. University of Novi Sad. Bouillard: Influence of Coalescence Behaviour of the Liquid and of Gas Sparging on Hydrodynamics and Bubble Characteristics in a Bubble Column. 183-192 Original scientific paper D = diameter of the column.Perforated Plate. Thesis. m WLD = downcomer interstitial liquid velocity.. Carr and W. Godbole. 4. Soulami Bellhaj. kg/m3 σ = surface tension. Tekić: Prediction of Gas Holdup for Alcohol Solutions in a Draft-Tube Bubble Column. 8. 23 (2005) 161-167. G. m/s DR = diameter of the riser. G.. Havran. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Can J Chem Eng. Syeda. m δ = average relative error εG = gas holdup ρ = density.. Pošarac. M. M. Tekić: Gas Holdup and Volumetric Mass Transfer Coefficient in Bubble Columns with Dilute Alcohol Solutions.APTEFF.T. 37 (2006) 71-82.2298/APT0940183S UDC: 66. Petrović and M. University of Novi Sad. Đurić.Sc. Đurić and M. B. E. Universität Dortmund. D. Biochem Eng J. S.D. N. Ph. N.P. D.T. 40.R.G.82:661. 9. Teixeira: Effect of Liquid-phase Surface Tension on Hydrodynamics of a Three-Phase Airlift Reactor with an Enlarged Degassing Zone. D. Tekić: Hydrodynamics and Mass Transfer in a Draft Tube Airlift Reactor with Dilute Alcohol Solutions. B.L. Deckwer: Effect of Addition of Alcohol on Gas Holdup and Backmixing in Bubble Column. Honath. 5. M. 38 (1999) 329-344.D. Tokić. Shah. V. 53 (2007) 2897-2904. Pošarac. A. 2006.011:66. Vial. B. B. 7. N/m Greek letters: Subscripts: C = circulation D = downcomer G = gas phase L = liquid phase R = riser REFERENCES 1. M. S.. Ph. University of Novi Sad. Bioprocess Eng. M.N. Thesis.722 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 2008. D. Albijanić. A.: Investigation of Hydrodynamics and Mass-Transfer in a Three Phase External-loop Airlift Reactor. and M. Ziyad: Influence of Alcohol Addition on Gas Holdup. 10. N. El Azher. 1988. M. S. 3. AIChE J. C. 19 (1988) 451–457.D.F. 29 (1983) 361-369. Albijanić.. Vial. 1978. Wild. Albijanić.: Investigation of Alcohol Addition on Hydrodynamics and MassTransfer in a Draft-tube Airlift Reactor.069. Chuang: Prediction of Gas Holdup in a Bubble Column Filled with Pure and Binary Liquids. Midoux and J. Afacan and K.Sc. Poncin. 80 (2002) 44-50. 11. Petrović. Keitel. C. 191 . B.Lj. Barkaoui and M. Thesis. M. Liquid Circulation Velocity and Mass Transfer Coefficient in a Split–Rectangular Airlift Bioreactor.: Influence of Distributor Type on Hydrodynamic in a Draft Tube Airlift Reactor. 33 (1987) 497-499. Chem Eng Process. C. Gourich. AIChE J. B. Camarasa. Kelkar. 2.
1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.011:66. поред привидне брзине гаса. Cleide: LAB Fit Curve Fitting Software (Nonlinear Regression and Treatment of Data Program) V 7. R.069. and M.APTEFF. брзине течности у силазној цеви и запреминског коефицијента прелаза масе у барботажним колонама са и без унутрашње цеви. Silva Wilton. ПРЕДВИЂАЊЕ ОСНОВНИХ ХИДРОДИНАМИЧКИХ И МАСЕНОПРЕНОСНИХ КАРАКТЕРИСТИКА У БАРБОТАЖНИМ КОЛОНАМА СА И БЕЗ УНУТРАШЊЕ ЦЕВИ СА РАЗБЛАЖЕНИМ РАСТВОРИМА АЛКОХОЛА Ивана М. са једноструким уводником као дистрибуторoм гаса и разблаженим растворима алкохола као течном фазом.2. Расположиви експериментални подаци употребљени за извођење корелација проширени су новим експериментима са разблаженим раствoрима С1-С8 алкохола.38 (1999-2007). времена рециркулације течности. Предложене корелације омогућавају врло добро предвиђање експерименталних података. 32 (2005) 677-684. Da Silva and M. Чоловић. Захваљујући једноставном облику. 40.D.82:661.E.722 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.P. Aguilera: Experimental Study on Marangoni Effect Induced by Heat and Mass Transfer.. D'Aubetere.. Received 4 May 2009 Accepted 27 August 2009 192 . 183-192 Original scientific paper 13. као једину величину која карактерише течну фазу. 14. Миленко С.2298/APT0940183S UDC: 66. Радмило Р. Предложене корелације укључују. Int Comm Heat Mass Transf. Шијачки. може се очекивати успешна примена изведених корелација при пројектовању оваквих типова реактора. Токић и Предраг С. P. дужину ланца молекула алкохола (број С-атома).S. A. Којић У овом раду предложене су корелације за предвиђање садржаја гаса.
BIOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL ENGINEERING .
Cladosporium spp. oregano. Besides.. Nemet Spices and herbs have been used as food additives since ancient times.18 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. such as increasing cost. Those are. As natural foodstuffs. Spices and herbs have been added to food since ancient times. pepper. Nemet. A number of spices shows antimicrobial activity against different types of microorganisms. antifungal activity INTRODUCTION In the recent years. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Nevena T. bay. thyme. type of food and microorganism. This article gives a literature review of recent investigations considering antimicrobial activity of essential oils widely used spices and herbs. and it shows that cinnamon. nevenan@uns. Salmonella spp. Staphylococcus spp. relative antimicrobial effectiveness can be made. 195-209 Review ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF SPICES AND HERBS ESSENTIAL OILS Marija M. in the first place.. and spices such as pepper and ginger have weak inhibitory effect. Therefore. clove. Škrinjar and Nevena T. Antimicrobial activity depends on the type of spice or herb. the use of synthetic compounds have significant drawbacks.rs.. firstname.lastname@example.org. Spices occupy a prominent place in the traditional culinary practices and are indispensable part of daily diets of milDr. such as garlic. concerns about residues on food and threat to human environment (2).. rosemary etc. effective and nontoxic compounds. Serbia 195 .Sc. herbs. which have been used in foods for decades. B.ac.. cinnamon. 40.rs.2298/APT0940195S UDC: 664. antimicrobial. Aspergillus spp. as well as on the chemical composition and content of extracts and essential oils. Summarizing results of different investigations. consumers have become more concerned about the processed food they eat. oregano. as flavouring agents but also as natural food preservatives. thyme and rosemary show medium inhibitory effect.5:582. Marija M. spices and herbs appeal to all who question safety of synthetic food additives and demand high-quality products that at the same time are safe and stable (4). cumin.28+577.. ginger. Pseudomonas spp. Escherichia spp.. sage. handling hazards. mustard. but also as folk medicine and food preservatives (5-7). there has been increasing interest to replace synthetic preservatives with natural. may lead to negative health consequences (1). basil. 21000 Novi Sad. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. Syntehtic preservatives.. Prof. against most common bacteria and fungi that contaminate food (Listeria spp. Faculty of Technology. extracts and essential oils (EOs) of spices and herbs (3). and many others). sage. KEY WORDS: Spices. not only as flavouring agents. cloves and mustrad have very strong antimicrobial potential. cumin. Škrinjar.APTEFF..
including foodborne pathogens (5.28+577. i. (14).5:582. 20). and commonly concentrated in one particular region such as leaves. such as sweet.Escherichia coli. Numerous studies have been published on the antimicrobial activities of plant extracts against different types of microbes. carvacrol. As reviewed by López-Malo et al. sour. which 196 . particular interest has been focused on essential oils (EOs) and their components (15). steroids. pungent (garlic). 195-209 Review lions of people all over the world.e.2298/APT0940195S UDC: 664. clove from flower bud. vanillin from vanilla. Results are summarised at Table 1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. sage). glycosides. some of antimicrobial components that have been identified in spices and herbs are: eugenol from cloves. 17). bitter and astringent (10). 11. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. coumarins and tannins (13). allyl isothiocyanate from mustard. including food-borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria (16. etc. They are normally formed in special cells or groups of cells. thymol from thyme and oregano. Salmonella enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus. colouring (turmeric) and herbaceous (rosemary. found in leaves and stems. EOs are aromatic and volatile oily liquids of an aromatic plant’s secondary metabolism. eugenol) (19. hot (pepper). Thirteen of the 27 EOs were active at least against one bacterial strain in the range of tested concentrations. 12). The MIC was expressed as microlitres of EOs per volume unit of atmosphere above the organism growing on the agar surface. It has been reported that spices owe their antimicrobial properties mostly to the presence of alkaloids. pepper from fruit. essential oils. They can be clasiffied by their flavour and colour. cinnamic aldehyde from cinnamon. aromatic (cinnamon. mostly because they are derived from different parts of the plants. and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were recorded. Spices and herbs There is no particular definition of spices. or according to their taste. They are essentially flavouring agents used in small amounts and are reported to have both beneficial effect and antimicrobial properties (8). plenty of spices and herbs are valued for their antimicrobial activities and medicinal effects in addition to their flavour and fragrance qualities (9). The most effecient was Armoracia rusticana (horseradish). cinnamon from bark or ginger from rhyzome. bay leaf from leafs.APTEFF. Among these products. spicy. because they are known to be active against a wide variety of microorganisms. (21) identified antibacterial properties of EOs in vapour phase against five foodborne bacteria . In vitro antibacterial activity of 27 EOs in vapour phase was evaluated by modified disc volatilization method (22) at eight different concentrations (0. carvacrol from oregano. bark or fruit (18).53 µl/cm3).0042–0. phenols.. clove).18 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Nowadays. and it was defined as the lowest concentration which made clearly visible inhibition zone. Antibacterial activity of EOs Nedorostova et al. 40. EOs have long served as flavouring agents in food and beverages. Furthermore. Listeria monocytogenes. allicin from garlic. there is no a common method to classify spices. such as cardamom from seed. which is assigned to a number of small molecules of terpenoids and phenolic compounds (thymol. but they are much more important because of their antimicrobial activity.
Gram-negative strains were somewhat less inhibited than Gram-positive strains.aeruginosa was inhibited only by these two. and Allium sativum (garlic).53 0.26–0.33 0.0083 0. oregano. garlic.0083 Gram-negative EC PA SE 0.53 0. prickly ash.53 0.5:582.0083 µl/cm3) than against Gram-negative (MICs 0.0083 0. S.26 0.03 Gram-positive LM SA 0.53 0. LM – Listeria monocytogenes.0083 0.83 0.33 0. which was significantly more active against Gram-positive (MICs 0.53 0.033 0. horseradish and garlic. Grant verte Origanum majorana Origanum vulgare Satureja montana Thymus pulegoides Thymusseryllum Thymus vulgaris Yield % 0.28 0.2298/APT0940195S UDC: 664. EC – Escherichia coli.033 - 0. SE – Salmonella enteritidis. EOs. Hence.0083 0. pepper. round cardamom. oregano.08 0. Pseudomonas fluorescens and Lactobacillus sake) and their results showed that individual extracts of clove.13 0. Escherichia coli. enteritidis > P.15 0. cassia bark and liquorice contained strong antibacterial activity.26 0. savory. followed by E. MICs (µl/cm3) of essential oils in vapour phase effective against foodborne bacteria (21) Plant species Allium sativum Armoracia rusticana Caryopteris x clandonensis Hyssopus officinalis Mentha x villosa Nepeta x faassenii Ocimum basilicum var.033 0.53 0. It is important to notice that P. Zhang et al.033 0.017 0.27 0.APTEFF.monocytogenes > S.23 0.0083 0. liquorice. aeruginosa. In general. cassia bark.017 0.066 0. nutmeg. fennel. thyme. Table 1.26 0.033 0.26 0.8 0. Findings of this research suggest that horseradish. they may be considered as natural preservatives acceptable by the food industry. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.26 0.28+577.033 0.53 0. (23) studied the antibacterial properties of 14 EOs (clove.0083 µl/cm3. 40. aniseed.0083 0. These herb extracts are widely used in the food industry and are generally regarded as safe (GRAS). rosemary. which was the least inhibited.53 0. PA – Pseudomonas aeruginosa.18 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. large thyme and wild thyme EOs are highly effective in vapour phase and could be potentially used to fight against foodborne bacterial pathogens. but the mixture of rosemary and liquorice extracts was the best inhibitor against all four types of microbes.16 0.033 0.15 0. SA – Staphylococcus aureus. 195-209 Review inhibited both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains with MIC 0.26 0. dahurian angelica root and angelica) against four common meat spoilage and pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes.53 µl/cm3) bacteria. rosemary.53 0.066 0.53 0. marjoram. aureus was the most susceptible bacterium (inhibited by all active EOs). turmeric.26 0. 197 .033 Yield – in % (v/w) of fresh weight. coli > L.
the use of antimicrobials can reduce or eliminate specific microorganisms but it may also produce favourable conditions for other microorganisms (25).. milk and meat. The FIC indices were calculated as FICA+FICB. Listeria spp. marjoram. (24) tested the synergy of EO combinations and expresed it as fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index. in the lettuce leaf model media. while the efficacy order of EOs against the spoilage bacteria was: oregano>thyme> marjoram. where FICA=MICA. addition (0. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined against Enterobacter spp. lettuce leaf model media (B) or beef extract (C) (24) Microorganism Oregano Thyme Marjoram Lemon balm (A) Enterobacter cloacae Listeria innocua NCTC11288 Listeria monocytogenes IL323 Listeria monocytogenes NCTC1194 Pseudomonas fluorescens Pseudomonas putida (B) Enterobacter cloacae Listeria innocua NCTC11288 Listeria monocytogenes IL323 Pseudomonas fluorescens (C) Listeria innocua NCTC11288 Listeria monocytogenes NCTC1194 Pseudomonas fluorescens Pseudomonas putida a 400 200 200 200 2000 2000 250 20 20 250 60 60 1500 1500 600 200 200 200 2000 2000 250 30 30 250 125 125 2500 2500 6000 ND ND ND 50 000 50 000 2000 ND 2000 2000 ND ND 12500 12500 NDa 2500 2500 2500 ND ND ND 250 ND ND 500 500 ND ND ND. shown in Table 2.combination/MICA. 195-209 Review There has been several more general studies about antimicrobial activity of EOs. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. and applied them on food model media based on lettuce.alone and FICB=MICB. Gutierrez et al. oregano and thyme. the average efficacy of EOs against Listeria spp. Thus. not determined. combining EOs could lead to useful efficacy against both spoilage and pathogenic target organisms. See Table 3. It is recognized that this situation is less likely to develop towards substances that have more than one mode of action (26). 40. The results were interpreted as synergy (FIC< 0.5:582.28+577.2298/APT0940195S UDC: 664.APTEFF. who evaluated EOs of lemon balm.combination/MICB. so it is suggested that the antimicrobial activity of EOs is attributed to more than one mechanism (27). According to the results. indifference (1 <FIC<4) or antagonism (FIC> 4). As has been shown by some other researchers. One of them is the work of Gutierrez et al. 198 .18 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.5<FIC< 1).alone. and Pseudomonas spp. Lactobacillus spp. MIC of EOs used in this study against the selected bacteria in TSB (A).5). Table 2. (24).. was in the following order: oregano>thyme> lemon balm.
Gutierrez et al. FIC values of EOs combinations in lettuce leaf model media (24) EO combination Enterobacter cloacae Listeria monocytogenes IL323 2.25 (I) 1.25 (I) FIC< 0.00 (A) - For successful applications of EOs in different food systems.no synergistic effect (<0.00 (I) NDa ND ND 1. considering the synergistic effect of marjoram and thyme with some other EOs (Table 4).00 (A) 1.94 (A) 1. 199 . FIC indices of marjoram and thyme EOs combinations against L. Marjoram Thyme 0. indifference (I.18 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. There is a number of examples where some studies have shown that plant extracts are useful for reduction of pathogens in some food product.5) was found.06 (A) 1.5 <FIC<1). potential interactions between EOs and food components have to be determined.25 (I) 1.2298/APT0940195S UDC: 664. the application of plant EOs requires the evaluation of efficacy within food products or in model systems that closely mimic food composition.88 (A) 1.with reference to the FIC scale .5:582. This was also investigated by Gutierrez et al.75 (I) Oregano+lemon balm ND Oregano+thyme 0.25 (I) 0.03 (A) 1. 195-209 Review Table 3.APTEFF. No antagonism was observed for any of the combinations evaluated.38 (I) ND ND ND 0. Table 4. not detected. 0.5).55 (I) 0.50 (I) 1. Only one combination (oregano with thyme) had additive effects against both spoilage microorganisms. antagonism (AN. Combinations of oregano with thyme or lemon balm were more effective against Listeria monocytogenes. monocytogenes IL323 (28) Combinations Marjoram or thyme + Basil Lemon balm Marjoram Oregano Rosemary Sage Thyme . FIC> 4).18 (I) 1.75 (A) 1.18 (I) 1. The combination of thyme with lemon balm had greater efficacy against Listeria innocua. (28). Results from Table 3 show that .28+577.00 (A) 1. 40.55 (I) 1.75 (A) 1.75 (A) Thyme+marjoram 1. These results can be observed as an addition to some earlier studies of the same author. Thus. addition (A. while others reported very low antimicrobial activity or no effect when the same EOs were applied to other product. 1<FIC< 4) or Pseudomonas fluorescens Listeria innocua NCTC11288 Oregano+marjoram 1. More incidence of additive effects was found with EO combinations against Listeria strains.00(A) Thyme+lemon balm ND Results are interpreted as synergy (S. a ND.18 (I) 1. because the efficacy of many antimicrobials may be reduced by certain food components (29). but addition occurred with a number of combinations.
58 0.01 0.15 0.71 0.75 0.00 0. 5.079 8.47 0.117 12. 195-209 Review (28).81 0.5 7. monocytogenes.098 8.141 9. To determine the effect of pH on EO efficacy TSB was adjusted to pH 4.0 10.04 0.000 0.223 5. in contrast to the general observation that carbohydrates in foods do not protect bacteria from the action of EOs as much as fat and protein do (30).0 13. The efficacy of oregano and thyme was greater at higher concentrations of protein.238 1. 40. they studied the effect of food ingredients and pH on the antimicrobial efficacy of EOs using a number of model media and L.200 10.195 9. In this complex task. probably because peptones from beef extract may have hydrophobic properties which facilitate dissolution of EOs in this medium.18 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.48 0.01 0.0 8.31 0.21 0.185 12. The EO efficacy was reduced at high concentrations of starch.235 7. and (c) sunflower oil in TSB.097 Sunflower oil media 0.328 6. Table 5.06 0.0 9.43 0.80 0.39 0.279 1.034 9.220 7.174 9.175 6.250 7.00 0.104 8.016 9. Model media comprised the following: (a) water soluble starch from potato in TSB. (b) beef extract in deionized water.0 14. In addition.70 0.48 0.04 0.14 0. The EOs used in the study were oregano (30 ppm) and thyme (60 ppm). the growth rate of L.96 0.215 Starch media 0.146 6.monocytogenes IL323 as indicator strain. Results.195 6.87 0. 200 .50 0.00 0.2298/APT0940195S UDC: 664.05 0. Lag phase duration (λ) and maximum specific growth rate (μmax) of L.142 8.APTEFF.000 TSB pH5 12.0 9.226 12.284 10. are shown in Table 5.0 15.33 0.0 15.88 0.54 0.017 TSB pH6 7.0 10.17 0. expressed as lag phase duration and maximum specific growth rate of L.000 0.94 0. and they were assessed independently.271 7.054 3.33 0.208 9.074 6. 6 or 7 with 1 M HCl solution The lag phase of Listeria monocytogenes grown in beef extract containing oregano was longer than the control at protein concentrations of 6% and 12%.28+577.23 0.13 0.80 0.076 11.55 0. monocytogenes decreased at higher starch concentrations.79 0.24 0.0 7.164 7.22 0.84 0.79 0.200 6.170 pH TSB pH4 0.231 7. The pH of each model medium was adjusted to 7.209 7.75 0.75 0.268 5.208 11.2. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.0 10.43 0. monocytogenes IL323 grown in model media containing oregano (30 ppm) or thyme (60 ppm) (28) Model media Oregano Λ [h] µmax[h-1] Λ [h] Thyme µmax[h-1] Controla Λ [h] µmax[h-1] Beef extract 1.69 0.261 a Listeria monocytogenes grown in model media without any EO was used as the control.75 0.240 15.147 10.004 10.173 TSB pH7 9.099 10.5:582.50 0.
Complete inhibition of growth of Aspergillus flavus was observed at 350 and 500 ppm of thyme and summer savory EOs. However. Effect of pH was evaluated using TSB at pH 4. As reported by a number of authors (38-45). Aspergillus flavus Link and Aspergillus parasiticus Speare are major storage fungi found regularly in important cereal grains cultivated and stored throughout the world (47). respectively. 40. especially at pH 5. respectively. However.5%. Also. enabling consequently easier dissolution in the lipids of the cell membrane of target bacteria (32). 5 and 10%). Thyme EO has the highest antifungal activity. 6 and 7. G1 and G2. while 500ppm of clove oil had inhibition of 87. which are known to be potent hepatocarcinogens in animals and humans (46). Atanda et al. the presence and growth of fungi in food may also cause spoilage and result in a reduction in quality and quantity (33-39). 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. regardless of the presence or absence of EOs. 1. In vivo studies was performed in tomato paste. however. summer savory and clove) in culture medium and as a real system in tomato paste (in vitro and in vivo). evaluated essential oils of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). inhibition in tomato paste were 87% and 42%. Antifungal activity of EOs All mentioned investigations have demonstrated anibacterial properties of EOs against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria in food. which provides microbial cells with greater protection from antimicrobial agents. The biosynthesis of aflatoxins can be inhibited by extracts and EOs from certain plants toxic to fungi and can control the fungal growth and mycotoxin production. B2. The lag phase of Listeria grown in pH model media with EO was longer than in EO free controls. some Aspergillus species are responsible for many cases of food and feed contamination. monocytogenes was monitored in model media containing four different sunflower oil concentrations (0.2298/APT0940195S UDC: 664. cassia (Cinnamomum cassia).28+577. followed by summer savory and clove EOs. (50). L. monocytogenes increased at higher pH values. in other treatments inhibition in tomato paste was lower than in culture medium. and Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are able to produce aflatoxins in food and feedstuffs. Results clearly showed that in vitro each EO had notable antifungal activity.5:582. It has probably been related to the more complex matrix of tomato paste than culture medium. The growth rate of L. flavus completely (100%).APTEFF. in order to determine effect of oil on the antimicrobial activity. High concentrations of sunflower oil had a negative influence on the antimicrobial activity of oregano and thyme EOs. Omidbeygi et al. (49) evaluated the antifungal activity of three EOs (thyme. the need to use plant EOs at higher concentrations in food than in laboratory media is believed to be due to the more complex growth environment in food. the lag phase was also greatest at pH 5 in control media. 5. 195-209 Review The growth of L. monocytogenes did not grow at pH 4.18 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. which produce aflatoxins B1.(48). coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) for their potential in the growth control of aflatoxigenic fungus Aspergillus parasiticus CFR 201 . and while in vitro experiments showed that 500 and 350ppm of thyme oil could inhibit the growth of A. The susceptibility of bacteria to EOs appears to increase at lower pH since the hydrophobicity of EOs increases at low pH. Some previous studies showed that the inhibitory effect of plant extracts was greater at acidic pH values (31).
050 0.001 0.011 0.40 0.042 0.050 0. are summarised in Table 6.038 0.18 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. tested antifungal activity of lemongrass (Cympopogon citratus L. Botrytis cinerea.00 0.050 0.029 0.48 0.024 0.042 0. Results.046 0.001 0.046 0.046 0.38 0.50 0.50 0.APTEFF.050 0.035 0. 195-209 Review 223 and aflatoxin production.50 0.5:582.040 0.000 0.92%) and 0.55 0. Tzortzakis et al.28+577.012 0. Lemongrass oil reduced spore germina202 . Cladosporium herbarum. fungal sporulation was completely retarded (Table 7).002 0.75 Aflatoxin [µg/ml] B1 G1 0. Effect of different concentrations of spice essential oil on the mycelia dry weight and aflatoxin production in basal medium (52) Essential oil Concentration [%v/v] 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Mycelia dry weight [g/ml] 0. (51). 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.000 0.030 0.21%).035 0. At the same concentration. At the highest oil concentration (500 ppm).038 0.050 0.045 0. expressed as mycelia dry weight and aflatoxin production in basal medium. while coriander oil did not have any effect on either the mycelia growth or aflatoxin content of the fungus. respectively.046 0.046 0.002 µg/ml (97.046 0.038 0.004 0.20 0.20 0.55 0.046 0.050 0.50 0.70 0.003 0.027 0. Cassia and bay leaf EOs stimulated the mycelia growth of the fungus.003 0.52 0. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger in vitro.20 0. Fungal spore production was inhibited up to 70% at 25 ppm of lemongrass oil concentration when compared with control samples (equivalent plates stored in the ambient air).2298/APT0940195S UDC: 664. oils of cassia and bay leaf reduced the aflatoxin concentration (B1+G1) of the fungus to 0.040 0.043 µg/ml (55.020 0.045 0. Oil-enrichment resulted in significant reduction of the subsequent colony development for the examined microorganisms.55 0.50 0.050 0.50 0.023 0.020 Cassia Sweet basil Coriander Bay leaf The EOs of sweet basil inhibited completely mycelia growth and prevented aflatoxin formation at the concentration of 5% (v/v).) oil (range concentration between 25 and 500 ppm) against Colletotrichum coccodes. 40.20 0.65 0. Table 6.
35 62. In the case of A. The same concentration for growth inhibition was found for P.27-0.00 79.38 39.94% of any of the EOs was used.00 In the study of Vilela et al.) essential oil-enrichment on spore production (number of spores×106) of tested fungi grown on PDA (51) EO concentration [ppm] 0 25 50 100 500 Colleotrichum coccodes Botrytis cinerea Cladosporium herbarum Rhizopus stolonifer Aspergillus niger 12.94%. stolonifer with the effects dependent on oil concentration.28 4.13 0.13 9.2298/APT0940195S UDC: 664. Škrinjar et al. investigated the effect of the essential oils of lemon (Citrus lemon L.63 5.) and orange (Citrus sinensis L.0.8 cineole only showed effects at the highest concentration tested.35 47.5.). 1.chrysogenum.5 and 2. This study indicated that EOs may possess antifungal activity and can be exploited as an ideal treatment for future plant disease management programs eliminating fungal spread. parasiticus. 40.).23 8.18 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.13 2. and the order of oil efficacy against these moulds was grapefruit>lemon>orange>mandarin. Complete fungal growth inhibition was verified at the concentration of 50 ml oil per millilitre of medium in the contact assay. which indicated the major oil constituent is not the only component responsible for limiting fungal growth. Results of this study showed that Eucalyptus globulus oil had clear dose-dependent antifungal activity on both fungal species. Mint showed 203 . Inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production required a higher oil dose than was required for inhibition of fungal growth.00 14. 195-209 Review tion and germ tube length of C.93 63. Orange EO produced the greatest reduction in mycelium growth with this fungus.28+577. while grapefruit EO caused the lowest percentage of mycelial reduction in A. The growth of A. niger. flavus.00 169. orange. coccodes.88 0. mandarin and grapefruit at the concentrations assayed (0. The antifungal activity offered by 1. mandarin (Citrus reticulata L. B. EO and its major compound 1. as well as on aflatoxin production. 0. Table 7.0.55 1. while total inhibition of growth was obtained with all the EOs at the highest concentrations of 0. 1.00 0. Viuda-Martos et al.00 14. Aspergillus flavus. (54) examined an inhibitory effect of various concentrations (0. flavus and A. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi L. Impacts of lemongrass (Cympopogon citratus L. the Eucalyptus globulus Labill.) and caraway (Carvum carvi L. niger was completely inhibited when a concentration of 0. C.50 99. efficacy of EOs was in the following order: mandarin>lemon>grapefruit>orange. (53). Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium verrucosum.verrucosum and P.10 5. then the mandarin. cinerea.0%) of mint (Mentha piperita L. herbarum and R. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.8-cineole were evaluated for antifungal activity against A.5:582. and it is followed by lemon EO.30 5.53 0.94%) all showed the capacity to reduce or inhibit the growth of the named moulds.70 45.APTEFF.75 0. The essential oils of lemon. using the agar dilution method.) on the growth of moulds commonly associated with food spoilage: Aspergillus niger.) on the growth of some toxigenic Aspergillus species and aflatoxin B1 production.23 5. (52).
Concentrations of 1. sugar and meat.) EO to inhibit the growth/survival of various food spoiling yeasts. cheese. essential oil [µl/ml] 160 80 40 20 10 5 2. cerevisae and C. 40. vinegar. noted by large growth inhibition halos.2298/APT0940195S UDC: 664. colour. 195-209 Review stronger inhibitory effect than caraway. (56). Yeasts are widely distributed in nature and are able to spoil many foods such as wines. krusei were the least sensitive yeasts with an MIC of 20 µL/mL. The highest inhibitory activity was observed against P. essential oil MIC on food spoiling yeasts determined by solid medium diffusiona (56) Origanum vulgare L. beverages.5 Candida albicans 38 28 20 12 10 0 0 Candida krusei 32 25 15 12 0 0 0 Candida tropicalis 35 27 21 14 11 0 0 Pichia minuscula 39 36 31 21 16 11 0 Pichia ohmeri 33 28 16 13 10 0 0 Rodotorula rubra 38 34 30 28 14 0 0 Saccharomyces cerevisae 26 22 14 11 0 0 0 a Results expressed in millimeters of yeast growth inhibition halos.18 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. taste and texture (55). fruits. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. causing changes in odour. expressed in millimeters of yeast growth inhibition halos. 1. aimed at verifying the effectiveness of oreganum (Origanum vulgare L. S.0% reduced the growth of all tested Aspergillus species. cerevisae showed the smallest growth inhibition halo diameters when compared to all other strains. are shown in Table 8. The fact that many EOs possess antimicrobial activity has been proved by plenty of investigations in the recent years.APTEFF. minuscula (the lowest MIC of 5 µL/mL) and the largest growth inhibition halos. This high antimicrobial activity of O.58).5:582. Yeasts 1. The applied concentrations of mint and caraway inhibited completely the production of AB1 by Aspergillus flavus. however S.25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 The results showed that the EO had a substantial inhibitory effeect on all assayed yeast strains. Results. Table 8. the organoleptical impact should be considered as the use of naturally derived preservatives can alter the taste of food or exceed acceptable flavour thresholds. which was poor and hardly visible.28+577. vulgare EO supports the results found by other researchers (57. CONCLUSIONS Food contamination is enormous public health problem. The type and optimal concentration of EO depend on the product used and against which species of bacteria or fungi it is to be used. The study of Souza et al. The problem may occur if high concentrations 204 . while concentration of 2% of caraway was needed to achieve the same effect. Many of data indicate the EOs inhibitory effects of various spices and herbs on these microorganisms.5 and 2. On the other hand. Most assayed strains showed an MIC of 10 µL/mL. But if EOs are expected to be widely applied as antibacterials and antifungals. salads. but it could be controlled by the use of natural preservatives such as essential oils obtained from spices. juices.0. Origanum vulgare L.
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. жалфија. Salmonella spp. рузмарин и др. према коме цимет.. врсте намирница и микроорганизама на које се примењује. може се извести закључак о релативној антимикробној и антифунгалној ефикасности одређених зачина и лековитог биља. каранфилић и слачица имају веома јак антимикробни потенцијал.. 195-209 Review ловор. док бибер и ђумбир имају слаб инхибиторни ефекат. жалфија. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.. ђумбир. Aspergillus spp. Received 23 July 2009 Accepted 15 October 2009 209 . 40. као и од хемијског састава и концентрације екстраката или есенцијалних уља зачина.5:582. Cladosporium spp.. босиљак. против најчешћих бактерија и гљива које контаминирају храну (Listeria spp. Staphylococcus spp. мајчина душица и рузмарин имају средњи..APTEFF. Pseudomonas spp. Антимикробна активност зависи од врсте зачина.28+577. Сумирањем резултата добијених од стране различитих аутора. кумин. оригано. мајчина душица. оригано..18 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Escherichia spp. и многи други). бибер.2298/APT0940195S UDC: 664.
5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Institute for Food Technology. Jelena D. Sunčica Kocić-Tanackov.037. Pejin. Irena S. Jelena D. freezed at -20°C and analyzed after 0. A number of factors can affect yeast cells damage.26%. The mean specific growth rate decreased by approximately 10% during 30 days of storage at -20°C.11% and from the middle 54. depending on whether ice is formed intracellularly (high freezing rates) or extracelularly (lower freeDr. Carboxymethylcellulose in concentration of 0. Pejin. and 70. Prof. Grujić.2298/APT0940211P UDC: 664. University of Novi Sad. Olgica S. Pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture was isolated from dough and was cultivated under optimal conditions during 24 hrs to determine the following parameters: specific growth rate. such as freezing. frozen dough. respectively. Dušanka J.95%. the percentage of living cells from dough surface was 53. heat shock. Guar–gum increased number of survived cells only in concentration of 0. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1.64. Assist. Dr. Survival of frozen yeast cells depends on several genetic.79. Assist. Serbia. Olgica S. In bread making baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encounters many stresses. 40. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.1% on the surface to 70. Grujić.2 and 0. fermentative activities and cytochromes contents in intact cells with the aim of determining the respiration intensity. physiological.1. Irena S. 21000 Novi Sad. Došenović and Sunčica D.17% and in the middle of the dough to 75.. 211-220 Original scientific paper THE INFLUENCE OF CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE. Prof. M.644.. metabolism.Sc.. yeast cells show dramatically decreased fermentation activity (2. Faculty of Technology. 21000 Novi Sad.8:664. and guar-gum (0. After the dough thaws. Dr. viability INTRODUCTION The process of manufacturing bread from frozen dough is widely utilized in the baking industry (1). Content of cytochromes in intact cells decreased in all samples during freezing..3).28% and in the middle to 74. Pejin.016.5% increased number of survived cells on the surface to 70.APTEFF. and 76. Dr.54%. Serbia 211 . XANTHAN AND GUAR-GUM ADDITION IN BREAD DOUGH BEFORE FREEZING ON METABOLISM AND VIABILITY OF Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dušanka J. Pejin. 0. During freezing of dough for 30 days. xanthan.3 and 0.3/. Kocić-Tanackov Doughs were prepared with different concentrations of carboxymethylcellulose. Such freezing can thus cause cell wall and membrane damage. Bulevar Cara Lazara 1. osmotic stress and air-drying stress.7:664. KEY WORDS: Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 7. 15 and 30 days. Došenović.64. protein and DNA denaturation and decreased cell survival.3% in doughs). and environmental factors (4)..
Hydrocolloids when used in small quantities (<1% (w/w) in flour) are axpected to increase water retention and loaf volume and to desrease firmness and starch retrogradation (11). xanthan. Buch. higher amount of yeast compared to traditional production and shorter dough fermentation before freezing.644. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. and mixed for 10 min at 85 rpm (control). milling and bakery products. Hydrocolloids have been widely used in food products to modify texture. 0. and guar-gum use to protect yeast cells during dough freezing.3% in doughs). Different hydrocolloids like carboxymethylcellulose.1. and use of modified yeast strains (6). The number of living Saccha212 . 2 and 3% (w/w) in flour) on bread quality. The number of living Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells was determined according to the method given in the Rulebook on methods performing microbiological analyses and super analyses of food products (15).016. and for additional 1.037.64.2298/APT0940211P UDC: 664.8:664.2 and 0. Although the external and internal characteristics of bread deterorated with storage time addition of CMC improved the characteristics compared with control after each storage period.5% calculated on flour) were placed in the spin kneading machine with helical agitators.APTEFF. and the dosage of the hydrocolloid incorporated into dough formulations. stored at -20°C and analyzed after 0. 15 and 30 days. Switzerland) were added as a component into the dough prepared according to the described procedure. and guar-gum have been successfully used in wheat bread production (10).5% (w/w) in flour) improves volume and texture of bread obtained from non-frozen and frozen dough. 211-220 Original scientific paper zing rates) (5). use of instant yeast. Carboxymethylcellulose. even on improving the characteristics and quality of frozen dough and obtained bakery products: addition of hydrocolloids.5 h at 20°C. 40. use of cryotolerant and/or cryoresistent baker’s yeast strains. improve moisture retention. while the thawing regime affects insignificantly the survival of yeast cells. frozen at -20°C (freezing rate was 1°C/min). The aim of this research was to investigate the possibility of carboxymethylcellulose. Protein and polysaccharide functions are greatly affected by their interaction with each other and with other components of food system (9).5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. EXPERIMENTAL Average quality commercial T-500 flour was used for the production of dough. xanthan. Ribotta et al. Temperature of mixed dough was 20±1°C (14).8). and guar-gum (Fluka AG. and maintain overall product quality during storage (7. The samples were thawed at 4°C for 12 h. Doughs were prepared with different concentrations of hydrocolloids (0.7:664. Sharadanant and Khan (12) investigated the influence of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) addition in three different concentrations (1. The effects of hydrocolloids on the functional properties of dough and bread quality depend on the nature origin and particle size of the hydrocolloid. pasta and fast frozen dough (13). (7) showed that the addition of guar gum (0. The doughs were stored frozen for up to 16 weeks. Several ways of decreasing the effect of freezing and frozen storage on yeast cells survival and fermentative activity can be found. which was frozen later. Quality characteristics were analyzed according to the Regulations on methods of physical and chemical analyses for quality control of wheat. lower water content in prepared dough. Yeast cells are damaged during the freezing process. control water mobility.3/. xanthan. Doughs were prepared according to the following procedure: flour+water+fresh commercial baker’s yeast (2. divided into portions. 7.
1 0. 1. Fermentative activity was determined using Einhorn method described by Reiff et al. (21).8:664.1. In the further investigations. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.2298/APT0940211P UDC: 664.1%: on the surface to 70.26% (Fig. Comparing these results. 40. yeast cells were isolated from the middle of the dough and propagated for the determination of specific growth rate and cytochrome content 213 .3/. Cytochrome content in intact cells (with the aim of determining the respiration intensity) was determined according to Oura and Suomalainen (20).7:664.5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.54%.644.79. Hydrocolloids can modify the dough structure.APTEFF. 3). 1). the percentage of living yeast cells from dough surface was 53.87%. Binding immobilization of water decreases the ice crystal formation and also the damage of gluten and yeast cells (22). Values represent means calculated from three determinations Addition of xanthan to doughs did not have a great impact on percentage of living yeast cells after 30 days of freezing (Fig.3 and 0. Guar–gum increased survived cells number only in concentration of 0.3 and 0. and in the middle 57. bind the free water and control water migration in the dough.11%.037.5% increased the number of survived cells on the surface to 70.5 % of carboxymethylcellulose On the surface In the middle Fig. Percentage of living yeast cells in dough compared to initial number before freezing (on the surface and in the middle) with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose (0.5%) after 30 days of freezing. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION During freezing of dough for 30 days. Colonies of pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture were transferred into the liquid nutritive medium for yeast (17) and cultivated under optimal conditions (aeration and temperature) during 24 h. 80 Percentage of living yeast cells 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Control sample 0.64. Carboxymethylcellulose in concentration of 0.3 0. 0. (19). Specific growth rate was determined according to Pejin (18). and 76. and in the middle of the dough to 75. 2).17%. it can be presumed that the cells in the middle of the dough were protected from low temperatures and because of that the number of survived cells was higher. These results are in agreement with those of Ribotta et al.016.28% and in the middle to 74. and 70.64. 211-220 Original scientific paper romyces cerevisiae cells (viability) was determined by spreading samples on YPD agar and counting colonies after 3-4 days of incubation at 30°C (16). respectively (Fig.
Values represent means calculated from three determinations 80 Percentage of living yeast cells 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Control sample 0.5%) after 30 days of freezing.3/. glycerol and heat-shock proteins (23).APTEFF. 0.644.5% carboxymethylcellulose.7:664.1. 70 Percentage of living yeast cells 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Control sample 0. Percentage of living yeast cells in dough compared to initial number before freezing (on the surface and in the middle) with the addition of guar-gum (0. 0.5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.5%) after 30 days of freezing. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.016.3 and 0.5 On the surface In the middle Fig. 2.1 % of guar-gum 0. 3. and dough with 0. Percentage of living yeast cells in dough compared to initial number before freezing (on the surface and in the middle) with the addition of xanthan (0.5% xanthan. 40.3 0. dough with 0.5 On the surface In the middle Fig.8:664.2298/APT0940211P UDC: 664.1. 214 .037.1% for guar-gum).1 % of xanthan 0.3 and 0.3 0. 211-220 Original scientific paper (dough with 0. Values represent means calculated from three determinations There is today enough evidence to conclude that the exposure to low temperature protects yeast cells against freeze injury through the cold-induced accumulation of trehalose.64.
30 49.20 47.1360 0.1380 0.80 49.1290 Fermentative activities of pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures isolated from frozen doughs containing carboxymethylcellulose (0.1340 0.1395 0.98 46. Fermentative activity of pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures isolated from frozen dough samples during 30 days of freezinga Fermentative activity (cm3 CO2/L g dry matter in 15 minutes) Control sample CMCb Xanthan Guar-gum (0.00 47. The best protection of yeast cells was provided by carboxymethylcellulose.32 49.33 48.644.04 44. Specific growth rate μ (h-1) of pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture isolated from frozen dough samples during 30 days of freezinga Specific growth rate μ (h-1) CMCb Xanthan Control sample (0. xanthan (0.037.1390 1 in the middle 0.80 37.1300 30 in the middle 0.1300 0.1390 on the surface 0.74 49.5%).1290 a Values represent means calculated from three determinations b CMC .5%) (0.90 49.1%) are given in Table 2.1300 0.50 50. Table 2.1381 0.1370 0.30 on the surface 43.80 48. Fermentative activities decreased during 30 days of freezing.80 37.1360 0. The mean specific growth rate decreased by approximately 10% during 30 days of storage at -20°C (Table 1).1380 7 in the middle 0.20 49.1452 0.48 39.20 a Values represent means calculated from three determinations b CMC .80 1 in the middle 42.1380 0. and guar-gum (0.76 on the surface 42.26 41.70 7 in the middle 41.1350 0.5%) (0.20 48.Carboxymethylcellulose Days Dough sample 215 .1%) 0.1320 on the surface 0.1360 0.5%) on the surface 0.016.1290 on the surface 0.30 on the surface 43.1430 0 in the middle 0.56 45.50 49.1540 0.23 40.1370 0.62 46.1360 0.41 47.27 on the surface 43.5%).1260 0.1420 0.1430 0.80 35.1370 15 in the middle 0.1%) on the surface 46.APTEFF.10 48. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.3/.2298/APT0940211P UDC: 664.1362 0.8:664.Carboxymethylcellulose Days Dough sample Guar-gum (0.20 15 in the middle 39.1300 0.76 47.90 49.1320 on the surface 0.1425 0.1430 0.1300 0. 211-220 Original scientific paper Specific growth rates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae pure culture decreased constantly with a longer freezing of dough.1353 0. 40.18 42. By addition of hydrocolloids to dough.72 0 in the middle 41.1300 0.78 49. Table 1.80 44.1430 0.7:664. fermentative activities decreased less compared to control samples.64.5%) (0.1425 0.30 30 in the middle 34.1510 0.5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.
(24). Cytochromes contents (moles 105/kg of yeast with 25% dry matter) in pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture cells isolated from dough with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose (0.037. Values represent means calculated from three determinations 216 . 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.7:664. Values represent means calculated from three determinations 30 25 Cytochromes contents 20 a a3 15 10 5 0 0 1 7 Days 15 30 b c Tota l Fig. b. Yeast cells were isolated from the dough middle.APTEFF. 5. Cytochromes contents in pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture cells isolated from doughs with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose showed the smallest decrease during freezing (from 25. 211-220 Original scientific paper Higher fermentative activities were determined in yeast samples with higher specific growth rates (Tables 1 and 2).8:664.3/. and c cytochromes in pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture cells isolated from the surface of doughs and cultivated under optimal conditions for 24 h are presented in Figs. 4.2298/APT0940211P UDC: 664.5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.12).016. 30 25 Cytochromes contents 20 a a3 b c Total 15 10 5 0 0 1 7 Days 15 30 Fig.64. Cytochromes contents (moles 105/kg of yeast with 25% dry matter) in pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture cells isolated from control dough. Contents of aa3. 4-7. Individual and total cytochromes contents decreased during dough freezing.644. especially cytochrome aa3.85 to 20. which is in accordance with results of Van Hoek et al. 40.5%).
64.016. Values represent means calculated from three determinations 25 20 Cytochromes contents 15 aa3 b c 10 Total 5 0 0 1 7 Days 15 30 Fig. in this study petite mutants were not observed. This indicated that mitochondria were not stable and were incompatible with the nucleus. (16) showed that after prolonged freezing viability decreased in the frequency of respiratory-deficient (petite) mutant formation.1%).5%). Values represent means calculated from three determinations Codón et al. Cytochromes contents (moles 105/kg of yeast with 25% dry matter) in pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture cells isolated from dough with the addition of xanthan (0. Cytochromes contents (moles 105/kg of yeast with 25% dry matter) in pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture cells isolated from dough with the addition of guargum (0. Stoycheva et al. decreased during freezing. 7. which can induce decrease of specific growth rate. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.7:664.3/. 6.2298/APT0940211P UDC: 664. 217 .APTEFF. (25) showed that freezing has mutagenic effect on mitochondrial DNA of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Content of cytochrome.037. Recently. 40. which induces respiration mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. which shows intensity of aerobic metebolism.8:664.644. 211-220 Original scientific paper 25 20 Cytochromes contents 15 a a3 b c 10 Tota l 5 0 0 1 7 Days 15 30 Fig. However. The decrease of aerobic metobolism leads to lack of energy.
Soda: Simple improvement in freee-tolerance of baker’s yeast with poly-γ-glutamate. S. Benedito and M. M. C. Food Hydrocolloids 18 (2004) 241-247.2298/APT0940211P UDC: 664. M. 40.. Sato and K. Matica Srpska Proc. 211-220 Original scientific paper CONCLUSIONS Addition of hydrocolloids to dough protects yeast cells during freezing. By addition of hydrocolloids to dough fermentative activities decreased less compared to control samples. Takagi and J. 14 (2003) 99-108. Nakamura. S.. Sharadanant. rheological and baking performance of frozen bread dough. Giannou. Food Microbiol.54%.-E. Guarda. Food Hydrocolloids 19 (2005) 93-99. Food Hydrocolloids 13 (1999) 469-475. and 76. Guar–gum increased survived cells number only in concentration of 0. 8. J. Benedito and C. Yokoigawa.79. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10. Rosell: Effect of freezing and frozen storage on the staling of part-baked bread. M.5% increased the number of survived cells on the surface to 70. Biosci. Andreu. Van Dijck and J. Trends Food Sci.64.28% and in the middle to 74. 10. Dodić and V. J. Galotto: Different hydrocolloids in bread improvers and antistaling agents. Nat. A. Int. Food Research International 36 (2003) 863-869. K. 113 (2007) 293-301. 2. Bioeng. P.016. Individual and total cytochromes contents decreased during dough freezing. Tanghe. Beltramo and A. and 70. Pérez. S. Carboxymethylcellulose in concentration of 0. Tech.26%. Collar.8:664. Ribotta. C. Ranković. J. Martinez and E. 6.. A. respectively. Fermentative activities decreased during 30 days of freezing.644. I. Armero: Optimization of hydrocolloid addition to improve wheat bread dough functionality: a response surface methodology study. León and M. Cryobiology 58 (2009) 170-174. H. Dodić. 11. Thevelein: Identification of genes responsible for improved cryoresistance in fermenting yeast cells. T. 102 (2006) 215-219. R.3/. 9. D.. G. Popov.1% on the surface to 70. especially cytochrome aa3.. Shima: Effects of ice-seeding temperature and intracullular trehalose contents on survival of frozen Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. REFERENCES 1.. V. J. Sci. J. Ribotta. Teunissen. Suturović.7:664.. 5.APTEFF. Food Hydrocolloids 18 (2004) 305-313. Cereal Chemistry 80 (2003) 773-780. Tzia: Quality and safety characterisicts of bread made from frozen dough. Vučurović: Influence of dough freezing on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 218 . León: Interactions of hydrocolloids and sonicated-gluten proteins. Kessoglou and C. C. Haros. Cytochromes contents in pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture cells isolated from doughs with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose showed the smallest decrease during freezing. 4. 3.3 and 0. Bárcenas. A. Ausar. Došenović. A. Añón: Effect of emulsifier and guar gum on micro structural. P. Bread characteristics. Pejin. and in the middle of the dough to 75. P. P. D..17%. C. Rosell. and K. 55 (2000) 259-262.. Khan: Effect of hydrophilic gums on the quality of frozen dough: II.64. 7. The best protection of yeast cells was provided by carboxymethylcellulose. Z. V.5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40..037.
Randez-Gil and J. P. 64 (1998) 4226-4233. and H. 24. проценат живих ћелија са површине теста је 219 . Arendt: Use of response surface methodology to the effects of processing conditions of frozen dough quality and stability.D. Aguilera. 21.5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40. Tehnološki fakultet Novi Sad (2003). 19. Añón: Effects of yeast freezing in frozen dough.: Industrijska mikrobiologija. 23. milling and bakery products. 17. M. R. C. Kenny. Cubero. Food Res. Prieto: Cold response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: new functions old mechanisms. Pejin. Yugoslav Official Register No 74/1988.. Bread characteristics. 15 и 30 дана. X. Regulations on methods on physical and chemical analysis for quality control of wheat.644. Pronk: Effect of specific growth rate on fermentative capacity of baker’s yeast. 213 (2001) 323-328. Reñate. R. Ирена С. León and M. H.7:664. Van Hoek. Yugoslav Official Register Nо 25/1980.037. E.3% у тесту). D. Delgado-Jarana. 211-220 Original scientific paper 12. Грујић.8:664. 76 (1970) 532-545. Die Hefen in der Wissenschaft. Cereal Chem.: The effect of aeration on the growth energetics and biochemical composition of baker´s yeast. J. T. Oura. 16. Microbiol. Food Chem. Чиста култура Saccharomyces cerevisiae је изолована из теста и култивисана под оптималним условима 24 часа.2 и 0. Rosado. and J. Lindemann.2298/APT0940211P UDC: 664. X. Van Dijeken. УТИЦАЈ ДОДАТКА КАРБОКСИМЕТИЛЦЕЛУЛОЗЕ. Дошеновић и Сунчица Д. Inst. 15.. F. M. замрзавана на -20°C и анализирана након 0. Appl. and K.016. J. Grau and K. 18.3/. Venkov and Ts. pasta and fast frozen dough. Reif.. Rulebook on methods performing microbiological analyses and super analyses of food products. University of Helsinki. H. B. Олгица С. Пејин. Rey. Environ. Следећи параметри су одређивани: специфична брзина раста. Пејин.. Nürnberg. A. 57 (2003) 483-491. Codón. P. Rinkón. F. Crybiology 54 (2007) 243-250. Коцић-Танацков Хлебна теста су припремана са различитим концентрацијама карбоксиметилцелулозе. J. Khan: Effect of hydrophilic gums on the quality of frozen dough II . Novi Sad. 80 (2003) 454-458. FEMS Miocrobiol. 40. Eur. Agric. Cereal Chem. Током замрзавања у трајању од 30 дана. Brew. Thesis. 80 (2003) 773-780. 0. Castrejón and T. Limón. КСАНТАНА И ГУАРГУМЕ У ХЛЕБНО ТЕСТО ПРЕ ЗАМРЗАВАЊА НА МЕТАБОЛИЗАМ И ВИЈАБИЛНОСТ Saccharomyces cerevisiae Душанка Ј. Ph. 20. A.64. Suomalainen: Contents of cytochromes in yeast. Band I.. Benitetez: New Sacchromyces cerevisiae baker´s yeast displayng enhanced resistance to freezing. Sharadanant. F. Rev. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.. ферментативна активност и садржај цитохрома у интактним ћелијама у циљу одређивања интензитета дисања. Die Hefen.. P. E. A. S. Technol. Stoycheva. 7. Јелена Д. Kautzmann. J. A. Ribotta. 14. 13. ксантана и гуар-гуме (0. 22. Verlag Hans Carl (1960) 123-125. Lüers and M.APTEFF. 31 (2007) 327-341. Oura. 1972.1. I. Tsvetkov: Mutagenic effect of freezing on mitochondrial DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreno-Mateus.
54%.5 BIBLID: 1450-7188 (2009) 40.64 и 70.8:664.APTEFF. 1-220 (2009) DOI: 10.5% повећаала број живих ћелија на површини на 70. Received 16 July 2009 Accepted 8 October 2009 220 .64.2298/APT0940211P UDC: 664.1% на површини до 70.11%. Садржај цитохрома у интактним ћелијама је смањен у свим узорцима током замрзавања. Средња специфична брзина раста је смањена приближно за 10% током 30 дана чувања на -20°C.3/. Додатак гуар-гуме је повећао број живих ћелија само у концентрацији 0. а из средине 54.26%.28% и у средини на 74.95%. Карбоксиметилцелулоза је при концентрацијама од 0.3 и 0. 211-220 Original scientific paper био 53.644.037.7:664. 40.79 и 76.016.17% и у средини теста до 75.
In memoriam .
He was an excellent leader of the Instrumental Analysis Group. Miroslav Turčić he has constantly endeavoured to improve. his laboratory has become recognizable in the present state and the whole space of the former Yugoslavia. in his full academic maturity and at the climax of creative activities. and Measurement Techniques.NIKOLA MARJANOVIĆ (1945 . MS and PhD theses. In the eighties and nineties of the last century.2009) Prof. both in the theoretical and practical sense. he finished the prestigious high school “Jovan Jovanović Zmaj” in 1964. He became an assistant professor in 1980. He was supervisor of numerous diploma works. both in the academic and research sense. and even a smaller number of those who are ready to share so unselfishly his knowledge with the others. In the last decade of his 223 . After that he enrolled in the Faculty of Technology in Novi Sad. together with his mentor. As a talented sportsman. to cover almost completely all teaching subjects he has taught with his associates. associate professor in 1985. prize-winning student he became in 1969 a teaching assistant of the newly introduced subject Technical Analyses. In that period he introduced the teaching subjects Instrumental Analysis of Food. Nikola Marjanović was born on August 16. which. As an extraordinary. He spent his childhood and adolescent years in Salajka. but also with extraordinary achievements at school. his scientific interest has been in the field of instrumental analytical methods. Instrumental Analysis. Thanking to the well selected and trained associates. the last one being a subject of crucial importance for process engineering. from which he graduated in 1968 by completing his diploma work entitled "Separation of Chlorophyll and Carotenoids on the Starch Sucrose Column". 1945 in Novi Sad. popular old part of Novi Sad. the late Prof. as Prof. founded by himself. He authored and coauthored several books and textbooks and a lot of educational materials. Prof. Marjanović. and the results achieved in both education and research and in the domain of diversified collaboration. meticulousness and readiness for collaboration. to which he devoted all his professional and organizational capacities. At the same faculty he defended his MS thesis "An Attempt in Coulometric Determination of L-ascorbic Acid" in 1972 and his PhD thesis entitled "Kinetic-catalytic Determination by Fast Anodic Polarization" in 1979. Marjanović implemented the best of his knowledge and skills into the prospect of the Faculty of Technology and University of Novi Sad. To his associates he offered unlimited help in their academic development and he thus created a pleiad of followers of respectable capacity and achievements. From the very beginning. an imperative for his successors being to keep on the inherited high professional and scientific standards. laboratory equipment procured. and full professor in 1990. There are few individuals in our academic environment that would possess such allembracing knowledge.
and wider academic community. in addition to his academic-pedagogical. Jakovljević Prof. and since 2004 he has been Head of the Chair for Applied and Engineering Chemistries. In everything by which he dealed with he set extremely high standards and system of values. By his high ethical standards. Jovan B. and he was the initiator and genuine creator of the new majoring profile Quality Control and several new subjects in accordance with the Bologna Declaration. Zvonimir J. Marjanović has been involved in the work of the bodies of the Faculty and University. Vice-rector of the University of Novi Sad (19961998) and Dean of the Faculty (2003-2004). He served three terms (1991-1996) as the Vice-dean for Finances of the Faculty of Technology. Prof. In addition to the constant care of improving the existing and developing new subjects and major profiles. Nikola Marjanovic will permanently remain in our memories. University. In the course of an almost four-decade long work. Prof. Prof. our Faculty.life he organized the Laboratory for Quality Control. self-government bodies at the Faculty. with the unlimited gratitude for everything he has done for the affirmation of the Faculty and education of numerous generations. as well as in the other relevant segments of public life. University of Novi Sad. scientific-research and professional activities. first of all for his family. Besides. Dr. Marjanović has enthusiastically worked on the development of instrumental methods and techniques and construction of laboratory instruments. he published numerous papers and presented contributions at scientific meetings from the domain of research and development projects. in 1989 he was awarded the Novi Sad Prize. Suturović 224 . His untimely departure from our midst is an irredeemable loss. For the development of a versatile system for electrochemical stripping analysis and other analytical instruments. Dr. and legal-competence self-management associations. By nature of things he has also been active in. He has also been part-time professor at the Faculty of Agriculture in Novi Sad and Faculty of Technology in Banja Luka. at the time inevitable. Prof. human qualities. He has been bearer of high public recognition such as the Science Committee Award of the SAP Vojvodina (1990). so that those who remain to follow his path must have the strength and endurance to continue on from where he made an untimely stop. and academic-professional achievements.
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The significance of the findings should be discussed without repetition of the material in the Introduction. Introduction should state previous relevant work with appropriate references. CONCLUSION. RESULTS and DISCUSSION. Title should be concise and explanatory of the content of the paper. The journal may include supplements from congresses. ABSTRACT and KEY WORDS.rs. Results should be presented concisely. Preparation of manuscripts Language: Manuscript should be written in English. including submission of the manuscript. Typing: Manuscript must be written in Word with a font size 10 pt. Abstracts should contain the aim of investigated work. professional or official titles should be given under the title. If the paper was given.rs or bastajab@uns. max. General format. written in italic) should be given under the title and authors. Submission of paper implies that . as well as process engineering and related scientific fields. this should be stated in a footnote on the title page.it will not be published elsewhere in the same form. written in italic. Results and Discussion. without the written consent of the publisher. with tables or illustrations for clarity. Acta Periodica Technologica is published in English. takes place by e-mail: sdjilas@tf. known methods must have adequately references. Full name (name. Import tables and figures into the text. or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis). Adequate number of illustrations. INTRODUCTION.Acta Periodica Technologica. in English or in any other language. methods.ac. Experimental. 10 pages for scientific papers). Abstract of the paper (100-250 words. Submission of Papers. pharmaceutical. Key words (normal letters. The methods and materials used should be stated clearly in sufficient detail to permit the work to be repeated by others. Number all pages of the manuscript. EXPERIMENTAL. graphs and chemical formulae used must be kept on minimum. biochemical. Only new techniques should be described in detail.ac. Novi Sad publishes reviews and scientific papers covering all branches of technology: food. . The manuscript should contain the following in this order: Title page. formulae or abbreviations (capital bold letters). at a scientific meeting. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT and REFERENCES as well as ABSTRACT IN SERBIAN LANGUAGE.it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. All correspondence. . results and conclusion.it has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as a whole in the proceedings of papers of a scientific meeting.uns. double spaced with wide margins (3 cm) on A4 pages (max. Title page: On the first page should be the title without symbols. initial and surname) of each author and co-author. meetings or symposiums. wholly or in part. and . chemical. without degrees. the problem investigated and the aim of work. notification of the Editor’s decision and requests for revision. 5 key words) should be listed afterwards.
Chemical nomenclature and units. Result.). Unpublished data: Should be cited with one of the following comments „in press“. p.Sc. Book of Abstracts: W. N. J. with their initials before respective surnames. Miller: U. length 1 page). Abbreviations of journal titles should be given according to the International Codex for Abbreviations of Journal Titles (Chemical Abstracts). Ulber and T.“).T. J. Acknowledgements: These should be kept to a minimum.org. 2542356 (1962). The list of references should be arranged according to their appearance in the text. Book of Abstracts WE 163.) Thesis. full name(s) of each author(s) and affiliation(s) (italic letters).D. University of Glasgow. Journal titles should be abbreviated according to the Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index. M. Scheper: Immunobase elution assay for process control. Budapest. Book with more chapters: C.S.: Abstr. Butterworth. Edinburgh (1975) p. 50.A. Patent: B. The abbreviated titles should be followed by the volume (in bold). number (if exists). Each drawing or figure should also be numbered with Arabic numerals followed by the title (Fig. title. (or M.98. Linstead: Effects of adding natural antioxidants on colour stability of paprika. Examples: Journals: E. Authors are requested to use SI units and chemical nomenclature following the rules of Chemical Abstracts whenever possible. If pagination repeated in each number of one volume it is necessary to add this particular numeral. Ph. Blanshard and J. All publications cited in the text should be presented in a list of references given on a separate page.V. Yeretzian: Characterisation of Free Radicals in Solubile Coffee by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Schemes must be prepared by Microsoft Visio or Corel Draw. 1. Mercier: Extrusion Cooking of Starch. Noe. 51 (1961) 2870.uk (accessed 7 October 2004)).R. Pat. Abstract in Serbian language should be given at the end of manuscript (after references).. followed by the title (Table 1.Conclusion should indicate the significant contribution of the manuscript with its applications. Howaldt. B. Graphs and charts must be prepared by Microsoft Excel or Origin. Banks and C. vdr. Goodman and C.. Scanned black&white . in the order of appearing. 246. 2005 edition. Food Chem. Give names of all authors (do not use „et. Each Table is numbered with Arabic numeral. Include article titles in journals. printed in Cyrillic (normal letters) with the title (capital letters). „unpublished work“ or „personal communication“. References cited should be indicated in the text using Arabic numerals in brackets ( ). year (in parentheses) and first and last page numbers. It is necessary to submit them in original extension (xls.B. 2006. 17-21 August 1997. 152-170. in Polysaccharides in Food. Agric. Online citations: Should include the author. Edinburgh University Press. website and date of access (example: Wright. http://pathsoc.C. cdr). Mitchell. Pascual. Figures. Tables. Eds.: The Standing of UK Histopathology Research 1997-2002.). 21 (2002) 6114-6122. and supplements. 8th European Congress on Biotechnology.M.O.A. Dow Chemical Comp..al. R. London (1978) pp.. Thesis: J. Greenwood: Starch and its Components. in extended form (max. Books: W. Chromatogram of.
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Miroslava Todorović (1976-1994) Prof. Radivoj Žakula (1972-1975) Prof. Biljana Škrbić (1995-1998) . Adalbert Šenborn (1967-1970) Prof. Dr. Dr. Dr. Dr.FORMER EDITORS-IN-CHIEF Prof.