Literature Review Marketing Communication Marketing communication is defined in a different way by different authors.

Pickton and Broderick defined marketing communication as ³a conversation between a brand and its audience and it is the collective term for all the communication function used in marketing a product or service.1´ Keller further defines marketing communication as ³the means by which firms attempt to inform, persuade, incite, and remind consumers directly or indirectly about the brands they sell´.2 The simple concept which can be derived from above definitions is that communicating a message is the most important activity in the marketing communication (Ibid).

Interactive Marketing Communication Process Duncan defines the interactive marketing communication process as the marketing communication activity in which message is created and sent to a receiver through different channels3. However, the environment in which this process occurs has disturbances called noise which affect the message transmission and it is received differently than planned by the sender (Ibid).

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Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) Duncan defined the concept of Integrated Marketing Communication as follows: IMC is a process for managing the customer relationships that derive brand value. Schultz. it is a cross-functional process for creating and nourishing profitable relationships with customers and other stakeholders by strategically controlling or influencing all messages sent to these groups and encouraging datadriven. known as the Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) (Ibid). In addition. 4 5 Pg. purposeful dialogue with them5 . it is very important for the marketers to integrate their marketing communication in such a way that it breaks through the barrier of noise and reaches the target market4.Pickton and Broderick pointed out that in order to compete in today s competitive environment. 8 . Tannebaum and Lautherborn worked on this idea and introduced a new concept in 1993.

Stages in Designing Communication Strategies by Rowley. It helps marketers in building a communication strategy which targets every market segment with a single unified message6. 6 . Different experts have described integrated marketing communication plan differently. and 2.Communication Strategy One of the key elements in Integrated Marketing Communication is the strategic communication plan. Steps in Formulating Marketing Communication Strategy by Czinkota and Ronkainen. This paper focuses on two different communication strategy models: 1.

at the time of new or redesigned product or service. 4. 1. Identifying the target audience Determining communication objectives Designing the message Selecting the communication channels Establishing the promotional budget Deciding the promotion mix Measuring results 7 . However many organizations also use these for maintaining the positive attitude of their product or service. 7. 6.Stages in Designing Communication Strategies Rowley (1998) identified the stages in the design of communication strategies7. 5. 3. 2. These stages support the realization of promotional objectives suggested by Rowley and form the steps for a promotion campaign.

Different communication models also help to determine the communication objectives. When designing the communication strategy. attention. it is very important to know that the objective is to draw attention. 8 . interest. It guides marketers that which strategy they have to apply in order to compete in the market. create desire or force audience to take action (Rowley 1988)8. Identifying the target audience This first stage is to identify that target audience to whom the message is to be conveyed.These stages are briefly described below: 1. Target audience can be the complete market segment or a narrow niche market. Determining communication objectives The strategy selected to be used helps to determine the communication strategy objectives. desire and action. 2. Identifying the correct audience and understanding their characteristics is very important because it helps to create the right message. The most common model used is the AIDA model which has four stages . develop interest.

Rowley pointed out that a message consistent with its communication objectives is very important in each communication strategy.3. 4. In personal communication channel. two people communicate with each other while the non personal communication occurs through some other medium than person to person. Selecting the communication channels Communication channels can be divided into personal and non personal communication. Designing the message A consistent message should be designed through all separate campaigns. .

Deciding the promotion mix Promotional mix consists of a group of strategies which are made using more than one communication tools. known as push strategy(ibid). 9 . these include. distribution of product or service. stage in the product life cycle etc. the budget. Some companies set it as a percentage of sales while others set it on the basis of desired objectives (ibid)9. For example whether focusing directly on end users. competition. message to be marketed. It is also composed keeping in mind the focus of the promotional activities. known as pull strategy or on intermediaries. 6.5. Different factors are considered when deciding the promotional mix. Establishing the promotional budget Different approaches are used for calculating the promotional budget.

Steps in Formulating Marketing Communication Strategy The steps in formulation of the marketing communication strategy for promoting the products and services of the company were also suggested by Czinkota and Ronkainen (2001) in the form of five basic steps model. evaluation has to be done.7. Measuring results It is not easy to measure the results of promotion because it is difficult to differentiate between the promotion and other elements of marketing mix. this can be done by looking at the sales figure and other measures. pg 366 . Figure: Steps in Formulating Marketing Communication Strategy Source: Czinkota and Ronkainen (2001). However. in order to find out if strategy was successful. shown in the following figure.

Internet Sponsorships Packaging Corporate identity Word of mouth 10 11 12 . 3.Integrated Marketing Communication Tools Integrated marketing communication tools should be designed with the purpose of supporting the same objectives for a company. 6. 3. 2. 4. 5. Direct marketing Advertising Public relations personal selling Trade shows Sales promotions There are also many other marketing communication tools which include12: 1. All channels must express same message and creation of separate messages for each medium should be avoided10. 4. 2. 5. The most important communication tools to be used for the tourism industry are as follows11: 1.

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