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Assignment 1 solutions

(b) any function with a right inverse is surjective;

(c) any non-injective function with a right inverse has another different right inverse.

(d) Give an example of a function which has (at least) two distinct left inverses.

Solution:

(a) Suppose f : X → A has a left inverse g : A → X. Then g(f (x)) = x for all x ∈ X. If f (x1 ) = f (x2 )

then x1 = g(f (x1 )) = g(f (x2 )) = x2 ; so f is injective.

(b) Suppose f : X → A has a right inverse h : A → X. Then f (h(a)) = a for all a ∈ A. So, for each

a ∈ A, the element x = h(a) ∈ X satisfies f (x) = f (h(a)) = a. So f is surjective.

(c) Suppose f : X → A is non-injective and has a right inverse h : A → X. Then there exist x1 6= x2

in X with f (x1 ) = f (x2 ). We can assume that h(f (x1 )) = x1 , since h(f (x1 ) = x implies that

f (x) = (f ◦ h ◦ f )(x1 ) = f (x1 ) , and so x and x1 have the same value under f . Define k : A → X by

(

h(a) , a 6= f (x1 ) ;

k(a) =

x2 , a = f (x1 ) .

Then (

f (h(a)) = a , a 6= f (x1 ) ;

f (k(a)) =

f (x2 ) = a a = f (x1 ) .

So k is a right inverse for f and k 6= h.

(d) Of course, there are many examples. In fact, any injective (by the first part) non-surjective function

f will do, because we can then use elements which are not in the image of f to construct distinct left

inverses. For instance, the function f : R≥0 → R for which f (x) = x2 has the two distinct left inverses

(√

x , if x ≥ 0 ;

g1 : R → R≥0 :: x 7→

1, if x < 0 ;

and (√

x , if x ≥ 0 ;

g2 : R → R≥0 :: x 7→

2, if x < 0 ;

among many others, as the reader can easily verify.

2. Draw each of the following sets in R2 , and determine if they are open or closed or not open and not closed:

(a) A = (x, y) ∈ R2 | 1 ≤ x2 + y 2 < 4 ;

(b) B = (r cos θ, r sin θ) ∈ R2 | 0 < r < 1, 0 < θ < 3π .

Solution:

1

(a) The first set consists of the annulus with outer radius 2 and inner radius 1; the points on the outer

circle are not in A, and the points on the inner circle are in A. If (a, b) is a point on the inner circle,

then a2 + b2 = 1 . Any disk in the plane centred at such point (a, b) contains points in A and points

that are not in A. Therefore the set A is not open. Similarly, Ac is not open, because points on the

outer radius are in Ac , but disks centred at such points will always intersect A, and so Ac is not open

from which the last assertion follows.

(b) The set B consists of all points in the punctured disk with outer radius 1 which has the origin removed.

The points with radius 1 are not in the set. For any point (a, b) ∈ B, we have 0 < a2 +b2 < 1, and so we

can find a small open ball centred at (a, b) and consisting of points that also satisfy this requirement,

for instance invoking continuity of the function (x, y) 7→ x2 + y 2 .

3. Use the definition of continuity to show that the function f : R → R given by f (x) = 2x2 + 1 is continuous.

Solution: Pick an arbitrary point a ∈ R. We have to show that f is continuous at a. Given any radius

> 0, one has to show that

f (x) − f (a) = 2x2 − 2a2 = 2 x − a x + a <

whenever x − a < δ, for some radius δ that we have yet to determine. More than one possibility exists,

so the following argument is not the only one which may work. We always have

x + a = x − a + 2a ≤ x − a + 2a

The right hand side is smaller than 1 + 2a if we choose δ ≤ 1 ; observe that 1 + 2a > 0 . If in addition

we choose δ ≤ , then

2(1+2 a )

x − a x + a

< 1 + 2a =

2(1 + 2 a )

2

whenever x − a < δ, so it is sufficient to let

n o

δ = min 1 , .

2(1 + 2a)

Notice that this δ depends on both and the point a. Since the point a was arbitrary, the given function

is continuous at all of its points.

4. Is the function g : R \ 0} → R given by g(x) = 1/x3 continuous?

Solution: Yes! It is sufficient to note that the argument which establishes continuity of the function

given by x 7→ 1/x for all x > 0 given in the lecture notes can be repeated almost verbatim to show that the

function f : R \ 0} → R given by f (x) = 1/x is continuous at each of the points

of its domain,

hence it is

continuous. The function g is the composite of the continuous function R \ 0} → R \ 0} which maps x

to x3 , and the continuous function f above.

1 4 5 0 9

3 −2 1 0 −1

A= −1 0 −1 0 −1 .

2 3 5 1 8

(b) Find a basis for the range of T .

(c) Write down the rank and nullity of T .

Solution

We must first row reduce A, which gives

1 4 5 0 9

0 1 1 0 2

A0 =

.

0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0

−1

−1

−2 −1

(a) A basis for ker(T ) is a basis for the nullspace of A, so we solve Ax = 0. This gives basis 0 , 1 .

0

0

1 0

(b) A basis for the range of T is a basis for the column space of A, sowe

read

off the

columns

of A

1 4 0

3 −2

, , 0 .

0

corresponding to the pivot columns of A . Hence range(T ) has basis

−1

0 0

2 3 1

2 0

6. Find the coordinate vector for A = , relative to the basis

−1 3

−1 1 1 −1 1 1 1 1

B= , , , .

1 1 1 1 −1 1 1 −1

Solution

We write A as a linear combination of the basis vectors of B, thus

2 0 −1 1 1 −1 1 1 1 1

=a +b +c +d

−1 3 1 1 1 1 −1 1 1 −1

−a + b + c + d = 2

a−b+c+d=0

a + b − c + d = −1

a+b+c−d=3

0

1

Solving this system we find a = 0, b = 1, c = 23 , d = − 12 , so the coordinate vector [A]B =

3 .

2

− 12

2 2 1 3 1 −1

u1 = 1 , u2 = −1 , u3 = 2 , v1 = 1 , v2 = 1 , v3 = 0 .

1 1 1 −5 −3 2

−5

(b) Compute the coordinate vector [w]B2 , where w = 8 .

−5

(c) Use P to compute [w]B1 .

(d) Check your result by computing [w]B1 directly.

Solution

(a) P = ([v1 ]B1 , [v2 ]B1 , [v3 ]B1 ). To find the coordinate vectors [vi ]B1 , we must solve vi = ai u1 + bi u2 +

ci u3 for each i = 1, 2, 3. To do this efficiently, we form the augmented matrix

2 2 1 | 3 1 −1 | −5

1 −1 2 | 1 1 0 | 8

1 1 1 | −5 −3 2 | −5

where the last column is w, and the work we are doing here will be used for part (d). This reduces to

4 0 0 | 31 17 −11 | 21

0 −4 0 | 25 15 −9 | 31

0 0 −2 | 13 7 −5 | 5

31 17 −11

and we read off [v1 ]B1 = 41 −25, [v2 ]B1 = 1

4

−15, [v3 ]B1 = 1

4

9 . We can now form

−26 −14 10

31 17 −11

1

P = −25 −15 9 .

4

−26 −14 10

3 1 −1 | −5 1 1 0 | 8

1 1 0 | 8 which reduces to 0 2 1 | 29

−5 −3 2 | −5 0 0 1 | 6

−7

and so [w]B2 = 12 23 .

12

31 17 −11 −7 21

(c) [w]B1 = P [w]B2 = 18 −25 −15 9 23 = 1

4

−31.

−26 −14 10 12 −10

(d) Form the system w = au1 + bu2 + cu3 . We solved this using the reduction in part (a), and we read

21

off [w]B1 = 14 −31.

−10

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