Volume One AL-USŨL – Part One

World Organization for Islamic Services Tehran – IRAN

Title: .................................................................................................................. Usūl al-Kãfī Volume: ............................................................................................................................ One Author: ........................................................................................ ash-Shaykh al-Kulaynī Translators: .........................................................S.M. Hasan Rizvi &Yahyã Cooper Publisher: ................................................. World Organization for Islamic Services (WOFIS ) Edition:................................................................................... First edition – 1428/٢٠٠٧ Printed copies ............................................................................................................. 1,000 ISBN:............................................................................................................ 964-6521-33-9

‫ﻧﺎم آﺘﺎب: .................................................................................................... ا ُﺻﻮل ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻷ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻟﻒ: ................................................................................................................... اﻟﺸﻴﺦ اﻟﻜﻠﻴﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﺪ: ....................................................................................................................................... ا ّل‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ: .............................................................................. ّﻴﺪﻣﺤ ّﺪﺣﺴﻦ رﺿﻮي وﻳﺤﻴﻰ آﻮﭘﺮ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺳ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺷـﺮ: ....................................................................................... ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻰ ﺧﺪﻣﺎت اﺳﻼﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﭼﺎپ:...........................................................................................................ا ّل ـ ٦٨٣١ ﺷﻤﺴﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺘﻮﮔﺮاﻓﻰ: ................................................................................................................... ﺗﻴﺰهﻮش‬ ‫ﭼﺎﭘﺨﺎﻧﻪ: ............................................................................................................................. ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﺮاژ:..................................................................................................................... ٠٠٠١ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ‬ ٩٦٤-٦٥٢١-٣٣-٩ ......................................................................................................... :‫ﺷﺎﺑﻚ‬

English translation with Arabic text First edition 1428/2007

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and translated by the late John (Yahyã) Cooper.Acknowledgment This work – as an introduction to Kitãbu 't-Tawhīd of Usūl al-Kãfī under the title: Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins. for the co-operation he has rendered to this sacred cause. Development and Leading Scholars – has been written and compiled by ash-Shaykh Muhammad Ridã al-Ja‘farī (may Allãh protect him and grant him good health!). may Allãh have mercy upon him. Amin! (WOFIS) .

Also send your blessings to all your prophets and envoys. Guide us in the straight path. not of those against whom Thou art wrathful. the Lord of all Being. the All-Merciful. the Master of the Day of Judgement. * * * * * O' Allãh! Send your blessings to the head of your messengers and the last of your prophets. Thee only we serve. The All-Merciful Praise belongs to Allãh. and to Thee alone we pray for succour. nor of those who are astray. the All-Compassionate. the path of those whom Thou hast blessed.In the Name of Allãh The All-Compassionate. . Muhammad and his pure and cleansed progeny.



.... 185 * 1..................................................................................................................... (6) List of Technical Terms and Special Signs used in the Traditions ...................................... 3 Introduction.................... 7 Origins of the Term 'Kalãm' ............ 23 Part Two: The Biographies of Imãmī Mutakallims .... 4 Part One: Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development ................................................. DEVELOPMENT AND LEADING SCHOLARS Preface ................................................................................................................ 27 Imãmī Mutakallims ................................ (5) A Chronological List of the Fourteen Infallibles........... his Daughter and the Twelve Holy Imãms ................... 28 US Ū L AL-KÃFĪ Caution ...................................................................... (8) "The Book of Divine Unity"............................ the Holy Prophet..............................................................................187 * This page number is the continuation of the previous page from "The Book of Excellence of Knowledge" of Usūl al-Kãfī............................................................................................................................................................................................... Chapter on: Origination (al-Hudūth) of the Universe and Proofs of Its Originator ................................................ 14 The Development of Kalãm Among the Imãmiyyah ................................................................................................................................................ (WOFIS) ............................................ 17 Summary of the Argument...................................................CONTENTS Page IMÃMĪ KALÃM: ITS ORIGINS................................

Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins. and Leading Scholars . Development.

5th July 2007. Now. 1428. this introduction has been completed and is here presented under the title Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins. Development. 20th Jumãd II. Translation and Publication) 3 .PREFACE It was our intention when publishing the English translation of the Usūl alKãfī to write an introduction to the Kitãbu 't-Tawhīd (The Book of Divine Unity). praise be to Allãh. Tehran – Iran. when the second and third fascicules of the Kitãbu 't-Tawhīd have already been published. in which we would study a number of points which would serve as a preliminary study to the hadīth in the Kitãbu 't-Tawhīd. (Board of Writing. but a number of factors intervened to prevent its publication until now. and Leading Scholars. World Organization for Islamic Services. and through the success that He has granted. It was intended that this introduction should appear at the beginning of the first fascicule.

and that it preserved this charater throughout its contacts with other schools of kalãm. World Organization for Islamic Services. from its beginnings. In the first Part. In the second Part. an examination of Imãmī kalãm has been undertaken in order to show that. and how it was preserved up to the time of the Shaykh at-Tūsī.INTRODUCTION The purpose in writing this book is twofold. so that from studying the titles of kalãm works attributed to them it can be seen what this specific charater was. Tehran – Iran. it had its own specific character. Many of the subjects raised in Part One of this book are also mentioned in the introduction to the English translation of Tashīhu 'l-I‘tiqãd which is published separately. short biographies of Imãmī mutakallims are given. 4 .

PART ONE Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development 1. 3. The Development of Kalãm Among the Imãmiyyah. 4. . Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development. Origins of the Term 'Kalãm'. Summary of the Argument. 2.

and compulsion (jabr). an attempt has been applied to the non-Imãmīs. and that. the predominant direction of their teaching did not subscribe to these beliefs. especially the early Imãmīs. In Part One. When it has come to the Imãmīs. consequently. from the time of the emergence of Imãmī doctrine. were upholders of belief in corporealism (tajsīm). In what follows. In the first part. which has been more successfully rendered into English variously as 'theology'. the reader will find a short investigation into the origins of the word 'kalãm'. in its beginnings. indeed. anthropomorphism (tashbīh). in which it will be seen that. It has also been the custom for non-Imãmīs to assert that the Imãmīs. kalãm came to be used for a specific discipline. more precisely. and indeed that there was no substantial difference in doctrine between those who relied exclusively on hadīth and those who used the method of kalãm. the way in which doctrine is established – into two kinds: the school of the ashãbu 'l-hadīth (the Traditionists) and the schools of kalãm the particularities of each of which they have described. difficulties have been experienced in finding adequate translations for the early usage of the term. this described a phenomenon which was unique to the Muslim environment.IMÃMĪ KALÃM: ITS ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT Historians of doctrine in Muslim history have been accustomed to divide doctrine – or. 'speculative theology'. In the course of time. But this small number in no warrants the assertion that these beliefs were characteristic of early Imãmī doctrine. or 7 . individual scholars of the Imãmīs were usually experts in both sciences. although there were a small number who did. it will be shown that. it has been customary to extend the same division as has been applied to the non-Imãmīs.

. which is at variance with the generally accepted picture. Two trends manifested themselves from an early period: the trend for using hadīth or verse of the Qur’ãn to answer questions of doctrine. Abū Khãlid al-Kãbūlī said: "I saw Abū Ja‘far Sãhibu 't-Tãq (§121) standing up in the Mosque of the Prophet in Madīnah. and.8 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars 'dialectical theology'. I went up to him and said: 'Abū ‘Abdillãh has * * * * * . . This gives rise to a picture of the origins of the word kalãm (dialectical theology). The period of the development of this term and practice into a specific discipline is one of the specific areas to which attention has been drawn in this study. as well as the existence of Imãmī men of learning who were already using argumentation or 'rational' exposition of doctrines as opposed to the mere recitation of Traditions prior to al-Mufīd. to a greater degree. however. The generally prevailing picture of the development of kalãm among the Imãmī Shī‘ah is that the ideas and opinions. one that emerges through an examination of the development of the Imãmī Shī‘ah at a stage prior to that of the period of al-Mufīd.. and the trend for using argumantation or proof to answer such questions. debated with the people. the practitioners of which were called muhaddithūn. . those who spoke. those who yuhaddithūna 'n-nãs. and to the familiar sense of kallama and takallama as speech and debate among people. those who yukallimūna 'nnãs. one alternative to this generally accepted picture. i. the people of Madīnah were crowded round him (lit. This other picture reveals a body of doctrine largely similar in content to that of the post-Mufīd period.e.. they had torn the front of his clothes [through pressure on him]). and he was tirelessly answering them and they were asking him. the methodology of kalãm was incorporated by them into their doctrine at a somewhat later stage in the historical development of the Imãmīyyah. one that traces the origin back to those who discoursed on theological matters with the people. There are many references in the sources to the use of kalãm in this sense at the beginning of theological discussions among the Imãmiyyah that is before the term kalãm comes to denote a specific science or branch of knowledge. that is to say from the time of ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd onwards. There is. the practitioners of which were called mutakallimūn. the process coming to a kind of maturity with ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã and ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī. argued. Together with this picture is also found the view that the theological positions of the Imãmīyyah were changed and consolidated by this encounter with kalãm.

at-Tawhīd. ["Kitãbu 't-Tawhīd" of alKãfī].125-7. but for someone who falls and cannot fly up [again]. about what I had said to him. sometimes referred to by his .' He said: 'Did he command you to tell me?' I said: 'No. gave to those described as zindīqs. but I continue to hold discourse with the people. 292-3. says: ".214. . as-Sadūq.578]) Elsewhere the Imãm as-Sãdiq. 14. This is not the place to enter into a discussion of the meaning and uses of this term. In many cases no names are supplied. 290.170 [no.'" (al-Kishshī.122-4. and elsewhere). pp. 238-9 [no.' Abū ‘Abdillãh (peace be upon him) smiled and said: 'O Abū Khãlid. 296-8. c) ‘Abdullãh ad-Daysãnī.' He said: 'Then go and obey him in what he commanded you.185-6 [no. pp. From these and similar uses of kalãm from the same period it would seem clear that the term finds its origin in the meaning of 'speaking to'. in particular the Imãm as-Sãdiq. . no. 'engaging in debate'. peace be upon him.334. and his saying to me: 'Go and obey him in what he commanded you. but he commanded me not to hold discourse (lã ukallima) with anyone. but if they clipped your wings you would never [be able to] fly. that they concern replies which the Imãms.' I went back to Abū ‘Abdillãh. and vol.197-8." (al-Kishshī.T. while elsewhere names are supplied. see K. peace be upon him.433]. then it is not. b) Abū Shãkir ad-Daysãnī.217.T. followed by a more detailed examination of one of these. (These two ad-Daysãnīs are probably the same person.327]) . the interlocutor being described merely as a zindīq. as well as of those in ash-Shaykh as-Sadūq's Kitãbu 't-Tawhīd. as-Sadūq. ‘Abdu 'l-‘Alã’ (the freedman of the Ãl Sãm) said: "I said to Abū ‘Abdillãh (peace be upon him): 'The people blame me for holding discourse (kalãm). 327. and informed him of the story about Sãhibu 't-Tãq. p.287]. see K. pp. that is alright. . nos.133. . I command one group to hold discourse (yatakallimū) and I have forbidden [another] group . pp..' He said: 'For someone like you who falls and then flies up [again].T. .4. 'holding discourse'. see K. by Allãh. no.Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development 9 forbidden us from holding discourse (kalãm). . a) (‘Abdu 'l-Karīm) ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjã’. see also infra nos.'" (al-Kishshī. Sãhibu 't-Tãq holds discourse with the people (yukallimu 'nnãs): he soars up and he dives down.3. pp. pp. peace be upon him. as-Sadūq.. 253-4.319 [no. * * * * * It is a feature of many of the hadīth in the Kitãbu 't-Tawhīd of al-Kãfī. what follows is a list of those who are so described.

161/778).160/776) [the poet].173). Nashwãn al-Himyarī. 166/783) [the Kinãnī poet].3. criticizing those who had gone on hajj. vol. in the beginning. see K. It is to be noted that ‘Abdu 'l-Karīm's nephew Ma‘n ibn Zãidah was also accused of zindaqah (al-Huru 'l-‘iyn. ".) d) ‘Abdullãh ibn al-Muqaffa‘ (106/724–142/759). and whose short life spanned the end of the Umayyad and the beginning of the ‘Abbãsids. Yahyã ibn Ziyãd al-Hãrithī (d." [Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjã’] went to Makkah in a contrary state of mind (mutamarrid). Muti‘ ibn Iyyãs (d. ‘Īsã ibn Yūnus said: 'Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjã’ was a student of al-Hasan alBasrī and then abandoned belief in monotheism. Sãlih ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Quddūs (d. peace be upon him. came. p. Hammãd ‘Ajrad (d.214. .126.160/777) [the famous poet and scribe." (Lisãnu 'lmīzãn. Abū ‘Abdillãh. as can been seen from the following hadīth.T. The learned did not like to sit down with him and answer his questions on account of his uncouth speech and his corrupt intention.156. and ‘Alī ibn al-Khalīl ash-Shaybãnī [the poet] were famous for zindaqah and despising the matters of the religion.192). the famous Umayyid and ‘Abbãsid commander. ‘Abdu 'l-Karīm ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjã’ (d. Here we shall discuss in further detail the first of those named above. was accused of zindaqah and executed in Baghdãd]. a student of al-Hasan ibn Abi 'lHasan al-Basrī. Jamharat Ansãbi 'l-‘Arab. Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjã’ was.. and [Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjã’] sat down with him along with a group of like- .. .4. This is the well-known scribe and man of letters to whom is due the origins of the Kitãbu 'd-Dīwãn. sometimes in determinism – I never knew him to take up belief in something and to continue to hold it. 2. vol. of the tribe of Dhuhl ibn Shaybãn (Ibn Hazm. no. faqīh. and ascetic (21/642–110/728). p. ‘Abdu 'l-Karīm ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjã’. preacher. asSadūq. He was executed in Basrah on accusations of zindaqah (see al-A‘lãm.273-4.6. c. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. al-Huru 'l-‘iyn. p. p. ‘Abdullãh ibn al-Muqaffa‘. 155/772). c. these acusations were certainly no more than a pretext for disposing of him for political reasons. p. 3rd ed. p. the well-known narrator of hadīth. vol. 1.316.193) was the maternal uncle of Ma‘n ibn Zãidah ashShaybãnī. pp. and sources referred to threin). He was asked: "Have you abandonned the beliefs of your teacher (sãhib) and taken up something which has neither basis nor reality?" He said: "My teacher was a vacillator (mukhallat) [in his beliefs] – sometimes he believed in free-will.10 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars better-known laqab. sometimes by his name. Hammãd ibn az-Zibriqãn. Ibn Hajar al‘Asqalãnī says: "Hammãd ar-Rãwiyah (95/714–155/772). Leaving aside the question of whether or not the accusations of zindaqah can be justified. but subsequently abandoned belief in monotheism.

e. the Manicheans) were mutakallims whom observed Islam outwardly but maintained zindaqah in their hearts: Ibn Tãlūt.89-90. Then the original hadīth continues. Abu 'l-Faraj al-Isbahãnī narrated: "There were in Basrah six practitioners of kalãm. and said: "O Abū ‘Abdillãh. p. but remained externally as he had been. make him slip. p. Wãsil ibn ‘Atã’. but ‘Abdu 'l-Karīm and Sãlih took up belief in dualism. "Kitãbu 'l-Hajj". then from another extract from the same meeting narrated elsewhere by al-Kulaynī.28-29). We saw no one today more humiliated than you in this discussion.162-3. pp. pp. ‘Abdu 'l-Karīm ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjã’. . vol.' "'Are you saying this to me?' he replied.33-34. pp. p. Kitãbu 'l-Irshãd (transl. Abū Shãkir. Howard). "‘Abdu 'l-Karīm took to corrupting the youth. al-Bihãr. Man lã yahduruhu 'l-faqīh. al-Ihtijãj..2.. and you threw me on to a burning coal.2. vol. Ibn al-A‘mã al-Harīzī. or I will . Ilalu 'sh-sharã‘i’. pp. Either you leave our town. at-Tabrisī. As for the Azdī. accused of zindaqah and beated to death]. . he turned towards Sumaniyyah (Shamanism or perhaps Buddhism). Sãlih ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Quddūs. let [this] gathering be confidential. Abū Shãkir's nephew.2. no.99. al-Amãlī (alMajãlis). and introduce him to your religion. vol. and a man of the tribe of Azd – i. He left his presence and said to his companions: 'I asked you to find me some wine. as-Sadūq. Ibn al-A‘mã and Ibnu 'l-Muqaffa‘. Jarīr ibn Hãzim. p. to cough) should do so.] "Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjã’ became stupified and did not know what to say.. al-Irshãd (transl. There. Bashshãr al-A‘mã [Ibn Burd. ‘Amr ibn ‘Ubayd.424. part 4. pp. they were Ibn Tãlūt. pp.425 (the second half of the above translation is taken from Howard).197-8. .3. gathered in the house of the Azdī and argued with one another.Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development 11 minded persons [see al-Mufīd. the famous poet (95/714–167/784). vol.e. .' He indicated with his hand towards the people gathered for the pilgrimage. while Bashshãr remained confused and a vacillator.' "'Shut up. and (Ibn) an-Nadīm says: "Among their leaders (i. Howard). At the end ‘Amr and Wãsil went off to become Mu‘tazilīs. which was one of the religions of India.401)]. al-Mufīd. pp. [Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjã’ asks a question about the hajj. .74-75.T. Nu‘mãn (sic. ‘Amr ibn ‘Ubayd said: 'I have heard that you take one of our youths aside and corrupt him. he asks a question about Allãh (see K.' they told him: 'you have disgraced us by your bewilderment." (alFihrist. "Kitãbu 't-Tawhīd". Do you permit [us] to talk?"' ".616-8. 'He is (only) the son of a man who shaved the heads of those whom you see. and anyone who wants to say something (lit.253-4." (al-Kãfī.327-8). vol. Sãlih ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Quddūs. = ‘Abdu 'l-Karīm) ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjã’.

which were the most easily persuaded section of the population. the qãdī of Basrah.2. one from whom a great number of hadīth are narrated. pp.1. trustworthy muhaddithūn] would say [by way of warning]: 'This hashawī has come to you!'" (Ma‘rifah. and in their narrating of his hadīth. and on whose truthfulness there is agreement. vol. It was also said of him that he was 'sãhibu 's-sunnah' (i.51-52. p. none of the biographical sources mention anyone of this name apart from a Jarīr ibn Hãzim Abu 'nNadr al-Azdī al-Basrī (90/709–175/791).12 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars set something up for you. Tahdhību 't-tahdhīb.72). p. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn.2. one of the great Traditionalists. almost uncritically accepted source of hadīth. p. since it is extremely unlikely that two persons from the same period had the same name. vol. an upholder of the primacy of hadīth) (al-‘Ilal. 'but [he] remained externally as he had been'. which will end your life.39-40. p. Shu‘bah [ibn al-Hajjãj al-Azdī al-Basrī (82/701– 160/776).1. Mukhtãru 'l-aghãnī. One of the most dangerous aspects of Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjã’'s activities was the encouragement of disbelief and doubt among the youth. vol. pp. vol.146-7. but was also propagated through writings. and was even described as being one of the hashwiyyah. al-Ma‘rifah.' So he went to Kūfah. This activity was not confined to oral persuasion. vol.2.1. vol. he was. Tajrīdu 'l-aghãnī. vol. alBukhãrī narrates from him that he studied with al-Hasan [al-Basrī] for eight years (Tãrīkhu 'l-kabīr. The authors of the six Sunnī canonical hadīth works. where Muhammad ibn Sulaymãn [the governor] was directed to him and killed him and crucified him.4.3.) As for Azdī. the text appears corrupted apart from in Tajrīdu 'l-aghãnī.2. have all narrated hadīth from him. in their trust in him. Jarīr ibn Hãzim. pt. al-Hãkim ibn al-Bay‘ narrated from Abū Dãwūd. .170) 3. as is reflected in the writings of the scholars of hadīth.214).167. pt. and lived in the same place. as well as others.1. one of the great. This great muhaddith seems therefore to have been secretly as Abu 'l-Faraj narrated. (al-Aghãnī. p.246.374-5. the same patronimic and the same nisbah." Then Abu 'l-Faraj narrated a poem which Bashshãr [had composed] condemning Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjã’ accusing him of zindaqah and of despising religious obligations. Despite the Janus-like nature of Jarīr – the opposition between what he secretly believed in and what he externally displayed – and his complete disguise so that no unfortunate consequence should befall him.. pp. in their confirmation of his truthfulness. the sixth man. that he used to say: "When Jarīr ibn Hãzim would join a session. p.e. vol. as has been explained. It thus seems that this Jarīr was the companion of Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjã’ and his other companions.

and Marcion. and Muti‘ ibn Iyyãs.8.140-1) * * * * * . vol. 158/775–169/785) and the period that led up to his caliphate. while describing the times of the ‘Abbãsid Caliph al-Mahdī. Ibn Daysãn. continuators of the Manichean. after the appearance of the books of Mãnī. and what was written at that time by Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjã’. for it was during his time and his caliphate that heretics appeared and openly manifested their beliefs. pp." (Murūju 'dh-dhahab. [Paris]. Daysanite. concerning the zindīqs: "[al-Mahdī] killed without pity the heretics and those who hypocritically believed in the religion. Yahyã ibn Ziyãd [al-Hãrithī]. translated from Persian and Pahlavi into Arabic by ‘Abdullãh ibn Muqaffa‘. says. The heretics grew in number on account of this and spread their beliefs among the people.Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development 13 al-Mas‘ūdī.1. Dhuha 'l-Islãm.292-3. pp. Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillãh (127/744 – cal. vol. and Marcionite sects. Hammãd ‘Ajrad.

Abū Dãwūd. p. p. vol. at-Tirmidhī. However. it provides the framework. p. alongside this.6.4/1. this is the most commonly used approach to engaging with and solving religious difficulties. and from the same verb stern (k–l–m) came the word kalãm to denote this discursive method.28-29. to hold discourse).204. and to leave these citations to speak for themselves. vol. p 445. at-Tãrīkhu 's-saghīr. atTãrīkhu 'l-kabīr.ORIGINS OF THE TERM 'KALÃM' From the earliest times. vol. followed by a selection of references to Shī‘ī sources. (a) Ma‘bad al-Juhanī al-Basrī (c. Jamharat ansãbu 'l‘Arab. al-Bukhãrī. p. Even in the present day. and coming into existence slightly later.1.1." 1 (b) ‘Abdullãh ibn ‘Awn al-Basrī said: "I used to find people holding discourse (takallum) only about ‘Alī and ‘Uthmãn.484. takallum (to speak.399-400. pp.10/631–c. From the abundant evidence for this assertion. he was the first to hold discourse 1 Muslim. until a [certain] humble man showed himself in Basrah. it will suffice here to give two examples from non-Shī‘ī sources.4.7/2.27. al-Ma‘ãrif. which is most familiar and characteristic of Islamic discourse. lbn Hazm. Ibn Abī Hãtim. 1. p. vol. the most prevalent way of addressing and dealing with religious matters among the Muslims has been to cite verses of the Qur’ãn and hadīth for. and its derivatives. p. vol. vol.4/1.5. 14 .223.280. even though very early in Islamic history. or against. The earliest sources referred to this kind of argumentation using the Arabic verb takallama. was the method of debate and discussion which came to be known as kalãm. pp. lbn Sa‘d.841703): "The first person to hold discourse on (takallama) qadar (human free will) in Basrah and to debate it was Ma‘bad. a particular stance. vol.

Origins of the Term 'Kalãm'


(takallama) on qadar, and Ma‘bad took this from him." 2 (c) Ghaylãn ibn Muslim ad-Dimashqī (d. c.106/724). al-Awzã’ī said: "The first to hold discourse on (takallama) qadar was Ma‘bad al-Juhanī, then Ghaylãn after him." Ibn Qutaybah reported the same thing. 3 2. (a) It is reported from the Imãm as-Sãdiq, peace be upon, him: ". . . I ordered some people to hold discourse (yatakallimu), and I forbade others." 4 (b) Abū Khãlid al-Kãbulī said: "I saw Abū Ja‘far, Sãhibu 't-Tãq, [Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn an-Nu‘mãn al-Bajalī al-Kūfī (see §121)] standing in the Rawdah [the most sacred part of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina], and the people of Medina had been [crowding round him, grabbing at and] tearing the clasps (azrãr) [on his shirt], and as often as he answered them they would ask another question. I went up to him and said: 'Abū ‘Abdillãh has forbidden us to hold discourse (kalãm).' He said: 'Did he order you to tell me?' I said: 'No, by Allah! But he ordered me not to hold discourse with anyone.' He said: 'Go away, and obey what he ordered you to do.' Then I returned to Abū ‘Abdillãh, peace he upon him, and related the story of Sãhibu 't-Tãq to him, and what he had said to me, to go away and obey what [the Imãm] had ordered me. Abū ‘Abdillãh, peace be upon him, smiled and said: 'O Abū Khãlid, when Sãhibu 't-Tãq holds discourse with people, he soars and he dives. But if they clip your wings you cannot fly.'" 5 (c) ‘Abdu 'l-A‘lã, mawlã of Ãl Sãm said to Abū ‘Abdillãh, peace be upon him: "People find fault with me for holding discourse (kalãm), but I continue to hold discourse with the people." He said: "For someone like you who, when he falls, flies up again, it is alright, but for someone who falls and cannot fly up again, no." 6 (d) Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillãh at-Tayyãr (see §110). (e) Muhammad ibn Hukaym al-Khath‘amī (see §130). (f) al-Hakam ibn Hishãm (see §60). (g) See al-Kãfī, al-Usūl, "Kitãbu 'l-Hujjah", fas.(i), pp.171-3. This extended hadīth contains several observations made by the Imãm as-Sãdiq concerning discourse (kalãm, takallum). [N.B. In the English translation, 'disputation' and 'debate' have been used to render kalãm and its derivatives into English.] From this, and similar evidence, it is clear that the origins of the science of
2 3

Ibn ‘Asãkir, Tãrīkh Dimashq, vol.16, pp.799-800; Ibn Manzūr, Makhtasar, vol.25, p.117. al-Ma‘ãrif, p.484. 4 al-Kishshī, p.170 [=287], pp.238-9 [=433]. 5 Ibid., pp.185-6 [=327].

Ibid., p.319 [=578].


Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars

kalãm are to be found in this practice of holding discourse (takallum) and debating with people, as opposed to the practice of citing texts. This view can also be supported by the observation that the majority of these discourses related to the area of matters of belief (‘aqãid), which was where the greatest differences occurred, although they were not exclusively concerned with these matters. It is also therefore not surprising that the term "kalãm" should have subsequently been used technically to refer to the science of examining the proofs for matters of belief. Thus kalãm, properly speaking, is, and was originally, a term for a methodology, the way of arguing about a subject. That it was not always exclusively used to refer to argument about matters of belief can be seen in its simultaneous use to describe discussions about contentious legal matters. * * * * *


The meaning of development in this context is the intellectual progress taken by movements in the sciences and in human thought from their origins, which may sometimes proceed rapidly, sometimes slowly, sometimes not move at all, and sometimes even regress. In the present discussion, the first milestone we shall pause at, and which we shall examine is that of the Shaykh al-Mufīd, in order to make some remarks specific to him and appropriate to this context of development, since many non-Imãmī historians of Imãmī kalãm have been of the opinion that he was the first to learn Mu‘tazilī kalãrn, and introduce the ideas of the Mu‘tazilah into Imãmī kalãm and thus into the Imãmī creed. However, there is a long stretch of time, and several generations, between the time that kalãm first appeared among the Imãmiyyah and the time of the Shaykh al-Mufīd, and this history will he given in part ii. Here the following brief points will be made. 1. Kūfah was the first centre for Imãmī hadīth and fiqh, then after two centuries Qum became one of the main centres for these sciences; but Baghdad was the centre for Imãmī kalãrn from its inception. It has already been pointed out that Hishãm ibn al-Hakam had a strong tie with Baghdad from the time it was founded at the beginning of the ‘Abbãsid caliphate. He settled there towards the end of his life, and directed kalãm sessions there, which were held under the auspices of the Barmakids. His kalãm students settled there and taught and debated, and they bequeathed their knowledge to those who took their place and came after them. On the other hand, although from its beginning Imãmī hadīth and fiqh were to be found in Baghdad, it was not the main centre for these sciences, having come here directly from Kūfah and indirectly from Qum.


Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars

2. Mu‘tazilī thought originated from a doctrine which they had not taken from the Imãmiyyah, and this was the doctrine of al-manzilah bayna 'lmanzilatayn, which is ascribed to the two founders, Ibn ‘Atã’ and ‘Amr ibn ‘Uhayd, and which all the Mu‘tazilīs accepted. However, when it comes to their rejection of jabr (compulsion), anthropomorphism, and corporealism, it has been pointed out that these ideas were already current among the Imãmiyyah, and might just as well have been taken from them. There is no evidence from this, therefore, for the assertion that Imãmī kalãm originally followed, or was taken from, other sects. This is not the place here to discuss this further, except to point out that, although Imãmī kalãm rejected jabr (compulsion), anthropomorphism, and corporealism, it did not follow this rejection with any kind of doctrine of ta‘tīl or ittihãm, both of which came to characterize Mu‘tazilī thinking. 3. The following is a summary list of the names of Imãmī mutakallims who succeeded Hishãm in Baghdad. i) ‘Alī ibn Mansūr, Abu '1-Hasan al-Kūfī, al-Baghdãdī, [see §43]. ii) Yūnus ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn, Abū Muhammad al-Yaqtīnī, al-Kūfī, alBaghdãdī (c.125/742–208/823–4), [§165]; a companion of Hishãm and one of his pupils: "A group of the Shī‘ī were trained by Hishãm and Yūnus, and they taught them kalãm." 7 In the books of rijãl it is sometimes stated that someone was a 'Yūnusī' where the purpose is to indicate that that person was a pupil of Yūnus in kalãm, not only that he heard and narrated hadīth from him. iii) Muhammad ibn Abī ‘Umayr (Ziyãd) ibn ‘Īsã Abū Muhammad al-Azdī al-Baghdãdī (d.217/832), [§115]. iv) ‘Alī ibn Ismã‘īl, Abu 'l-Hasan al-Mīthamī, [§42]. v) Abū Mãlik ad-Dahhãk al-Hadramī, [§16]. vi) Muhammad ibn al-Khalīl Abū Ja‘far as-Sakkãk al-Baghdãdī, [§141]; (v) and (vi) were both students of Hisham. vii) al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Yaqtīn al-Baghdãdī, [see §66]. viii) al-Fadl ibn Shãdhãn ibn al-Khalīl, Abū Muhammad al-Azdī anNaysãbīrī (c.195/811–260/873), [§57]. He said: "I am a successor to those who have preceded me; I saw Muhammad ibn Abī ‘Umayr and Safwãn ibn Yahyã and others, and I have studied under them for the past fifty years. Hisham ibn al-Hakam, may Allah have mercy upon him, passed away and Yūnus ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn was his successor, and he used to refute opponents. Then Yūnus ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn died, and his

Ibid., p. 498; Majma‘u 'r-rijãl, vol.2, p.34.

who held sessions in which mutakallims. [§73]. Abu 'l-Husayn as-Sūsanjirdī al-Hamdūnī. one of the great mutakallims and narrators of hadīth. philosophers. Abu 'l-Hasan. one of the students of Abū Sahl an-Nawbakhtī. for the Nawbakhtī family were well known for their acceptance of the wilãyah of ‘Alī and his descendants. when Abū Hãshim moved from Basrah to Baghdãd he was the same age as Abū Sahl.310/922). the Shī‘ites claim him. And I am the successor to them afterwards. pp. gathered. he spent the greater part of his scholarly life living in Baghdad. A renowned mutakallirn and scholar of philosophy. . may Allah have mercy upon him. Abū ‘Alī. 367/977-8). c. moreover. x) al-Hasan ibn Mūsã ibn al-Hasan ibn Muhammad. Abū Sahl an-Nawbakhtī al-Baghdãdī (237/ 851–311/923). Muslim and non-Muslim." [See §57. [Ibn] an-Nadīm said: "The Mu‘tazilites claim him." 8 The Mu‘tazilites said about him the same things they said about his uncle Abū Sahl. Abū Muhammad anNawbakhtī (d. and Abū Hayyãn at-Tawhīdī said of him: "The shaykh of the Shī‘ah. He was a student of Abū Sahl." 9 He was the second of those with whom al8 9 [Ibn] an-Nadīm. pp. xiii) ‘Alī ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn Wusayf. Akhlãqu 'l-wazirayn. with whom Abū Hãshim held debates. and of an equal reputation in knowledge. Abū Muhammad ibn Abī ‘Aqīl al-‘Umãnī alHadhdhã’ al-Baghdãdī. [§96] xiv) al-Muzaffar ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad.203.] Although al-Fadl settled in Naysãbūr towards the end of his life. xi) Muhammad ibn Bishr. but that cannot be correct because Abū Sahl was of the generation of his father. Abu 'l-Jaysh al-Balkhī alKhurãsãnī al-Baghdãdī (al-Warrãq) (d. ix) Ismã‘īl ibn ‘Alī ibn Ishãq. who was a student of Abū Sahl an-Nawbakhtī. al-Hallã’ al-Baghdãdī anNãshi’ al-Asghar (271/884–365/975 or 366/976). and the mutakallim of the Shī‘ah. In his biography it is mentioned that the Mu‘tazilites claimed that he studied with Abū Hãshim al-Jubbã’ī. and therefore in no need of the teaching of Abū Hãshim.The Development of Kalãm Among the Imãmiyyah 19 only successor was as-Sakkãk. passed away. 225-6. [§125] xii) al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī. 206-7. peace be upon them. [§96]. but he was really in the ranks of the Shī‘ah. who held sessions where the mutakallims gathered. and others. One of the renowned mutakallims of Baghdad. the famous mutakallim and poet. A faqīh and mutakallim whom al-Mufīd greatly praised [see §63]. and he used to refute opponents till he.

of course. No teacher has been mentioned for them who was not an Imãmī. and it was this that forced the Shaykh al-Mufīd and other Imãms to have recourse not only to non-Imãmī mutakallims but also to non-Imãmī muhaddiths and fuqahã’. and is credited with refutations of Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī concerning the Imãmate and its proofs [see §109]. p. Mu‘tazilites. but in all the branches of knowledge and literature. p. who was a Mu‘tazilī who subsequently came to believe in the Imãmate. they were few and only two of such individuals seem to be mentioned in the sources.422. who were.20 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars Mufīd studied kalãm. In order to understand the situation better. al-Fihrist. and particularly when the young scholars were at an age when they could not yet participate in debating and discussion sessions. The situation was exactly the same in the case of non-Imãmī hadīth and fiqh. with all their high scholarly standing. and to the way of reporting all knowledge in the same form. 10 at-Tūsī. Abū ‘Abdillãh ibn Mumlak al-Isbahãnī. It was true for the Banū Nawbakht just as it was later for al-Mufīd and al-Murtadã. 10 [See §149] 4. The reliable way to acquire learning was to hear directly the narration of it. because of the unreliability of the copyists and narrators of books. It does indeed seem to be the case that a tributary stream of Mu‘tazilī thinking entered into Shī‘ī kalãm from Mu‘tazilī mutakallims who went over to the Imãmī doctrine of the Imãmate. a reputed mutakallim. . This is testified by recourse taken in all subjects to narrations and chains of narrations. ii) Muhammad ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn. i) Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillãh. Abū Ja‘far ibn Qibbah ar-Rãzī (d. and this applied not merely in the field of hadīth. precluding any need for them to have imbibed the teaching of others. No specific teacher has been mentioned by their biographers for the Banū Nawbakht. an-Najãshī. it is necessary to bear in mind that in order to be acquainted with the ideas of their opponents it was necessary for these Shī‘ī mutakallims to have recourse to their well-known kalãm adversaries. He held debating sessions. However.198. This was especially so in an age when writings on these matters were rarely to be found. 5. None of those who have briefly been mentioned above from the many who can be found in Part II from the time of Hishãm ibn al-Hakam to that of al-Mufīd learnt kalãm from anywhere except from Imãmī sources. but there can be a strong presumption that their intellectual growth took place within Shī‘ī circles and with Imãmī teachers.

Examples of these tendencies can be found below in the biographies of the Shaykh al-Mufīd and his teachers. even opposing his claims – although not ostensively. In many cases it can he found that the Baghdãdī Mu‘tazilah were in agreement with the Imãmīs when the Basran Mu‘tazilah were against them. a reputed and effective Mu‘tazilī mutakallim who "saw the light and changed" to lmãmism. and this was a two-way process. like the two above.The Development of Kalãm Among the Imãmiyyah 21 c. All this is not to say that there was no interaction. without necessarily changing their minds on other beliefs. refused to recognize ‘Ali ibn Abī Tãlib's rights and denied his pre-excellence. secondly. then. Indeed. these two did not live in Baghdad.315/927). That is to say that the effect of the interaction is to be found in both the Mu‘tazilah and the Shī‘ah. What were the factors which led the Baghdad school to lean towards Imãmī kalãm in many respects. from their beginning with Ibn ‘Atã’ and ‘Amr ibn ‘Ubayd. Two further points are: firstly. i. It was the Baghdãdīs who were nearest to the Imãmīs. There are many examples of this in McDermott's hook.e. This became the opinion of Basran Mu‘tazilah – al-‘Asamm and others – thereafter. the first of them living originally in Ahwãz then in Isfahãn. even in their doctrinal attitude to ‘Alī ibn Abī Tãlib? The Baghdad Mu‘tazilah were famous as mufaddil. changed only their opinion about the Imãmate. 6. This 'tributary stream' of Mu‘tazilism. On the other hand. came through those who. the second in Rayy. they were not of a sufficient strength or number to have a significant effect on the future of Imãmī kalãm. not only in argumentation. nor were they connected to Baghdãdī Imãmī kalãm. Other examples of differences between these two schools can be found above in the section on the points of agreement between the Shaykh al-Mufīd and the Mu‘tazilah. they believed the first Shī‘ī Imãm to be the most excellent (afdal) of creation after the Prophet. but also to a certain extent in the formation of doctrine. and not that the Imãmīs were affected while the Mu‘tazilah stood firm as a rock. The Mu‘tazilah were divided into two schools: the Baghdãdīs and the Basrans. it was through interaction that techniques of argumentation and establishing proofs were improved. the Basran Mu‘tazilah had. and also in al-Mufīd's work al-Ãrã’ wa 'l-maqãlãt. The conclusion he reaches is that al-Mufīd tended towards the Baghdad Mu‘tazilah . cited when he compares the views of al-Mufīd with those of the Qãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr. on the supposition that they kept most of their original beliefs when they changed to the Imãmī view of the Imãmate.

and in these views were nearer to the Basran Mu‘tazilah.58. an example being the Barmakid sessions which Hishãm ibn al-Hakam attended along with Bishr ibn al-Mu‘tamar and other Mu‘tazilīs. which they all inhabited. for Baghdad was in those days the centre for Sunnī hadīth and fiqh.20-30. 12 and McDermott cites an instance when the Mu‘tazilah of Baghdad agreed in a matter with the opinion of "all (jamhūr) the Ãl al-Bayt. That they were in closer agreement with the Basrans may be evidence for nothing more than the general kalãm environment. while Basrah was not at all on the same level. Qum. peace be upon them. Why. also al-Mufīd's teacher. this does not of itself prove that they took their views from the Basrans. the Basrans were relative isolated. The fact that ‘Abdu 'lJabbãr followed the Basran School in some of his opinions where al-Mufīd did not is evidence that al-Mufid had already formulated his doctrinal views before being taught by al-Basrī.22 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars School while 'Abdu' l-Jabbar tended towards the Basran School. importantly.61. then. They were both students of al-Mufīd. §144. 11 However. should the influence of an-Nazzãm on the Imãmīs have been greater than that of others Baghdãdī Mu‘tazilīs? At the same time. p. and thus more inclined to adhere to the doctrines. the Baghdãdī Mu‘tazilīs differed from the Basrans largely because of their contacts with Imãmī mutakallims. See below: al-Mufīd's bibliography. one of al-Mufīd's works bears the title ar-Risãlah al-muqna‘ah: Concerning the agreement of the Baghdãd Mu‘tazilah with traditions reported from the Imãms." 13 It was not the case that Basrah was a stronghold of non-Shī‘ī learning. . The difference was that the Imãmīs were in Baghdad and not in Basrah. 1993. All the evidence points to the fact that. ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr only followed the Basrans through his teacher ‘Abdullãh alBasrī. as can be seen from the Tãrīkh Baghdãd. peace be upon them. from Bishr ibn al-Mu‘tamar onwards. p. 13 See: Theology. and Awãilu 'l-maqãlãt. * * * * * 11 12 See: Theology. who was. which they had formulated at the beginning. pp. and chose to disagree with him. While the Sharīf al-Murtadã and the Shaykh at-Tūsī differed in some of their views from al-Mufīd. Moreover.

As far as doctrine was concerned. 2. whose teachings they would use to counter the arguments of the Basrans. From its beginnings. In so far as this difference can he said to exist among the Imãmīs. If Imãmī mutakallims went to study with mutakallims from other schools. the more they parted ways with kalãm and its subject matter. as contrasted with the lack of such contacts in the case of the Basrans. This was not the case either with al-Mufīd or with other Imãmī mtakallim before or after him. From their beginnings. and vice versa. It cannot be deduced merely from agreement between the Imãmīs and the Mu‘tazilīs that the former were doctrinally under the influence of the latter. 3. the Mu‘tazilah were influenced by the Imãmīs in certain doctrines in which it was possible for them to find common ground – naturally not on matters of great sectarian difference such as the Imãmate. studied Imãmī kalãm with Imãmī teachers. it had an independent existence. especially those of the Baghdãdī Mu‘tazilīs' School.SUMMARY OF THE ARGUMENT 1. the main factor influencing their separation was the Baghdãdīs intellectual contact with Imãmī mutakallims. The division of the non-Imãmīs into the ashãbu 'l-hadīth and the mutakallims was such that the more those who paid attention to hadīth penetrated deeply into their narrations. who. it will be seen. nor does the presence of Imãmīs with Mu‘tazilīs prove that there was doctrinal borrowing. the muhaddiths and the mutakallims did 23 . it was out of the need to acquaint themelves with other doctrinal positions and ways of argumentation. Imãmī kalãm was distinguished from that of other schools by its own specific character. cultivated in each period by its own scholars up until the time of the Shaykh al-Mufīd. When the Mu‘tazilah split into the Baghdãd and the Basran Schools. 4.

and among them was al-Mufīd. and indifferent to hearing and remembering them. there was little room for the same objection among the Imãmīs. which were counted necessary for īmãn.24 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars not differ in the basic doctrines (usūlu 'l-‘aqīdah). without necessarily supporting the mutakallims. The difference was one of methods of proof and ways of thinking. However. The objection made by non-Imãmī ashãbu 'l-hadīth against their mutakallims. that they were ignorant of hadīth. by taking into account the latter's not altogether unreasonable mistrust of non-Imãmī hadīth and the contradictions between their contents and matters of doctrine. can be understood. 5. * * * * * . were also narrators of hadīth who memorized their contents in the same was as those who only paid attention to hadīth. for the leading mutakallims.

PART TWO The Imãmī Leading Scholars and Mutakallims 1. Imãmī Mutakallims . The Biographies of Imãmī Mutakallims. 2.


but. beginning around the time of Nasīru 'd-Dīn at-Tūsī (597/1202–672/1274) and the ‘Allãmah al-Hillī (648/1250–726/1325). The list stops here because there has never been any claim that the Imãmī mutakallims were influenced by the Mu‘tazilah after this period. retained the structure and divisions of kalãm. kalãm was pursued as an independent discipline. and Imãmī mutakallims were largely unacquainted with philosophy. In the first.THE BIOGRAPHIES OF IMÃMĪ MUTAKALLIMS In Part II. while they increasingly employed philosophical terminology. The third period. Imãmī kalãm can be divided into three periods. The second period. those figures are mentioned who were either described as mutakallims or who left works which indicate that they were mutakallirns up to the time of the Shaykh at-Tūsī and his students. and can be said to have lost its character as an independent discipline. unmixed with philosophy. starting just before the Safavid period. is one in which kalãm is almost entirely taken over by philosophy and ‘irfãn. can be characterized as one in which mutakallims were also philosophers. * * * * * 27 .

‘Abdu 'l-‘Azīz ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abdi 'l-‘Azīz as-Sãyin. vol. vol." He was a man of knowledge.149. p.1. p. a faqīh. 158.105. pp. pp.152.70-71. 160.. vol. [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. p. a mutakallim.IMÃMĪ MUTAKALLIMS §1.e.459.4. Lu’luatu 'l-bahrayn. vol. p. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. and a faqīh and mutakallim in their school. p. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah.399/1008–481/1088): A prominent figure among his co-sectarians. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. vol. a mutakallim.205. 29. vol.] A §2.3.2. al-Bihãr. He wrote works on kalãm and fiqh. usūlu 'd-dīn..3.d.2. a narrator of hadīth. p.480. al-Qãdī ‘Izzu 'd-Dīn at-Tarãbulusī: He was an erudite scholar.336-7. p. pp.37. pt. 444/1056): "Shaykh of the (Shī‘ī) sectarians. p. 198.106. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. 5th cent. He took over the judicial administration in Tripoli after Ibn al-Barrãj (see §3).46-47. and a pious man. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. ‘Abdu 'l-‘Azīz ibn Abī Kãmil. and usūl-'l-fiqh). 5th cent.42. p. vol. He studied with ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī. [Amalu 'l-ãmil. Tabaqãt a‘lami 'sh-Shī‘ah.] §3. a faqīh. Amalu 'l-ãmil.155.. al-Karãjikī and Ibn al-Barrãj.488.108. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. He wrote works on the two usūls (usūlayn. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.2.107. i. pp. and their faqīh in his time. and then he moved to Iraq 28 .106.10.10. Abu 'l-Qãsim al-Imãmī an-Naysãbūrī (a. vol. vol.109. and he also studied with Abu 's-Salãh. al-Qãdī Sa‘du 'dDīn Abu 'l-Qãsim ibn al-Barrãj (c. He was born in Egypt and grew up there. p. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil.1.245. vol. who studied with ashShaykh al-Mufīd (see §144). ‘Abdu 'l-‘Azīz ibn Nihrīr ibn ‘Abdi 'l-‘Azīz. p.28. p. vol. vol.

28.1. vol. vol. pp. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. 3. vol. p. 2. ad-Dalãil (The Proofs). pp.262.] §5.41-42. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.60-63. [Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.304. a faqīh. Among his works were:1. [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. and was the representative of ashShaykhu 't-Tūsī in Syrian territories. vol.578.20. p.2. Abu 'l-Wafã’ al-Muqri’ ar-Rãzī (d. al-Madhhab fi 'l-madhhab (The Path to the Faith). Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. vol. p. al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb.8. including: Kitãb fi 'l-kalãm. Lu’luatu 'l-bahrayn. Muntajabu 'd-Dīn says: "He was an . 5th cent. p. p. p.243. vol. vol. pp. Amalu 'l-ãmil.156. vol. 5th cent.1.236-7.3. p. ‘Abdu 'r-Rahmãn an-Naysãbūrī studied his writings with him".224. vo. p. He wrote both on usūl and furū‘. 506/1112-3): A scholar. pp. and a scholar of hadīth. p. a faqīh. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah.141-2.244. Rasãilu 'l-Basrah (in adh-Dharī‘ah it is called ar-Rasãilu 'l-Basriyyah) Treaties from Basrah).480. Muntajabu 'd-Dīn.268.178.107. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. and a commentary on ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã's Jumalu 'l-‘ilm wa 'l-‘amal. vol. p. Muntajabu 'd-Dīn says: "He was a shaykh from a mong the prominent persons in our circle and trustworthy. pt. vol. vol.13. vol.152-3.189.108. pp. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. p. ‘Abdu 'l-Bãqī was contemporary with ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī who is another teacher of al-Mūfīd an-Naysãbūrī (see §10).18.2. pp.2. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. p. p.263. vol. He held the position of judge in Tripoli for twent years. He returned to Tripoli (Tarãbulus) in 438/1046-7. p.105. adh-Dharī‘ah. So. Amalu 'l-ãmil.109. a narrator of hadīth and a mutakallim. p. vol. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.275. 4. and alMufīd. vol.6. vol. Abū Muhammad al-Khatīb al-Basrī: He was a mutakallim. p.] §4. He came to Rayy. Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm. p. vol. vol.1. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. vol. vol.. p. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn.5. ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn ‘Alī. p. ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd.437.1.3..Imãmī Mutakallims 29 and studied under ash-Sharīf Murtadã in 429/1038 until the latter died. vol.9. pt. ‘Abdu 'l-Bãqī ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Uthmãn.105.1.331-2.2. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. p. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. alFawãidu 'r-Radawiyyah. al-Hujaj wa 'l-Barãhīn fi 'l-imãmah (Arguments and Proofs Concerning the Imãmate).10. pp. p. Then he studied with Shaykhu 't-Tãifah with whom he was close. p. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr.71. p. p. vol.1.241. adh-Dharī‘ah.202-6.

Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.105.4. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. 143.2. al-Fihrist.30 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars Imãmī faqīh in Rayy. pt.163.29. p. p.174.25. adh-Darī‘ah. as in Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.2. p. Abu 'l-‘Abbãs al-Himyarī al-Qummī (fl.2. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.196. and he wrote several books.204.328.485. vol. p. pp.1. the sunnah and the Extraction of the Command of Divine Law. and he wrote several books. pp. vol.279. Sãlãr and Ibn al-Barrãj.3. 475. vol. p. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. adh-Dharī‘ah. p.c. and Badã’). p. pp.1. Talkhīs majma‘i 'l-ãdãb. p.2. vol. He was a trustworthy narrator of hadīth.4.1.2. al-A‘lãm.715. p. p.202. Ta‘līqãtu 'n-naqd. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. ‘Abdullãh ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn az-Zubayrī: He wrote Kitãb fi 'limãmah. alIsti‘ãdhah) fi 't-tu‘ūn ‘ala 'l-awãil wa 'r-radd ‘alã ashãbi 'l-ijtihãd (i.242. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. an-Najãshī said: "I saw (the name of this book) in the hand writing of Abu 'l-‘Abbãs ibn Nūh (d. vol.145-7. in his time all the educated persons among the sayyids and the ‘ulamã’ studied with him. vol.10.162-3. vol. Mustadrak 'l-wasãil. p. vol. Introduction to at-Tūsī's Rijãl.15. vol.46. vol.254. p.65. 297/910): He was the leader of the scholars of Qum and the most distinguished of them. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. Mu‘jam rijãl 'l-hadīth. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. an-Naqd. 15. p. Human Capacity and Deeds. vol. pp. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.95-99.e. p.35. vol. 488 & 496. 'The acceptance of Personal Opinion. 473.6." [an-Najãshī. p. he also studied with the two shaykhs.423/1032) in the certificate (of permission for narration) of his books which he gave me. and the Absence of Recourse to the Book.. pp. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.495. pt. p.438.2.] §7. vol. p. vol.] §6. p273-4.3. ‘Abdullãh ibn Ja‘far. p. [letters lãm and mīm]. p.] .' and it was this that was meant by ijtihãd in those days) wa 'l-qiyãs (The Utility [or Protection] concerning the Calumnies against the First Ones and the Refutation of the People of ijtihãd and qiyãs [analogical reasoning]). 444. p. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.1. vol.40.10. an-Najashī. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn.9. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. p. vol. p. [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. [at-Tūsī.270. 328. 5th cent. pp.1.. He himself had studied with ash-Shaykh Abū Ja‘far at-Tūsī all the latter's writings. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’." He had a college in Rayy named after him in which he taught. Some of his biographers say that there were something like four hundred students (tullãb) studying fiqh and kalãm there. pt. vol. vol. Amalu 'l-ãmil. vol. al-‘Azamah wa 'ttawhīd (Divine and Majesty and Unity) and al-Imãmah (The Imãmate). and a book called al-Istifãdah (or.4. vol. 485. including: at-Tawhīd wa 'l-istitã‘ah wa 'l-afã‘il wa 'l-badã’ (Divine Unity.

‘Abdullãh ibn al-Mughīrah. said: "Abū Muhammad al-Hajjãl showed himself to be knowledgeable in kalãm.] §9. p. He also studied ashShaykh Abū Ja‘far at-Tūsī. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. p. pp.10.27. at-Tūsī.159. "Most trustworthy and reliable" as at-Tūsī.503. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. vol. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.206. an-Najãshī. and al-Fihrist. p. pp. al-Fadl ibn Shãdhãn (c. vol. Mu‘jam rijãl 'l-hadīth.206. vol.10. p. adh-Dharī‘ah. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. and no-one could equal him in his eminence. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. pt. vol. and piety.315-6.5. Ibn Dãwūd." (al-Kishshī.168. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. p.208." He narrated from Abu 'l-Hasan Mūsã and ar-Ridã (148/765–203/818).213-4. mutakallim.210.) [For biographical references: Rijãlu 'l-Barqī.216.1. religion. p. p.2. vol. scholar of hadīth.195/811–260/873). and studied under both ‘Alamu 'l-Hudã al-Murtadã and his brother ar-Radī. peace be upon them both. trustworthy (in narration of hadīth). and he was one of the most able people (in disputation). al-‘Allãmah. Abū Muhammad al-Hajjãl alAsadī al-Kūfī: He was one of the companions of ar-Ridã. pp. ash-Shaykh alMufīd Abū Muhammad al-Khuzã‘ī an-Naysãbūrī ar-Rãzī (son of §26): Shaykh of the Imãmiyyah in Rayy. vol.54-55.2. ar-Rijãl. preacher (wã‘iz). alKūfī al-Khazzãz: It is said of him: "He was extremely trustworthy. pt.316.2. p. who met him in Kūfah and debated with him. vol. p. vol. p. p. peace be upon him. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. and he was one of the six of their companions about whom there is general agreement concerning their truthfulness and in accepting them in fiqh and other kinds of knowledge. p. including Kitãb fī asnãfi 'l-kalãm (Book on the Different Discussions on Kalãm). p. p. and the shaykhs Sãlãr. p. an-Najãshī and others said. vol. vol. Abū Muhammad al-Bajalī. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. p.128.55. memorizer of hadīth.4. p. p.10. pp. Ibn Dãwūd. ‘Abdullãh ibn Muhammad.10.511.218.Imãmī Mutakallims 31 §8. He narrates from as-Sam‘ãnī that he says about him: "He was . Ibn Hajar has given his biography and lists all his non-Imãmī teachers and pupils.4. pt.2. p. an-Najãshī.1. He traveled both in Eastern and Western lands. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.1.2. [an-Najãshī. p. He wrote thirty books.] § 10. al-‘Allãmah. vol. vol.352-7.297. vol. Ibn al-Barrãj and al-with Karãjikī. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. p.109-10. ‘Abdu 'r-Rahmãn ibn Ahmad ibn al-Husayn.381. pp.46.

446. ‘Abdu 'r-Rahmãn ibn Ahmad ibn Jabrūyah. vol. an excellent book. p. 5th cent. .1. ash-Sharīf ar-Radī (359/970–406/1015). as-Sam‘ãnī said: "Although al-‘Askarī refers to several places and things.32 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars well-versed in hadīth and displayed ardent zeal in (researching into) them. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. pp. He debated with ‘Abbãd ibn Sulaymãn (al-Basrī. Amalu 'l-ãmil.242.3." al-Ash‘arī (260/874–324/936) mentions him and says: "He is one of the most recent Rãfidites of our time. It is said that there were more than three thousand students (lit. pp. 226/841]. vol. vol. vol. Abū Muhammad al-‘Askarī (3rd/9th): an-Najãshī says: "He was a mutakallim among the men of our religion. "ink-pots") at his sessions.5.510/ 1116.315. pp. vol..223. Rawdãtu 'ljannãt. [Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulmã’.9. an excellent writer.140." It will from what follows concerning Ibn Mumlak (§ 109) that "al-‘Askarī" (of al-‘Askar) in Ibn Jabrūyah's name refrs to ‘Askar Mukram. vol.297-9) That is to say. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. and the second is not in agreement with the dates of one of his teachers. vol. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn.123-4). p. the most discerning of them in this subject as well as in the study of their narrators. although it is given in Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn as c. p. the most well-known is that which refers to ‘Askar Mukram.4. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. p. outstanding in kalãm. al-Fawãidu 'r-Radawiyyah.121.] §11. (He wrote several books) including al-Kãmil fi 'l-imãmah (The Complete Book of the Imãmate). a well known region in Khūzistãn from which came a number of scholars including Abū Ahmad al‘Askarī and Abū Hilãl al-‘Askarī (Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn. 355.104.3. He wrote books on kalãm. . pt. vol. Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. p. but I have some doubt about both dates." The date of his death is given as 445/1053-4. pp. both Mu‘tazilīs) and with those who were his contemporaries. p.518. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. al-Kunã wa 'lalqãb. Whenever he was asked about a hadīth he knew whether it was a strong one or a weak one.9. not to al-‘Askar as it refers to Sãmarrã’ (= Surra man-ra’ã) which is the most usual among the Imãmiyyah. He is said to have memorized one hundred thousand hadīth . vol. vol. student of Hishãm ibn ‘Amr al-Fuwatī [d.105. pp.2. and at his hand Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn Mumlak al-Isbahãnī (see §109) turned from the Mu‘tazilī sect to Imãmī belief. vol.2. This is .199-200. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil.1." (al-Ansãb. pp." He also narrates from Ibn Tayyi’ that "he was one of the most knowledgeable people in hadīth. p. since the first does not concur with the dates of the shaykhs under whom he studied (perhaps this is the date of the death of his father [see §26]). fiqh and other subjects. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah.320-1.1. Hadiyyatu 'l‘ãrifīn.489. p.404-405.3. vol.147. p.

p. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. He was taken into the presence of al-Ma’mūn.615-6.87-88.1. pp.s. p. p. p.) He (al-Ma’mūn) brought him (Abu 's-Salt) together with Bishr al-Marrīsī (al-Baghdãdī al-Hanafī [c. vol. the Zindīqs and the believers in predestination.).74. when he left for Baghdãd). vol.375. Abu 'l-Hasan al-Marwazī ash-Shãfi‘ī (198/813–268/881). vol. pp. p. vol.117.4. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. he made him one of his special companions. and when al-Ma’mūn heard him speaking.320.4. p. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. and he was famous for his knowledge of Shī‘ī kalãm. says: "Abu 's-Salt al-Harawī came to Marw in the days of al-Ma’mūn the ‘Abbãsid (and al-Ma’mūn was in this city till 204/819. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. and he narrated from him and was trustworthy in hadīth.Imãmī Mutakallims 33 confirmed also by the fact that many Basran Mu‘tazilīs have this nisbah. p. p.] §12.2.1. a trustworthy narrator of hadīth. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. "He kept his position of respect with al-Ma’mūn till the latter sought to express the argument of Jahm (ibn Safwãn [d. Ibn Dãwūd. Abu 's-Salt wanted to set out (to visit) the ghazw (this word denotes in this period of history the activities of groups of quasi-independent pious Muslims who were stationed on the border of the lands of Islam and periodically raided the territories of the unbelievers. p.10.222. ‘Abdu 's-Salãm ibn Sãlih. pp.184. Abu 's-Salt al-Harawī (d. pp.] Ahmad ibn Sayyãr ibn Ayyūb. Mu‘jam rijãli 'lhadīth. [an-Najãshī. vol. whom our brother Sunnī scholars recognize as a faqīh. Ibn Dãwūd.224. and kept him close to himself until he himself set out (to tour the region of) the ghazw.184. 236/851): He was a companion of ar-Ridã. ‘Askar Mukram being near Basrah.446. the Jahmiyyah. pp. al-‘Allãmah.1. vol.139-40. (‘a. p. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.1. pp.114.2.151-2. vol.1. pt. pt. vol.187-8. an-Najãshī.176-7. al‘Allãmah. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. ‘Abdu 's-Salãm used to reject the dissenters among the Murji‘ites.456. pp. a memorizer (hãfiz) of many hadīth. and all turned out a victory for him.138/755–218/833]) and asked the former to debate with him. p. [al-Kishshī. p.120. 128/745]) and the opinion that the Qur’ãn was created. Maqãlãtu 'l-Islãmiyyīn." .9. and he debated with Bishr al-Marrīsī and others versed in kalãm more than once in the presence of al-Ma’mūn. Jãmi‘u 'rruwãt. vol. but they were not always under the control of the Caliph).18-20. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. then he again declared it and vehemently called upon the people to accept it in 218/833. (al-Ma’mūn expressed this [view] in the year 212/827.

5th cent.] His correct name is Abū Ghãnim (see the Ijãzah of Sãhib al-Ma‘ãlim alKabīrah in al-Bihãr.] §14. . and a second time as ash-Shaykh Sadīdu 'd-Dīn .3. Tahdhību 'ttahdhīb.105. hadīth and kalãm (see Risãlah Abū Ghãlib az-Zurãrī [285/898–368/978] under 'Ãl A‘yan'.276. in Persia.3. p.130/748): The family of A‘yan ibn Sunsun was among the most outstanding Shī‘ī (Imãmate) families in the study of jurisprudence. vol. where he is called al-Hawwãnī.257. or so it would appear. vol. p. vol. . Abu 'l-Husayn." Here he calls him Ghãnim. 356.2. pp. Amalu 'l-ãmil. a truthful man and a mutakallim.6. in the description of the town of Herãt. but he mentions him a second time. and was a companion of the Imãms al-Bãqir and as-Sãdiq.146. vol. al-Ghadīr. Muntajabu 'd-Dīn says: "ash-Shaykh Sadīdu 'd-Dīn Abū Ghãnim ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Ghãnim al-Jawwãnī. vol. Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidãl.176.9. Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm.34 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars [Tãrīkh Baghdãd. vol. but frequented his companions [ashãb]). and in foot-note about it from Kitãbu 'l-Jughrãfiyah by al-Hãfiz Abrū. vol. pp. [Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt.45 & 47. vol. a man of exceeding knowledge who narrated from as-Sayyid al-Murtadã.47. a student of asSayyid al-Murtadã from whom he narrated all his writings. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr.109. . vol. . [Ibn] Nadīm. pp. vol. vol. p. p.11. vol. both of them from Muntajabu 'd-Dīn.1. al-Jawwãnah. it seems that al-Jawãnī is correct (not al-Jawwãnī). p. p.356 – once as ash-Shaykh Diyãu 'd-Dīn .2. p. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah.616. al-Jawwãnī. p. vol.320.30. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.320).2. vol. vol.491 & 495. Abū Ghãnim al-‘Usmī al-Harawī al-Imãmī: al-Hurr al-‘Ãmilī says: "He was a faqīh. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.345. c. He was among those . pp. A/590. ar-Rawdu 'n-nadīr." [Amalu 'l-ãmil. p. Humrãn was one of the tãbi‘īn (those who had not seen the Prophet himself.1. p. p. p. indeed. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. p.] §13. a correct faqīh. vol.) These are two biographies of the same person. which is a village in the region of Harãt Rūd (= Herãt). peace be upon them both.1. also al-Mustadrak.11. peace be upon them both.409. al-Ansãb. and says: "ash-Shaykh Abū Ghãnim al-‘Usmī al-Harawī ash-Shī‘ī al-Imãmī. and their praises of him have been narrated.4. He was one of the outstandingly trustworthy (thiqah) narrators from them.222-57). he is counted as one of their closest followers (huwãriyy). pt. Humrãn ibn A‘yan ash-Shaybãnī al-Kūfī (d." (Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. p.3. And al-‘Usmī is the name of a large family of scholars from Herãt (al-Ansãb.271).213. He was one the most famous Shī‘ī mutakallim from the period of these two Imãms.2. coming from Jawãn.2.

p. which we referred to in the biography of Qays al-Mãsir. said to him: "You debate on the authority of the traditions and you act correctly" (refer to the sources given under Qays alMãsir. al-Jarh wa 't-ta‘dīl. pp. pt. pp. Abū Ishãq. 148. Khulãsat tahdhību 'l-kamãl.1. vol. and he argued with the mutakallim from Shãm.e. Taqrību 't-tahdhīb.265. 161.1. p.261.6. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.1 (iii).1. vol. vol.80.6. peace be upon him. pp. 463. and he was a great reciter who was consistent in his recitation. Ibn Dãwūd.3.2.198. vol. p. pt.407) (Concerning the life of Humrãn. vol.25. at-Tãrīkhu 'l-kabīr. pp. pp.117. vol. al-Bihãr. vol. you will have defeated me. vol. some of the nonShī‘ī authorities have deemed him trustworthy. p.134. Hamzah ibn Habīb atTaymī az-Zayyãt (80/700–156/773) one of the seven reciters (al-qurrã’ assab‘ah) recited before him (i. said to the man who had come to debate with him: "If you defeat Humrãn. vol. 397-8. pt. adh-Dhahabī said: "He died around 130/748.57-58.1. p. vol. and that he was a transmitter of hadīth from Abu 't-Tufayl.3. ar-Rijãl. Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidãl. vol.] §15. peace be upon him. see §151). vol.2. learnt from him) and there was general agreement about the competence of his (Hamzah's) recitation and about the fact that he never recited without basing his recitation on a traditional source. al-Kãshif. on which al-‘Allãmah al-Hillī (648/1250–726/ . al-‘Allãmah. Jãmi‘u 'rruwãt.1. Also Sufyãn ath-Thawrī (the famous Sunnī traditionist) and others narrated from him. Mu‘jam rujãli 'l-hadīth.3.1. vol. p. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Ibrãhīm ibn Nawbakht: He wrote the book al-Yãqūt about the science of kalãm. [al-Bukhãrī.47. and his recitation of the Qur’ãn was praised. as-Sãdiq.2. 181. for he knew the principles of recitation (yutqin) of the Qur’ãn. Abū Ja‘far al-Bãqir and others. p. vol.2 (iii). p. vol.1. pp.10.Imãmī Mutakallims 35 who were present in the session. and have called him unreliable on account of this.27-28) It is mentioned that Hamzah's recitation before Humrãn was perfectly in accordance with the principles of recitation.1. p. p.253. vol.1.63-64. Ghãyatu 'n-nihãyah fī tabaqãti 'l-qurrã’. As for hadīth. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. p. p.276. Tahdhību 't-tahdhīb. while others have discredited him because he was a Rãfidī (Shī‘ī). Ma‘rifatu 'l-qurrã’i 'l-kibãr.233-7.278. pt. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl." (al-Kishshī. p. al-Imãm asSãdiq.298. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. p. pp.370-2.604. pp. p229.118. at-Tūsī." (Tahdhību 't-tahdhīb. see: al-Kishshī. 176-81.) Non-Shī‘ī authors have also written biographies of him: they have said that he was a reciter of the Qur’ãn.254-61.92.

1. p. [Concerning the author and his time see: Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. The writer of Riyãdhu 'l-‘ulãmã’. who says: "Abū Ishãq. 542.14.73-74.4. vol.575). al-Kashkūl." and some of them refer to this statement. although it is in Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt.115. after 330/942. and he narrated from the Imãm al-Kãzim (129/746–183/799). Others refer to what al-‘Allãmah al-Hillī said. AD). pp. The biographers have concocted different versions of the name of the writer of al-Yãqūt and his times." Muhammad Najmī. . I. says that he was "Ismã‘īl ibn Ishãq ibn Abī Ismã‘īl ibn Nawbakht. and published it in 1338 S. As for the dates of the writer. He was a companion of Hishãm ibn al-Hakam and was a pupil of his.364-6. p. ‘Izzu 'd-Dīn ‘Abdu 'l-Hamīd ibn Abi 'l-Hadīd al-Mu‘tazilī (586/1190– 656/1258) also wrote a commentary on al-Yãqūt. vol.] §16. Abū Mãlik ad-Dahhãk al-Hadramī al-Kūfī: He was contemporary with the Imãm as-Sãdiq (84/702–148/765).' [See the biography of Ibn Abi 'l-Hadīd appended to Sharh Nahju 'l-balãghah (Dãru 'l-Kutubi 'l-‘Arabiyyah al-Kubrã bi-Misr.] Marginalia to the commentary of al-‘Allãmah and other commentaries to the book are mentioned in adh-Dharī‘ah. Khãndãn-e Nawbakhtī.13. vol. al-Qummī.3. and is called Anwãru 'l-malakūt fī sharh 'l-yãqūt.1. vol. the commentator writes: "Our Shaykh.178. edited this commentary.166-77. Muhammad Najmī.444-5. for in the list of his works is written: 'Commentary on al-Yãqūt of Ibn Nawbakht concerning kalãm. quoted from Ibn al-Fuwatī. vol.5.2. pp. al-Bahrãnī. as-Sayyid as-Sadr traces him back to the end of the second century. p. the grandson of Abū Sahl an-Nawbakhtī" (see §96). Cairo. our great teacher Abū Ishãq. and the discussion of the greatest and most elevated of them.90-91. pt. vol. adhDharī‘ah. while some place him a long time after this. 1329 AH. wrote the concise treaties called alYãqūt which contained some of noblest and high matters (of kalãm). Sezgin.25. p. 36. Professor at Tehran University. vol.36 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars 1325) wrote a commentary. vol. pp.94. as witness references found in al-Yãqūt.480-1. . The commentary was completed in 684/1285.22. pp. and among these is ash-Shaykh ‘Abbãs al-Qummī.5. from previous times. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. . pp. al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb.271-2. which is quoted from Mu‘jizu 'l-ãdãb fī mu‘jami 'l-alqãb of Ibn al-Fuwatī. p. but this is note given in its entirety in his book Talkhīs majma‘i 'l-ãdãb fī mu‘jami 'l-alqãb. p. vol.1. Introduction to Anwãru 'lmalakūt. beginning of the third century (8th –9th cent. vol. In the introduction. peace be upon him. Ibrãhīm ibn Ishãq ibn Abī Sahl.37. peace be upon him. Ibrãhīm ibn Nawbakht ./1959 AD. pp. pp.

" This Abū Hãzim is ‘Umar ibn Ahmad ibn Ibrãhīm ibn ‘Abdūyah.872]). [al-Kishshī. his son. at-Tūsī added: "I studied most of Bayãnu 'd-Dīn with Abū Hãzim an-Naysãbūrī.300-1. p. although in the texts which give his biography he is mentioned as a non-Shī‘ī. al-Muntazim.90. p." (the doctrine that anyone who commits a major sin without repenting in this world becomes an unbeliever [kãfir] and is condemned to everlasting Fire). according to an-Najãshī and others. reliable. p. the noble among the muhaddithūn".8.221 [#. according to adhDhahabī. vol. an-Najãshī. and wrote down many hadīths from him. al-Ansãb.9. Tadhkiratu 'l-huffãz.2. a book on the fundamentals of faith). al-Lubãb. and his paternal uncle Abū ‘Abdillãh Muhammad ibn Ibrãhīm (d.480.] It is clear from at-Tūsī's mention of him that he was Shī‘ī. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. 385/995) was a narrator of hadīth and a teacher of al-Hãkim anNaysãbūrī. vol. p.1.224.418. one of the sons of ‘Utbah ibn Mas‘ūd. who was a faqīh.] §17. Siyar a‘lãmu 'n-nubalã’. vol.18.1072. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. From his early youth he studied with the great scholars of hadīth and reached the highest degree in this subject. p. p. pt. who had studied it with [the author].154. p. vol. his father Abu 'l-Hasan Ahmad ibn Ibrãhīm (d. and his grandson by his daughter Abu 'l-Hasan. p. He was the author of Kitãb fi 't-tawhīd (Book on Divine Unity). p. p.4.189. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. vol.261.362. vol.5. p. vol. as-Subhī. vol. who was a scholar of hadīth (ibid. p." He was from a family of scholars of hadīth and fiqh. vol. p. al-Khatīb al-Baghdãdī said: "I met Abū Hãzim in Naysãbūr. I met [the author's] son Abu 'l-Qãsim.333-6. 323/935) was one of the famous scholars of hadīth of Naysãbūr. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah lī ‘ulūmi 'l-Islãm. and his . the brother of ‘Abdullãh ibn Mas‘ūd. "the leader of the memorizers of hadīth.2.189. Ibn Dãwūd.104.345/936–417/1026). al-‘Allãmah. but he was a believer in wa‘īd. al-Hudhalī al-‘Abdawī (c. pp. memorizer.27. vol. vol. for a Shī‘ī would not have studied a Shī‘ite text with a non-Shī‘ī and teach it in turn to a Shī‘ī.314. pp. Tabaqãtu 'sh-Shãfi‘iyyah. knowledgeable. pp.11. Abū Mansūr as-Sarrãm an-Naysãbūrī: Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī says: "He was a previous leader of the outstanding mutakallims.3.Imãmī Mutakallims 37 "He was a mutakallim who was extremely trustworthy in hadīth". Ibtãlu 'l-qiyãs (The Invalidation of Analogical Reasoning). adh-Dharī‘ah.3. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.148-9. he was trustworthy. p. pp. [Tãrīkh Baghdãd.272-3. Since at-Tūsī mentions Abū Mansūr as-Sarrãm.1.278. Among his books are: Bayãnu 'd-Dīn (The Explanation of the Religion. vol.9 p.

p. vol. vol. it can be assumed that these persons were well known and did not need further biographies. pp. Nothing has been written about him except that he was the student (ghulãm) of Abu 'l-Jaysh. p.8.226. [an-Najãshī. and he was a believer in irjã‘ (see §151). vol.419.] §18. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.144).12. 164. (Ibn) an-Nadīm.7.155. Ibn Dãwūd. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. Ma‘ãlimu 'l‘ulamã’. vol.2.228-9. pp. and (Ibn) an-Nadīm counts him among the Shī‘ī (Imãmī) mutakallims. It is also said: "It was with him. al-Fihrist. vol. pp.53.6. 434. p.. vol. Ibn Dãwūd.) I have not come across any personal name for him. p. which also shows that the books in which their biographies were given have now been lost. pp. Lisãnu 'l-‘Arab. 164. al‘Allãmah.101-2.396. Tãju 'l-‘arūs. vol.399. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’.228. he wrote many books on the Imãmate and on fiqh. 16.2. p. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. the Arabic sarm is from the Persian charm (leather). al-Fihrist. al-Fihrist. p.188.391.221.188. vol. see §144) studied ". adhDharī‘ah.] §19.366.13. p. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.3.22. except that I think that there is a strong possibility that he is al-Husayn ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad.4.3. 181.190. vol.69.295. ‘Ilalu 'sh-sharãi‘. pp. p. pp. and Abū Hãzim without giving any details.2. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. pt. and it is said that he was a mutakallim. p.304-5.2.3. . p. vol. pp. p. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. vol.3. to begin with.49. pp. vol. al-Bihãr. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.8. vol. vol. vol. p.139. p. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. vol. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. Abu 't-Tayyib ar-Rãzī. but I have not come across his name. pt. [at-Tūsī. Abu 't-Tayyib ar-Rãzī: Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī says: "He was one of the important mutakallims.1. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.1.2. p. (al-Ansãb. p. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. Qãmūs. al-‘Allãmah.339.238. p. pp. one who deals in leather (sarm).13.221. p. 225. p.126. and he has several writings to his name. with whom ash-Shaykh asSadūq had a meeting and from whom he narrated in Naysãbūr in 352/963 (‘Uyūn Akhbãri 'r-Ridã [‘alayhi 's-salãm]. p. 225. pp.57. Abū Yãsir Tãhir Ghulãm: [Student of Abu 'l-Jaysh al-Khurãsãnī (see §149)].151. 16. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. and we now only have information about Abū Hãzim as-Sarrãm.7.401. at-Tūsī.112. that our shaykh. p. 434. [For his biography refer to: at-Tūsī. p.38 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars grandson.36.127-8. see §164) learnt from him. all references are to his kunyah (Abū Mansūr) and his laqab (as-Sarrãm).7. p. 4th cent." He mentions that Abū Muhammad al-‘Alawī (this is Yahyã ibn Muhammad az-Zubãrī [318/93– 376/986]. vol. pp. Abū ‘Abdillãh (al-Mufīd. vol. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’.

380. p. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Although an-Najãshī became famous for his writing the well-known work Fihrist asmã’ musannifi 'sh-Shī‘ah (List of the Names of Shī‘ī Writers). He wrote several books.108." Ibn Hajar wrote a biography of him in which he said: "Abū ‘Alī ibn Bãbawayh mentions him as an Imãmī Shī‘ī narrator of traditions. adhDharī‘ah.23-106.337.1. p. Abū Ja‘far al-Ash‘arī alQummī (3rd/9th): He was a distinguished scholar of Qum. p. . p. vol. 5th cent.1.] §22. p. vol. vol.40.69. and Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.6. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. al-Fihrist. p. Ãdam ibn Yūnus ibn Abi 'l-Muhãjir an-Nasafī: Muntajabu 'dDīn says: "He was a shaykh.453. vol. p. and a mutakallim.2. p. he also demonstrates his knowledge of literature and philology. p. p. vol. p. of equitable behaviour (‘ãdil). in which he revealed the great extent of his wide hearing of hadīth.3. vol.67.12. vol.. pp. ar-Rijãl.Imãmī Mutakallims 39 al-‘Allãmah. for he never mentions a book without also mentioning the way it was narrated from its author. who studied with ash-Shaykh Abū Ja‘far at-Tūsī all the latter's writings. where sixty-four are counted. pt.2.49.1. and a keen perception.7. On top of all this. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. p. vol. vol. pp. For the lives of his shaykhs and teacher see Rijãl Bahru 'l‘Ulūm. pp.90. pt. al‘Allãmah. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. a faqīh. vol. including: al-Badã’ and al-Jabr wa 't-tafwīd (Predestination and the Delegation of Responsibility). p.49. an-Najãshī. Amalu 'l-ãmil. vol. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. .92-93.17. p.1.1.1. pp. p.157-65. vol. vol.84.5.1. Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm.9.9. p. a narrator with an extensive knowledge of hadīth.2. trustworthy.164.2-3. pp.420.2.8. p.4. p. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. p.137-8. vol. p. Ahmad ibn Abī Zãhir (Mūsã). Mu‘jãm rijãli 'l-hadīth.26-27. vol.'" [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. a faqīh. Ahmad ibn ‘Alī ibn Ahmad ibn al-‘Abbãs.175. Ibn Dãwūd. vol.203. Amalu 'l-‘ãmil. pp.1. he was a faqīh. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. pp. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. pt. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. and says that he was 'a faqīh and a debator. p.417- pp. Abu 'l-‘Abbãs anNajãshī al-Asadī al-Baghdãdī (372/982–450/1058): A man of knowledge and letters. [at-Tūsī.2.2. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. vol.] §20. vol. p. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah.2. vol.] §21. a mutakallim with extensive knowledge.5. Ma‘ãlimu 'l‘ulamã’.53-54.207.1.

This latter seized him and gave the order that his tongue.23). and he was one of the people charged with his ritual funeral washing (al-Fihrist. the Qadarites and the Khãrijites Who caused a Commotion about the Different Sections of the Community). which he described as "a large and excellent book. p. and 5. §23.456. He did not only study the Shaykh's kalãm. 4. he read with him al-Ãrã’ wa 'd-diyãnãt (Opinions and Religions) by al-Hasan ibn Mūsã an-Nawbakhtī (see §73-bk. At first he was not a Shī‘ī.50). Kitãbu 'r-Radd ‘ala 'l-Hanbalī (Book of the Refutation of the Hanbalite [?]) [at-Tūsī. p. Abū Yahyã al-Jurjãnī an-Naysãbūrī: He was one of the greatest men of the science of hadīth. (al-Fihrist. (al-Fihrist. Kitãbu 'l-Ghawghã’ min asnãfi 'l-ummah mina 'l-Murjiah wa 'l-Qadariyyah wa 'l-Khawãrij (Book of Those Among the Murji’ites. 3. . but Allãh saved him from this. Some trouble arose for him in Naysãbūr with Muhammad ibn Tãhir ibn ‘Abdillãh al-Khuzã‘ī (d. Mihnatu 'n-Nãbitah (The Misfortune of the Nãbitah) in which he wrote about the Hashwiyyah sect and their infamies (see §57/bk. Kitãb fadãihi 'l-Hashwiyyah (Book of the Infamies of the Hashwites). 298/911). and among those concerned with kalãm are: 1. He also studied under ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã (see §39) and was one of his special students.40 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars He studied with ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd (see §144) and stayed with him for a number of years. fiqh and hadīth writings with him.25). pp. He also read with him al-Karr wa 'l-farr fi 'l-imãmah by Ibn Abī ‘Aqīl al‘Umãnī (see §63). "and he has many writings on the sciences of disputing with opponents". and that he should be beaten a thousand times. but also studied much of what the Shaykh al-Mufīd narrated to him from his own shaykhs: and from what an-Najãshī details. p. p. as it is said.207). embracing many sciences" (alFihrist.58-59. al-Kishshī. discussing every aspect of the problem (mas’alah wa qalbuhã wa ‘aksuhã)". an-Najãshī. his hands and his feet should cut off. among the kalãm books that he read with his teacher al-Mufīd was at-Tanbīh fi 'l-imãmah by Abū Sahl an -Nawbakhtī (see §96 bk. which he described as "beautifully composed. Lastly. al-Fihrist. but he became one.38). 2. who was the governor of Khurãsãn from 248/862–259/873. ar-Rijãl. p.18). Ahmad ibn Dãwūd ibn Sa‘īd al-Fazãrī. Kitãbu 't-Tafwīd (Book on the Delegation of Responsibility to Man for his Actions).353.23). He wrote a number of books. p. just as he had been one of al-Mufīd's special students before.

1.108-11. Ibn Dãwūd. vol.60-61. vol. al-Manãqib.1. vol. the famous Mu‘tazilī (135/753–235/850) which his son Abū ‘Alī Muhammad al-Mahmūdī narrated from him.176). Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.1.532-3. p. He was someone we recognized as worthy of praise (mahmūdah). vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Ibnu 'l-Athīr said: "[they were] eminent men of knowledge". pp. pt. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. p.100-3. pp. He debated with Abu 'l-Hudhayl al-‘Allãf. p. pp. and al-Mukãfa’ah fi 'l-madhhab fi 'n-naqd ‘alã Abī Khalaf (The Equalization in the Faith Concerning the Denial of Abū Khalaf). f. al-Mãmaqãnī. which shows that he was not originally Shī‘ī.B. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. pp. who died in the period of the Imãmate of the Imãm. p.48. al-‘Allãmah al-Wahīd al-Bihbihãnī. (al-Ansãb. and you yourself are not far from this status. pt.27. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. pp. (apparently there are two books). p.1.109-11. vol.247-50. p. al-Mihrãnī al-Ãbī: Ibn Sharãshūb says: "He wrote: Tartību 'l-adillah fī-mã yulzimu khusūma 'lImãmiyyah daf‘uhu ‘ani 'l-ghaybah wa 'l-ghãib (The Arrangement of Proofs Concerning [those Objections] to do with the Occultation and the One Who is Hidden Whose Refutation Forces Acceptance on the Enemies of the Imãmiyyah).114-5.1." In Amalu 'l-ãmil this latter is given as al-Mukãfa’ah fi 'l-madhhab. pt. p.18-19.2. (al-Kishshī. vol.] §25. vol. pp. al-Mahmūdī al-Marwazī: One of the companions of al-Imãm al-Jawãd.50. [#. vol. Ahmad ibn Hammãd.1. "The Mahmūdī household (bayt) in Marw was famous and illustrious for [its] knowledge" as as-Sam‘ãnī said.1. p.2.561-2. ar-Rijãl.249 [in which it is erroneously said that the debate was with his son Abū ‘Alī]). [See: al-Kishshī.59. and at the end of this they discussed the question of the Imãmate.1. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. vol.Imãmī Mutakallims 41 pp.420.248-9. vol.109. pp. al-‘Allãmah. The Imãm wrote to his son. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.1060]. Muhammad Abū ‘Alī al-Mahmūdī: "Your father has passed away.] §24. vol. pp. al-Khū’ī and Ãghã .110-1.8. Ibn Dãwūd. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. p. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. p.21.398. pp. vol.204-5. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’.3.2. peace be upon him (195/811– Imãmate 203/818–220/835). Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. pp. vol. pp. vol. p.102-3. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. pp. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. pp. vol. at-Tūsī.1. and Kitãb fi 'n-naqd ‘alã Abī Khalaf (Abū Khalaf).559-62. al-Lubãb. Naqdu 'r-rijãl." al-Fadl ibn Shãdhãn referred to him as Ahmad ibn Hammãd al-Mutashayyi‘.7. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.22.59. Ahmad ibn al-Husayn ibn ‘Abdillãh. may Allãh be pleased with him and with you. p.

Tabaqãtu 'l qurrã’ (The Chronology of the Reciters).. p.1. ash-Shaykh as-Sadūq set out for Khurãsãn in 353/963.) It should not be thought that as-Sadūq uses the formula radī Allãhu ‘anhu solely for persons who have died. vol.713. pp. p. Mustadradu 'l-wasãil. Gharãibu 'l-qirãt (The Curiosities of the Recitations).1. al-Bihãr.12. Ghaybah fi 'l-qirã’ãt (The Objective About the Recitations). and he was the most pious of the reciters we have seen. p.76. The non-Imãmīs give the biography of a scholar in the sciences of the Qur’ãn who was Ahmad ibn al-Husayn ibn Mihrãn. 5. for the third time.) And he also says: "Abu 'l-‘Abbãs Ahmad ibn al-Husayn ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn Muhammad ibn Mihrãn al-Ãbī al-‘Arūdī. al-Ansãb.16. vol. pp.2. Now. vol. ash-Shãmil (The Complete). vol. p. vol.2. vol. They commend him as being a scholar. and others. al-Hãkim says that: "He was the leader of his time in recitation.433. pp.476). 4th cent. p.279- . The prayer (radī Allãhu ‘anhu) of as-Sadūq for him is evidence that he was in accordance with as-Sadūq as far as his beliefs were concerned.20. 2. p. in which he appends this formular to mention of Sãhib ibn ‘Abbãd's name. vol.1.3. may Allãh be pleased with him. vol. Ma‘rifatu 'l-qurrãi 'l-kibãr. 3. p. 367/978 and. although he was still alive (see ‘Uyūnu 'l-akhbãr. Elesewhere in his writings he uses this formula for Sãhib ibn ‘Abbãd.1. spoke with us in Marw" (ibid. al-Lubãb." (Kamãlu 'd-dīn. Amalu 'l-ãmil." as-Sadūq said: "Abu 'l-‘Abbãs Ahmad ibn al-Husayn ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn Mihrãn al-Ãbī al-Azdī al-‘Arūdī spoke with us in Marw (Marw al-Shãhjãn – one of the cities of Khurãsãn). Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. among which were: 1. and he narrated from a number of famous traditionalists. vol. (Mukhtasar tãrīkh Naysãbūr. as is the usual custom. 4. 545/B. for whom he wrote the ‘Uyūn akhbãr arRidã. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Ghãyatu 'n-nihãyah.3. vol. in 368/979. and the ahãdith which he narrates from him also shows that he was of the Imãmī sect.2. 7-8).272. even going to the scholarly cities of Iran. pt. an ascetic. Wuqūfu 'l-Qur’ãn (Places of Pausing in [the Recitation of] the Qur’ãn). p. 4. on his way to Transoxania." He set out in search of the sciences of the Qur’ãn and acquaintance with the reciters and their recitations to Iraq and ash-Shãm.2. p. (Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’.3. Abū Bakr al-Mihrãnī alIsfahãnī an-Naysãbūrī (295/908–381/991).42 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars Buzurg mention: "It was from this man that ash-Shaykh as-Sadūq [c.. p. pp. which is a large book. vol.306/ 919– 381/991] narrated. a narrator of hadīths.93-94. whose supplications were granted.58.2.51. He wrote many books on the sciences of the Qur’ãn.26.49-50. al-Hãkin an-Naysãbūrī and others narrated from him.

p.7. vol. and other say the same.399-400. Tabaqãtu 'sh-Shãfi‘iyyah. p. pp. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. adh-Dharī‘ah. 350/961): an-Najãshī says: "He wrote a hundred books". vol. p. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah.551. vol. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. §26. vol. pp. because there are many persons who have two patronymics.21. Mir’ãtu 'l-jinãn. vol. pp.488. pp.165. vol. an-Nujūmu 'z-zãhirah.11. p. vol.): He was related by marriage to Abū Ja‘far al-‘Amrī an-Nãib (d.1. p. . Ahmad ibn al-Husayn ibn Ahmad.1. One of the prominent members of the family of Nawbakht".. al-‘Ibar. which is a book about beliefs . pp.2. it is possible that it was abbreviated. vol.7.160.89-90. [Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. and that the difference in the numbering of the names of his ancestors is not proof of there being more than one. al-Muntazim. p. And the difference in patronymic between "Abū Bakr" and "Abu 'l-‘Abbãs" is not so very important. Tãju 'l-‘arūs. who studied with both sharīfs al-Murtadã and his brother ar-Radī.3. 5th cent.14. It is my view that these two are one person.3. Among his writings is: al-Miftãh fi 'l-usūl. Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn al-Hasan ibn Dūl al-Qummī (d.1.313. Hadiyyãtu 'l-‘ãrifīn. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. al-Qãmūs. It is extremely unlikely that two persons be found with such similarities of name and characteristics at the same time in the same place. p.2. vol. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. vol.246-7. vol.112. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. faqīh. among them were: al-Hadãiq (The Gardens). perhaps one of the two patronymics was used among the Imãmiyyah. Ibn Kathīr.3. p. Tadhkiratu 'l-huffãz.2. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. p.] §27. vol. p.Imãmī Mutakallims 43 80. and a leader of the scholars of fiqh and hadīth . p. vol. pp. p.208-9).3. vol. p. vol. and the second among the others.137. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn.310. vol.975. 305/917). pp. p.205.372-4. vol.4.80.1. ash-Shaykh Abū Bakr alKhuzã‘ī an-Naysãbūrī ar-Rãzī: A mutakallim.] §28.1.2. al-A‘lãm.46-47. [and many of his books are mentioned in it].3.105.56. In Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn it says that he died c. . p. vol. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt.314. al-Isnawī. [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. as well as with ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī. As for the short lineage.16. scholar of hadīth.410. p. vol. Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’.411-13.1. vol. Shadhrãtu 'dh-dhahab. Ahmad ibn Ibrãhīm ibn Nawbakht (4th/10th cent. as-Sayyid as-Sadr says: "He was one of the most knowledgeable mutakallims.2.98. vol. pt.480/1087.3. p. vol. just as we find that ash-Shaykh as-Sadūq has also shortened it.

): The leader of the scholars of Qum. pp. p. pp. an-Najãshī.30.243. Abū Ja‘far al-Ash‘arī alQummī (3rd/9th cent. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.19-20 (these two also relate that there was only a single person).2. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. 71. ‘Alī ibn al-‘Abbãs al-Kharãdhīnī ar-Rãzī: an-Najãshī mentions him.1. pt.44 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars for his son Muhammad ibn Ahmad concerning the Unity of God: al-Ma‘rifah (Knowledge of Divine Realities). [an-Najãshī.61-62. very knowledgeable in hadīth and narrations.64. ash-Shaykh Ãghã Buzurg mentions that his full name was: Abu 'l-‘Abbãs Ahmad ibn ‘Alī ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn al-‘Abbãs ibn Nūh as-Sīrãfī. may He be exalted. and calls him: Ahmad ibn ‘Alī ibn al‘Abbãs ibn Nūh. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. vol. pt.70-71.1. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. vol. Abu 'l-‘Abbãs as-Sīrãfī alBasrī (c. [at-Tūsī. ar-Rijãl. pp. p. pp. p. p. a faqīh.e. and says that he was charged with extremism (ghuluww) and is un- . Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.63. p. vol.167. p.330/942– c. vol.86. Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Īsã. p.1. p.2. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.303-8.19. no one could refute him.1.265-6.] §31. and Amalu 'l-ãmil. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.2. vol. p. precise and skilful in what he used to narrate. [at-Tūsī. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. that Allãh.] §30. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.163. Ibn Dãwūd.1." an-Najãshī gives as-Sīrãfī's biography.1. al-Fihrist. p. Ma‘ãlimu 'l‘ulamã’. 165. al-Fihrist. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.. Ibn Dãwūd.] §29. vol. the most distinguished and learned in fiqh among them. vol. p. pp. He wrote several books including: Kitãbu 't-Tawhīd (Book of Divine Unity). and from him I have benefited much.364-5. and says: "He was trustworthy in (the narration of) hadīth. p. Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Nūh.1. pp. 5th cent.18 (the same as in at-Tūsī). pp.39. vol. pp. pp. 27-28 (the latter two relate that these were two names of the same person). vol. pp.94-95 (he says that they were two persons). and Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. vol.68.90-92. vol. can be seen). pp. vol. vol.18 (in these two the same as in at-Tūsī). and so on. p. vol.2. vol. p.48-49. p. except that wrong beliefs are attributed to him in usūl (ad-dīn).55.2.280. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl." There is no mention in it of any accusation against him. an-Najãshī.21.51-56. pp.69.2. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.4.6.424. vol.2.26. adh-Dharī‘ah. p. vol. i.137-8. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.44.33-34. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.423/1032): Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī says: "He had a wide knowledge of traditions. p. p. was trustworthy in narration. pt. and al-‘Allãmah. p. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'shShī‘ah..10. He was my teacher and shaykh. such as what he says about seeing (.1.456.1.

and among those who came from here Hãrūn ibn Ahmad. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.246-7. Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī says: "He was a mutakallim. the Zãhirī [201/816–270/884]. among which was: ar-Radd ‘ala 's-Salmãniyyah (in adh-Dharī‘ah.237.428. His laqab is given in at-Tanqīh.4. an-Nadd and at-Tawdīh as al-Kharãdhīnī. vol. Jãmi‘u 'rruwãt. p. He wrote many qasīdahs on the Ahlu 'l-Bayt. vol. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Tawdhīhu 'l-ishtibãh. several writings are to his name. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.2. Abu 'l-Hasan al-Hallã’ alBaghdãdī an-Nãshi’ al-Asghar (271/884–365/975 or 366/976): A poet and a mutakallim. adh-Dharī‘ah. at-Tūsī. Marãsidu 'l-ittilã‘. p. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. but in other sources it is given as al-Jarãdhīnī.193." (This sect was related to Dãwūd ibn ‘Alī al-Isbahãnī alBaghdãdī. ‘Alī ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn Wusayf. p.1. He also mentions that he wrote several books. Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn. pt. p. He was a trustworthy Imãmiyyah scholar and he wrote Kitãbu 'l-Istitã‘ah ‘alã madhhab ahli 'l-‘adl (Book Concerning the Ability to Act.] §32. p. pt. He . p.234.1. p.203.Imãmī Mutakallims 45 reliable. vol. (al-Ansãb.2.238.192. p.2.1. ‘Alī ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn al-Husayn. vol. al-Lubãb. p. p. p. p. p. pp. p. ar-Rijãl. vol.67. peace be upon him. [an-Najãshī. Abu 'l-Hasan al-‘Attãr alQummī: He was one of the companions of al-Jawãd. adh-Dharī‘ah. al-Mu‘jam. p. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.455. vol.2.12.73. vol.294. vol. p. so called because he used to take the Qur’ãn and the Sunnah according to their literal meaning [zãhir] and discard hermeneutics and any reliance on analogical reasoning [qiyãs] and subjective judgments [ra’y]). Naddu 'l-īdãh. He argued according to (the sect of) the Zãhirites in fiqh.588.204. He studied under Abū Sahl an-Nawbakhtī (see §96). (195/811–220/835). for it relates to Kharãdīn which is near Bukhãrah. p. and a skilful mutakallim. p.2. p. vol. According to the Opinions of the Believers in Justice). p. p. however the first is correct.] §33. Ibn Dãwūd. an excellent poet. adh-Dharī‘ah. al-‘Allãmah.) [For biographical references: an-Najãshī. vol. p.1. it is given as Sulaymãniyyah) who were a group of extremists. (Ibn) an-Nadīm says: "He was a poet who excelled in (composing verses about) the Ahlu 'l-Bayt. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. vol. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. Ibn Dãwūd.231.590. p.201. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.295.10. al-‘Allãmah. Mu‘jam rijãli 'lhadīth.1.223.12. vol. Abū Mūsã alKharãdīnī ar-Rãzī (d. p.4. vol." Ibn Khallikãn says: "He was the famous poet who beguiled charitable poets. 343/954) is mentioned. peace be upon them. vol.404.

pp. Hãtim ibn Abī Hãtim. he has many writings to his name. [at-Tūsī. about predestination and free will. p. al-Ma‘rifah (Knowledge of Divine Realities). al-Fihrist. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. Mir’ãtu 'l-jinãn. alKunã wa 'l-alqãb. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. and he argued for it with outstanding eloquence.5. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. vol. p. p. Ibnu 'l-Athīr. pp. through whom Yãqūt narrates many details of the life of an-Nãshi’ and in his biography says: "an-Nãshi’ was extremely active in kalãm and disputation (jadal). He passed his life eulogizing the Ahlu 'l-Bayt. 7. p.24-33. vol. Tawdīhu 'l-ishtibãh. and his poems about them are innumerable. p.46 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars was a skilful mutakallim who gained his knowledge of kalãm from Abū Sahl Ismã‘īl ibn ‘Alī ibn Nawbakht. p. Sifãtu 'l-anbiyã’ (The Attributes of the Prophets). at-Tawhīd wa 'l-ma‘rifah (The Unity of God and Knowledge of Divine Realities).115-6. 211-2. vol." al-Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Khãli‘ al-Umãwī alBaghdãdī (333/945–422/1031). among which are:1. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. al-Bayãn wa 'l-īdãh (The Elucidation and the Clarification). p.2. pt. 381. pp. vol.313-4. pp. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’.227-9. p. and he heard a great many (traditions). vol.233. p. 2. which became well known as a joke against al-Ash‘arī (Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’. He believed in the Imãmate. Ibn Dãwūd." He had a dispute with Abu 'l-Hasan alAsh‘arī (260/874–324/936). pp.245.119. p. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. p. al-Ghadīr.12. vol. the Ash‘arite leader.607. 5. 350/961): an-Najãshī says: "He was trustworthy. vol. p. p. 6. Masãbīhu 'n-nūr (The Lamps of Light).5.5. al-A‘lãm. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. pp. vol.3.253.369-71. . the poet. al-Ansãb.229-30. Ibn Khallikãn.225-6." ashShaykh at-Tūsī says: "He wrote many books which are faultless and dependable". Amalu 'l-ãmil. and he (apparently means Ibn Nawbakht) was one of the great men among the Shī‘ah. vol. vol.371. p.4. Masãbīh mawãzīni 'l-‘adl (The Lamps of the Scales of Divine Justice).3.5.4. vol.7.7. vol.4.237).289.208. vol. al-Lubãb. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn.163.1.56. vol.8. till he was famous for believing in them.236.238-40. 8. pp.688. folio A/551. pp.335. vol. Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’. Abu 'l-Hasan alQazwīnī al-Baghdãdī (fl. among our sectarians. 3. 4.142. (Ibn) an-Nadīm.2. vol.] §34.1.235-44.3 pp. ‘Alī ibn Abī Sahl. pp.2. p. Hudūdu 'd-dīn (The Limits of the Religion). vol. ar-Radd ‘alã ahli 'l-bida‘ (The Refutation of the Innovators). Naqdu 'r-rijãl. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.237-8.208-9. an-Najãshī. vol. pp. al-Ikmãl. the mutakallim.

159. 274.2. p. p.6. Fasãd qawli 'l-Barãhimah (The Mistake in what the Brahmins say). p. Tahqīq mã allafahu 'l-Balkhī mina 'l-maqãlãt (Criticism of What alBalkhī [Abu 'l-Qãsim al-Ka‘bī.379.] §35. 178.680-1. at-Tūsī. the Mu‘tazilite (273/886–319/931)] wrote in his book al-Maqãlãt). pp.E. ar-Radd ‘alã man yaqūlū inna 'l-ma‘rifah min qibali 'l-mawjūd (The Refutation of He Who Says that Knowledge is From the One Who Exists) (this can be read "min qabli 'l-wujūd.. Ma‘ãlimu 'l‘ulamã’. vol.172-3.15.200.").124.Imãmī Mutakallims 47 9. (Ibn) an-Nadīm. vol. ‘Alī ibn Ahmad.61. [an-Najãshī. 3. Mustadraku 'l-wsãil. pp.1.1. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. 4th cent. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. vol. 244. one of the towns of S. vol.e. 2. he was suspected of extremism (in his beliefs: ghuluww).10.262-4.263. al-Fihrist.250-1. a transmitter of hadīth. p.4. vol. 352/963): He lived in the region of Karmī near Fasã. vol. p.] §36. pp. 217. p.300. Iran. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.11. (Ibn) an-Nadīm mentions him." i.4. pp. Mu‘jam rijãli 'lhadīth. pt. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Fasãd aqãwīli 'l-Ismã‘īliyyah (The Mistake in What the Ismã‘īlīs say). Diyãfatu 'l-ikhwãn. 174. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.162-3.265. vol.485. Abu 'l-Qãsim al-‘Alawī al-Kūfī (d. p. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. [an-Najãshī. p. p. pp.487. He was a prolific author.553. adh-Dharī‘ah. and says: "He was one of the Imãmiyyah.92. p. ar-Rijãl. p.243-58. pp. al‘Allãmah.225. p. one of their learned scholars. vol.176-7. he has written books on kalãm. vol.226. and was knowledgeable in fiqh. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. vol. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. 4. vol. pp." Among his writings are:1. p.239.322-4.175. at-Tūsī.117. p.551.1. ‘Alī ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Alī. vol. "before existence.243. pp. mutakallim. Mãhiyyatu 'n-nafs (The Nature of the Soul). Tanãqud aqãwīli 'l-Mu‘tazilah (The Inconsistency of the Declarations of the Mu‘tazilites). p. pp. pp.2. pp. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.95. pt." .186..21. he resided in Rayy and died there. 5. Amalu 'l-ãmil. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. vol. pp. Ibn Dãwūd.1. p.482. ar-Rijãl.3. vol. vol. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. al-Fihrist. p. pp.2. p. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Ismã‘īliyyah fi 'l-ma‘ãd (Refutation of the Ismã‘īlīs Concerning the Resurrection). ar-Radd ‘alã Aristãtãlīs (The Refutation of Aristotle). vol. vol. p. Abu 'l-Hasan al-Khazzãz ar-Rãzī: Shaykhu 't-Tãifah says: "An eminent mutakallim. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.11. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Qarãmitah (The Refutation of the Karmathians).

Tãju 'l-‘arūs.11.479. (al-Ansãb.4. pp. 2nd ed.2.344-5. al-Fitrah (Original Human Nature). vol. p.283.s.164." He wrote several books. p.19. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. Amalu 'l-ãmil. al-Mufīd ‘Abdu 'r-Rahmãn an-Naysãbūrī (see §10) narrated from his books from him. 193. asSayyid ash-Sharīf. In Misr [Egypt] and Damascuss they called someone who sold karbãs (a fine cotton cloth) and white cloth at-Tãturī. p.95.1. al-Fihrist. memorizer of hadīth. a trustworthy narrator of hadīth. pt. including: al-Mutamassik bi-habli ãli 'rrasūl (Holding Fast to the Progeny of the Messenger) and al-Yaqīn fī usūli 'd-dīn.240. among which were: at-Tawhīd. known as at-Tãturī: (Ibn) an-Nadīm when he lists the Imãmī mutakallims he said: "at-Tãturī was one of the original mutakallims. Abu 'l-Qãsim al-Murtadã.4.105. and he changed sect within Shī‘ism. ar-Rijãl. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr.183. vol.. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. ‘Alī ibn al-Hasan ibn Muhammad. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. He was one of the foremost among the Wãqifah and one of their leaders . p.243. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. p. vol. p.). vol. p. vo. adh-Dharī‘ah.132. a fine book. 5th cent.126. p.) He was called at-Tãturī because he sold a cloth known as at-Tãturī. Among his books is Kitãbu 'l-Imãmah. .268. .1. Abu 'l-Hasan at-Tã’ī alJarmī al-Kūfī. and believed that the Imãmate stopped with him (wa waqafa ‘alayh). Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. al-Ma‘rifah (Human Understanding). He was of those who narrated from the Imãm al-Kãzim (‘a.315.608. p. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. p.554. p. vol.4.2.3. p. vol. He wrote several books.254-5 [#. al-‘Allãmah. p.48 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars [at-Tūsī. p.25.226. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. vol. at-Tūsī. p.] §39." (al-Fihrist. [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. .259). ‘Alī ibn Hibatillãh ibn ‘Uthmãn ibn Ahmad ibn Ibrãhīm.9. vol. pp." (an-Najãshī.12.210. ‘Alamu 'l-Hudã. . p.118. vol. al-Lubãb. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt.. pious and trustworthy. vol. This name does not appear in Dozy's Dictiounaire détailé des nouns des vêtrements duez les Arabes. pp. al-Fihrist. vol. vol. al-Fawãidu 'r-Radawiyyah. pp. ‘Alī ibn al-Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn Mūsã ibn Ibrãhīm ibn al-Imãm Mūsã ibn Ja‘far (peace be upon them both). Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.226) an-Najãshī said: "He was a faqīh. p. al-Imãmah. p. p. Dhu 'l-Majdayn al-Mūsawī al-Baghdãdī (355/966–436/1044): His father . and he was a Shī‘ī . and al-Wilãyah.] §37. vol. . §38.1. p.69-70. vol.314.340.6.667].2. ash-Shaykh Abu 'l-Hasan ibn ar-Rãiqah al-Mawsilī: Muntajabu 'dDīn says: "He was a great man.

he was the principle figure (sãhib) in the branches (of science and knowledge) in Iraq. fiqh. . and he brought together both those (students) who were of an independent frame of mind and those who shared the opinions of others.5.] Another of his pupil. philology. and he held an exalted position in knowledge and religion. Abu 'l-Hasan ‘Alī ibn Bassãn al-Andulusī (477/1048–542/1147). His poetry was of the utmost degree of excellence. Yãqūt. daughter of Abū Muhammad al-Hasan (an-Nãsiru 's-Saghīr [d. one of the leading literati poets and historians of his day. one of the most important philologists and men of letters. p. an-Najãshī. and more . and his poetry was well known.99. and his mother. He was one of those whose reputation spread far and wide.] Non-Shī‘ī biographers have also described him. literature. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. . It is clear that (a great number of students) frequented him and agreed upon his (being their mentor). Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī. a mutakallim. son of al-Hasan an-Nãsiru 'l-Kabīr alUtrūsh (§65). Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. was as-Sayyidah Fãtimah (d.53). and one who combined all the sciences. grammar.4. 385/996). pp.1.190. His pupil.206-7. knowledge. and in the (affairs of) world. al-‘Allãmah. Men of knowledge resorted to him (with their questions). p. rhetoric.173." [at-Tūsī.484-5. learning and generosity were concerned belonged to al-Murtadã. . usūlu 'l-fiqh (Principles of Jurisprudence). nobility. vol. says of him: "He acquired sciences which no-one in his time was able to acquire: he heard (the narration) of many hadīth. pp. letters. and he was outstanding in sciences such as kalãm." [al-Fihrist. vol. He was the leading man of his age in culture and learning. Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’. p. and he was a mutakallim. His good deeds and character and his writings were praised for their nearness to the way of Allãh. al-Fihrist.94-95. 368/978-9]). His contemporary. poetry. a poet. Abū Mansūr ‘Abdu 'l-Malik ibn Muhammad ath-Tha‘ãlibī (350/961–429/1038). p. his pre-eminence ranged over many subjects.189. Ahmad (d. a man of letters. who was also the mother of his brother ar-Radī (§132). vol. and great scholars learnt from him. says of him (and almost all his biographers quote him): "al-Murtadã was quite unique in a great many sciences. a faqīh.Imãmī Mutakallims 49 Abū Ahmad al-Husaynī (304/916–400/ 1009) was the syndic of the Tãlibids (naqību 't-Tãlibiyyīn). said: "The leading position of the day in Baghdad as far as honour. wrote in his book adh-Dhakhīrah: "This Sharīf was one of the leading people of Iraq. p.4. as were his works on the religion and his compositions on the laws of the Muslims. pp. son of Abu 'l-Husayn." (Tatimmatu 'l-yatīmah. ar-Rijãl. 311/923). vol. the minister.

p. Tãrīkh Baghdãd. and in letters. he had much knowledge and was very active. p.11. ad-Darajãtu 'r-rafī‘ah. Jamharat ansãbi 'l-Arab. vol.) "On top of the leading position (he held) in this world. vol. vol. Ibn Taghrī Birdī. may Allãh bless him and his family and grant him peace: "Allãh will send to this community at the end of every hundred years someone who will renew its religion".257. p.4. p.3..7.89. vol. al-Murtadã was preceded in this by his teacher al-Mufīd – as was mentioned in his biography – except that the explanation may be that al-Murtadã made his house a madrasah in which debaters assembled for scientific discussions. vol. vol. i.3. al-‘Ibar." (al-Muntazim. p.39.61-62. and.162.1. alA‘lãm. His state at the time of death is related to us by Abu 'lQãsim ibn Burhãn.) Ibnu 'l-Athīr considered him the Renewer of the Imãmī religion at the end (ra’s) of four hundred years (the beginning of the 5th/12th century). he liked nothing more than knowledge." (Ibn Hazm.81.8.313. pp.249.) "al-Murtadã was the leader of the Imãmiyyah. vol.56. p. p. Inbãhu 'r-ruwãt. Mir’ãtu 'l-jinãn.120. ‘Abdu 'l-Wãhid ibn ‘Alī al-Asadī al-‘Ukbarī. p. Shadharãtu 'dh-dhahab.) "He was foremost in the science of kalãm.223).3. p.124. poetry and rhetoric.223). vol. concerning the hadīth. he wrote many works.3. as-Suyūtī.4. vol. spent the night standing up (in prayer). the Prophet and his descendents). Shadharãtu 'dh-dhahab. vol. p.3. al-Qiftī.256. vol. vol.e. p.2. pp. p.402.4. together with eloquence and purity of language" (Lisãnu 'lmīzãn. and was thoroughly familiar with the various branches of knowledge. adh-Dhahabī. p. Kahhãlah. after counting al-Kulaynī (§147) the renewer at the end of three hundred years.5." (Ibn Khallikãn.5.109.2. vol. vol. vol. pp. vol. p. p. Ibn Kathīr. pp. see: Abū Dãwūd. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn.53." (Ibn Khallikãn. Ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Hayy. vol. p. vol.3. al-Khatīb. p. p. and caused (others) to profit from (his) knowledge.459. Mīzãnu 'li‘tidãl. vol.3. although not in his presence. vol. He preserved in recitation of the Qur’ãn. al-Mustadrak ‘ala 's-Sahīhayn.313-4. However.) "He was the first who made his house the house of knowledge (dãru 'l‘ilm) and to appoint it for debating" (Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. "There was debating in his presence from every sect. vol.53-57.12. p. vol. while he expounded the Imãmiyyah religion.63.50 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars These are some of the things which show that he was a branch from the roots (of his family. then al- . az-Ziriklī. p. and one of the members of (that) exalted house. Manaqību 'sh-Shãfi‘ī.186.11. (See Jãmi‘u 'l-usūl. as-Sunan.522-3.4. when he was commenting on the narration from the Messenger of Allãh. Tãrīkh Baghdãd.323. Baghyatu 'l-wu‘ãt.2. although he led a simple life. an-Nujūmu 'z-zãhirah.

" (al-Muntazim.63).285). pp. vol. Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Marzubãnī (Muhammad ibn ‘Imrãn al-Mu‘tazilī. p.4. as-Sayyid Radiyyu 'd- .269-70).459. vol. Abū Sa‘d. p.4. al-Hãkim al-Jushamī. p.127).1.2. usūlu 'l-fiqh. I have not found his period of study with al-Qãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr and-Nasībī mentioned except by these two authors. Since his time is close (to ours) and his memory is well preserved (among us). vol. hadīth. p. pt.375/985–456/1064): "I came into ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã Abu 'l-Qãsim al-‘Alawī when he was sick. al-Muhassin ibn Muhammad ibn Karrãmah al-Bayhaqī al-Mu‘tazilī az-Zaydī said (and al-Imãm al-Mahdī azZaydī al-Mu‘tazilī. p. p. (Sharh Ibn Abi 'l-Hadīd. who was his teacher in kalãm.198). He tended towards irjã‘. and he also studied with Abū Ishãq an-Nasībī (see his biography in no. Ibn Murtadã. pp. p.41.4. p. although some have counted sixteen (see the introduction to al-Intisãr."' I stood up to leave but had not reached the threshold when I heard the sound of mourning.124/bk. as scholars tend to differ in their opinions although they may all be sincere in their pursuance of knowledge and their determination to see it perfected. p. vol. and with Ibnu 'l-Mu‘allim (ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd).1. However. his brother. ten of whom have been listed in al-Ghadīr (vol. and the introduction to al-Bihãr (vol. they ruled and were just. there is no need for us to say much about him" (Sharhu 'l-‘uyūn. ashSharīf al-Murtadã and his brother ash-Sharīf ar-Radī (§132) studied with ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd when they were young. the man of letters and scholar [297/910–384/ 994]). ad-Darajãtu 'r-rafī‘ah.383. ash-Sharīf ar-Radī did study with al-Qãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr (§132). Although ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã studied kalãm under ash-Shaykh alMufīd. but I say: "They turned away after they had accepted Islam.14-16).224).5. vol. Mu‘jamu 'l‘udabã’.1. He had other teachers. vol. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn.223.8. repeated from him): "Among the companions of Qãdī al-Qudãt (‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr) who studied with him in Baghdãd on his return from hajj was ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã. al-Munyah wa 'l-amal. vol.Imãmī Mutakallims 51 Baghdãdī first a Hanbalī then a Hanafī (c.12.176. p.53. he disagreed with him on certain points. having acquired from him all that he knew. fiqh. just as I have found no reference to his tendency towards irjã‘ except by them. Ibn Kathīr. ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã studied with ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd (§144).126. they were asked for mercy and they showed mercy. he terminated his studies with him. and their education at his hands lasted many years. and other subjects. Abu 'l-Qãsim ‘Alī ibn alHusayn al-Mūsawī. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. but he was Imãmī. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Then I heard him say: 'Abū Bakr and ‘Umar. p. and he turned his face towards the wall.

the Imãmiyyah have profited from his books from his time. vol. and (all of) the people on the other. which I have with me now. 573/1187.24. and if they missed they wounded. on the new divergence between ash-Shaykh alMufīd and al-Murtadã. 2. who lived in the time of ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã.2. our time. p. p. they dealt a fatal blow. it would make the book excessively long. gave a list of his writings.20. Qutbu 'd-Dīn ar-Rãwandī. we need look no further than the evidence of ash-Shaykh Abū Ishãq Ibrãhīm ibn ‘Alī ash-Shirãzī al-Ash‘arī ash-Shãfi‘ī (393/1003–476/ 1083). ash-Shaykh at- .'" (Kashfu 'l-mahajjah li-thamarati 'l-muhjah. p.1.210-1). al-‘Allãmah al-Hillī (648/1250 –726/1325) said: "He has many writings to his name. which are relevant to our topic:1.95). p. the Principles of Faith.. wherever he aimed his words they would dart out like an arrow released from the bow – if they struck. whose name is Sa‘īd ibn Hibatillãh (d. ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī and Ibn Shahrãshūb both say that he never completed it. vol. it is said that it is a large book in four parts.) As far as the standing of ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã in kalãm and debate is concerned. kalãm) in which there was disagreement between them. al-Busrawī (§143)." [Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn.52 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars Dīn ‘Alī ibn Mūsã. al-Mulakhkhas fī usūli 'd-dīn (The Summary of the Principles of the religion). being the year 693/1294.127. up to this. debate and dispute (munãzirah).] ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã wrote many works. In adh-Dharī‘ah (vol.4. He mentions in the little book about ninetyfive subjects in the science of usūl (usūlu 'l-‘aqãid.22. vol. He would be on one side of (the dispute). These two were among the greatest men of their time especially ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd. and the following are those of his books. vol. Ibn Tãwūs al-Hasanī al-Hillī (589/1193–664/1266) said: "I have found that the Shaykh who is knowledgeable in many sciences. and after this he says: 'If I were to write down the details of what they disagreed about. one of the most prominent figures in fiqh.10. i. When the people started to hold forth on their ideas. His pupil. may Allãh have mercy on him.224. adh-Dhakhīrah fī usūli 'd-dīn (The Treasury of the Princiles of the Religion) or (adh-dhakhīrah fī ‘ilmi 'l-kalãm [The Treasury of the Science of Theology]: adh-Dharī‘ah. Amalu 'l-ãmil. Introduction to al-Mutadã's Diwãn.e. one of the earliest commentators on Nahju 'l-balãghah) wrote a small book.11-12). He said: "ashSharīf al-Murtadã was a calm person who spoke with the language of science. p. kalãm. p. pp. he has been their support and their teacher" (Khulãsatu 'l-aqwãl.

= Tabī‘atu 'l-Islãm (according to Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. Naqd Maqãlãt Ibn ‘Adiyy (fī-mã yatanãhã.150-61. Another treatise bearing the same name comes in the same volume. which is called in adh-Dharī‘ah. 10. al-Hudūd wa 'l-haqãiq (Definitions and Realities).728-41. Jumalu 'l-‘ilm wa 'l-‘amal (The Summation of Knowledge and Action). 1954). pp. al-Masãilu 'l-kalãmiyyah. Alphabetical dictionaries of philosophy. 9. the publisher is of the opinion that it is copied from the words of ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã. (printed in the fifth series of Nafãisu 'lmakhtūtãt. 6. 7. vol. 14. kalãm and fiqh. 11. Kitãbu 'l-Wa‘īd (On the Threat). Baghdãd. vol. Concerning What is Finite). Taqrību 'l-usūl (Clarifacation of the Principles). 1375/1955. according to al-Busrawī's list) (Refutation of Ibn ‘Adiyy's Treatise. (printed). 13. 5. ed. Perhaps it is the same as no.10. University of Mashhad. Inqãdhu 'l-bashar mina 'l-jabr wa 'l-qadar (The Deliverance of Man from Fate and Destiny). Wã‘iz-zãdeh. . pp. (Abū Zakariyyã Yahyã ibn ‘Adiyy an-Nasrãnī al-Baghdãdī [280/894– 363/975] was a philosopher and a student of al-Fãrãbī.9. Baghdãd. pp.194-5.13. p. Technical terms are listed and then he explains them briefly.) 15. 12. School of Theology and Islamic Studies (Iran). Majmū‘ah fī funūn min ‘ilmi 'l-kalãm (Compilation of the Branches of the Science of Theology). al-Usūlu 'l-i‘tiqãdiyyah (Religious Principles). the Christian. and was himself the author of many works. Tatimmat anwã‘i 'l-a‘rãd (The Completion of 'The Accidental [Aristotelian] Categories') – from the book The Accidental Categories of Abu 'r-Rashīd an-Naysãbūrī. M. 3.211-2. He did many translations from the Syriac. al-A‘lãm. 8. Printed in Yãd-nãme Shaykh Tūsī. pp.392).2. This is the same book. 4. he became the leading logician and philosopher. p. (printed). (printed in the second series of Nafãisu 'l-makhtūtãt. vol. Tabī‘atu 'l-Muslimīn (according to an-Najãshī) (The Nature of the Muslims). Mas’alah (Risãlah) ukhrã fi 'l-irãdah (Another Treatise: On the Will).6).237: ar-Radd ‘alã Yahyã ibn ‘Adiyy an-Nasrãnī fī-mã yatanãhã wa mã lã yatanãhã (Refutation of Yahyã ibn ‘Adiyy. vol. Concerning What is Finite and What is Infinite). Mas’alah (Risãlah) fi 'l-irãdah (On the Will). Mu‘jamu 'lmuallifīn.Imãmī Mutakallims 53 Tūsī says it was complete.

ar-Radd ‘alã man athbata hudūthi 'l-ajsãm mina 'l-jawãhir (Refutation of Those Who [Seek to] Prove the Coming into Being of Bodies from Substances).) 26. 20. p. Mas’alah fī tafdīli 'l-anbiyã’ ‘ala 'l-malãikah (Treatise Concerning the Pre-eminence of the Prophets over the Angels).333-9.2. = ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-munajjimīn (Refutation of the Strologers). This would seem to be the correct title. Egypt.229. Peace be Upon Them. p. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. p. (see §144/bk. (Printed together with alMurtadã's al-Amãlī. ar-Radd ‘alã Ibn ‘Adiyy fī hudūthi 'l-ajsãm (Refutation of Ibn ‘Adiyy Concerning the Coming into Being of Bodies). ash-Shãfī (fi 'l-imãmah wa ibtãl hujaji 'l-‘ãmmah) (The Restorative [Concerning the Imãmate and the Invalidation of the Arguments of the non-Shī‘ah]). . Concerning His Objection to the Proof of the Professors of God's Unity of the Coming into Being of Bodies). an-Najaf al-Ashraf [Iraq]. al-Fusūlu 'l-mukhtãrah mina 'l-‘uyūn wa 'l-mahãsin (Select Chapters on Excellent and Beautiful Qualities). 16. (adh-Dharī‘ah. p.) 21.265. Jawãbu 'l-malãhidah fī qidami 'l-‘ãlam (Reply to the Heretics Concerning the Eternity of the World). 17. vol.54 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars = ar-Radd ‘alã Yahyã ibn ‘Adiyy fī mas’alah sammã-hã Tabī‘atu 'lMuslimīn (according to adh-Dharī‘ah. 23. vol. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah.10. p. Risãlah fi 'l-‘ismah (On Impeccability). "The Nature of the Possible").1&2).10. 1386/1966. where the author claims to have a copy.392). vol. = an-Nujūm wa 'l-munajjimīn (Stars and Astrologers) (al-Ghadīr.237. . vol.10. .347-8. 18. . al-Man‘ ‘an tafdīli 'l-malãikah ‘ala 'l-anbiyã’ The Obstacle to the Preeminence of the Angels Over the Prophets).) 24.237) (Refutation of Yahyã ibn ‘Adiyy Concerning a Treatise Called "The Nature of the Muslims"). vol. p. pp. In al-Busrawī's list we find: ar-Radd ‘alã Yahyã ibn ‘Adiyy fī mas’alah sammã-hã "Tabī‘atu 'l-mumkin" (.4. 19. (Printed together with al-Amãlī. . Tanzīhu 'l-anbiyã’ wa 'l-aimmah ‘alayhimu 's-salãm (The Defending of the Prophets and Imãms [from Faults Attributed to them]. (adh-Dharī‘ah. (Printed in Arba‘ rasãil li 'sh-Sharīfi 'l-Murtadã. Ma‘na 'l-‘ismah (The Meaning of Impeccability).) 22. vol. = ar-Radd ‘alã Yahyã ibn ‘Adiyy fī i‘tirãdihi dalīla 'l-muwahhidīn fī hudūthi 'l-ajsãm (.392). pp.) 25. Kitãb fī aqwãli 'l-munajjimīn (Book Concerning What the Astrologers Say).2.

Imãmī Mutakallims 55 This is the refutation of the book on the Imãmate from al-Qãdī ‘Abdu 'lJabbãr al-Mu‘tazilī's famous encyclopaedic work: al-Mughnī fī mabãhithi 'ttawhid wa 'l-‘adl. Muhammad Abu 'l-Fadl Ibrãhīm. p. alQiftī and Yãfi‘ī say: "It is an enjoyable book proving great erudition and wide knowledge from study of the sciences.12. 31. These are discourses dictated by ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã: tafsīr (Qur’ãnic Commentary). Ibtãlu 'l-qiyãs (Invalidity of Analogical Reasoning [in law]. pp.5.3. pp." 28. 35. one of the leading figures in literature. Cairo." . Mentioned by Muhammad Abu 'l-Fadl Ibrãhīm in the Introduction to al-Amãlī. "It extends to a hundred pages. (printed). language. 33. an-Naqd (ar-Radd) ‘alã Ibn Jinnī fi ('l-hikãyah wa 'l-mahkiyy) (Refutation of Ibn Jinnī Concerning the Original [Qur’ãn] and the Words [of the Qur’ãn and Their Eternity]). subsequently al-Baghdãdī [c. In adh-Dharī‘ah (vol. 27.2. Jawãb ba‘di 'l-Mu‘tazilah fī anna 'l-imãmah lã takūnu illã bi 'n-nass (Reply to Some of the Mu‘tazilah Concerning [Their Denial] that the Imãmate Cannot Exist without a Textual Warrant). p. 1960-5. grammar and language. vol. Iran. p. and grammar. in the Introduction to al-Amãlī. Mir’ãtu 'l-jinãn. p.179). (Printed in Kalimãtu 'l-muhaqqiqīn – lithograph. vol. al-Intisãr li-mã infaradati 'l-imãmiyyah bih (fi 'l-fiqh) (The Triumph in that by which the Imãmiyyah are without Parallel)." (Wafayãtu 'l-a‘yãn. Ibn Khallikãn. al-Muqni‘ fi 'l-ghaybah (The Sufficiency Concerning the Occultation). al-Ghurar wa 'd-durar (The distinguishing Marks and Pearls) = alAmãlī. al-Masãilu 'l-bãhirah fi 'l-‘itrati 't-tãhirah (The Dazzling Treatise on the Pure Household). Another lithographed edition was printed in Iran in 1319/1901 in the margin of ash-Shaykh Muhammad Kãzim al-Khurãsãnī's glosses on Shaykh al-Ansãrī's Rasãil. al-Muwaddih ‘an jihati i‘jãzi 'l-Qur’ãn (The Clarification Concerning the Inimitability of the Qur’ãn). vol. vol. 30.250.) Also see the description by the book's editor. He says: "adh-Dhahabī mentions it in Siyar a‘lãmi 'n-nubalã’. 16 vols. 29. al-Wãjiz fi 'l-ghaybah (The Summary of the Occultation).. literature.1. 1315 [1897-8]. kalãm.3. under the title: Risãlah fī ghaybati 'l-hujjah – [Treatise on the Occultation of the (Twelfth) Divine Proof]). (Printed) 32. Inbãhu 'r-ruwãt.) 34.313. vol. p.55.18-19.1.195-7. (Abu 'l-Fath ‘Uthmãn ibn Jinnī al-Mawsilī.327/939–392/1002].

(1st series) seventeen questions.63. Masãilu 'l-Mawsilīyyãt. Rayy was one of the greatest cities in central Iran. (2nd series) one hundred and ten questions on fiqh. comprising five questions. 6. vol. 80. al-Masãilu 'd-Daylamiyyah. The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. 3-5. pp. 11. the Threat (al-wa‘īd) and Analogical Reasoning (al-qiyãs). Halab: one of the most famous cities in Shãm (now in Syria). Mawsil = Mosul. comprising fourteen questions about kalãm matters. al-Masãilu 'l-Halabiyyah. al-Masãilu 'r-Rãziyyah.56 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars 36. comprising 100 questions. Bãdarãyã was a town in the neighbourhood of Wãsit. Its remains have been obliterated by the construction of Tehran and its suburbs. al-Masãilu 's-Saydãwiyyah. Wãsit was one of the most famous Islamic cities in Iraq. al-Masãilu 'l-Wãsitiyyah. (3rd series) nine questions on fiqh. 64. which reached ashSharīf al-Murtadã in the year 420/1029 (al-Intisãr. al-Masãilu 't-Tūsiyyah. comprising 24 questions. also called.316-7. from ash-Shaykh Abu 'l-Fadl Ibrãhīm ibn al-Hasan al-Abãnī who lived in Tarãbulus: Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh- . and there are still traces of its remains. al-Masãilu 't-Tarãbulusīyyãt (Tarãbulus = Tripoli [Lebanon]). and (3rd series) twenty-three questions. We made reference to them in the course of our explanation of the "answers" of ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd. There were three questions. (2nd series) twelve questions. 12-14. (1st series) three questions on Trust (al-i‘timãd). p. near Bandanījīn – now Mandalī – in Iraq: Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn. 1.6). 2. 1036. 8. Sãydã: one of the most famous cities in Shãm (now in Lebanon). 7. Iraq. pp. 15-18. 10. wich arrived in Sha‘bãn 427/Feb. Tūs was one of the most famous cities of Khurãsãn. al-Masãilu 'l-Jurjãniyyah.1. * * * * * ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã also composed many collections of answers to questions. and maybe a fourth. which he used to receive. Mas’alah fi 't-tawbah (Concerning Repentance). al-Masãilu 'd-Dimashqiyyah. al-Masãilu 'l-Bãdarãiyyãt. (1st series) three questions: (2nd series) also three questions. 9. the second series of alMasãilu 'n-Nãsiriyyah. and (3rd series) thirty-three questions.

. These are seven questions:a) On the creation and the Creator. 26-27. al-Masãilu 'l-Muhammadiyyãt.Imãmī Mutakallims 57 Shī‘ah. 19. adh-Dharī‘ah. the form of the questions was as follows:a) Is the knowledge which comes to the one possessed of intellect from the perception of sensory things caused by perception or is it by (a kind of) association? b) Can the way to the knowledge that fire does certain things be the same way (as to the knowledge) that fire is an agent? c) Do all proofs rely on necessary knowledge. 24.226. pp. (4th series) twenty-five questions. al-Masãilu 'l-Mayyãfãriqiyyah. with respect to forgetfulness (sahw). 25. p. al-Masãilu 'l-Misriyyãt. may Allãh bless him and his Household and grant them peace. (1st series) comprising five questions. or are there two kinds of proofs? d) Is it possible that actions are performed by persons with intellect because motives prompt them and obstacles hinder them. (2nd series) comprising nine questions. which is still known today. Either one hundred or sixty-six questions. Qestions posed by his pupil Sallãr ibn ‘Abdi 'l-‘Azīz (see §155). vol. al-Masãilu 's-Sallãriyyah. According to al-Busrawī's list (Introduction to Dīwãnu 'l-Murtadã. al-Masãilu 'r-Ramliyyãt. d) On man. e) On the mutawãtirīn (?) And two questions to do with some matters of fiqh.5. ar-Ramlah is the town in Palestine. al-Masãilu 'r-Rassiyyah. c) On the infallibility of the Messenger. For details of Mayyãfãriqīn.1-2. (3rd series) comprising seven questions. Answers to questions put by as-Sayyid al-Fãdil Abu 'l-Hasan al-Muhassin . 23. 20-22. but without their knowing these motives and obstacles? e) Concerning the nature of the contrariety of black and white. p. b) On substance and the (permissibility of) calling (something) non-existent a substance. comprising three questions.1.128). 5th cent. and the 16th set of "answers" by ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd. (see §144). All of them concerned matters of kalãm. vol.

pp.294-312. pp. and trustworthy.94.284-5. pp. Introduction to al-Intisãr 61 pages]. pp. vol. al-Fihrist. vol. pp. 28. vol. pp. p.206-7. ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī says: "He was a faqīh.3-26. ad-Darajãtu 'r-rafī‘ah. ar-Rijãl. Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’. Kitãbu 'l-Imãmah wa 'l-basīrah (at-tabsirah according to an-Najãshī) mina 'l-hayrah (Book on the Imãmate and Enlightenment from Perplexity). Muhammad Abu 'l-Fadl Ibrãhīm.61-63.55-57. vol. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. Inbãhu 'r-ruwãt. The most important biographical references to ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã can be found in the following:[at-Tūsī.241-2. revered and trustworthy.87-155. vol. vol.402-3.162. al‘Allãmah.173-9. vol. vol. Abu 'l-Hasan ibn Bãbawayh alQummī (c. reliable. p. Ibn Khallikãn.262-99. [at-Tūsī.99-100.482.223-4.2. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’.3. pp.11. pp.189-91. vol. pp. pp. pp. dependable. Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘ulūm. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. pp. ‘Alī ibn Ibrãhīm ibn Hãshim al-Qummī (fl.458-66. pt." anNajãshī says: "The chief scholar among the scholars of Qum in his time. pp. vol.3.182-5. Mir’ãtu 'l-jinãn.391-3.3.688.5.8. pp.2. Majma‘u 'r-rijal.2.2. (see adh-Dharī‘ah. pp.1.394-8. ‘Alī ibn al-Husayn ibn Mūsã. pp.260/874–329/941): He was the father of ash-Shaykh as-Sadūq. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. Mustafã Jawãd and Rashīd as-Saffãr.7. an-Najãshī.313-7. ‘Umdatu 'l-'t-talib. vol. pp. al-Ghadīr. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. ash-Shaykh Muhammad Ridã ash-Shabībī. a faqīh among them. Adabu 'l-Murtadã. Shadharãtu 'dh-dhahab. pp. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. p. p. p. vol.120-6." He wrote many books.2. vol. including: Kitãbu 't-Tawhīd (Book on Divine Unity). pp.574. pp. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. pp. . Haddiyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn.81-82.119. the foremost among them. al-Fihrist. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.283-4.4. ‘Abdu 'r-Razzãq Muhyi 'd-Dīn.4. an-Najãshī. vol. §40. Introduction to al-Amãlī. al-Masãilu 't-Tabbãniyyah. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. vol.1. pt.58.187-8. (2nd series) five questions. vol. Tãrīkh Baghdãd.3.5. pp.] §41. pp. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. (1st series) twenty-eight questions which ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã answered in 428/1037. vol.4. pp. pp.5. vol.1. pp.193-5.227-9. pp. Questions put by at-Tabbãn (see §111). pp. Amalu 'l-ãmil. Bughyatu 'lwu‘ãt.11.484-5. al-Muntazim. pp. p. excellent in his religion.198-9.89. pp. vol.3. 307/920): an-Najãshī says: "He is trustworthy in hadīth. vol.515-7. Līsãnu 'l-mīzãn. Ibn Dãwūd. vol. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. vol.4.11. pp. p. ar-Rijãl.58 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars ibn Muhammad ibn an-Nãsir al-Husaynī ar-Rassī.221-2).4. vol. al-A‘lãm.232-3.249-50. vol. pp.1. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil.256-8.1. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. p. vol. vol.3.

pp. at-Tawhīd wa 'sh-shirk (Divine Unity and Associating Others with Allãh). for.4.6. saying that his only purpose is to confirm the presence of anNazzãm in Baghdad (Tãrīkh Baghdãd.9. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. [at-Tūsī. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. p. an-Najãshī. ‘Alī ibn Ismã‘īl ibn Shu‘ayb ibn Mītham ibn Yahyã atTammãr. are mentioned. Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’. vol. Risãlah fī ma‘nã Hishãm wa Yūnus (Treaties on the subject of Hishãm and Yūnus) in which he tried to refute the false accusations and opinions that had been levelled against Hishãm and Yūnus ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn. for example.98). adh-Dharī‘ah.21.5.11. an-Nazzãm said about ‘Alī ibn Mītham: "He was one of the shaykhs and mutakallims of the Rãfidah.77. p. pt. p." but this is an error.276. p.Imãmī Mutakallims 59 he learned many ahãdīth. although he gives the biographies of an-Nazzãm and Thamãmah. Thumãmah bin Ashras. vol. al-Khatīb briefly mentions this. vol. ar-Rijãl. [a book entitled] al-Kãmil. vol. in particular Hishãm ibn al-Hakam.207-8. p. and he wrote books.4. pp." It would seem that Ibn Shahrãshūb meant that he was the first to have written a book on the Imãmate with this title. for writings prior to this by. p." He was instructed by his father. p.1. he had friendly relations with anNazzãm. he omits that of ‘Alī ibn Mītham. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. p." (Ibn) an-Nadīm says: "He was a scholar and faqīh. He wrote several books including. He debated with Abu 'l-Hudhayl and an-Nazzãm. vol.115. and he was one of the best mutakallims among our cosectarians. as pointed out previously. p.277.678.2.197-8. It would appear that. and his father was the pupil of Yūnus ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn (see §165). Hishãm ibn al-Hakam and Mu’minu 't-Tãq. and that they would gather together at friendly gatherings to listen to poetry and stories in Baghdad and in gardens in the surrounding countryside.7.4.486." He held debates with mulhids and Christians. however. He held debating sessions and wrote books." (Ibn Hazm. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn.2.] §42. [Ibn] an-Nadīm said about him that he was "the first among the Imãmīs to hold discourse (ukallima). vol. p. and other leading Mu‘tazilīs. al-Fisal. (at-Tūsī.260. Mu‘jamu 'lmuallifīn. vol. pp. p. vol.181) . He was one of the companions of Hishãm ibn al-Hakam. vol.369). vol. al-Fihrist.55. Abu 'l-Hasan al-Mīthamī al-Basrī: His name is very often abbreviated to ‘Alī ibn Mītham. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. others before him were noted for their kalãm. Ibn Shahrãshūb said: "He was the first to have written about the Imãmate. (Ibn) an-Nadīm.152-3. p. over and above the scholarly discussions. an-Najãshī said: "He was from Kūfah and settled in Basrah [at the end of his life].

55. vol. =272]) and at-Tawhīd (pp.669.4. p. vol. p. For his debates with Christians.3. p. vol. Maqãlãtu 'lIslãmiyyīn. p. p.113-4 [=13]).1. Ibn Dãwūd. ash-Shahrastãnī.10. whose biography is given below [§52]. pt.603. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. p.558-9. This is the same person who is refered to as al-Mītham in ahãdīth in al-Kãfī (vol. p.189. p. vol. pp. al-‘Allãmah. pp. [an-Najãshī. pp. p. Ahmad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ismã‘īl alMīthamī – as al-Fayd al-Kãshãnī believed (al-Wãfī. one of the closest companions of Amīr al-Mu‘minīn. and 2.1. p. see: al-Fusūl. not his nephew. vol.100-1 [in Eng. see: al-Fusūl. He wrote several books. pp.127.225. [Ibn] an-Nadīm.4. vol.1. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. p.60 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars He lived up to the time of the ‘Abbãsid Caliph al-Mu‘tasim (179/795–r. Muhaddīths and mutakallims are to be found in the generations of this tribe down to the third century. vol. al-Lubãb.2. Both al-Ash‘arī and ash-Shahrastãnī mention him among the Imãmiyyah mutakallims who were authors.265-6.1. p. he took a number of students. p.] §43. including Kitãbu 't-Tadbīr fi 't-tawhīd wa 'l-imãmah (Book of Directions Concerning Divine Unity and the Imãmate). p.204-5.6.244. p. al-Ash‘arī. "The Banū Mītham combined all the best qualities of the Shī‘ah. 218/833–227/841). pp. p. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.251. peace be upon him. p. among whom was Abū ‘Uthmãn al-Mãzinī. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.167. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. Abu 'l-Hasan al-Kūfī. and before the Amīr of Basrah: Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. vol." (al-Ansãb.1.6. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’.10. vol.4.1. vol.12. alBihãr.1. pp. He wrote two works on kalãm:1.372.113. [at-Tūsī.190. transl. vol. ‘Alī ibn Mītham was of the family of Mītham ibn Yahyã at-Tammãr. 55. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn.1. vol. Kitãb majãlis Hishãm ibn al-Hakam (Book on the Debating Sessions of Hishãm ibn al-Hakam). ar-Rijãl. vol. and Yūnus ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn narrated from him. Kitãbu 'l-Imãmah (Book on the Imãmate). p. vol. p. al-Fihrist. and for debates with the mulhids concerning tawhīd.238. vol. vol.293. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.265-6. When he settled in Basrah towards the end of his life.216.18.310. f.383. pp. p. [=661].1. vol. p.370-2. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. al-Bihãr.1.244.89) – who was not a mutakallim. Majma‘u 'rrijãl.256-78. and for debates with Abu 'l-Hudhayl. ‘Alī ibn Mansūr. vol.10. subsequently al-Baghdãdī: He was a mutakallim from among the pupils of Hishãm ibn al-Hakam. vol. p. al-Bihãr. refer to: al-Fusūlu 'l-mukhtãrah. p. vol.374. Ibn Shahrãshūb. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. Abū Dãwūd. vol. an-Najãshī. p. vol.32. p.93.281). pp. al-Kishshī.46. 547 v. adh-Dharī‘ah. al-Milal wa 'n-nihal.4. 10-11. . p.

p. p.5. vol.101.250. Ibn Dãwūd.12. 293). They were originally from Shīrãz (Iran). 4th cent.1. There is mention of his grandfather.10.309. one of the prominent figures among our cosectarians.99.243. p. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. originally from Shīrãz (265/878-9–342/953-4).6.601.242. p. p. vol. pp.223. vol.300. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. ‘Alī ibn Muhammad ibn al-‘Abbãs ibn Fusãnjus. c. Abu 'lHasan an-Nahwī (d. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. p.Imãmī Mutakallims 61 §44. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. . Tawdīhu 'l-ishtibãh. Ibnu 'l-Athīr.8. 217.400/1009): an-Najãshī says: "He was a scholar in hadīth. although prior to that he had been a Mu‘tazilī and then turned back [from this]. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-falãsifah (Refutation of the Philosophers). a mutakallim. ar-Radd ‘alã ahli 'l-mantiq (Refutation of the Logicians). 229-30.229.] §45.4.] This is all I have come across concerning him in those biographies I have consulted. al‘Allãmah. Tajãribu 'l-umam. p.205-6. Abu 'lFadl al-‘Abbãs ibn Fusãnjus. Mu‘jam rijãl 'l-hadīth. adh-Dharī‘ah.4. Some of our associates have mentioned to me that he has a book on the Imãmate to his name. p.1. p. and no-one the like of him was seen in his time. al‘Allãmah. pp. After him.2.1.306.192. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Tabaqãt a‘lami 'sh-Shī‘ah. He was completely of the Imãmī faith. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah lī ‘ulūmi 'l-Islãm. in anNajaf al-Ashraf (Iraq). vol. p.. in genealogy. vol. p.12. peace be upon him. pt. and who ran the dīwãnu 'zzamãn (the centralized dīwãn. p. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.206. p.506. Naddu 'l-īdãh. although it can be added that he was from a celebrated family whose members took over the matters of the dīwãn and government ministry throughout the 4th and 5th/10th and 11th centuries. p. Ibn Dãwūd.1." [an-Najãshī. in poetry.101.234. his son Abu 'l-Faraj ran the dīwãn on the foundations laid by his father (Ibn Miskawayh.188.599. He died in Basrah. p. p.11.147-8.251. Abu 'l-Hasan al-Karkhī: an-Najãshī says: "He was a faqīh. p. pp. in traditions. pp. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-munajjimīn (Refutation of the Astrologers). [an-Najãshī. pt. Takmilat tãrīkhi 't-Tabarī. 350. p. see §45). vol. and was taken to and buried by the shrine of Amīru 'l-Mu’minīn.219.163-4. p. vol. 3. ‘Alī ibn Muhammad. who was one of the prominent persons of Shīrãz. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. 2. (2). vol. and they migrated with the Būyid family to Iraq and took over government matters for them. (1).223. he was too famous for his life to need setting forth. in biographies." He mentions among his books:1.2. vol. vol. vol. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. pp. vol. pp.

Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. but Abu 'l-Hasan ‘Alī ibn Muhammad is not mentioned and nothing is written of his biography. p.61. he was a faqīh and an exemplary (Shī‘ī). of good religious principles. Tajãribu 's-salaf.506.148. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. 547. p. vol. p. given to forbearance. vol." Ibn Shahrãshūb says: "‘Alī ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Alī. pp. vol." I deduce that his death was around the year 400/1009 from consideration of the dates of the deaths of his grandfather and his father. but its full name is Kifãyatu 'l-athar fi 'n-nass ‘ala 'l-aimati 'l-ithnay-‘ashar (The Sufficiency of the Narrations Concerning the Warrants Related to the Twelve Imãms). Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. al-Hurr al-‘Ãmilī. the wazīr.578.234. 237. but later dismissed him and entrusted others with these affairs.62 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars There is also mention of his father. vol. 601.101. al-Hamadãnī. He wrote Kitãbu 'l-Īdãh fī usūli 'd-dīn (Book of Explanation Concerning the Roots of the Religion) according to the belief (madhhab) of the Ahlu 'l-Bayt. p. Takmilat tãrīkhi 't-Tabarī. §46. [an-Najãshī. vol. has written books on kalãm and fiqh. Then an-Najãshī says of him that: "He was too famous for his life to have to be set forth.9. vol.396.198. pp. and he is also called alQummī. 242. All of the family members were Imãmī (al-Faraj ba‘da 'sh-shiddah.6 (2). Abu 'l-Qãsim al-Khazzãz: anNajãshī says: "He was trustworthy among our co-sectarians. al-Khwãnsãrī.8. al-Wãfi bi 'l-wafayãt. al-Ardibīlī. and ‘Adūdu 'd-Dawlah subsequently appointed him as his minister (358/969). p. vol.] at-Tafrishī. p.9.1. 269. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. al-Īdãh fi 'l-i‘tiqãd (Explanation of the Doctrine).3. vol. p. Abu 'l-Faraj Muhammad ibn al-‘Abbãs (308/921–370/981) who took over the dīwãn after the death of his father. pp. 198.241). al-‘Allãmah." [al-Muntazim. as-Safadī says of him: "He was respected at gatherings. Tajãribu 'l-umam.63. 263.239-40.221. pp. 398. 406. and of exceeding integrity. 577. peace be upon them. Ibnu 'lAthīr.1. ‘Alī ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Alī. 2.4. 241. p. 260. as-Sayyid alKhū’ī. then he embraced Mu‘tazilism – may be this was through his Mu‘tazilī teachers – and then returned to his former beliefs. 568. al-Kifãyah fi 'n-nusūs. Then he was one of the two whom Mu‘izzu 'd-Dawlah Ibn Būyah entrusted with power after the death of his minister Abū Muhammad alMuhallabī (352/963).205. al-Khazzãz ar-Rãzī. p. anNajãshī's words: "and prior to that he had been a Mu‘tazilī and then turned back" shows that he was a believer in the Imãmate. p.] Other sons of this family are mentioned. 238.7. as-Sayyid as-Sadr and al-Qummī all relate that these two were one ." Among his books which Ibn Shahrãshūb mentions are:1.

127.11. being one of his close circles of students..1. and a faqīh. p. Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidãl. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. Amalu 'l-ãmil. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. p. It would seem that the Tanūkhīs gave the external appearance of belonging in fiqh to the Hanafīs. vol. which were meant by the Rãfidah. Abu 'l-Qãsim at-Tanūkhī (365/ 976–447/1055): He was a man of letters. adh-Dharī‘ah.2. the town in Iraq. p. in deference to the ruling authority of that time.5.4. p.2. p.378. vol.269. the most likely is that they were the same. [Tãrīkh Baghdãd. a mutakallim. showing it openly.489. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. particularly an Imãmī: (for their biographies see: Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. while non-Imãmī biographers say he was a Rãfidite and a Mu‘tazilite. He was truthful and professed Mu‘tazilism and Rãfidism. pp.2.249.216-9.2. Abū Tammãm ibn Abī Khãzim al-Wãsitī (372/ 983–459/1067): al-Khatīb wrote his biography and he mentions his shaykhs. for a long time. pp.] §48. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah.155-6. pp. vol. pp. However.267. He believed in the creation of the Qur’ãn and tried to pursuade others of it. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Līsãnu 'l-mīzãn. p.313-4. al-Mãmaqãnī and ash-Shaykh Ãghã Buzurg that these were two persons. vol. and which would never have been given to a Shī‘ī. And this seems obvious from Ibn Dãwūd.] §47. vol. vol. 288.3.2. 578.86-88. Many Shī‘ī biographers who wrote about his father Abū ‘Alī al-Muhassin (327/939–384/994) and his grandfather Abu 'l-Qãsim ‘Alī ibn Muhammad at-Tanūkhī (278/892–342/953) mention that they were also Shī‘ī.12. al-Ikmãl.226.172. vol. vol. People came to him to learn from him. pp. al-Kunã wa 'lalqãb. 4th cent.201-2. His Imãmī biographers say that he was a companion of ash-Sharīf alMurtadã and was close to him. vol. vol.103. vol. al-A‘lãm. vol.206. We have shown before that these matters the Imãmiyyah and the Mu'tazilah shared which Ibn Yazdãd raised. and perhaps they held the rank of judge (three of them) which the authorities had bestowed on them. pp. 5th cent. a poet. ‘Alī ibn al-Muhassin ibn ‘Alī.18. [See Ibn Dãwūd. p.291. p. and not any other Shī‘ī group. p. vol. vol. pp. p. 234..Imãmī Mutakallims 63 and the same.147.12. pt.261. He was in charge of the jurisdiction of Wãsit. Many of them say that he was an Imãmī. because they give two biographies. But it appears from al-‘Allãmah. ‘Alī ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn alHasan ibn Yazdãd. and he died there. al- . pp. when he only gives the biography of one of them.4.12. vol. p.1. p.5. and that it was the Imãmiyyah. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.554. or specifically Imãmī.

He held great status before Abu 'l-Hasan Mūsã ibn Ja‘far.22.12. p.301-9. pp. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn.. Ibn Dãwūd. 5th cent. vol. vol. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. pp.5. Majãlisu 'lmu’minīn. pp.3. p.3. vol. p. p.3.1. ‘Alī ibn Yaqtīn ibn Mūsã. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.354. vol. was one of the most famous propagandists for the ‘Abbãsids. (Ibn) an-Nadīm.509. It is said of him: "He is trustworthy and of an exalted rank.42. 542-3.3. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. al-‘Allãmah. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. and was one of the latter's companions till he died.298. al-Ansãb. vol." He narrated from as-Sãdiq and alKãzim. pp.279. p. peace be upon them. peace be upon them both. p. and he was given high rank among the Shī‘ah. p.4. Tãrīkh Baghdãd. vol. vol.3. p. [al-Ghadīr.60-62. p. vol. pt. vol. the Registry where all the registers of the government were collected together. p.252-3. p.12. pp.116-7.214. Fawãtu 'l-wafayãt. p.522).2. vol.3. subsequently al-Baghdãdī (124/742–180/796 or 182/798): His father. vol. pp.9596.56.7. was one of the most distinguished employes of the ‘Abbãsids.125-6. p. He was in charge of the Registry of the Chancellery (zimãmu 'lazimmah) of the caliph al-Mahdī in the year 168/785.124. an-Nujūmu 'z-zãhirah. al-Fihrist. al-‘Ibar. vol. vol. Abu 'l-Hasan Mu‘īnu . p.247-57.377-86.8.3. Ibn Kathīr.3. vol.1.2 p.] §49. Shadharãtu 'dh-dhahab. vol.609. p. p. vol. [al-Kishshī.315. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. He was given responsibility for many important tasks for them. vol.1. vol. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. Amīrakã ibn Abi 'l-Lajūn ibn Amīrah.276. p. pp. vol. p.219.64 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars Ghadīr. p. vol. despite his belief in the Imãmate. pp. Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidãl.162. alMuntazim.209. vol. He also wrote books of hadīth and a masãil (a book in which a person records the questions he asked an Imãm together with the Imãm's answers).615-6. adh-Darī‘ah.91-92.430-7. Abu 'l-Hasan al-Kūfī. vol.115.2.168. pp.] §50. Yaqtīn.541. p. vol. Ibn Khallikãn.12. al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb. After the death of al-Mahdī he held the same position under the caliph Hãrūn.667. pp. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.234-41. Among his books was: The Debate of ‘Alī ibn Yaqtīn with the Skeptic in the Presence of Ja‘far ibn Muhammad.5. at-Tūsī. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. pp. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn.246.58. al-Mahdī was the first to start the system of administration called zimãmu 'l-azimmah (see atTabarī. anNajãshī.9.3. vol. and he himself. vol. Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. pp.175. pp. p.253-4. vol.5. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.386-7. pp. pp. vol. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt.9-10. many ahãdīth.4.4. p. pp. Ibnu 'l-Athīr.67.123-5).152. peace be upon them. al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb. ar-Rijãl. vol.

160. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. Masãil shattã (Different Matters). at-Ta‘līqu 's-saghīr (The Lesser Commentary). al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr.] §51. vol. Ibn ‘Asãkir says: "He was one of the most forceful of the Shī‘ah (in defence of Shī‘ism). 514/1120): A faqīh. p. p. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. p. He was a scholar. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah.3.5. p.29. al-Hudūd (Definitions). Asad ibn Ibrãhīm ibn Kulayb. 2.503. p.2. Muhammad ibn Yazīd ath-Thumãlī al-Azdī al-Basrī (210/826– 286/899) that he said: "Among the scholars of the Imãmiyyah was Abū ‘Uthmãn Bakr ibn Muhammad. 3.Imãmī Mutakallims 65 'd-Dīn al-Masdarī al-‘Ijlī al-Qazwīnī (d. p. pt.6. narrator of hadīth. pp. vol. vol.125. a clever person. al-Qãdī Abu 'l-Hasan asSulamī al-Harrãnī (fl. mutakallim. and famous for this. and he was a mutakallim.3.208.226. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.9.1. the famous Imãmī mutakallim] B . Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidãl. Amalu 'l-ãmil. p. Abū ‘Uthmãn al-Mãzinī. 5th cent. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. 248/862): an-Najãshī said: "Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Habīb ibn Baqiyyah. p.109.2. ar-Rãfi‘ mentions him in at-Tadwīn and gives the above-mentioned date for his death. 402/1012): He was one of the teacher-shaykhs of al-Karãjikī (see §122) and an-Najãshī (§22).153.105. p. vol." Then an-Najãshī quotes from his student Abu 'l-‘Abbãs al-Mubarrad. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.353. vol. vol. Abū ‘Uthmãn al-Mãzinī. .1.52. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah.138-9. al-Wãfī bi 'l-wafayãt. Muntajabu 'd-Dīn says: "He was a debater. a prominent figure .2.222. [an-Najãshī. Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm. and 4. p.33-34.1. [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn.382.298. adh-Dharī‘ah. p.1. pp..4. p. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.20. and he was a student of Ismã‘īl ibn Mītham [corr. vol. vol. 5th cent. vol. ‘Alī ibn Ismã‘īl. vol.206. vol. Diyãfatu 'l-ikhwãn. and a mutakallim..1. vol. vol. the foremost among them." He narrated hadīth in 402/1012. vol. at-Ta‘līqu 'l-kabīr (The Great Commentary).75. al-Basrī (d. He wrote works on usūl (ad-Dīn) among which are:1. p. Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn (Habīb ibn) Baqiyyah. p. He was a master among the Basran grammarians and scholars of obscure locutions and of language.2. of the Mãzin from the branch of Banū Shaybãn.] §52. p. p. Ta‘līqãtu 'n-naqd. an expert in hadīth. p.40. vol. . Abu 'l-Hasan al-Mīthamī (= §42).

p.59-60.2. He was the leader of his time in grammar and letters. vol.170. vol.1.271. pp.2. vol. (#.3. He said: 'I was accused before him of [belief in] qadar and of a tendency towards the belief of the Mu‘tazilah . who gave: Ibn Rustam ibn Yazdyãr]: "I came to the meeting of Abū ‘Uthmãn al-Mãzinī. p. vol. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt.'" (Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’. pp.12." [Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. vol.1. Nūru 'l-qabas. vol. vol. pp. see also (Ibn) an-Nadīm.65-66.1.180-1. vol. and reached the highest degree of piety.57. 337/949). Inbãhu 'r-ruwãt. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. to Abdu 'l-Malik ibn Qurayb al-Bãhilī alBasrī [122/740–216/831]). vol.125-6.283-4.94. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn.148.380-1.14. vol.129. pp. pp. Abū Habīb alBasrī (c.57. vol. al-‘Allãmah." (Inbãhu 'r-ruwãt. pp. the famous Qãdī of Eygpt (182/798–270/884) say: 'I have never seen a grammarian who was like the jurists apart from Hibbãn ibn Hilãl [al-Bãhilī.131-2. Siyar a‘lãmi 'n-nubalã’.78-90.463-4. . p133. p. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. ‘Abdu 'r-Rahmãn ibn Ishãq an-Nahãwandī alBaghdãdī (d. pp. a metrist.1.278.279). (where it gives Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Yazdyãr ibn Rustam.266).26. pp. p. p.) Abu 'l-Qãsim az-Zajjãjī. p. Miftãhu 's-sa‘ãdah.134-8. p. and followed the opinion of Ibn Mītham [in kalãm]. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.5.2.389-90. pt.2. Bughyatu 'l-wu‘ãt.) al-Khatīb related from Abū Ja‘far at-Tahãwī. pp." There is a difference of opinion about the date of his death.5.239-40) and al-Mãzzinī. pp. vol.2. and was a believer in irjã’. pp.10. pp. p. Abū Ja‘far an-Nahwī at-Tabarī).110. p. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. the famous Hanafī jurist (239/853–321/933): "I heard Bakkãr ibn Qutaybah [at-Thaqafī.7.2. p. where he was asked: 'Why have you only narrated a few of al-Asma‘ī's traditions?' (Ref. p. p. . a linguist (lughawī).66 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars [an-Najãshī.220. vol. vol.345-6. [a companion of Abū ‘Uthmãn al-Mãzinī (Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’.'" [Tãrīkh Baghdãd.] Abu 'l-‘Abbãs al-Mubarrad attributed great acumen in kalãm and grammar to al-Mãzinī: "When he debated with the mutakallims he made no use of anything from grammar.130/748–216/831): he is agreed to have been trustworthy and his narrations are included in the books of hadīth (Tahdhību 't-tahdhīb. But in Tãrīkh Baghdãd. He would clearly defeat anyone who debated with him because of his power in kalãm.1. pp.72. vol. in his al-Amãlī narrated the following from Abū Ja‘far Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Rustam at-Tabarī. al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb. vol. vol. Ibn Khallikãn. . vol.] The non-Imãmiyyah also gave his biography: "[He was] a grammarian. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. p. a reciter of the Qur’ãn.1. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. vol. was reliable and trustworthy. Ibn Dãwūd. a man of letters.1. Siyar a‘lãmi 'n-nubalã’. and when he debated with the grammarians he made no use of anything from kalãm. vol.2. "He was publicly an Imãmī Shī‘ī.3. vol.

vol. adh-Dharī‘ah. p. Tanqīhu 'lmaqãl. vol. vol. al-Fihrist.231. vol. vol. and alHujaj (The Proof) on the Imãmate." (‘Umdatu 't- .9. p. among them: Haqãiqu 'l-īmãn (The Truths of the Faith) on usūl.277.2. pp. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. p.Imãmī Mutakallims 67 vol. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. pt. vol. p. adhDharī‘ah. Ibn ‘Ufayr.10. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.1. Amalu 'l-ãmil.1.30. 5th cent. but I think this is a mistake and should be 503/1109-10. including: Kitãb fi 'l-imãmah ‘alã sãir man khãlafahu mina 'l-umam (Book on the Imãmate Against the Other Groups Who Deny It). p. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-‘Uthmãniyyah (Refutation of the ‘Uthmãniyyah.12. p.99.364. p. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. al-Hasan ibn Mūsã anNawbakhtī (d.120.310/922. ash-Shaykh Abu 'lKhayr al-Asadī: Muntajabu 'd-Dīn says: "He was a pious faqīh who studied with our shaykh Abū Ja‘far at-Tūsī. and others related from him: "He was a jurist. vol.188. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. pp.7.2. Siyar a‘lãmi 'n-nubalã’. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. p. p. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. p. [perhaps the Book al-‘Uthmãniyyah by alJãhiz] and others.] §53. p.143.6. Ibn Dãwūd." anNajãshī says: "The most excellent shaykh. vol.2112.2. c.10. p.116.280. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. and he was blind.211. Maqãlãtu 'l-Islãmiyyīn.3. p.43. Dhu 'l-Faqãr ibn [Muhammad ibn] Ma‘bad ibn al-Hasan. In Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. vol. vol. vol.2. p. Barakah ibn Muhammad ibn Barakah.208.. p. Nuzhatu 'l-alibbã’.2. 391 – but there is confusion between this man and Ibn Mumlak (see §109) – al-‘Allãmah. al-Wãfī bi 'l-wafayãt. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. Abu 'l-Ahwas al-Misrī: at-Tūsī says: "One of the most important Imãmī mutakallim. vol.127. p.247. p. p. p. p. p. vol. an-Najãshī. a mutakallim. he was a Rãfidite mutakallim and author." He mentions several books he wrote.] §54.221. see §73) met him and was instructed by him. p. vol. vol. vol. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. faqīh and mutakallim.407. [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. p. vol.35. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.212.271. vol.182-3. it is written that he died in 543/148-9. p. vol. p. ‘Imãdu 'd-Dīn Abu 's-Samsãm al-Hasanī al-Marwazī (405/1014– 536/1141-2): Ibn ‘Inabah said. vol.127. Dãwūd ibn Asad. al-Yãfi‘ī. vol.1. [at-Tūsī.263.] D § Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn.164." According to al-Ash‘arī. p. vol. p. He wrote several books. a man of knowledge. p. p.2. among the people of hadīth he is most trustworthy. pt.127.

and in this (Imãmiyyah) branch he was given great importance. Abū Muhammad al-Azdī an-Naysãbūrī (c. and from the Imãms al-Jawãd. p.2. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. al-Hãdī and al-‘Askarī.195/811–260/873): He was one of the outstanding Imãmiyyah scholars.436-7.377. vol. and it is a large book. p. It is said of him: "He was trustworthy. vol. ‘Umdatu 't-tãlib. Ibn Hazm.495-6. one of the greatest men of our sect. both of fuqahã’ and mutakallims. Ibnu 'l-Fuwatī.314. p. Ibn Dãwūd. pp." Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī says: "He was a mutakallim.279.328. Ibn ‘Asãkir.277-80. in hadīth.13. al-Bihãr. see §88) says: "I have his book on the Imãmate. p. al-Fadl ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn al-Baghdãdī: an-Najãshī says: "He was a mutakallim who was outstanding in kalãm. Riyãdu 'l-‘ulamã’. p. pt.46-47.495. al-Fihrist.99-100. a faqīh of high rank. Talkhīs majma‘i 'l-ãdãb fī mu‘jami 'l-alqãb.2301. pp. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. an-Najãshī. pp. Dãru 'l-Bashīr printing.31. vol.235.2. 325. it is said.7. pp.519.1. Riyãdu 'l-‘ulamã’. Jamharat ansãbi 'l-‘Arab. p. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.4. p. pp.157. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.68 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars tãlib. p. al-Kishshī narrates from Sahl ibn Bahr al-Fãrisī: "He said: 'I heard al-Fadl ibn Shãdhãn. say: "I am a successor to those who have preceded me. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. peace be upon him. at-Tūsī and others who were contemporaries with them or came after them. vol.5. pp. vol. peace be upon them. vol." al-Ash‘arī and ash-Shahrastãnī count him among the "Rãfidite" mutakallims and one of their authors.73-74.2.11. p. He narrated from alImãm ar-Ridã. vol. pp.108. p. vol. kalãm and tafsīr.433. vol. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil.] F §57.) He studied with ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã. vol. p.267. fiqh.101. p. pp..'" [an-Najãshī. al-Fusūlu 'l-fakhriyyah. [Refer to: Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. pt. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. Amalu 'l-ãmil.99-101. In his degree he has so much fame that we do not need to describe it. vol. pp. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.109-10. the last time I saw him. vol. vol.2. p. al-Fadl ibn Shãdhãn ibn al-Khalīl.3. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. I saw Muhammad ibn Abī ‘Umayr (see §115) and Safwãn ibn Yahyã (one of the most outstanding narrators from al-Imãm ar- . vol. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. vol.2. p.] §56. ad-Darajãtu 'r-rafī‘ah. p. p.2. vol. 496.6. Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Husayn ibn ‘Ubaydillãh (ibn al-Ghadãirī. p. 6th cent. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah.273. pp. pp.6.133.110. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. al-Fusūlu 'l-fakhriyyah. al‘Allãmah.6.2.105. p.115-6. vol. p.6. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.

2. 128/745-6)] and the Mu‘tazilah). may Allãh have mercy on him (see §76) passed away and Yūnus ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn (see §165). 7. Abū Muhriz (d. ar-Radd ‘alã Muhammad ibn Karrãm (as-Sijizzī [c. vol. al-Masãil fi 'l-‘ãlam wa hudūthih (Question and Answers on the Universe and Its Coming into Existence). he is considered trustworthy. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-falãsifah (Refutation of the Philosophers. 3. peace be upon him. who was his successor. substances and parts"). 5. at-Tawhīd min kutubi 'llãhi 'l-munzalati 'l-arba‘ah (Divine Unity According to Allãh's Four [?] Revealed Books). at-Tūsī calls it ad-Dãmighah – The Invalidation). 10. 240/854)] concerning [his] insistence on the materiality [of man]. al-A‘rãd wa 'l-jawãhir (Accidents and Substances). 2. 4. and his only successor was as-Sakkãk (see §141). pp. 9. Then Yūnus ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn died.168/784–255/869] the leader of the Karrãmiyyah. And I was the successor to them afterwards. Among them are the following. passed away. and I have studied under them for the past fifty years. p. 11. till he. When Hishãm ibn alHakam.]) and others. and he used to refute the opponents. which usually means the Jahmiyyah [followers of Jahm ibn Safwãn. accidents. at-Tanbīh mina 'l-jabr wa 't-tashbīh (Remark Concerning Predestination and the Anthropormophisation of God). and a famous believer in God's corporeality and anthropomorphism). and was one of arRidã's representatives [see Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.413.Imãmī Mutakallims 69 Ridã. This book was a refutation of Yazīd ibn Bazī‘ the Khãrijite. Concerning the nature of man there was a difference of opinion among . ar-Radd ‘alã 'th-Thanawiyyah (Refutation of Dualism. according to at-Tūsī it is "a refutation of what the philosophers claim concerning Divine Unity. vol."'" He is said to have written a hundred and eighty books but those given in the lists with their titles represent only one quarter of what he wrote. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Mannãniyyah (= al-Mãnawiyyah) (Refutation of Manichaeism (according to at-Tūsī – "of the believers of the Trinity [?]").346-7. an-Naqd ‘ala 'l-Iskãfī fī taqwiyyati 'l-jism (Confuting of al-Iskãfī [Abū Ja‘far the Mu‘tazilite (d. 6. which refer to matters of kalãm: 1. may Allãh have mercy on him.1. 8. ar-Radd ‘alã ahli 't-ta‘tīl (Refutation of the Deniers of Attributes to Allãh. al-Istitã‘ah (Human Capability). ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī quoted a part of it in his Amãlī. used to refute opponents.

Moreover. it would seem unlikely that one who held a belief in the incorporeality of man's essence would also hold the view. p. and that al-Fadl ibn Shãdhãn. The third. Perhaps this means that there was confusion . (See [Ibn] an-Nadīm. 12. wrote a refutation of al-Iskãfī.164). although at-Tūsī says Ahmad ibn Yahyã). ash-Shahrastãnī.114). The first. There is obscurity about who this person was. 186. largely taking place through the writings and teachings of ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã and ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī. that of Ibnu 'l-Ikhshīd. was that man 'is self-subsistent. ar-Radd ‘alã Ahmad ibn al-Husayn (according to an-Najãshī. pp. at-Tawhīd. p. nor juncture or seperation. which were in turn the views deriving from Hishãm. at least as regards the nature of man. was that man was a matter which pervades every human body.113-4. p. al-Mufīd's teacher in kalãm was Abu 'l-Jaysh alBalkhī.70 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars the mutakallims. One of his books is: at-Tawhīd wa 'r-radd ‘ala 'lghulãt wa tawãifi 'sh-Shiya‘ (Divine Unity and Refutation of the Extremists and the Shī‘ī Sects).174. only Mu‘ammar ibn ‘Abbãd. and of the Mu‘tazilah. that of the two alJubbã’īs and their followers was that man.1. vol.223).1. he himself wrote on this subject defending the views of Abū Sahl (§96). It was the second opinion that was upheld by the majority of the Mu‘tazilah.' (McDermott. without bulk or extension. in connection with the subject of anthropomorphism. He is the thing which the wise ancients have called "simple substance" and similarly every living. al-Iqtisãd. who was in turn the student of Abū Sahl an-Nawbakhtī. that of Hishãm ibn al-Hakam and the Banū Nawbakht.137). as can be seen in the list of Abu 'l-Jaysh's writings. This lends further credence to the view that Imãmī kalãm had an independent origin prior to its association with Mu‘tazilism. The kalãm positions which al-Mufīd upheld can be seen to be in the Imãmī tradition from Hishãm ibn al-Hakam. A further point to be noted is that. vol. neither is composition possible in him. was the sum of the components of his body. their mutakallims and authors a certain Yahyã ibn Kãmil al-Ibãdī. This would seem to add evidence to the view that the anthropomorphic opinions attributed to Hishãm were the result of opponents' attempts to discredit him. nor movement or rest. produced agent is a simple substance. pp. Maqãlãtu 'l-Islãmiyyīn. but there is mentioned among the leaders of the Khãrijites.233. which was upheld by ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd. that God had mterial components. p. this association. and upheld the second opinion (see adh-Dhakhīrah. It would seem that al-Iskãfī wrote a treatise attacking Hishãm's position. The second. ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã and at-Tūsī disagreed with al-Mufīd. who was a follower of Hishãm in kalãm. p. as far as Hishãm is concerned.

ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Murjiah (Refutation of the Murji’ites). al-Īdãh fi 'l-imãmah (The Clarification Concerning the Imãmate). 17. 23. The University of Tehran published this book in 1392/1972. 14. 24. ar-Radd ahli 'l-Asamm [‘Abdu 'r-Rahmãn ibn Kaysãn al-Basrī alMu‘tazilī (d. 27. ar-Radd ‘ala ('l-Bãtiniyyah wa [according to at-Tūsī]) 'l-Qarãmitah . the Jabriyyah (believers in Predestination). 18. the Mu‘tazilah. the Murji’ites. edited by the late as-Sayyid Jalãlu 'd-Dīn al-Husaynī al-Urmawī al-Muhaddith. 13. al-Masãilu 'l-arba‘ah fi 'l-imãmah (Four Matters Concerning the Imãmate). Ma‘rifatu 'l-hudã wa 'd-dalãlah (Recognition of Right-guidance and Misguidance). and he quotes these ahãdīth (see al-Īdãh. the ashãbu 'l-hadīth (people of hadīth) by whom al-Fadl ibn Shãdhãn meant those who were led to belief in God's corporeality and anthropomorphism through false hadīth or through false interpretations of approved hadīth. and mention is also made of a summary of the beliefs of these opposing groups. 21. an-Nisbah bayna 'l-Jabriyyah wa 'l-Butriyyah (Comparison Between the Beleivers in Predestination and the Butriyyah [a sect of the Zaydiyyah]). Tibyãn asl (ahl) ad-dalãlah (Exposition of the Principles of [or the People of] Error).10. al-Imãmah (al-kabīr) ([The Great] Book on the Imãmate).e. 200/816)]. They are the Jahmiyyah. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Hasan al-Basrī fi 't-tafdīl (Refutation of al-Hasan alBasrī [the famous commentator of the Holy Qur’ãn and scholar of hadīth. ar-Radd ala 'l-bãisah (Refutation of the Wretched [?]). al-Īmãn (The Faith). 28. 20. vol. 16.Imãmī Mutakallims 71 about his name. al-Mi‘yãr wa 'l-muwãzanah (The Standard and the Balance [in Matters of Religion]). 21/642–110/728] Concerning his Opinion on Preference [of the angels over the prophets – see adh-Dharī‘ah. i. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Hashwiyyah (Refutation of the Hashwites [those who gave a literal interpretation to anthropomorphic hadīth]). 26. al-Wa‘d wa 'l-wa‘īd (The Promise and the Threat [of Divine Retribution]). At the beginning of al-Īdãh mention is made of those who were opposed to the Imãmiyyah in their beliefs. 22. 25. 29. 15. al-Wa‘īd (The Threat. that the one who commits any of the great sins will be perpetually condemned to the Fire).4-48). Professor at the University of Tehran.190]).. p. al-Khisãl fi 'l-imãmah. 19. p.

He wrote: at-Tawhīd (Divine Unity).5-6. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi . abounding in intellect. p.420. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Yamãn ibn Rabãb al-Khãrijī (or.280. p.132-3. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’.72 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars (Refutation of [the Bãtiniyyah (those who held exclusively esoteric beliefs) and] the Qarmatians). vol. 434. pp.127.) [al-Kishshī.1.2.190. pp. pp. vol. 183. vol. p. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Mu‘tazilah fi 'lqadar (Refutation of the Mu‘tazilah Concerning their Denial of Predestination).2. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. ashShahrastãnī. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. vol. vol. vol. ash-Shahrastãnī. vol. pp.817-8. pp.245. p. pp.2.233. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. which arose from alAmīr as-Sayyid Husayn al-Mujtahid al-‘Ãmilī's book: Kitãb daf‘u 'l-munãwãt mina 't-tafdīl wa 'l-musãwãt" (Riyãdu 'l-‘ulamã’. mutakallim. [an-Najãshī." He narrated from as-Sãdiq (83/ 702–148/765) and al-Kãzim (129/746–183/799). Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.1. pt.1. see [Ibn] an-Nadīm.8.180. vol. Sezgin.2.1. trustworthy.1.137).29.266-7. Maqãlãtu 'lIslãmiyyīn. 38. p.2.124-5. al‘Allãmah.4. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah lī ‘ulūmi 'l-Islãm. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifin. famous for his erudition. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. p.1. 31.5. much revered.537-44: at-Tūsī.13. p. pp. p. p. pp. vol.313-26. p. Hadīd ibn Hakīm. al-Maqãlãt (Opinions [of the Sects]) and ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Murjiah (Refutation of the Murji’ites). an-Najãshī.537-8. al-A‘lãm. a contemporary of ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã.355. but this is an error in diacritrical points.] §58. vol.80-81.21-31. Tanqīhu 'lmaqãl. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. pp. peace be upon them both.377. Maqãlãtu 'l-Islãmiyyīn.1.83. pp. al-Yamãn ibn Rabãb was one of the mutakallims of the Khãrijites and one of their authors. p.86. p. pp. (Ibn) an-Nadīm. pp. according to anNajãshī.120. vol. pp. vol. peace be upon them]. vol.5. vol. p. pt.258. ar-Rijãl.272-3. distinguished and mutakallim. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Ithbãt imãmat Abī Bakr (Proof of the Imãmate of Abū Bakr). p.] H §59. 186.235-6.8. p. pp. He and ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã had a correspondence with ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd about some matters.181-2.64. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. p.1. p. a faqīh.101. vol. Abū ‘Alī al-Azdī al-Madãinī: It is said of him: "He was of a high rank. vol. al-Hãjib ibn al-Layth ibn Sirãj: al-Afandī says: "He was an erudite man of knowledge.2. 30. pp.171.114. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-ghãliyah al-Muhammadiyyah (Refutation of the Excess of the Muhammadiyyah [one of the sects who held extreme beliefs concerning the Imãms.69. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. vol. pp. al-‘Allãmah.1. Ibn Dãwūd. "Bayãn ibn Rabãb". Lisãnu 'l-Mīzãn. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. p. Ibn Dãwūd. al-Fihrist. Tãrīkh Baghdãd.9-11. vol.

an-Najãshī said: "He was famous in kalãm.376-7.1. vol.275-6.. vol.222.115.14) under the title of al-Masãilu 'l-‘Ukbariyyah. p. ar-Radd ‘alã (Refutation of) Muhammad ibn Ja‘far al-Asadī (see §138). al‘Allãmah. pp. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. p. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.5. p. §60. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. pp. peace be upon them both.6. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. or al-Masãilu 'l-Hãjibiyyah = Jawãbãt Abu 'l-Layth al-Awãnī.240-1. Abū Muhammad alKindī: The son of the leader of the Imãmiyyah mutakallims Hishãm ibn alHakam (see §76). pp.6. 219. p.228.182. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth." His grave is still standing and is a place of pilgrimage to the south of the town of al-Hillah in Iraq.35.2. p. These sources agree on the same form for the name of the questioner and his laqab. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl..313. peace be upon him] (fl. but he had a certain belief about predestination and .46." [an-Najãshī. He lived in Basrah.1. p. p. may Allãh be merciful with them. al-Hakam ibn Hishãm ibn al-Hakam. Hãrūn ibn Muslim ibn Sa‘dãn. p. vol.4). vol. is incorrect. (he transmitted) a great many ahãdīth. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.105.120. p. and many sessions have been reported in connection with him. pt. adh-Dharī‘ah. Ibn Dãwūd. p. and the entry in Riyãdu 'l-‘ulamã’. vol.] §61.] §62.268-70. vol.Imãmī Mutakallims 73 'sh-Shī‘ah. (212/827–254/868) and Abū Muhammad al-‘Askarī (232/846–260/874). Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.134. 339/951): an-Najãshī says: "He was trustworthy.4. vol.361.1. pp.283.268.1. the one who asked them being al-Hãjib Abu 'l-Layth ibn Sirãj al-Awãnī. pp. vol. vol. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. adh-Dharī‘ah. and alMufīd answered them – see an-Najãshī. 228. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. pp. He conversed with the people. of a revered rank among our co-sectarians. 4th cent. mentioned that he saw a book by him on the Imãmate. Hamzah ibn al-Qãsim ibn ‘Alī ibn Hamzah ibn al-Hasan ibn ‘Ubaydillãh ibn al-‘Abbãs ibn Amīri 'l-Mu’minīn [‘Alī.2.1. The matters which they sent are those which were listed in the biography of ash-Shaykh alMufīd (see §144. Marãqidu 'l-ma‘ãrif.123-4. p.198. p. an-Najãshī says of him: "He is most trustworthy and a man of distinction (among us). vol.6. p. p.53.2.18. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. 4th cent. Answer no. p. Among his books were: at-Tawhīd.108. [an-Najãshī. One of our scholars. p. Abu 'l-Qãsim al-Kãtib alAnbãrī as-Sãmarrã’ī: He met Abu 'l-Hasan al-Hãdī. p. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.478. vol. p.17. vol.

p.1. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. vol. p.40. vol.211-23. Pilgrims to Mecca from Khurãsãn always asked for this book (in Baghdãd) and bought a copy of it. pp. al‘Allãmah. pp.2. Abū Muhammad al-Kūfī atTaymūlī (d. al-‘Allãmah. 4th cent. trustworthy. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. pp.259-60. Ibn Dãwūd.74 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars anthropomorphism. p.95-96. adh-Dharī‘ah.1. Abū ‘Abdillãh (al-Mufīd [336/948–413/1022]. Lisãnu 'lmīzãn. 75.5. praise this man exceedingly.214.1. pp.2. and he wrote books on fiqh and kalãm . vol. Among his books are:1. vol..1. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.307. vol.292.46-52. pp. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. al-Fihrist.1.212. vol." 2. pt. pp. p. I heard our Shaykh.225-6.180. vol.225. Tabaqãtu 'l-mufassirīn. vol.524. vol. He wrote several books. 224/839): One of the outstanding and trustworthy Imãmī scholars of hadīth.93. vol.1. [at-Tūsī. vol. vol.26-28. pp. pp. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. vol.] . p. al-Karr wa 'l-farr fi 'l-imãmah (Attack and Retreat Concerning the Imãmate)." an-Najãshī says: "He was a faqīh.3.4." Abu 'l-Qãsim Ibn Qūlawayh (d. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. vol. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. pp. Tanqīhu 'lmaqãl. pp. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. among which was: ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-ghãliyah (Refutation of the Extremists).69.285-6. p. vol. 110-1. [an-Najãshī. Abū Muhammad ibn Abī ‘Aqīl al-‘Umãnī al-Hadhdhã’: ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī says: "He was one of the important mutakallims belonging to the Imãmiyyah sect.38. a mutakallim. al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Faddãl.2. 141.94-95.2.281-3.32.2. p.366.199. p.7. pp.72-73.24-26.61. pp. . famous in the sect. p.471.2. he was a Fatahī – see the section of "Sects" – but then he returned to the Imãmīs. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī. Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm.19.15-18.7.297-9. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. pp.137-9. vol.] §63. ar-Rijãl. pt. p. an-Najãshī. pp. [an-Najãshī. pp.10. pp.291. at-Tūsī. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.204. vol. al-Mutamassik bi habli ãli rasūl (Holding Fast to the Cord of the Family of the Prophet). Ibn Dãwūd. al-Fihrist.25. p. p." but as-Sayyid Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm defends him from this accusation. al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb. pp.2.2. Amalu 'l-ãmil. pp.2. Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm. see §144).131-7. 368/979) narrates from him. vol. 68. p. p. He has a book on at-Tawhīd. vol. adhDharī‘ah. pp. . vol.342.5. may Allãh have mercy on him. pt. p. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.155-6.] §64.189-209.6.19. vol. p. pp. About this book it is said: "It is a large and excellent book. p.1. vol. Ma‘ãlimu 'l‘ulamã’.

Ithãfu 'l-mustarshidīn. 3. he held the Imãmī doctrine of the Imãmate and the Imãms.e. Kitãbu 't-Talãq (Book on Divorce). Kitãb ma‘ãdhir Banī Hãshim fīmã nuqima ‘alayhim (Book of the Plea of the Banū Hãshim Concerning What was Raised against Them).58. which was a small treaties. Maqãlãtu 't-tãlibiyyīn. Kitãb ansãbi 'l-aimmah wa mawãlidihim ilã sãhibi 'l-amr ‘alayhi 's-salãm (Book of the Lineages of the Imãms and Their Dates of Birth up to the Master of Authority." an-Nãsir was born in Medina.24025. p. pp. He migrated to Irãq and from there to Tabaristãn and Daylam (the eastern stretches of the Safīd-rūd river in the north of Iran in the province of Gilãn). Kitãbu 'l-Imãmah (Book of Imãmate). who rose up with the call after the killing of his brother. al-Mas‘ūdī.1. vol. except that he was .11.11. pp. 2. Kitãb fasãhat Abī Tãlib (Book of the Eloquence of Abū Tãlib). peace be upon them). al-Hasan ibn Zayd. p. vol. Tãrīkhu 'l-Yaman. on the Imãmī opinions in doctrinal and legal matters). Abū Muhammad al-Utrūsh an-Nãsir (li 'l-Haqq) al-Kabīr (225/ 840 or 230/844–304/917): an-Najãshī says: "He. p. Ibn Kathīr.2.693-4. peace be upon him. the Samanid (234/848–295/907). 6. al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī (al-Asghar) ibn ‘Umar (al-Ashraf) ibn al-Imãm ‘Alī ibn al-Husayn. vol.367. vol. the founder of the ‘Alawid dynasty in Tabaristãn.. 5. Historical sources mention that he went to Tabaristãn and that he was with Muhammad ibn Zayd ibn Muhammad ibn Ismã‘īl ibn al-Hasan ibn Zayd ibn al-Imãm al-Hasan.1. p. Kitãb fi 'l-imãmah (Book on Imãmate).] After him an-Nãsir li 'l-Haqq took charge of things.228. Ibnu 'l-Athīr.3. 7. Kitãbu 'sh-Shuhadã’ wa fadl ahli 'l-fadl minhum (Book of Martyrs.2201.Imãmī Mutakallims 75 §65. vol. and he wrote several books on this (i. vol. p. peace be upon him). vol. peace be upon them. a large work. p. Ibnu 'lWardī. pp83-84. Ibn Khaldūn.352. "ad-Dã‘ī ila 'l-Haqq" (d. Zaydī sources mention that he rose up claiming the Imãmate in the year 284/897 (al-Bahru 'z-zakhkhãr.194-5. among which were:1. p. al-Jandãrī. p23). He stayed with Muhammad ibn Zayd until the later was killed (187/900) in the war with one of the commanders of the army of Ismã‘īl ibn Ahmad.4.7. 270/884). and the Merit of the Meritorious among them). pp. 4. vol.3.504-5.44.e. pp. Kitãb fadak wa 'l-khums (Book on Fadak and Khums). 8. was a firm believer in the Imãmate (i.8. [at-Tabarī. vol.. may Allãh have mercy on him. Abu 'l-Fidã’.

.367. Then he withdrew from Ãmūl and the other towns of easten Tabaristãn and settled in Shãlus [i. p. p.86. Among them was ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã. inviting the people to Islam. Some annalists are of the opinion that he was killed in battle with the army which the Samanid Nasr ibn Ahmad (293/906–331/943) 14 sent to win back Tabaristãn (Ibn Khaldūn.1.3. and most of his Imãmī biographers have claimed him as one of them. vol. Then he formed a sizeable army from them and marched with them into Tabaristãn (301/914). p. Then he remained in Daylam about thirteen years. p. p." (at-Tabarī.1-6) where he mentions the evidence which supports his view: "al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī al-Utrūsh was truly of just comportment. 301/914) in Tabaristãn.3. p. Abu 'l-Fidã’. vol. p. Ibn Hazm. ‘Umdatu 't-tãlib. vol. Jamharat ansãbi 'l-‘Arab. until he died in 304/917. He also built several mosques in their country.301. This book was published in al-Jawãmi‘u 'l-fiqhiyyah in a quarto size lithographed edition in Iran (1272/1856) in 49 pages. . 81-83. Ibnu 'l-Athīr. pp.279-80. p. [5] vol. the Samanid. Sirru 's-silsilati 'l-‘Alawiyyah. Ibn Khaldūn. It is 14 The one who undertook the command of the army was his wazīr. vol.228 – marginal note). some of the Zaydī sources have estimated that the number was near to a million people (al-Jandãrī. Salūs.25.8. al-Bahru 'z-zakhkhãr. his equal in justiness has not been seen.) Both the Imãmiyyah and the Zaydiyyah claim an-Nãsir.11. pp.4. p. (at-Tabarī. Ibn Hazm. Ibn Khaldūn. vol. Ibnu 'l-Athīr.2. together with their explanations in al-Masãilu 'n-Nãsiriyyãt. p.36.79. which was the eastern limit of the country of Daylam in those days (Ibnu 'l-Athīr. He was victorious over the deputy of the ruler Ahmad ibn Ismã‘īl ibn Ahmad.e.8. p. p. after the opportunity for this had presented itself to him. vol.2292.3. who extracted 207 of an-Nãsir's legal opinions.54.59).1. pp. vol. They gathered around him and he taught them the principles and commands of Islam. p. 330/942). p. vol. p.2292.53. and ridding them of the wrongs done by their rulers. Ibn Khaldūn.3.3. his great grandson.86. (d. and took control of it. vol. p. in the same way as anNajãshī. vol. His behaviour was kind and he rose up for the truth.366-7.8. vol. and on this account al-‘Allãmah al-Amīnī counted him as one of the Imãmī martyrs and included his biography in Shuhãdãu 'l-fadīlah (pp. Jamharat ansãbi 'l-‘Arab.4. al-Mas‘ūdī. vol. causing justice to appear among them.367. p.54). A great number of them accepted Islam. vol.8.367). vol.76 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars obliged to move into the land of Daylam after Tabaristãn had fallen out of the hands of the Zaydīs. Abū ‘Abdillãh Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Nasr al-Jayhãnī (d. present day Chãlūs].25. Tajãribu 'l-umam.3.

Then he resolved to rise up in rebellion. in the beginning subscribed to the Imãmiyyah sect. If his work an-Nãsiriyyãt is studied. pp.25). and he prefers the Imãmī opinion. However. fiqh. p. and subsequently wrote those works of his. which he had written in conformity with the Imãmī religion. kalãm. vol. and al-Ibãnah which is combined with the commentary of Abū Ja‘far Muhammad ibn Ya‘qūb al-Hawsamī azZaydī (400/1010). Ibn Khaldūn.367. The Zaydī Imãm. which follow Zaydī beliefs. which combined knowledge of the Qur’ãn. hadīth. he was by then a Zaydī or at least apparently a Zaydī. and says: "This is all we have seen of his books: however some Zaydīs claim that he wrote about a hundred books. and laid claim to the Imãmate so that he could do so. piety." as-Sayyid al-Amīn has also given an extensive biography of him and has combined the history of his life with what was said of him and his sect. When he became a historical reality as a rebel.Imãmī Mutakallims 77 evident from what ash-Sharīf says that he was genuinely Imãmī." Brockelmann and Sezgin mention: al-Bisãt.3. It would appear to me that an-Nãsir.8. generosity and kindness. then subsequently as an imãm and a ruler. Perhaps he was one of those who believed that establishing justice – even to a restricted degree – permitted deceiving . and wrote those works which the Imãmiyyah attribute to him as being according to their beliefs. He mentions that he wrote fourteen books on fiqh. the Imãmī scholar. qualifies him with these words: "an-Nãsir li 'l-Haqq was a Zaydī Imãm who wrote many books among which was az-Zulãmatu 'l-Fãtimiyyah (The Wrongs Done Against Fãtimah [peace be upon her] and Her Progeny). He wrote several works. in which are brought together the distinguishing features of the Zaydī sect. either genuinely or out of necessity.82. it will be seen that he wrote it according to the wellknown beliefs of the Zaydiyyah and not those of the Imãmiyyah. as can be clearly seen from ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã's refutation in his marginalia to it known as al-Masãilu 'n-Nãsiriyyãt. p. (Ibn) an-Nadīm was of the opnion as this and mentioned him as being in the Zaydī sect. reports (akhbãr) and the Arabic language. vol. (561/1116–614/1217) says of him: "There was no equal to him in his time in courage. Ibn Shahrãshūb. literature.4. p. the Zaydīs claim that he is one of their Imãms. both in its principles and in its details.11). Ibnu 'l-Athīr and others say: "al-Utrūsh was of the Zaydī sect" (Ibnu 'l-Athīr. changed to the Zaydī sect. ‘Abdullãh ibn Hamzah al-Hasanī al-Qãsimī al-Mansūr Bi'llãh alYamãnī. indifference to worldly things. but we have not seen them. However. These conclusions depend on what was exctracted from the works. he was outstanding in poetry" (al-Jandãrī. vol. knowledge.

[an-Najãshī. Ibnu 'l-Athīr. SI.441. government scribes and even narrators and scholars of hadīth.22. p.] The Nawbakht Family This clan was connected with the ‘Abbãsids from the time they established their government in 132/739.2. and subsequently poets and writers appeared among them. vol.45-46. vol. p. pp. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. There was a man known as an astronomer. p.288-314 (last edition. and of those as-Sayyid as-Sadr mentions twenty-three individuals. as well as mutakallims. p. al-Jandãrī. ‘Umdatu 't-tãlib.5.32-33. Safīnatu 'l-bihãr. p. vol.2.256-8. Ta’sīsu 'sh- . Naqdu 'r-rijãl. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. vol.12.566-7. and among his works was a compilation of astronomical knowledge (see Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. Sezgin.23-24.252. pp. al-A‘lãm. pt.1.53. p. Ibn Dãwūd.3. vol.1. p. Bahru 'z-zakhkhãr.1-6. vol. Shuhãdau 'l-fadīlah.2.869). vol. (Ibn) an-Nadīm.2. vol.228. ad-Durru 'l-fãkhir. vol.1. p. we emphasize to those who were definitely mutakallims. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. It also appears that the scientific current among them continued right up to the 9th/13th century. vol. pp.1. 4th cent.92. vol. 3rd ed.232. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. (these last two say that an-Nãsir died when he was 99 years old and that he had been born c. 8. p. p. al-Kunã wa 'lalqãb. Ithãfu 'lmustarshidīn.215. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. but we shall restrict ourselves. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. Jãmi‘u 'rruwãt.8. see as-Sayyid Hasan as-Sadr. comm.119.30. p. who was apparently from this family. astronomers and philosophers. Majãlisu 'l-mu’minīn. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. pp.11. 659/1260).22. [For biographies of this family.3.117-28). pp. p.2. vol. Tãrīkhu 'l-Yaman.209. pp. pp. p. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.1. pp.127. vol. Ibn Abi 'l-Hadīd.78 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars others about one's beliefs if only to the extent of supporting the views of the Zaydiyyah and rejecting the divine designation (nass) of the Imãm.216.301-2. From the beginning there were individuals in this family who were physicians. pp. pp.267.244. vol. p. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah.81-83. 105.1. pp. quoted from Brockelmann. al-‘Allãmah. p. they had embraced this form of Islam. p. vol.205/820). The family was Imãmī Shī‘īs and right from the very beginning.44. Tarãjimu 'r-rijãl.1. pp. Their ancestors had had connections with asSaffãh and al-Mansūr and the caliphs after them. p. Here we shall content ourselves with mentioning the mutakallims from this family. pp. Sirru 's-silsilati 'l-‘Alawiyyah. 86.246. p.292-3.337-8.113-4. p. vol.320. of al-Azhãr. who was called Muhammad ibn Ya‘qūb ibn Nawbakht (fl. vol. p. vol.93.

vol. He narrated from the Imãms al-Kãzim and ar-Ridã (148/765–203/818). pious. and a mutakallim.6-bk. "He was trustworthy. a faqīh.1. vol.104-5. vol. peace be upon them both. p. He studied with ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd and alQãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr al-Mu‘tazilī. al-Ashfiyah fī ma‘ãni 'l-ghaybah (The Remedies Concerning the Signification of the Occultation). p. adh-Dharī‘ah. "He wrote a great number of books. Tawdīhu 'l-ishtibãh. Ma‘ãlimu 'l‘ulamã’. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. [at-Tūsī. vol.76. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.17).2.117. 294. pt. al‘Allãmah.220. pp.39-40. p. p.2. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. al-Hasan ibn Hamzah ibn ‘Alī ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Husayn. vol. vol.2. Īdãhu 'l-maknūn.Imãmī Mutakallims 79 Shī‘ah lī ‘ulūmi 'l-Islãm.51. Kitãb fi 'l-ghaybah.218. al-Fihrist. a faqīh. peace be upon them both. p. vol. ar-Rijãl. p.323-4.221.31. pp.6.268. al-‘Allãmah. Ibn Dãwūd. vol. at-Tūsī. 4th cent. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. vol.8687.] §67. p. 2. pp.25-28. vol.362-75.300-1. vol.83. pp.115.372. [an-Najãshī. p. ‘Abbãs Iqbãl.2. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. al-Fihrist. Abū Muhammad ar-Rãfiqī (c. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. Abū Muhammad at-Tabarī famous as al-Mar‘ash or al-Mur‘ish. an-Najãshī./1933AD).77-78. He was well educated. 3.73. among which are:1.1.3. 327. p.] .4. p. vol.2.3. a man of knowledge. p.115. ar-Rijãl. al-Hasan ibn ‘Anbas ibn Mas‘ūd ibn Sãlim ibn Muhammad ibn Sharīk.] §66. vol.242).1. with excellent qualities. vol.60-61. p. al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Yaqtīn al-Baghdãdī: The son of (§49).39.1.5. an ascetic person. pp. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.140.1.1. vol. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. 358/969): It is said of him: "One of the important people of this sect and of its faqīhs.87-88. Tabãshīru 'sh-sharī‘ah (Signs of the Truth of the Divine Law).271.96. 317.195. vol. p.384/994–485/1092): An Imãmī scholar and mutakallim. p.457-8. al-Karãjikī says: "I met him in ar-Rãfiqah (see §144/sec. vol. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. p. p. p. pp. p. p. pp. §68.2. p.465.274-5.36. and I saw that he had a large circle of students studying under him" (Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. as-Sayyid al-Amīn. pp. p. ad-Darajãtu 'rrafī‘ah. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. a man of letters. pp. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.111. pp.310. pp. Khãndãn-e Nawbakhtī (The Family of Nawbakhtī) – in Persian – Tehran (1311Sh. p. vol.5. pt. pp.2. alMar‘ashī or Mur‘ishī (d.16. p. Ibn Dãwūd..

240-2. faultless in kalãm. among the mutakallims of the Khawãrij.201.347. sun of Islam and the Muslims. vol. vol.] §70.1.105. Ta‘līqãtu 'n-naqd. Since the Imãmiyyah and the Mu‘tazilah.39. p.93-94. p. shared the same opinion in some matters.3.335.2. Lu’luatu 'l-bahrayn.7. p. 487.118.] §71.1. p. 489.219. vol." He studied with Shaykhu 't-Tãifh at-Tūsī all the latter's writings. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. among which are:1. Introduction to at-Tūsī's Rijãl. Abū ‘Alī an-Nahãwandī (4th/10th cent.466. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. pp. p. pp. p.374. vol. although he was merely an Imãmī.): an-Najãshī sys: "He was a mutakallim.3.328. trustworthy in narration. [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. pp.11. al-Hasan ibn al-Husayn ibn Bãbawayh al-Qummī. al-Bidãyah wa 'n-nihãyah. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. p.7. resident in Rayy but given the laqab "Hasakã" (d.4. the imãm. vol. al-Muntazim.146-8. vol. there was confusion as to who belonged to which group. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn.258. 512/1118): "The shaykh. vol. 3. vol. vol. Many similar examples can be found in subsequent biographers.3.1. al-Ihtijãj fi 'l-imãmah (The Controversy over the Imãmate). pt. a writer of books". pp. vol. vol. 476. p. p. al-Hasan ibn al-Husayn ibn ‘Alī ibn al-‘Abbãs ibn Ismã‘īl ibn Abī Sahl ibn Nawbakht. [al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb. the faqīh.2. al- . pp. and a writer of their books: Maqãllãtu 'l-Islãmiyyīn. Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidãl. 2. in relation to the Ash‘ariyyah.21. as it is mentioned "he was a Mu‘tazilī and a Rãfidite". al-Hasan ibn Muhammad. Ibn Dãwūd. vol.273. veracious.313-4.485. an-Naqd ‘alã Sa‘īd ibn Hãrūn al-Khãrijī fi 'l-hakamayn (The Refutation of Sa‘īd ibn Hãrūn al-Khãrijī [the Ibãdite. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.193. f. Abū Muhammad al-Kãtib an-Nawbakhtī (320/932–402/1012): He is counted among the Imãmī mutakallims.64. p. Tãrīkh Baghdãd. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. the mutakallim. Amalu 'l-ãmil." This cannot be right.1. b/569. al-Kãfī fī fasadi 'l-ikhtiyãr (The Sufficiency Concerning the Incorrectness of [the idea of] Free Choice). al-Lubãb.2.80 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars §69. al-Ansãb. p. vol. vol. and his non-Shī‘ī biographers say of him: "He was a Mu‘tazilī and a Rãfidite whose faith was ruined but he was truthful in (narration of) hadīth.2. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. Mustadraku 'lwasãil. vol. p.1. p. as well as studying with the two shaykhs Sãlãr ibn ‘Abdi 'l-‘Azīz and Ibn al-Barrãj all their writings.44. [an-Najãshī. p.299. p. and correct in hearing.269. vol.154. vol. p.186] Concerning the Two Arbitrators [at the Battle of Siffīn]). Khãndãn-e Nawbakhtī. p. p. a prominent figure.

204.287. hadīth and kalãm studied under him. vol. p. vol. vol. vol. c. 497.2. p. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. pp.234]) and Ishãq (ibn Hunayn al-‘Ibãdī [215/830–298/910]. vol.475-9.." A large group of students of fiqh. for the Nawbakhtī family were wellknown for their acceptance of the wilãyah (mastership) of ‘Alī and his . Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn." (Ibn) an-Nadīm mentions him and describes him as atTūsī does. Abū Muhammad an-Nawbakhtī (d. Tanqīhu 'lmaqãl.23]) and Thãbit (ibn Qurrah al-Harrãnī as-Sabi’ī [221/836–288/ 901]. pp. and other subjects. vol. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. p.282. 489.309.1. physician. and translators of books into Arabic. p. and the Shī‘ah claim him.4. philosophy and other subjects [Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn.310/922). Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. p. vol. faqīh. Amalu 'l-ãmil.3.2. vol.1. vol.2. trustworthy in narration and pious. vol. philosophy and mathematics. p. but he was really in the ranks of the Shī‘ah.] §73. in his lifetime he wrote around 150 books. .306. He studied with his father all the latter's writings. adding: "The Mu‘tazilah claim him. 66-67. pp. pt. and renowned translator. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah.1. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. and in his al-Fihrist: "He was a mutakallim and a philosopher. He was an Imãmī.1.2. p.2. pp.81-82.8.226. some defects of philosophy.32. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt.286. pp. he knew Greek and Syriac kkand had a flawless knowledge of literary Arabic. al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan. He wrote many books about kalãm. mutakallim. Ibn Hajar says: "He became a Shī‘ī faqīh and their leader after his father. vol.3. c.42. pt. p. p. narrator of hadīth. vol. (son of the sister of Abū Sahl an-Nawbakhtī): Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī says in his ar-Rijãl: "He was a trustworthy mutakallim". al-Hasan ibn Mūsã ibn al-Hasan ibn Muhammad. such as Abū ‘Uthmãn ad-Dimashqī (Sa‘īd ibn Ya‘qūb [fl. 484-5. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. philosopher. a group of translators of philosophy books used to gather at his house. p.218-9.1.115. ash-Shaykh Abū ‘Alī ibn Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī (d. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.5.5. p.76. p. vol. among them books on medicine. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil.98. vol.1. adhDharī‘ah. vol. p. p. vol.138-9.Imãmī Mutakallims 81 ‘Allãmah. vol.24.] §72. one of the most famous scholars of medicine. vol. . al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. 302/ 914] who lived in Baghdad and translated many books into Arabic. excellent in his beliefs . [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn.105.250. p. p.515/1121): A scholar.2.247. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. he translated many books and also wrote many of his own [al-A‘lãm. pp. 6th cent.101-2]) and others. vol. and translated many more [al-A‘lãm.1857.17.

p.) But it cannot be true that he studied with Abū Hãshim for the same reasons. 8. Majãlisuhu ma‘a Abu 'l-Qãsim al-Balkhī (His Discussions with Abu 'lQãsim al-Balkhī [al-Ka‘bī al-Mu‘tazilī. an-Naqd ‘alã Abu 'l-Hudhayl fi 'l-ma‘rifah (Disproof of What Abu 'lHudhayl Says about Recognition of Divine Realities). p. peace be upon them.1. 10." (Fadlu 'l-i‘tizãl wa dhikru 'l-Mu‘tazilah.188. p. ar-Radd ‘alã Abu 'l-Hudhayl al-‘Allãf fī anna na‘ima 'l-jannah munqati‘ (Refutation of Abu 'l-Hudhayl al-‘Allãf [leader of the Mu‘tazilah in his time. 12. Kitãb kabīr fi 'l-jabr (The Great Book on Predestination)." And Ibn Shahrãshūb says: "He was an Imãmī philosopher. and information concerning." an-Najãshī says: "He was our leader among the mutakallims. Masãiluhu li 'l-Jubbã’ī fī masãi shattã (Questioning of al-Jubbã’ī [Abū ‘Alī] on Diverse Matters). 3. vol. 7. the opinions and beliefs [of the mutakallims] was much greater than [that of] others. 273/836–319/931]). ar-Radd ‘alã Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī fī raddihi ‘ala 'l-munajjimīn (Refutation of Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī Concerning His Refutation of the Asronomers). which we mentioned under Abū Sahl an-Nawbakhtī. 5. alMunyah wa 'l-amal. 6. 11. surpassing of his kind in his time before the fourth century and after. Kitãb fi 'l-istitã‘ah ‘alã madhhab Hishãm wa kamã yaqulū bih (Book on Human Capacity to act According to the School of Hishãm [ibn alHakam – see §76] and he [Abū Muhammad] accepted what he [Hishãm] said about it).7]). al-Bahru 'z-zakhkhãr. 9. but they say that he was one of the Imãmiyyah. ar-Radd ‘alã ahli 't-ta‘jīz (Refutation of Believers in ta‘jīz [which apparently means the inability of men to perceive the realities. ." The Mu‘tazilah say that Abū Muhammad learnt from Abū Hãshim alJubbã’ī. who was previously mentioned in the biography of Abū Sahl ibn Nawbakht. being the dismissal of the writing of Abū ‘Īsã al-Warrãq – see §96-bk. Mukhtasaru 'l-kalãm fi 'l-jabr (The Concise Discussion or Predestination). ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-munajjimīn (Refutation of the Astronomers).82 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars descendants. 4. Ibnu 'l-Murtdã alMahdī az-Zaydī says of him: "His rank in knowledge of. at-Tawhīdu 'l-kabīr (The Great Book on Divine Unity). Among the many books which Abū Muhammad an-Nawbakhtī is reported to have written were:a) Divine Unity and related matters in philosophy and kalãm: 1.46. and one of the most famous of their imãms (135/753–235/850)] Concerning [his theory] that the Felicity of Paradise was Temporary).321. at-Tawhīdu 's-saghīr (The Lesser Book on Divine Unity). 2.

the view that the committer of great sins was neither a believer nor an unbeliever but somewhere between the two. 17. al-Jãmi‘ fi 'l-imãmah (The Complete Work About the Imãmate). 20. 16. 19. Fi 'r-radd ‘alã man qãla bi 'r-ru’yah li 'l-bãrī ‘azza wa jalla (Refutation of Those Who Claim that the Creator. ar-Radd ‘alã firaqi 'sh-Shī‘ah mã khalã’a 'l-Imãmiyyah (Refutation of Shī‘ah Sects. This is the belief of the Mu‘tazilah]). 18. b) Sects and other writings: 23. 215/830)] and Support for His Opinions). ar-Radd ‘alã ashãbi 't-tanãsukh (Refutation of Those Who Believe in the Transmigration of Souls). 21. an-Nukat ‘alã Ibn ar-Rawandī (Some Points Against Ibn ar-Rawandī). ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-mujassimah (Refutation of [God's] Corporeality). excellent book containing much knowledge. 25. ar-Radd ‘alã ashãbi 'l-manzilah bayna 'l-manzilatayn fi 'l-wa‘īd (Refutation of Those Who Believe in a Stage Between the Two Stages in Threats and Promise [i. ar-Radd ‘alã ahli 'l-mantiq (Refutation of the Logicians). al-Hujaj fi 'l-imãmah (Proofs of the Imãmate). Hujajun tabī‘iyyah mustakhrajah min kutubi Arastã[tã]līs fi 'r-radd ‘alã man za‘ama anna 'l-falak hayyun nãtiq (Proofs of Natural Science Extracted From the Books of Aristotle for the Refutation of Those Who Claim that the Celestial Spheres are Rational). 14. ar-Radd ‘alã Thãbit ibn Qurrah (Refutation of Thãbit ibn Qurrah). described by anNajãshī as "a great. 22.Imãmī Mutakallims 83 13. 29. can be Seen)." 24. 15. al-Ãrã’ wa 'd-diyãnãt (Opinions and Religions).. Firaqu 'sh-Shī‘ah (The Sects of the Shī‘ah). Ikhtisãr (al-kawn wa 'l-fasãd) li Arastã[tã]līs (Summary [of Generation and Corruption] According to Aristottle). al-Mūdih fī hurūbi Amīru 'l-Mu’minīn ‘alayhi 's-salãm Explanantion of . c) The Imãmate: 27. Apart From the Imãmiyyah). the Mu‘tazilī (d. The title of this work indicates that Abū Muhammad an-Nawbakhtī was here upholding the views of Mu‘ammar ibn ‘Abbãd against the other Mu‘tazilīs. 28. 26. al-Insãn (Man). Mu‘ammar ibn ‘Abbãd was the only Mu‘tazilī mutakallim to uphold the opnions of Hishãm ibn al-Hakam concerning the nature of man.e. al-Ihtijãj li Mu‘ammar ibn ‘Abbãd wa nusratu madhhabihi (The Argument in Favour of Mu‘ammar ibn ‘Abbãd [as-Sulamī. to Whom Belong Might and Majesty.

pp. vol. 35. al-‘Allãmah.2. Hibatullãh ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad. d) Discusssions in kalãm: 34. famous as Ibn Barniyyah (fl. p." . Sezgin.2. vol. a Khãrijite mutakallim (ash-Shahrastãnī. (Ibn) an-Nadīm.1. p. al-Fihrist.258.39. peace be upon him).462.118-9. vol. p. p. .26]).99.239. an-Najãshī. Abū Nasr al-Kãtib al-Baghdãdī. 32.99. p. pt. p. p. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah lī ‘ulūmi 'l-Islãm.1.1.2. author of many writings".1. ar-Radd ‘al 'l-Wãqifah (Refutation of al-Wãqifah see §96-bk. Sharh majãlisihi ma‘a Abū ‘Abdillãh ibn Mumlak (Commentary on His Discussion with Abū ‘Abdillãh ibn Mumlak [the Imãmī mutakallim – see §109]).258. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.298. pp. famous.143-4. Jawãbãtuhu li Abū Ja‘far ibn Qibah (His Answers to Abū Ja‘far ibn Qibah [the Imãmī mutakallim – see §112]).5. 539.5. p. vol. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. among which are: ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Wãqifah. al-‘Allãmah. vol.2. pp.2. Ibn Dãwūd. ar-Radd ala 'l-ghulãt (Refutation of the Extremists).156.1. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.] §74.71. vol. Among those who narrated from him was Muhammad ibn al-Hasan as-Saffãr (d. pp. vol.74. p.2. p. vol.138)] Concerning the Imãmate).125-65. Mu‘jam rijãli 'lhadīth. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. al-Fihrist. Ibn Dãwūd. pt. pp. 462. p. vol. [at-Tūsī.2. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. an-Naqd ‘alã Ja‘far ibn Harb fi 'l-imãmah (Refutation of Ja‘far ibn Harb [al-Mu‘tazilī al-Baghdãdī (177/793–236/850)] Concerning the Imãmate).42. p. adh-Dharī‘ah. vol.28. Amalu 'l-ãmil. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Ma‘ãlimu 'l‘ulamã’.228. vol. pp.157-8. an-Najãshī.311-2. . Jãmi‘u 'rruwãt. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.84 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars the Wars of Amīru 'l-Mu’minīn. Lisãnu lmīzãn. ar-Rijãl.311.1. al-A‘lãm. vol.234. ar-Rijãl. [at-Tūsī. p. vol. p.430. pp. pp. Khãndãn-e Nawbakhtī. p. 400/1010): an-Najãshī says: "He heard many ahãdīth. greatly knowledgeable and well-versed in hadīth. 30.] §75.227. pp. and he practised kalãm . Naqdu 'r-rijãl. p.2.49-50.33. I.3.146.78-79.369-70. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. vol. p. p. p. vol.225-6. p. al-Hasan ibn Mūsã al-Khashshãb: One of the companions o f the Imãm al-‘Askarī. pp. Jawãbãt ukhar lahu (Other Answers to Him). 33. 31. ar-Radd ‘alã Yahyã ibn Asfah fi 'l-imãmah (Refutation of Yahyã ibn Asfah [Abū Zakariyyã.119. peace be upon him: "Among our prominent co-sectarians. p. 290/903). Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. 36. 33.

adh-Dhahabī. Tabaqãtu 'l-mufassirīn. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.'" [an-Najãshī. pp. p.2.Imãmī Mutakallims 85 [an-Najãshī.82. Siyar a‘lãmi 'n-nubalã’.343. vol.6. pt.100.82. vol.] §76. p. Abū Muhammad al-Juwãliqī al-Ju‘fī alKūfī: (No biography. p.64. vol. who knew kalãm. the government scribe (al-kãtib).380. p. p.2. Abū Muhammad al-Kindī. Amī al-Mu’minīn." [(Ibn) an-Nadīm. Abū Muhammad alBaghdãdī (d. ‘Alī ibn Husayn ibn Mūsã az-Zarrãd [narrated from him and said: 'His name was Muhammad and his laqab was Hubaysh. Abū ‘Abdillãh ath-Thaqafī. He wrote a book of great excellence called Akhbãru 's-Salaf (Reports concerning the Predecessors) in which he made accusations against the predecessors of ‘Alī.297. vol. vol. Hishãm ibn Sãlim. vol.4.1. originally at-Tūsī. vol.179. and Ibn Mãjah included narrations from him [in his Sunan].212.3.) §78. p. p." . al-Kūfī (c.189/805): (No biography. ad-Dãwūdī. p.1. vol. p.1. but he did not reach the degree of Ja‘far and had less knowledge than him. p. p.19. The famous Mu‘tazilī mutakallim (Ibn) an-Nadīm mentioned him when he gave the biography of his brother. vol. Ja‘far: "He had a brother who was known as Hubaysh. p. counted among the respected scholars of Baghdad.549. p.254. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. then al-Baghdãdī (d. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.366-7. and Ibn Hibbãn included him among the trustworthy. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. p.121.2. p. Ibn Dãwūd. .2. al-Khatīb and Ibnu 'l-Jawzī said: "He was an eminent faqīh.146. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.125. p. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. p.235.290. Abū ‘Abdillãh. Ibn Hajar. was a cosectarian of ours who narrated many non-Imãmite Traditions. p. Tawdīhu 'l-ishtibãh. Ibn Dãwūd. . Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. (#. p.354.1. Naddu 'l-īdãh.311. 258/872): He was a brother of Ja‘far ibn Mubashshir. Hishãm ibn al-Hakam. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. .) §77.263. vol. [and he was] a brother of Ja‘far ibn Mubashshir. a brother of Ja‘far ibn Mubashshir. ash-Shaybãnī. peace be upon him. p. 234/848). vol.308.332.] Non-Imãmīs also wrote biographies of him. adh-Dharī‘ah. vol.208." ad-Dãrqutnī said: "He was a trustworthy man. al-‘Allãmah.2.368. p.379). Hubaysh ibn Mubashshir ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad. 524. al-‘Allãmah.10. p. p. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.] an-Najãshī said: "Hubaysh ibn Mubashshir. pt. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.105/723–c.

vol. vol. p.37-38.336.194 [Paris ed.1. and between them there were debates. a brother of Ja‘far ibn Mubashshir.8. vol. whose laqab was Hubaysh.4. the faqīh.415-7. pp. Ja‘far. p.107. al-‘Allãmah says: "He was a faqīh and a mutakallim. Muhammad ibn Mubashshir ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad. al-Husayn ibn ‘Alī ibn al-Husayn. vol." (Tãrīkh Baghdãd.443].139) Ismã‘īl Pãshã al-Baghdãdī said: "Hubaysh.1. He elsewhere gave this title: "Akhbãru 's-Salaf fī tarãjimi 'r-rijãl [compare with an-Najãshī above] by Abū ‘Abdillãh. .8). . and one of his immediate followers. al-Manhaju 'l-Ahmad. . p. ath-Thiqãt. who opposed his brother. (Tabaqãtu 'lHanãbilah. pp. Tahdhību 'l-kamãl. Abū ‘Abdillãh.3. vol. vol.] al-Khatīb said in his biography of his brother Ja‘far: "He was a brother of Hubaysh ibn Mubashshir. mutual hatred. a mutakallim and a faqīh (d. .2. Muhammad ibn Mubashshir. ath-Thaqafī. He wrote several books. at-Tūsī. one of ‘ulamã’ of the Traditionalists and a leader among the literalists (hashwiyyah). ." (Īdãhu 'l-maknūn. p. vol.) The Hanbalites also mention him: ". author of Akhbãru 's-Salaf.52.331. and wide differences for a long time. pt. p.147. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. p.2. vol. originally at-Tūsī. vol. the Shī‘ī.266. and each of them swore not to speak to the other till he returned to his Creator. vol. one of the clever and ascetic Mu‘tazilī ‘ulamã’. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. vol. p. al-‘Allãmah. the faqīh.1. when he mentioned those brothers who were members of different sects: "Likewise were Ja‘far ibn Mubashshir." Thus they counted him among the co-sectarians of Ahmad ibn Hanbal.1. Tahdhību 't-tahdhīb. p.. who related from our imãm some narrations . famous as Hubaysh.246. vol.] §80. Abū ‘Abdillãh ibn Bãbūyah . Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn.194.52.8. vol.187-8. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. who was a Shī‘ī. p.7.248." (Murūju 'dh-Dhahab.272.): anNajãshī says: "He was a trustworthy mutakallim who resided in Egypt .5. (where he is called Ibn Mubashshir ibn al-Ward).1.1. pp. . read 258].2. p. vol.195.2. al-Ikmãl. p." (Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. vol. p. Akhbãru 'l-qudãt. vol. adh-Dharī‘ah. Hubaysh ibn Mubashshir. vol.162) al-Mas‘ūdī said.]). the mutakallim. vol.2. p.5. p. alBaghdãdī.42). 248/862) among whose many writings was a book called al-Imãmah – see al-A‘lãm.86 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars [Tãrīkh Baghdãd. Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Misrī (3rd/9th cent. p. and his brother." [an-Najãshī. p. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. §79. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. vol. al-Husayn ibn ‘Alī.217. p.38-39. p. pp.2. p. died 158 [sic. vol.2.10. including: Kitãbu 'l-Imãmah wa 'r-radd ‘ala 'lKarãbīsī (Book on the Imãmate and Refutation of al-Karãbīsī [al-Husayn ibn ‘Alī ash-Shãfi‘ī.

306. p..Imãmī Mutakallims 87 (Bãbawayh) al-Qummī (d. al-Hãfiz al-Ash‘arī ash-Shãfi‘ī [392/1002– 463/1072]). in fact. vol. he used to call and argue in favour of it. p. p.1. But al-Khatīb is mistaken when he mixes Shī‘ism and Mu‘tazilism in the belief of as-Samsãmī. al‘Allãmah.125-6. but he manifested stupidity and evinced ignorance in what he embraced. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn." al-Khatīb related that he used to say that his father was from Qum. al-Husayn ibn al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Bundãr ibn Bãd ibn Būyah (?) (Ibn Bãbawayh [?]). vol. p. an Imãmī. vol.2. since this was the belief of all the people of Qum. an-Najãshī says: "Trustworthy.248-9. vol. Ibn Dãwūd."'" (Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. pt. known as al-Qãdī: Ibn Hajar says: "Ibn Abī Tayyi’ mentions him among the Shī‘ī scholars (rijãl). Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.2. 4th cent. p. 418/1027): The son of §40 and brother of §120. vol. pp. p." (Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Anmãtī. it is to be expected that al-Khatīb should ascribe "stupidity and ignorance" to him.275. al-Husayn ibn Barakah al-Halabī: A faqīh and mutakallim. p. adh-Dharī‘ah. "and he embraced Mu‘tazilism and Shī‘ism. . Ahmad ibn ‘Alī ibn Thãbit.108. p.190. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. famous as Ibn Ahmã as-Samsãmī (351/962–439/1048): al-Khatīb gives his biography and mentions that he collected hadīth from many narrators. vol. al-Karãjikī (see §122) mentions this in (the account of) his travels. We have given many examples of such errors in our previous discussion.275) §83.2.487.2. p. We know that if as-Samsãmī had held the belief of the enemies of the Imãms of the Ahlu 'l-Bayt.] §81.50. vol.4. He wrote Kitãbu 'n-Nibrãs fi 'r-radd ‘alã ahli 'l-qiyãs (Book of Light in Refutation of the Upholders of Analogical Reasoning [in Law]). [an-Najãshī.6. he has many books. p. . Therefore. as-Samsãmī was. Ibn Hajar wrote a biography of him in which he said: "Ibn Abī Tayyi’ mentions him among the Imãmī Shī‘ah. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah.54. peace be .) §82.1. and says: 'He was the patron of the Dãru 'l-‘Ilm (House of Knowledge) in Tripoli . al-Husayn ibn Bishr ibn ‘Alī ibn Bishr at-Tarãbulusī. and says: "He was judged to be more advanced in his knowledge than al-Khatīb." Among his books is at-Tawhīd wa nafyi 't-tashbīh (Divine Unity and the Denial of Anthropomorphization). pp.2. p. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.115.338. vol.45. He held debates with al-Khatīb al-Baghdãdī (Abū Bakr.

vol. revered.23. vol. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. vol. p. well-read. pp.8. and in Baghdad he could not have written all his works (see §126). Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. pp. p.5. al-Husayn ibn al-Muzaffar ibn ‘Alī Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Hamdãnī al-Qazwīnī (d. Lisãnu 'lmīzãn.121-2. a Shãfi‘ī scholar faqīh. al‘Allãmah.1.1. al-Ansãb.1. but the entry is incomplete.133.1. 462-3. pp.2. p. and outstanding in debate. Tawdīhu 'l-ishtibãh. Maqãlãtu 'l-Islãmiyyīn. al-Hãfiz al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Muhammad al-Baghdãdī (363/974–4541062). an author of books. vol." But some question the reliability of the report of this period.] §84.2. .88 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars upon them. al-Lubãb. pp. Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidãl. because Shaykhu 't-Tãifah did not reside for thirty years in an-Najaf al-Ashraf. an-Najãshī.127.35. Then he returned to Qazwīn and died there. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. Tãhir ibn ‘Abdillah al-Baghdãdī (348/960–450/1058). al-Khatīb would have not made such an accusation against him.167-8. a scholar. and Abū Muhammd al-Jawharī. pp. [Tãrīkh Baghdãd. I believe the intention of the author was to say that the period of his study – which was thirty years – ended in an-Najaf al-Ashraf.2. al-Muntazim. not that that were all in an-Najaf al-Ashraf.328. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. [at-Tūsī. Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī says: "He resided in Samarqand and Kishsh (Kiss).35-36. p. pp. and mentioned that he traveled to Iraq and heard traditions from al-Qãdī Abu 'tTayyib at-Tabarī.429. Ibn Dãwūd. p.202-4. vol. a debater. pp. pp.] §85. vol. ar-Rãfi‘ī wrote his biography in at-Tadwīn fī tãrīkh Qazwīn. and ashShahrastãnī names his father "Ishkãb"." al-Ash‘arī and ash-Shahrastãnī count him among the authors of Imãmiyyah books. p. who studied under at-Tūsī all of the latter's works in thirty years in al-Ghariyy (= an-Najaf al-Ashraf). al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. ar-Rijãl. an important figure.219.2.): He was one of the companions of al-Imãm Abū Muhammad al-‘Askarī (232/ 846–260/874).1. the Ismã‘īlites]) and Nusratu 'l-haqq (Support of the Truth).49-50. vol. subtle in kalãm.105.277. p. pt.190. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. vol. a faqīh. vol.246-7. vol. vol.8. a scholar of hadīth. a mutakallim. vol..532.320-1.1. He had some works among which were: Hatk asrãri 'l-Bãtiniyyah (Disclosure of the Secrets of the Bãtinites [i. p. p. pp. al-Milal wa 'n-nihal.102. vol.8. 498/1104-5) (the son of §148): Muntajabu 'd-Dīn says: "He was trustworthy (in the narration of hadīth). p." And an-Najãshī says: "A most trustworthy and well-proved man.35-36. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. al-Husayn ibn Ishkīb al-Marwazī as-Samarqandī (3rd/9th cent. pp. vol.126-7. [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.e.

the Awaited Proof.159-60. the freed-slave of Banū Asad.240 (footnote). 2nd ed. learning. vol.8. p. vol. letters.68. one of their faqīhs and scholars of hadīth. adh-Dharī‘ah. p. vol. vol.. vol. pp.1. vol. Amalu 'l-ãmil. 3. p.] §86.6.359-62. vol.2. al-Husayn ibn Nu‘aym as-Sahhãf al-Asadī al-Kūfī: an-Najãshī said: "Trusworthy. and among his books were:1. Muhammad ibn ‘Abduh said: '‘Abdu 'r-Rahmãn ibn Nu‘aym as-Sãhhãf. 5th cent. p. pp. p. truthful and pious.25.94-95. vol. Khãndãn-e Nawbakhtī. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. pp.'" [an-Najãshī. in fiqh. Abū ‘Abdillãh alGhadãirī al-Baghdãdī (d.26. pp. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. pp. vol. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. vol.108-11. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. Fihrist asmã’ rijãlī 't-tadwīn. Kashfu 't-tamwīh wa 'l-ghummah (The Uncovering of Falsification and Distress).4.53-54 (#. ‘Adadu 'l-aimmah wa-mã shadda‘ala 'l-musannifīn min dhãlik (The Number of the Imãms and the Irregularities Among Writers in This Matter).] §88. .204-5.6. pt. p.387. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-ghulãt wa 'l-mufawwidah (Refutation of Extremism and Mufawwidah [those who believed that Allãh left the governance of the ..412.] §87. . Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. after the death of ash-Shaykh Abū Ja‘far Muhammad ibn ‘Uthmãn al-‘Amrī (d. [Refer for the history and problems of his deputyship to: al-Bihãr. p.24. p. had a continued line of descendence. 326/938): One of the most knowledgeable of the Nawbakhtīs. peace be upon him. he had extensive knowledge of hadīth.345. He was entrusted with deputyship by the twelth Imãm.21238. p. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. peace be upon him. vol. pp. al-Husayn ibn ‘Ubaydillãh ibn Ibrãhīm. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.4. p.2. during the time of his minor occultation. al-Lubãb. pp. p. .137-8.2. al-Ansãb. pp. vol.68-78.39. Diyãfatu 'l-ikhwãn. He was a faqīh and a mutakallim. eminent. and had heard many.120). vol. 305/917). he and his brothers ‘Alī and Muhammad narrated from Abū ‘Abdillãh [as-Sãdiq]. al-Husayn ibn Rūh ibn Abī Bahr an-Nawbakhtī (d. and his brother al-Husayn was a proficient mutakallim.103. pp.255.175. He is counted as a mutakallim. 411/1020): One of the prominent Imãmī scholars.1. 2.1.Imãmī Mutakallims 89 p.51.287]: Ta‘līqãtu 'nnaqd. and for his biography to: Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah lī ‘ulūmi 'l-Islãm.24 [from the Alexandrian mnuscript of at-Tadwīn.

16. vol. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. p. vol. p. vol. vol.2. peace be upon him. vol.27.11. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn.1. p.1. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. p. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. p. p. pp. vol. pp.106. letters.54-55. an-Najãshī.2. vol.10.6. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Ibrãhīm ibn Sulaymãn ibn (Abī) Dãhah. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah.214. pt. p.312-4. Abū ‘Ubaydillãh alMuzanī al-Basrī: He narrated from Abū ‘Abdillãh as-Sãdiq. p.26.12. pp. pp. p.94. Ibn Dãwūd.4. p.90 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars universe to the Prophet and the Imãms]). p. p. Ibn Dãwūd.333. [an-Najãshī.18. p.2.182-3. vol. and concerning him as described by at-Tūnakī. al-‘Allãmah. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. vol. vol. pp. He is the author of ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-ghãliyah wa Abi 'l-Khattãb wa ashãbihi (Refutation of the Extremist. and poetry. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. p. a Rãfidī.15. Ibrãhīm ibn Abī Hafs.351-60." [an-Najãshī p.. (83/702–148/765).] al-Jãhiz (150/767–255/869) mentions him.92. al-A‘lãm.3. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. 297.] I §90. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. al-‘Allãmah.5. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. al-Fihrist. p. jurist and mutakallim. Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidãl. al-Fihrist.4.16.145-6. p. Mu‘jamu 'l-musannīfīn. [Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah.1.1. p. at-Tūsī.358. a prominent figure among the companions of Abū Muhammad al-‘Askarī. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. vol. vol. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. vol. Ma‘mar . pp.308.374. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. vo. pp.470-1. p.1.496. kalãm. vol. vol.30. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.19-21. Ibrãhīm ibn Ja‘far ibn Ahmad ibn Ibrãhīm ibn Nawbakh: Grandson of (§27) scholar. p.2.6. He wrote several books.1. vol.24.1." [at-Tūsī.5. p.263. Ibn Dãwūd. p.2. Mu‘jam rijãli 'lhadīth. p. vol.2. pp. vol. adh-Dharī‘ah.25-26.1. vol. vol. adh-Dharī‘ah.22. pt. p. vol.] §89. vol.2. vol.2. It is said of him: "He was one of the most distinguished of the Imãmiyyah in our science from al-Basrah: in fiqh.44-45.88. p.1. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. Amalu 'l-ãmil.1. vol.1. pt. p.61.32. ar-Rijãl.15. and he used to attend the sessions of Abū ‘Ubaydah.1. vol.2. p.18. Hadiy-yatu 'l-‘ãrifīn.2. and Abu 'l-Khattãb and his Companions). Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. p. 5th cent.10. p. p. peace be upon him (232/846–260/874).35. vol. p. Īdãhu 'l-maknūn. at-Tūsī. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.9.232. vol. p. p.] §91. p. al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb. p. p. p.288-9. vol.64. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.246. p. al-‘Allãmah. vol. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. p.212. pp. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. and he says that he was a Shī‘ī.3.50. Abū Ishãq al-Kãtib: Shaykhu 't-Tãifah and an-Najãshī say: "Reliable. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.541.

1.261.201. pp.153. 62.54. Naddu 'līdãh. both of them have long and short books on beliefs in both Arabic and Persian. He was also the author of a book on the Imãmate.4. al‘Allãmah. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. p.163) p. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. vol. pt.91. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'lhadīth. Ishãq ibn al-Hasan ibn Bakrãn.39.212-3. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.3. pp.300/913–c.2. pt.186-7. [an-Najãshī.1.1. [an-Najãshī. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. p. p.82. may Allãh bless him and his progeny and preserve them).. p. pp. §98).24. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.426. p.57.205. 5th cent.350-1.2. (Ismã‘īl. Tawdīhu 'l-ishtibãh. vol. Ishãq ibn Muhammad.81. vol. ash-Shaykh Abū Tãlib [the brother of §98]: Muntajabu 'd-Dīn says: "They (two brothers) studied with ash-Shaykh Abū Ja‘far at-Tūsī all the latter's writings. §92.44. p. p. p. pp.1.269.31. Abū Sa‘d as-Sammãn ar-Rãzī . p. pp. pp. salla 'llãhu ‘alayhi wa ãlihi wa sallam (Denial of Forgetfulness in the Prophet.60-61. vol.142.3. ‘Īsã ibn Rawdah: He was a companion or the chamberlain of alMansūr. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.402-3.2.32. vol. p. vol.3." [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. 2.2. p.53-54. Ibn Dãwūd. vol.1134. p. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah.105. Nafyu 's-sahw ‘ani 'n-nabiyy.. p. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.225-6. vol. p.1.Imãmī Mutakallims 91 ibn al-Muthannã (110/728–209/824). vol. p. p. and had a long life. al-Jãhiz narrates from him (al-Bayãn wa 't-tabyīn. p. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.61).206.267.68-69. the ‘Abbãsid caliph (95/714 – caliphate 136/754–158/775). He was a mutakallim who excelled in his art. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. Introduction to at-Tūsī's Rijãl.33. p. vol. p. vol.] §94. 169.2.6. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.10. and it is mentioned of him that he sometimes discussed the Imãmate with al-Mansūr. p. al-Haywãn.1.121. p.1. Ismã‘īl ibn ‘Alī ibn al-Husayn. vol. vol. vol.] §93. (§94).2. Among his books were:1.39.6501.84. pp. vol. 4th cent. vol. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. vol. Abu 'l-Husayn al-‘Aqrã’ī atTammãr al-Kūfī (c. (#.] §95.42-43. vol. pp. pp.12.390.1. p. Ibn Dãwūd. §94). adh-Dharī‘ah. pp. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-ghulãt (Refutation of Extremists). (Ishãq.61.400/1010): A collector of hadīth who heard many narrations. pp.1. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah li ‘ulūmi 'l-Islãm. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. pp. vol. pt. Amalu 'l-ãmil. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. vol.

Safīnatu 'n-najãt (The Ship of Safety) on the Imãmate. They also say he was a leader of the "‘Adliyyah wa 'l-Mu‘tazilah". He wrote a short work on this topic However. Kitãbu 'r-Rashãd (Book of Guidance) in fiqh. 8. The Imãmī biographers have written his life and have described him just as we have done. it is said that the number of them was some 3. and they have exaggerated about the number of shaykhs with whom he studied. was pious. He wrote:1. in the language of the Mu‘tazilah meant compulsion (jabr). 3. Kitãbu 'l-Hajj (Book of Pilgrimage). The Hanafīs even count him as one of them. al-Madkhal (an introduction to grammer [syntax]. and in the Zaydī fiqh. and have said that he was a great memorizer of traditions who travelled extensively within Iraq.000 or 3. Kitãbu 's-Salãt (Book of Prayer). a commentator of the Qur’ãn. we have found ourselves obliged to accept what the Imãmīs . 2.92 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars (363/974–447/1055): He was one of the great memorizers of hadīth. and they understood a 'qadarī' to be one who believed in qadar. and they express the firm opinion that he was Imãmī. "The two Sayyids: al-Murtadã and al-Mujtabã. see §10) from the man himself. exerted himself. and a Mu‘tazilī scholar. that he met narrators and shaykhs (of hadīth). and 9. al-Misbãh (The Lamp) on worship. faqīh and mutakallim who spread the Mu‘tazilī dosctrine. that he disdained the things of this world. while to their opponents it meant the denier of qadar. that he was a leader in the sciences of fiqh especially in the fiqh of Abū Hanīfah and his companions. al-Bustãn fī tafsīri 'l-Qur’ãn. the sons of ad-Dã‘ī alHusaynī ar-Rãzī. and have described him as being truthful and trustworthy (in narration of hadīth). fasted and kept his prayers. and a memorizer (of hadīth). have informed us of this from ash-Shaykh al-Hãfz al-Mufīd Abū Muhammad ‘Abdu 'r-Rahmãn ibn Ahmad an-Naysãbūrī (ar-Rãzī. Syria.500. which. a faqīh and a mutakallim. the Hijãz and the countries of the Maghrib as well as Iran. an-Nūr (The Light) on preaching. 4. He held that man was responsible for his own actions and denied qadar. quite emphatically reliable." Non-Imãmīs have written about him. and in the differences in legal opinion between Abū Hanīfah and ash-Shaãfi‘ī. They say that he was a leader without rival in the different styles of recitation (of the Qur’ãn). ar-Riyãd (The Walled Garden) in hadīth. 7. 6. in search of hadīth. ash-Shaykh Muntajabu 'dDīn says of him: "He was the leading Qur’ãnic commentator. 5.

Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.. p.2. while the non-Imãmīs show confusion about his legal school.205-6.39. pt. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. whether he was Hanafī or Zaydī. he must surely have been providing a cover for himself and the success of his mission in his very extensive travel and his mixing with this formidable number of scholars of hadīth and fiqh who differed in their schools and sects. p. especially with the hostility that existed towards the Shī‘ah in general and the Imãmiyyah among them in particular. vol. and especially on the Imãmate.2. vol. p. 6th cent. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. A‘yãnu . vol. and Ta‘līqãtu 'n-naqd.210-1. pp. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. because in his family there was someone who was Shī‘ī. even Imãmī. p.148. which seems to us the most likely. vol.375-6. p. pt. because they express firm opinions in what they say about him.2. Amalu 'l-ãmil. p.Imãmī Mutakallims 93 said. which faced as-Sammãn in these very extensive scientific journeys.99.140. vol.105. vol.1. [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. vol. see also al-Ansãb. Abū Sa‘d as-Sammãn ar-Rãzī (463/1071– after 537/1143).270. pp.113.268. p. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. However.7.1. vol. that is.146. but 443/1051. Amalu 'l-ãmil. p. p.2. and this is confirmed by what Muntajabu 'd-Dīn says about him and the length he goes to provide evidence for this view.1. firstly. memorizer (of the Qur’ãn). vol.1. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. p.3. vol. and that was the least of the difficulties. pious. And if they had known his inner secrets. Secondly.295.3. pp.) Abū Sa‘d died in Shãm (Syria) far from his homeland. It is clear from what the Imãmīs considered him to be pursuing in his books on fiqh and kalãm. vol. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. p.293. because Abū Sa‘d as-Sam‘ãnī (506/ 1113–562/1167) met in Rayy one of his family. as for his appearing to be a Hanafī and a Mu‘tazilī (and it seems from his behaviour that he appeared to be a Mu‘tazilī particularly in his own country). p. Yahyã ibn Tãhir ibn alHusayn ibn ‘Alī ibn al-Husayn." (at-Tahbīr – Mashyakhatu 's-Sam‘ãnī.) Muntajabu 'd-Dīn gives the biography of another member of his family: "The faqīh.. faqīh. the grandson of the brother of Abū Sa‘d (the biographer) and he described him as: "One of those with Shī‘ī and Mu‘tazilī tendencies. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.152. the least they would have done would have been to deny him access to them.168.16. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. that there can be no room left for doubt or scepticism about his beliefs. 5th cent. vol. who wrote books on fiqh. but they differ in dating his death.2." He was one of ash-Shaykh Muntajabu 'd-Dīn's contemporaries (Muntajabu 'd-Dīn.280.105. Some say 447/1055. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Abu 'n-Najm Muhammad ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Wahhãb ibn ‘Īsã asSammãn (ar-Rãzī). vol.1. 445/1053 and 450/1058 are also mentioned. p.

94 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars 'sh-Shī‘ah.1." (Ibn) an-Nadīm says: "He was among the great Shī‘ī figures. Abū ‘Alī. p.73.9.35-38." The Mu‘tazilī authors mention that he acquired his knowledge from Abū Hãshim ibn Abī ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī (‘Abdu 's-Salãm ibn Muhammad ibn Abdi 'lWahhãb [277/890–321/933]. al-Jawãhiru 'l-mudiyyah fī tabaqãti 'l-Hanafiyyah. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. .115-6.209. vol. p. as-Sifãt (Divine Attributes).321. Fī istihãlat ru’yati 'l-qadīm ta‘ãlã (On the Impossibility of Seeing the Eternal.156-7. al-Ansãb.1890. pp. p. p. He was given much respect in worldly and in religious life. p. a poet.156. p. as can be seen from the list of his books.421-2. p.1. p. Tadhkiratu 'l-huffãz.1.5. ar-Radd ‘alã ashãbi 's-sifãt (Refutation of the Believers in the Independence of Divine Attributes).38-39. al-Munyah wa 'l-amal. pp.12. al-Wãfī bi 'l-wafayãt. vol.1. vol. vol.209-10. he was erudite. vol. He was the foremost of the Nawbakhtīs in his time. Abū Sahl an-Nawbakhtī al-Baghdãdī (237/851–311/923): Shaykhu 'tTãifah at-Tūsī. an-Najãshī. 340. pp. p.1. Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidãl. Kashfu z-zunūn. pp. vol. p. pp. vol.3.1121-3. But this cannot be true. vol. 602.39.12. vol. 5th cent. pp.3. pp. the leader of the Mu‘tazilah after his father) (Fadlu 'l-i‘tizãl wa dhikru 'l-Mu‘tazilah. Tabaqãtu 'l-huffãz.3.3." as-Safadī says: "He was one of the Imãmī Shī‘ī mutakallims. al-‘Ibar. 4.32. p.2. and he used to hold sessions at which the mutakallim community were present. he was erudite and learned.18. pp. Tabaqãtu 'l-mufassirīn.2. vol. . Ismã‘īl ibn ‘Alī ibn Ishãq ibn Abī Sahl ibn Nawbakht. an-Nujūmu 'z-zãhirah. the Sublime). vol. ar-Risãlatu 'l-mustatrafah. al-A‘lãm. vol. He has many writings in the science of kalãm to his credit . He was an author. al-‘Allãmah al-Hillī and others say: "He was the chief of the mutakallims of the Imãmī scholars in Baghdad. 3. pp. Īdãhu 'l-maknūn. at-Tawhīd (Divine Unity).210.7. a mutakallim. pp. an orator and a narrator of traditions. p. p. and the most illustrious of them.65. and he held debates and discussions with Abū ‘Alī. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. vol.. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. because Abū Sahl an-Nawbakhtī was of the generation of this person's father.316. p. and used to hold sessions at which the mutakallims were present. . Ibn Kathīr.430-1. Shadharãtu 'dh-dhahab.] §96.28). vol. Hudūthu 'l-‘ãlam (The Coming into Existence of the Universe). 2. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. 5.1. vol. vol.1. vol. vol. and he wrote many books.59.109-10. vol.281. Tahdhīb Tãrīkh Ibn ‘Asãkir.181.2. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. p.51. Among his many books were:a) Unity and related matters in philosophy and kalãm: 1.

Majãlisuhu ma‘a Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī bi 'l-Ahwãz (His Discussions with Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī [Muhammad ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Wahhãb (235/849–303/ 916). Majãlis Thãbit ibn Qurrah (The Sessions of Thãbit ibn Qurrah [alHarrãnī as-Sãbi‘ī (221/836–288/901). may Allãh bless him and his progeny and grant them peace). the leader of the Mu‘tazilah in his time] in Ahwãz). He was a Mu‘tazilī to begin with. becoming an apostate from Islam and disputing its principles and its commands. even it is said. al-Hikãyah wa 'l-mahkiyy (Concerning the Problem of the Original [Qur’ãn] and the Words [of the Qur’ãn and their Eternity]). an-Nafy wa 'l-ithbãt (Disproof and Proof). al-Irjã’ (The Belief of the Murji’ites). He became famous through his poems of asceticism. wa 'l-asmã’ wa 'l-ahkãm (Particulars and General Terms. the famous poet. 10. 14. then he turned against them and challenged their views. al-Ma‘rifah (Recognition of the Divine Realities). 247/861)] Concerning the Eternity of Bodies While He had Established the Existence of Contingents). 9. Naqd mas’alah Abū ‘Īsã al-Warrãq fī qidãmi 'l-ajsãm ma‘a ithbãtihi 'la‘rãd (Disproof of the Opinion of Abū ‘Īsã al-Warrãq [al-Mu‘tazilī alBaghdãdī (d. b) Prophethood: 16. 7. 17. 12. 11. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Mujabbirah fi 'l-makhlūk wa 'l-istitã‘ah (Refutation of the Believers in Predestination about [their Belief that the Actions of] Created Beings [have been created by Allãh] and about [their Belief Concerning] Capacity for Action). ar-Radd ‘alã Abu 'l-‘Atãhiyyah fi 't-tawhīd fī shi‘rihi (Refutation of Abu 'l-‘Atãhiyyah on tawhīd in his Poems). Tathbītu 'r-risãlah (Confirmation of the Message. mathematician and philosopher]). or Proofs for the Prophethood of the Holy Prophet.] 15. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-yahūd (Refutation of the Jews). Ibn ar-Rawandī (ar-Rawandī or ar-Riwandī) al-Marwazī (from Marwu 'r-Rūdh) al-Baghdãdī (205/820– 245/859 or 298/910). It appears that . Nouns and Predicates). [Ismã‘īl ibn Abi 'l-‘Atãhiyyah al-Qãsim ibn Suwayd al-‘Anazī al-Kūfī. the famous physician.Imãmī Mutakallims 95 6. c) Refutation of Ibn ar-Rawandī: This man was Ahmad ibn Yahyã ibn Ishãq. 13. then al-Baghdãdī (130/748–211/826). 8. which he composed at the end of his life when he turned to piety and asceticism. al-Khusūs wa 'l-‘umūm.

ar-Radd ‘ala 'lghulãt (Refutation of the Extremists). ar-Radd ‘ala 't-Tãtarī fi 'l-imãmah (Refutation of at-Tãtarī [‘Alī ibn alHasan al-Wãqifī. . p. ar-Radd ‘alã Muhammad ibn al-Azhar (Perhaps Abū Ja‘far al-Kãtib alBaghdãdī [200/815–279/892] Concerning the Imãmate).18)] Concerning Analogical Reasoning). (see alA‘lãm. Naqd (‘Abathu 'l-hikmah) ‘alã Ibn ar-Rawandī (Disproof of Ibn arRawandī's [Book] ‘Abathu 'l-hikmah [That the Wisdom (of Allãh) is Only in Play]). the qãdī (judge) of Basrah. p. at-Tanbīh fi 'l-imãmah (Remark Concerning the Imãmate). 31. and Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. 26. 20.283. 19. vol. (al-Kalãm fi) 'l-insãn wa 'r-radd ‘alã Ibn ar-Rawandī (Discussion about Man and the Refutation of Ibn ar-Rawandī). 221/836). 24.3. 30. al-Jumal fi 'l-imãmah (The Important Points Concerning the Imãmate). Abū Mūsã al-Baghdãdī the Hanafite (d. and "held to" (waqafa) the Imãmate of Mūsã ibn Ja‘far. Ibtãlu 'l-qiyãs (The Invalidation of Analogical Reasoning). 25. 21. ar-Radd ‘alã ‘Īsã ibn Abãn fi 'l-qiyãs (Refutation of ‘Īsã ibn Abãn [Ibn Sadaqah. peace be upon them both. d) Imãmate: 22. Naqd mas’alah ‘Īsã ibn Abãn fi 'l-ijtihãd (Disproof of the Ideas of ‘Īsã ibn Abãn Concerning the Derivation of Legal Opinions). and one of the important Hanafī jurists. Naqd "Ijtihãdu 'r-ra’y" ‘alã Ibn ar-Rawandī (Disproof of the Book Ijtihãdu 'r-ra’y [The Speculative Derivation of Legal Opinions] of Ibn ar-Rawandī). whose ar-Risãlah fī usūli 'l-fiqh (Treatise on the Principles of 15 A sect who rejected the Imãmate of ar-Ridã. he wrote: Ithbãtu 'l-qiyãs (The Demostration of Analogical Reasoning) and Ijtihãdu 'r-ra’y (The Speculative Derivation of Legal Opinions). Naqd risãlah ash-Shãfi‘ī (Rejection of ash-Shãfi‘ī's Risãlah [Muhammad ibn Idrīs ash-Shãfi‘ī.96 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars Abū Sahl and an-Nawbakhtī paid a lot of attention to Ibn Rawandī. Imãm of the Shãfi‘ī Legal School (150/767– 204/820). 29. and one of their leaders] Concerning the Imãmate). peace be upon him. (as-Sabk) Naqd "at-Tãj" ‘alã Ibn ar-Rawandī ([The Formulation] of the Disproof of the Book "at-Tãj" of Ibn ar-Rawandī). 18. e) Usūlu 'l-Fiqh (The Principles of Jurisprudence): 28. 27. 23. one of the most distinguished members of the Wãqifah 15 . vol.8. disproving him and those of his writings in which he had turned against Islam. al-Istīfã’ fi 'l-imãmah (Collection of Proofs on the Imãmate).

Naqdu 'r-rijãl. ar-Rijãl (p. vol. p.35-36. vol. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.2. vol.46. Abū Muhammad alMakhzūmī al-Makkī (3rd/8th cent. p.96-123.3. (Ibn) an-Nadīm. pt.] §97. at-Tawhīd (Divine Unity). including:1. al-Fihrist. §99.139-40.221. p.279-80. vol. §98. but nothing more is added (and likewise in Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.25.6-7..367-9. p. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah.111-2. pp.1. and he debated with Abū Hanīfah. an-Najãshī.35.9-35. vol. pp. p.430-1. pp. ash-Shaykh Abū Ibrãhīm ar-Rãzī (d. Ismã‘īl ibn Muhammad ibn Ismã‘īl.63-64. vol.9. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.1333]. p. Khãndãn-e Nawbakhtī. p. pp. vol.45.101. p. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. peace be upon him: "Ismã‘īl ibn Kathīr al-‘Ijlī al-Kūfī". pp. pp.1.99.12. vol.1. and he was trustworthy in what he narrated. Ismã‘īl ibn Kathīr al-‘Ijlī al-Kūfī. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.2. Ibn Dãwūd. pp. peace be upon him].4245.70.) In the printed edition of at-Tūsī. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt.24-25. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.171-2. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn.2. Ismã‘īl ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Husayn ibn Bãbawayh. al-‘Allãmah. ash-Shahrastãnī. vol. vol. pp.102. al-Ma‘rifah (Recognition of Divine Realities).12. p.9. vol.142. al-Milal wa 'n-nihal.25. and from it A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. Mu‘jam rijãli 'lhadīth. pp.'" (Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. an-Najãshī. and 3. al-‘Allãmah.149-52. [at-Tūsī. [at-Tūsī.Imãmī Mutakallims 97 Jurisprudence) is one of his most famous books]). pp.): "He was the most distinguished of Meccan Imãmiyyah scholars. vol. vol. p. vol. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.1. pp.500/1106).1.1.9. pp. Mu‘jam rijãli 'lhadīth. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. p. al-Fihrist.6.46-47. pp.1. pp. al-Imãmah (The Imãmate).217-9. 2. vol. Abū Ma‘mar: Ibn Hajar said: "at-Tūsī mentioned him among the Shī‘ī traditionalists saying: 'He was one of those who narrated from Ja‘far [as-Sãdiq. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. p. pp. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. p. p. p. [#.58. al-Wãfī bi 'l-wafayãt. p.59.1. and he was a knowledgeable.] .1. pp. vol.148) he is mentioned among the companions of as-Sãdiq. excellent debator.3. [for his biography. Ibn Dãwūd. see §94 his brother].166-9. pt. Jãmi‘u 'rruwãt.1.164). Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. vol. pp. p.3. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah.190. 4th cent. p. vol. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah lī ‘ulūmi 'l-Islãm.2." He has several books.

an-Najãshī.95.67. vol.1. vol.93-94. p.234). p.107. vol.82. who elegized him in a kasida (qasīdah). Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. p. vol. Abū Sa‘īd. p. at-Tūsī mentions him among the Shī‘ī Traditionists saying: 'He was no pedestrian (lit.213. p. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.68.2.371) we find him mentioned among the companions of ar-Ridã. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.212-3. fursãn) among the mutakallims and faqīhs'.1.): al-‘Ayyãshī (d. vol. p." (Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. Ja‘far ibn Ahmad ibn Wandak. vol.22.2. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.2. [an-Najãshī.484). [peace be upon him]. p. and in a footnote: "in some manuscripts.458. Ibn Dãwūd.] J §101.1.4. Abū ‘Abdillãh ad-Duryastī was one of the greatest students of ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd and ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã. p. al-‘Allãmah.1. Qasrãn. Abū ‘Abdillãh ar-Rãzī (3rd/ 9th cent.32.1. vol. a village west of Tehran. "Ja‘far ibn Ismã‘īl alHadramī". Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl." He died in the lifetime of his teacher ash-Sharīf alMurtadã (355/966–436/1044). p." an-Najãshī says: "He was correct in hadīth and in (his) beliefs.433].245) In the printed edition of at-Tūsī's Rijãl (p. Ibn Dãwūd.2.1. vol. vol. Ibn at-Tãjir asSamarqandī (3rd/9th cent. vol. pt. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. just. §103. It is said of him: "Trustworthy. Naqdu 'rrijãl. Ja‘far ibn Ibrãhīm". p. We find nothing more than this mentioned of him.4. 320/932) narrated from him.22-23.2. p. a faqīh. vol. p. but those who quoted from him all said "ibn Ibrãhīm" (see Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. 520). p.82." [at-Tūsī.53.136. It is said that this word is the Arab version of the word Tarasht (or Darasht – Majãlisu 'lmu’minīn. Ja‘far ibn Ahmad ibn Ayyūb. peace be upon him.49-50.149. pt. p.498/1105): Duryast is a village near Rayy (Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn.98 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars §100. p. pp. p. p.] §102.149. vol. vol. p. which . Naqdu 'r-rijãl. narrator of hadīth.27.2. and from it A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah.23. p. a horseman. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.148). Ja‘far ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn al-‘Abbãs. pp.1. al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb.509. vol.1.2. vol. pp. vol. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. p. ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī says: "He was a mutakallim and he wrote several books. p. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Ja‘far ibn Ibrãhīm al-Hadramī: Ibn Hajar said: "He narrated from ‘Alī ibn Mūsã ar-Ridã. pp. Abū ‘Abdillãh al-‘Absī ad-Dūryastī ar-Rãzī (380/990–c. a mutakallim and a man of hadīth. p. [#. a leading personality.68. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. mutakallim. into which it has now been absorbed (Farhang-e joghrãfiyãiy-e Iran.): He was one of the Imãmiyyah. ar-Rijãl.15.2. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. pp.95.

. p.482.2. al-I‘tiqãdãt (The Beliefs) – and ar-Radd ‘ala 'z-Zaydiyyah (Refutation of the Zaydites). p. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. al-Fihrist.73. pt. pp. p. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah.233-4.10. 128-9. pp.145. p.225. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. the Imãmīs]. vol. vol. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. pp. pp. vol. pp.480. and one of their leading men of knowledge. 17 He had a long life. vol. The Sharīf al-Murtadã is reported to have recited an elegy for Abū ‘Abdillãh 16 ‘Abdu 'l-Ghãfir an-Naysãbūrī. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. p. p.16. vol. 17 Bishãratu 'l-Mustafã.105-6. He was from a family generations of whom were known for their knowledge. al-Muntakhab min as-siyãq fī tãrīkh Naysãbūr.3.491. He was from a scholarly family in which there were many great scholars right up to the beginning of the 7th/13th century. one of the great scholars of this tãifah [i. (The Belief) – or in adh-Dharī‘ah. see Muntajabu 'd-Dīn.2. p.e.474/5. 5th cent. [at-Tūsī.174-9. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. and so his death must have been about 498/1105. Nizãmu 'l-Mulk at-Tūsī [the Saljuq vizier.104. p. who was vizier for 30 years] used to visit him from Rayy in Dūryast once every two weeks. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. adh-Dharī‘ah. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Majãlisu 'l-mu’minīn. Ibn Dãwūd. 36/656).70-75.47 [= 51]. vol. p. a narrator of many akhbãr. and trustworthiness.2. Abū ‘Alī alHasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Ishãq at-Tūsī ash-Shãfi‘ī (408/1018–485/1092). p. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. as-Sayyid ‘Abdu 'l-‘Azīz at-Tabãtabã’ī.4. Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn.2. p. ed. pt. p. p.2. ar-Rijãl.224. Lu’luatu 'l-bahrayn. vol." He was born in 380/990. Ja‘far ibn Muhammad is reported to have lived for 118 years.144. Reported in Yãqūt.1082. 19 an-Naqd.243-4. vol.196-200)." 19 The family was traced back to Hudhayfah ibn al-Yamãn al‘Absī (d.95. for the last narration that is reported from him dates from 12.38. vol. pp. He studied with him and heard hadīth from him on account of his extensive knowledge and his eminence in science. Majãlisu 'lmu’minīn.158. . where he heard hadīth. ash-Shaykh Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. mutakallim. p. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. vol. vol.3.200. vol. probity.215-8. Both the sources give his nisbah as ad-Dūyasī.] Dūryast . Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. 18 Jãmi‘u 'l-akhbãr.2.Imãmī Mutakallims 99 reached the length of sixty verses (Dīwãnu 'l-Murtadã. vol. vol.27.1. an error for ad-Dūryastī.176.461 [=464]. al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb.1.459. vol.480.43-45. a writer of many books. 18 The Shaykh ‘Abdu 'l-Jalīl al-Qazwīnī said concerning him: "[He was] famous in [all] the branches of science. p. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. pp.. . vol. p. p. Among his books are: al-I‘tiqãd.105. p. p. Mustadraku 'lwasãil. p.39. the famous Companion. vol.2.. 16 In 400/1009-10 he was in Baghdad. vol. p. p.3.2.366. p. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt.

106. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. Abū ‘Abdilãh as-Safwãnī (see §116) narrated these books from him. pt. vol.216.1. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Wãqifah. pt. scholar of hadīth and pious. with whom he stood in the place of a brother when friends were very scarce.94.394. adh-Dharī‘ah. p. Ibn Dãwūd. al‘Allãmah. 234. the elegy is for a friend who showed him many proofs of friendship. this is not the kind of description that one would expect to find given by a teacher of his pupil.] §107. vol. p. p. p.41. Among Ja‘far ibn Muhammad ad-Dūryastī's books .2.'" [an-Najãshī.33.1. p.264. pp.2.182. p. vol. p. al-Karajī: I have found no reference to this person except what Ibn Shahrãshūb says: "He wrote some books among which was: Naqdu 'limãmah ‘ala 'l-Jubbã’ī (Refutation of al-Jubbã’ī's Account of the Imãmate)" (Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’.196. p. al-Insãf wa 'l-intisãf (Treating Justly and Demanding Justice). p. author of books". c. Khãlid ibn Yahyã ibn Khãlid: an-Najãshī (see §22) says: "Ahmad ibn al-Husayn (al-Ghadãirī. 20 Dīwãnu 'l-Murtadã. p. al-Khalīl ibn Zafar ibn al-Khalīl al-Asadī al-Kūfī (d. K §106. §104.156. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.73. p. vol. . adh-Dharī‘ah. Second. p. pp. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. p. vol. p. among which were: arRadd ‘ala 'l-Fatahiyyah. an-Najãshī's contemporary) mentions him and says: 'I have seen a large book by him on the Imãmate. it was called: al-Manhaj (The Open Road). vol. among which were:1.100 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars Ja‘far ibn Muhammad. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.470/1087): A mutakallim.124. vol. there are many reports that Ja‘far lived for several decades after the death of al-Murtadã. p.] §105. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. including giving him advice.293-4.1. p. p.116.4. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.74.36. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. vol.132).87.23. vol. Ja‘far ibn Muhammad ibn Ishãq ibn Ribãt.2. prob. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.10. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. who helped him in times of hardship. for two reasons.. 20 but this cannot have been the same person. [an-Najãshī. The editor is mistaken in believing this elegy to have been for Ja‘far ibn Muhammad ad-Dūryastī.222. Firstly. 4th cent.7.2.2. . He wrote several books.1. vol. . Abu 'l-Qãsim al-Bajalī al-Kūfī: "Reliable.

p. p. 210.75-76. Abū ‘Abdillãh ibn Mumlak al-Isbahãnī: an-Najãshī says: "He was originally from Jurjãn.3. and 7. pp. Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn Mumlak. vol. In Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn.399. al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb. vol. p. Mu‘jam rijãli 'lhadīth. Mahmūd ibn al-Husayn ibn Sindiyy ibn Shãhak.3-23. p. al-Ash‘arī mentions him as one of those who were with Abu 'l-Qãsim al-Balkhī (Maqãlãtu 'l- . excellent in many sciences.] M §109. Jawãbãtu 'l-Qarãmitah.4. vol. Amalu 'l-ãmil. Amalu 'l-ãmil. 360/970): The renowned Imãmī poet and man of letters.172. and an astronomer. ad-Dalãil (The Proof). p. pt. [Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’.2. a writer. but Ãghã Buzurg says that this is a mistake and should have been written as 470/1087.] §108. vol." Because he was formely a Mu‘tazilī.403. vol. and he dwelt in Isbahãn (Isfahãn): he was an important man of our religion. vol. Jawãbãtu 'l-Ismã‘īliyyah. vol. p.114-5. a mutakallim. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. al-Fawãidu 'r-Radawiyyah. al-Ghadīr. pp. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. al-Bahã’ (The Splendour).166-72. Ibn Sharãshūb describes him with the words: "He was a poet. Jawãbãtu 'z-Zaydiyyah. p. pp. an-Nūr (The Light).102.137. He had been a Mu‘tazilī. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr.Imãmī Mutakallims 101 2. pp. it says that he died in 670/1271-2.3. 3.18. 4. p.1. He was a poet. p. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. vol. vol.2.351.7.105. 5th cent. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.355.2. vol. famous as "Kushãjim" (d. p. vol.201. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. and he held sessions with Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī (al-Mu‘tazilī [235/849–303/916] leader of the Mu‘tazilah in his time) on the Imãmate and its substantion. vol.76.156.8. of high rank and station.236. p.298. adh-Dharī‘ah. p.315. an astronomer. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. ash-Shaykh Ãghã Buzurg mentions that he was from the generation of Shaykhu 't-Tãifah. vol. pp. 205. vol.204. pp.111. [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. vol. Abu 'lFath ar-Ramlī.47.. p. 6.1. but turned at the hand of ‘Abdu 'r-Rahmãn ibn Ahmad ibn Jabrūyah.1.2. may Allãh have mercy on him. pp.24.5. vol." and all Imãmī biographers have adhered to what he wrote.229. However. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. 5." Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī and (Ibn) an-Nadīm say: "He was an Imãmī mutakallim.

1. and I shall be at peace with whoever is at peace with you'. peace be upon him [and his family].288). vol.218 [footnote]. p.288. and when he died the people of ‘Askar attended his funeral prayer." (Fadlu 'l-i‘tizãl. and said: 'We agree on tawhīd and ‘adl. 289). when he gave the list of those he narrated from: "Abū ‘Abdillãh Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn Mumlak. al-Husayn. . respect him).) It was perhaps as a result of this meeting with Ibn Mumlak that the following points are mentioned in Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī's biography: a) al-Qãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr narrated from Abu 'l-Hasan al-Farzawī that he said: "We have heard that Abū ‘Alī was on the point of effecting a reconciliation between the Mu‘tazilah and the Shī‘ah in ‘Askar [Mukram]. pp. narrated to us in ‘Askar Mukram . p.291) b) al-Qãdī reported from al-Farzawī that he said: "When he [Abū ‘Alī] used to quote from the Prophet. al-Jubbã’ī himself frequently went to ‘Askar Mukram (ibid. the governor. . so bring yourselves together to form a single power (yadan wãhidan). al-Qãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr and al-Hãkim al-Jushamī mentioned that the mutakallims gathered together in ‘Askar [Mukram] before Ibn Hishãm. Abū Bakr Ahmad ibn Ibrãhīm ibn Ismã‘īl al-Ismã‘īlī ash-Shãfi‘ī alJurjãnī (277/890–371/981) said. vol. p. and we have heard that he turned away from Mu‘talizilism on his death. Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn Mumlak.' But Muhammad ibn ‘Umar as-Saymarī dissuaded him [from going further].. and amongst them was Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī and Ibn Mumlak (Fadlu 'l-i‘tizãl.429 [#.'" (Fadlu 'l-i‘tizãl. the mutakallim." (al-Mu‘jam. From this it can be understood that besides his residence in Isfahãn he spent some time in ‘Askar Mukram. "He instructed [his son] Abū Hãshim in his will that he should be buried in ‘Askar Mukram and not removed thence. and that Ibn Jabrūyah also encountered Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī and debated with him.174. and it would have been here that he met Ibn Jabriyyah (see previous entry §11) and turned from Mu‘tazilism to the Imãmī sect. he would say: 'The amazing thing here is that those who have no good grounds for their beliefs (nawãbit) who narrated this Tradition then say: "Mu‘ãwiyah" (i. indeed it is recorded concerning his death that it took place in ‘Askar Mukram. al-Munyah wa 'l-amal. Abū Hãshim did not act according to the instructions of the will.e. the mutakallim. that he said concerning ‘Alī. . p. p. However. and had his body taken to Jubbã’. and we only differ on the imãmate.102 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars Islãmiyyīn. al-Hasan. p. Ibnu 'l-Murtadã. al-Munyah wa 'l-‘amal. peace be upon them: 'I shall fight with whoever fights you.2.44).88]). and Fãtimah. was known as a Mu‘tazilī.172) c) Ibnu 'l-Murtadã reported from al-Farzawī that he said: "The Rãfidites. p.292. p." ([Ibn] an-Nadīm.

al-Mu‘tazilī. al-Kishshī narrates from two correct chains of transmission from al-Imãm as-Sãdiq. was proud of him.169)] concerning the excellence of Abū Bakr.285.] §110. Ibn Dãwūd.130. p. pp.24. pp.318.161." al-Kishshī also narrated with a chain of transmission from at-Tayyãr that he said: "I said to Abū ‘Abdillãh. and procure him radiance and gladness.320-1. but he did not refute the book of al-Iskãfī called al-Mi‘yãr wa 'l-muwãzamah concerning the excellence of ‘Alī over Abū Bakr. p. although he was given to madness ([Ibn] an-Nadīm.376. [an-Najãshī." (al-Munyah wa 'l-amal. p. pp. pt.295-6.7. peace be upon him. Tawdīhu 'l-ishtibãh. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. p.2. pp.1. He was fierce in our defence. he said: "May Allãh be merciful to him. p. p.' He said: 'But we do not disapprove of the dialectic (kalãm) of people like you.281-2.16. peace be upon him: 'I have heard that you do not like debating with people..225. vol. vol. he used to defend us. that when he was informed of the death of at-Tayyãr. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.215. so we do not disapprove of the debates of one who is like this.249. vol. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. adh-Dharī‘ah. p. p. p. at-Tūsī. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. peace be upon them both.144. and al-Jubbã’ī said he was astute in kalãm. al-‘Allãmah. p.Imãmī Mutakallims 103 because they did not know Abū ‘Alī and his beliefs. the Ahlu 'l-Bayt. vol. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. vol. p. peace be upon him. p. al-‘Allãmah al-Hillī narrated that al-Imãm al-Bãqir. vol. p. Kitãb naqdu 'l-imãmah ‘alã Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī (Book on the Refutation of Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī's Book on the Imãmate) – it was not finished. pp. How could that be when he refuted the book of ‘Abbãd [ibn Sulaymãn ibn ‘Alī Abū Sahl al-Basrī. p.173) He wrote several books. al-Munyah wa 'l-amal. including: Kitãbu 'l-Imãmah (Book on the Imãmate).'" .5. peace be upon him. claimed that he was a Nãsibī [an enemy of the Household of the Prophet. Fadlu 'l-i‘tizãl. and he died during the lifetime of as-Sãdiq. vol. and Majãlisuhu ma‘a Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī (His Discussions with Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī). (Ibn) an-Nadīm.19. and if he lands he knows how to fly. He who flies knows how to land.275- Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. 4th cent. Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillãh at-Tayyãr (mawlã of [the tribe of] Fazãrah – at-Tūsī) al-Kūfī: He was one of the companions of the Imãms al-Bãqir (57/676–114/733) and as-Sãdiq (83/702–148/765). Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. p. p. vol.226. and that you do not like enmity [in matters of religion]. al-Fihrist. p. 188. one of the companions of Hishãm ibn ‘Amr al-Fuwatī. peace be upon them).289.

but he was enlightened and changed (his view).224. p.104 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars [al-Kishshī. vol. vol.293. . and was skillful in it. p. and he learnt hadīth. and (Ibn) an-Nadīm says: "He was a Shī‘ī mutakllim and skillful at it. [see §144]) was there. (see §39). Naqdu 'r-rijãl. p.5.245.287-8] §111. vol.318. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.2. say: "I went to Abu 'lQãsim al-Balkhī (‘Abdullãh ibn Ahmad ibn Mahmūd al-Ka‘bī al-Hanafī alMu‘tazilī [273/886–319/931].408. 316. Muhammad ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn. vol. p. p.38. adhDharī‘ah. Muhammad ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Malik ibn Muhammad." an-Najãshī says: "In the session of ash-Sharīf ar-Radī. p.322.119. he was strong in kalãm. al‘Allãmah. then he changed to the idea of the Imãmate. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. p. p. vol. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn.21. vol. vol.6. pt. c. vol. he wrote books on kalãm.258. pp.2. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. pt. one of the leaders of the Mu‘tazilah.2. ar-Rijãl.146. vol. He was the questioner in ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã's al-Masãilu 't-Tabbãniyyah. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.164.255. Ibn Dãwūd. p." He wrote: Kitãb fī taklīf man ‘alima 'llãhu annahu yakfur (Book on How Allãh Can Command Those Who He knows to be Unbelievers) and Kitãb fi 'l-ma‘dūm (Book on the Non-existent).135. 5th cent. a pious mutakallim.1. Abū Ja‘far ibn Qibah ar-Rãzī (d.348-9.241.10. vol. al-‘Allãmah. vol. p. p. p. 419/1028): an-Najãshī says: "He was a Mu‘tazilī at first. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. and his way and his thinking became good. [an-Najãshī. pp. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. at-Tūsī. who wrote a well known book on the Imãmate. he held a high rank. pp.2.315/927): Shayku 't-Tãifah says: "He was an Imãmī mutakallim. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. Abu 'l-Hasan Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn Mūsã – and our Shaykh Abū ‘Abdillãh. pp. then he revealed his transition to Shī‘ism..2.316.] §112.374-5. . vol. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.133-4. who resided in Baghdad for a long time and then returned to Balkh and died there. Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn an-Nu‘mãn (al-Mufīd. Formerly he had been among the Mu‘tazilah.147-8. vol. . p. vol." Ibn Shahrãshūb says: "He was a powerful mutakallim"." an-Najãshī says: "He was a mutakallim. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. p. first he had been a Mu‘tazilī. pp.4. vol.16. may Allãh have mercy on them all – I heard Abu 'l-Husayn ibn alMahlūs al-‘Alawī al-Mūsawī say: 'I heard Abu 'l-Husayn as-Sūsanjirdī (see §125) – and he was one of our outstanding co-sectarians. pp. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. pp.3.1.16. as-Sayyid as-Sadr mentions that Ibn Qibah was his pupil) in Balkh .281-2.5. al-Muntazim.168.8. pp. 142. p. p. p.1. vol. Abū ‘Abdillãh at-Tabbãn (d.

1. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. p.290-1.5.138. peace be upon him.225.117. (Ibn) an-Nadīm. ash-Shahrastãnī. pp. pp.2. p."'" Amongst his books which are mentioned. pp. Then I went to Ray and handed over the book to Ibn Qibah.190. who quoted them in Kamãlu 'd-dīn.1-2. the Zaydī. famous as al-Insãf (The Just Treatment). p.378. p. pp. 139. vol. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.10.253-4.243-5. vol. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah.106. al-Fihrist.138. I greeted him and he knew me from before and with me was the book of Abū Ja‘far ibn Qibah on the Imãmate. and others. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. vol. and clearly of (our) way (beliefs).164. 396. true in narration (of hadīth). al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb.382-3. at-Tūsī. al-‘Allãmah. vol.2.102-3. and he refuted it in al-Mustathbit fi 'l-imãmah (The Completely Sure One in [the Matter of] the Imãmate). p. vol.] §113.2526. pp. Naqd kitãbi 'l-Irshãd (Refutation of the Book al-Irshãd) (on the Imãmate) by Abū Zayd al-‘Alawī.5. He read it and he refuted it in al-Mustarshid fi 'l-imãmah (The Guided One in [the Matter of] the Imãmate).51-60. vol. p. Ibn Dãwūd. pp. Amalu . adh-Dharī‘ah. pp.278. p. p. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. Mu‘jam rijãli 'lhadīth. al‘Allãmah.16. and 2.180-1. Amalu 'l-ãmil. are:1. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. the Zaydī. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. 4th cent. p.50.Imãmī Mutakallims 105 after I had made a pilgrimage to ar-Ridã.2." [an-Najãshī.2. p. vol. pp. vol.321. vol. 200. vol.289. c.284.85. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.148-9. vol. in addition to those given above. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. vol. p.10.3. Ibn Dãwūd. vol.314. ar-Radd ‘alã Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī (Refutation of Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī [the Mu‘tazilī]).1. Abu 'l-Faraj al-Kãtib al-Qazwīnī (d.143-4. 2. Among his books was ar-Radd ‘ala (Refutation of) 'l-Ismã‘īliyyah. Naqd kitãbi 'l-ghaybah (Refutation of the Book on Occultation) by Abu 'l-Hasan ‘Alī ibn Ahmad ibn Bashshãr. in Tūs. Then I went to Ray and found that Abū Ja‘far had died..158. I have seen this shaykh. pp.6. pp. [an-Najãshī. pp. but I was not able to hear any (hadīth) from him.21. ar-Radd ‘ala 'z-Zaydiyyah (Refutation of the Zaydīs). Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’.400/1010): an-Najãshī (372/ 982–450/1058) says: "(He was) trustworthy.2. I carried this to Abu 'l-Qãsim and he refuted it in Naqdu 'l-mustathbit (Refutation of the Completely Sure One).1. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. pt.335. pp.1. 94-126. ash-Shaykh as-Sadūq also mentioned another two books of his:1. p. pp. p. vol.310. Muhammad ibn Abī ‘Imrãn (Mūsã) ibn ‘Alī ibn ‘Abdūyah. vol. vol. p. p. p.

14. Muhammad ibn (Abi) 'l-Qãsim.] §114.187-8. peace be upon them. 3. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.000 dirhams. 2. peace be upon them both: "He was of a distinguished rank.296. p. and in accepting them in fiqh and other kinds of knowledge (see the biography of Yūnus [§165]). vol. p. p. Then he was imprisoned. (203/818) and he was subjected to suffering. and he ordered him to name them. He wrote a book in kalãm on the Occultation (of the twelth Imãm). 4th cent. Abū Bakr al-Baghdãdī: anNajãshī says: "He was a mutakallim.45.331. pp. p. peace be upon him. at-Tawhīd (Divine Unity)." [an-Najãshī. He was one of the most reliable of men and was the most pious and devout and the most given to worship among them.106 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars 'l-ãmil.64.] §115. Muhammad ibn Abī ‘Umayr (Ziyãd) ibn ‘Īsã. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. and a Refutation of Those who do not . vol.2. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl." Some people calumniated him before Hãrūn arRashīd (149/766 – caliphate 170/786–193/809) saying that he knew the names of the Shī‘ah in Iraq. 5th cent. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Diyãfatu 'l-ikhwãn.380.294-5.10. vol. vol. vol. about whom there is a general agreement concerning their trustworthiness. Then he was imprisoned again in the reign of al-Ma’mūn (170/ 786 – caliphate 198/813–218/833) after the death of al-Imãm ar-Ridã. adh-Dharī‘ah.80.234. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. vol.. and to point out the companions of al-Imãm Mūsã ibn Ja‘far. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.14. p.2.312. pt. pp.2. It is mentioned that he was the author of ninety-four books.308-9. p.2. and everything he possessed was taken from him. for he was a wealthy man.16. and a high degree. pt. Abū Muhammad al-Azdī al-Baghdãdī (d. p.71. vol.5. peace be upon them both. and was stripped and flogged a hundred times.321. pp. He was one of the six companions of the Imãms al-Kãzim and ar-Ridã. p. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. al-Istitã‘ah wa 'l-afã‘il wa 'r-radd alã ahli 'l-qadar wa 'l-jadbr (The Ability to Act and Actions.2. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. ar-Radd ‘alã ahlu 'l-qadar (A Refutation of Those who do not Believe in Predetermination). p. Ibn Dãwūd. Ibn Abī ‘Umayr was one of the most distinguished Imãmiyyah scholars. jurists and mutakallims of his time. vol.184. confine-ment and a great deal of beating. p. vol. p. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. p. a contemporary of Ibn Hammãm (Muhammad ibn Abī Bakr Hammãm ibn Suhayl al-Kãtib al-Iskãfī [258/872– 336/948]). adh-Dharī‘ah.. p. 217/832): One of the most distinguished companions of the Imãms ar-Ridã and al-Jawãd. among which were:1. but he refused.282.123.2. but he bought his freedom for 121.

the Wãqifī. pp. p.61-64. al-Ma‘ãrif (Research into the Means of Obtaining Knowledge of Divine Realities).460.481. [al-Kishshī. vol. It is difficult to accept this explanation of Ãghã Buzurg. was trustworthy in the narration of hadīth. meaning a dog wetted by the rain and hence a source of impurity and to be avoided. vol. ar-Rijãl.26. 4. pp.2. pp. vol.2. Mūsã ibn Rabãh. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Ibn Dãwūd. ar-Radd ‘alã (Refutation of) Ibn Rabãh al-Mamtūr.388. etc. anNajãshī.3. 352/963): Shaykhu 't-Tãifah says: "He memorized many things. pt. Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn Qudã‘ah ibn Safwãn ibn Mihrãn. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. an-Najãshī. which was used exclusively by the Imãmiyyah for the Wãqifah.56. p. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Wãqifah.] §116.48. He wrote several books. p. and then cursed him. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’.10.Imãmī Mutakallims 107 Believe in Predetermination and Those who Believe in Predestination). vol. see also books of sects.267. vol. vol. (Ãghã Buzurg mentions that this was Abū ‘Imrãn. adh-Dharī‘ah. (al-Kishshī. had much knowledge and was faultless in language. vol. Abū ‘Abdillãh as-Safwãnī al-Qudã‘ī alBaghdãdī (fl.291-4. and the king of al-Mawsil)." And the judge fell victim to his curse. for it would seem that this is Ibn Rabãh. . the elder brother of Sayfu 'dDawlah. He defeated him. pp. the Mu‘tazilī [d. 3.284-5.400/1010]. p. vol.250-1. He held a high position before the king (of al-Mawsil) and the reason for this was that he argued with the judge of al-Mawsil about the Imãmate in front of Ibn Hamdãn (Nasīru 'd-Dawlah al-Hasan ibn Abi 'l-Hayjã’ ‘Abdullãh ibn Hamdãn at-Taghlibī al-Hamdãnī [d. al-Bihãr.10. pp. and 6. al-Kufr wa 'l-’īmãn (Unbelief and Belief). 5. and .103. among which are:1. p.11722. trustworthy. al-‘Allãmah. vol. of the Wãqifī sect.287-9.5.187. pp. vol. pp. 879].2. p. 461 [#s. p. pp. c. al-Bidã’ (God's Annuling and Establishing What He Wills). pp. vol. said: "‘Alī ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn ‘Umar ibn Rabãh . Naqdu 'r-rijãl. p.875. pp. pp.2. al-Fihrist. ar-Radd ‘alã ahli 'l-ahwã’ (Refutation of the Heretics). a faqīh. and well-educated. vol." an-Najãshī says: "(He was) a shaykh of our sect.).50-51.14.187. p. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.168-9.91. it comes from the expression kalb mamtūr.589-92. 878. 358/969]. a pupil of Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī and Ibn al-Ikhshīdh – adh-Dharī‘ah. p. at-Tūsī. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.178). . One piece of evidence for this is his laqab al-Mamtūr.140-1.

3.181. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn.282.5. trustworthy to a high degree. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. peace be upon him. 381/991): He originated from "al-Iskãf". alKãzim. and he is unreliable because of this.121-3. 5. where it mentions: "He died in Baghdad in 346/957". ch. . This Ibn Junayd was one of them (Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm.293-4. Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn al-Junayd.1.. p. 235. vol. 238. at-Tūsī. pp. pp.133. (Ibn) an-Nadīm. al-Ghaybah. p. al‘Allãmah. p.15.177-8. and he had an excellent style.] §117. al-Fawãidu 'r-Radawiyyah. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. pp. pp.2. an inhabited place in the district of an-Nahrawãn.238-9. vol. vol. vol. he wrote several books.6. p. vol. [an-Najãshī.142. Ibn Dãwūd. . Īdãhu 'l-maknūn.159. peace be upon him. ar-Rad‘ah wa 'n-nahy ‘an kulli bid‘ah (The Prevention and Denial of All Innovations). 6.8.41921. "al-Kalãm ‘ala 'l-Wãqifah". vol. pp. as Yãqūt and others say.2. Abū ‘Alī ibn alJunayd al-Kãtib al-Iskãfī al-Baghdãdī (d. vol. al-Fihrist. vol.247. pp.288. between Baghdad and Wãsit of which it is said "Iskãf of Banū (Children of) alJunayd". p. which was the basis of the Wãqifah's stopping the line of the Imãmate with al-Kãzim.1113. p. he believed in the doctrine of analogical reasoning (qiyãs). p.2. 4. vol.221-2. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. pp. an-Najãshī says: "He was prominent among our co-religionists." (an-Najãshī. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. Ibn Junayd died in Rayy.2.84. 4th cent. and this place became known by their name (Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn. p. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. they were the heads of this region. However. p. pp. Marãsidu 'l-ittilã‘.108 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars his narrations are reliable. pp. vol.2.223).2.91-92.502-3. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. 186. among them al-Ghaybah . al-Ghaybah wa kashfu 'l-hayrah (The Ocultation and the Clarification of Confusion).) It would appear that as-Safwãnī's refutation was of this book.1. adh-Dharī‘ah. pt.33. p.75.43-76). al-Imãmah (The Imãmate). Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. p. pp. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. Tãju 'l-‘arūs.259-60 [679]. were famous for their hospitality and nobility. The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. vol. vol.306-7. (see especially at-Tūsī. pp. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.144. pp. vol. and he composed a great many writings. ar-Rijãl. vol.11-13.6." (Ibn) an-Nadīm says: "One of the greatest .4.388-9. al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb. vol. vol." ashShaykh at-Tūsī says: "He was outstanding in writing. and his writings on this subject have been abandoned (by us).136-7. p. p.16. pp.1.42. vol. because the ghaybah referred to in its title is the disappearance of the seventh Imãm.59). pp.10. pp. p.

Imãmī Mutakallims


Imãmite Shī‘ahs"; and as-Sayyid Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm says: "One of the prominent persons of the sect, and one of the most learned of the Imãmiyyah predecessors . . . a mutakallim, faqīh, a narrator of ahãdīth, a man of letters, extensively knowledgeable, an author in fiqh, kalãm, usūl (the Principles of jurisprudence), literary works, etc." Among his books relevant to the discussions of kalãm were:1. Tanbīhu 's-sãhī bi 'l-‘ilmi 'l-ilãhi (Warning to the Inattentive Concerning Divine Knowledge); 2. al-Asfãr fi 'r-radd ala 'l-murtaddah (‘ala 'l-mu’badah). (The Journeys to Refute Apostates [or the chiefs of the Zoroastrians]); 3. Naqd naqdi 'z-Zujãjiyy an-Naysãbūrī ala 'l-Fadl ibn Shãdhãn (The Disproving of az-Zujãjī an-Naysãbūrī's Disproof of al-Fadl ibn Shãdhãn). In al-Ansãb, vol.2, pp.272-5 and in Tãju 'l-‘arūs, vol.2, p.53 one Zajjãjī and many Zujãjī's are mentioned, but none of them are Naysãbūrī but in Mukhtasar tãrīkh Naysãbūr (p.21) we find al-Hasan ibn Sãlih ibn Muhammad, Abū ‘Alī az-Zujjãjī an-Naysãbūrī, who is perhaps this person. (For Ibn Shãdhãn, see §57.) 4. ash-Shuhbu 'l-muhriqah li 'l-abãlīs al-mustariqah (The Burning Shooting Stars for the Devil Listeners by Stealth), in which he refutes Abu 'lQãsim al-Baqqãl al-Mutawassit ‘Abdu 'l-‘Azīz ibn Ishãq ibn Ja‘far, Abu 'l-Qãsim (ibn) al-Baqqãl al-Kūfī al-Baghdãdī (272/885–363/974) was a Zaydī mutakallim who wrote many books about the Zaydī sect. In adh-Dharī‘ah, vol.14, p.259, Abu 'n-Na‘ãl is mentioned, and this must be a mistake. 5. Khalãsu 'l-mubtadi’īn min hayrati mujãdilīn (The Deliverance of Beginners from the Confusion of Disputants). 6. Nūru 'l-yaqīn wa basīratu 'l-‘ãrifīn (The Light of Certainty and the Insight of Those Who Know). 7. Īdãhu khatai man shanna‘a ‘ala 'sh-Shī‘ah fī amri 'l-Qur’ãn (Clarification of the Errors for Those Who Defame the Shī‘ah Concerning the Matter of the Qur’ãn). 8. Kashfu 't-tamwīh wa 'l-ilbãs ‘alã aghmãri 'sh-Shī‘ah fī amri 'l-qiyãs (The Unveiling of the Distortion and Deception of the Gullible Among the Shī‘ah Concerning the Matter of Analogical Reasoning [qiyãs]). 9. Jawãbãt Sabuktikīn (Answers to Sebüktigin [c.331/942–387/997, founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty, the Karrãmite and Hanafite]). 10. Jawãbãt Mu‘izzi 'd-Dawlah (Abu 'l-Hasan Ahmad ibn Buwayh adDaylamī [303/915 – took Baghdad in 334/946– d. 356/967]).


Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars

[at-Tūsī, al-Fihrist, p.160; ar-Rijãl, p.511; an-Najãshī, pp.299-302; Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’, pp.87-88; (Ibn) an-Nadīm, p.246; Majma‘u 'r-rijãl, vol.5, pp.12731; Ibn Dãwūd, p.292; al-‘Allãmah, p.145; Naqdu 'r-rijãl, pp.286-7; Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt, vol.2, p.50; Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl, vol.2, pt.2, pp.67-69; Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth, vol.14, pp.337-43; Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm, vol.3, pp.205025; Amalu 'l-ãmil, vol.2, pp.236-8; Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt, vol.6, pp.145-52; al-Kunã wa 'lalqãb, vol.2, pp.26-27; Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah, pp.302-3; Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'shShī‘ah, 4th cent., p.235; adh-Dharī‘ah, vol.2, pp.59, 494; vol.4, p.443; vol.5, pp.205, 212; vol.7, p.208; vol.14, p.259; vol.18, p.24; vol.24, p.291; alA‘lãm, vol.6, p.203; Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn, vol.8, p.248.]

§118. Muhammad ibn ‘Alī (brother of Abū Sahl), Abū Ja‘far anNawbakhtī: His name is only quoted incidentally, and he is mentioned by
(Ibn) an-Nadīm in the biography of Abū Sahl where he says: "He was one of the mutakallims of his sect, and he wrote several books . . .", but the printed text omits the names of his books (al-Fihrist, p.225). ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī mentions him in hadīth narrated from him (al-Ghaybah, p.257; al-Bihãr, vol.51, p.363). Ibn ar-Rūmī, the famous poet (221/836–283/896) mentions him in a number of his qasīdas (Dīwãn, vol.1, pp.153, 159; vol.3, p.1080). (His biography appears with some of the points we have mentioned before in Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah, p.367; Khãndãn-e Nawbakhtī, p.124; Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'shShī‘ah, 4th cent., p.284.)

§119. Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn ‘Abdak (Abdu 'l-Karīm), Abū Muhammad (Abū Ahmad) ibn ‘Abdak al-‘Abdakī al-Jurjãnī (d. a.d. 360/971): Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī says: "One of the great mutakallims
among the Imãmiyyah; he has many writings to his name, and he was a believer in wa‘īd (see §17). "an-Najãshī says: "He holds an honourable position among the scholars of our sect; he was a jurist and a mutakallim." as-Sam‘ãnī says: "He was the guardian (muqaddam) over the Shī‘ah and the leader of the people of the Shī‘ah in Jurjãn. al-Hãkim ibn Bayyi‘ (the famous Sunnī scholar) narrated from him, and said: 'He was one of those educated men characterized by intelligence and maturity, and excellent in his beliefs. He took up residence in Naysãbūr.'" The Mu‘tazilites mention him in their tabaqãt (chronological biographies), and say that he was a student of Abū Hãshim al-Jubbã’ī (247/861–321/933) in Baghdad, and Abu 'l-Qãsim alKa‘bī al-Balkhī (273/886–319/931) in Balkh, and followed their beliefs. Then he changed his beliefs to those of the Imãmīs. The Mu‘tazilites say that al-Balkhī said of him: "I have never seen anyone who knew the intricacies

Imãmī Mutakallims


and fundamentals of kalãm better than him." (Fadlu 'l-i‘tizãl, p.331; alMunyah wa 'l-amal, p.193.) If Ibn ‘Abdak had not been Imãmī to begin with, the Imãmī biographers would have mentioned this, so I suppose that he concealed his true beliefs before his two Mu‘tazilī teachers. He wrote many books, but his biographers have only mentioned the following:1. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Ismã‘īliyyah; 2. al-Kalãm ‘ala 'l-fiqati 'l-muthbitah li ru’yati 'llãh ta‘alã (Against Those Sects who Assert that, the Sublime, Can be Seen); 3. Mutãli‘u 'l-hidãyah (The Place of the Rising of Guidance). [at-Tūsī, al-Fihrist, p.225; an-Najãshī, p.297; Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’, pp.1301; Majma‘u 'r-rijãl, vol.5, p.275; vol.7, p.164; Ibn Dãwūd, p.325; al‘Allãmah, p.188; Naqdu 'r-rijãl, pp.323, 404; Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt, vol.2, pp.155, 434; Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl, vol.3, pt.1, p.158; Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth, vol.16, pp.374-5; Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah, 4th cent., p.290; adh-Dharī‘ah, vol.10, p.183; A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah, vol.46, pp.62-64; al-Ansãb, vol.8, p.242; vol.9, p.185; al-Lubãb, vol.2, p.312; Tãrīkh Jurjãn, p.519; Talkhīs tãrīkh Naysãbūr li 'l-hãkim, p.108; Tãju 'l-‘arūs, vol.2, p.414; Tabsīru 'l-muntabih, vol.3, p.986.]

§120. Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn al-Husayn, Abū Ja‘far ibn Bãbawayh al-Qummī ash-Shaykh as-Sadūq (c.306/919–381/991): ashShaykh at-Tūsī, an-Najãshī and al-‘Allãmah say: "He was of exalted rank, knowledgeable in fiqh, a memorizer of traditions, a critical appraiser of the narrators of hadīth; he had no peer among the scholars of Qum as far as his memory and the extent of his knowledge was concerned. He was our shaykh, our faqīh, the eminent one of (our) sect . . ." al-Khatīb al-Baghdãdī ashShãfi‘ī says: "He was one of the Shī‘ī shaykhs and one of the famous Rãfidites." (Tãrīkh Baghdãd, vol.3, p.89.) He wrote a great deal, and the number of his writings reached three hundered books and shorter works, but only a few have come down to us. Our Shaykh as-Sadūq was, as as-Sayyid Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm says: "the chief of the transmitters of hadīth (raisu 'l-muhaddithīn)" and he was a model for the development of dogmatics (al-ittijãh al-i‘tiqãdī) which the scholars of Imãmī hadīth followed, although it differed from the developments brought about by ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd and those who followed his method on a number of points. Among his writings which have come down to us on the subject of beliefs are:1. at-Tawhīd, which counts as one of the most famous Imãmite writings


Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars

on the subject. It has been printed several times, and it has been commented on frequently (adh-Dharī‘ah, vol.14, pp.153-4). He says at the beginning of the book: "That which called me to write this book of mine was that I had found a group among those who were opposed to us attributing belief in God's having human characteristics (tashbīh) and in predeterminism (jabr) to some of our sect, since they had found in their books some traditions of whose interpretation they were ignorant and whose meaning they did not know. They put them in the wrong context, and did not collate them with the words of the Qur’ãn (i.e., the same expressions occurred in the Qur’ãn); thus they disfigured the form of our religious beliefs (madhhab) in this way in the eyes of the ignorant, and made our way confusing to them; they turned people away from the religion of Allãh, and caused them to reject the proofs of Allãh. So, I sought to gain favour with Allãh, may remembrance of Him be made exalted, by the writing of this book on tawhīd, denying tashbīh and predeterminism," (at-Tawhīd, pp.17-18). Now, the book, and the fact that he relies, in its various parts and investigations, on hadīth (just as in the case of the book of Tawhīd [Divine Unity] in al-Kãfī, except that ash-Shaykh asSadūq critically assessed many of the ahãdīth in his commentaries and explanatory remarks) show that he was a skillful mutakallim, strong in his proving, precise in his observation and penetrating in his astuteness. (For his investigative methods see particularly: at-Tawhīd, Tehran, 1387 AH, pp.27, 65-66, 87-88, 119-22, 129, 137, 148, 155-9, 195-218, 225-6, 269, 290-1, 298-304, 317-8, 335-6, 378-9, 384-8, 395-7.) 2. I‘tiqãdãtu 'l-Imãmiyyah (The Beliefs of the Imãmiyyah). This book lays down the beliefs of the Imãmiyyah chapter by chapter. It is one of the most important of the books which portrays what they believe in, although the community of scholars have argued over some of the details which ashShaykh as-Sadūq mentioned as being Imãmiyyah beliefs, or which he said it was necessary to believe in, where he has relied on ahãdīth which were not sound in the view of these scholars, or where the interpretation which ashShaykh as-Sadūq gave to them was not deemed sound by them. It has been printed several times, and it has many commentaries, of which Ãqã Buzurg has mentioned eight (adh-Dharī‘ah, vol.13, pp.100-2). One of the most famous of these is that which ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd appended to the book and called Tashīhu 'l-i‘tiqãdãti 'l-Imãmiyyah (Eng. transl.: The Emendation of A Shī‘ite Creed). I‘tiqãdãtu 'l-Imãmiyyah has been translated into English (by A.A.A. Fyzee, London, 1944) under the Title A Shī‘ite Creed, and I have written an introduction to the second printing of this translation which our institute

Self-sufficient (ghaniyy). and thus He shares with no-one. observation cannot perceive Him. the Creator (khãliq) of every thing. and whoever attributes to the Imãmiyyah something other than what has been described (above) concerning tawhīd is a liar. no likeness (shibh). not moving (harakah). neither can imagination. indescribable in terms of essence (jawhar). which refer directly to the writer and the book itself. is a thing unlike anything (shay-un lã ka 'l-ashã’). no similar (mithl). without accident (‘arad). no woman consort (sãhibah). without form (sūrah). not resting (sukūn). Blessed (tabãraka) is Allãh. without weight (thiqal). the Everlasting Refuge (samad). the Cognizant (khabīr). He is the All-subtle (latīf). Omniscient (‘alīm). the Exalted. no match (nazīr). At the beginning of this book ash-Shaykh as-Sadūq says: Chapter on the Nature of the Imãmiyyah Doctrine Concerning Tawhīd: Know that our doctrine concerning tawhīd is that Allãh. there is no diety (ilãh) except He. without time (zamãn). He. and every hadīth which does not conform to the Book of Allãh is invalid (bãtil). the Exalted. He has never ceased. and if it is found in the books of our scholars it has been forged. "He was not begotten". without length (khatt). and He. neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Him. the Exalted. and "there is not any one equal unto Him". "He has not begotten". All-sustaining (qayyūm). there is nothing like Him. the Exalted. the limit of nullification (haddu 'l-ibtãl) and the limit of anthropomorphism (haddu 't-tashbīh). the Lord of the Worlds. (He is) infinitely Pre-existent (qadīm). He has no peer (nidd). every tradition which contradicts what I have mentioned concerning tawhīd is a fabrication (mawdū‘) and an invention (mukhtara‘). Mighty (‘azīz). Knowing (‘ãlim). without breadth (‘ard). is One (wãhid). to exist. I have also commented on some of the aspects. Holy (quddūs). to be All-hearing (samī‘). is above all qualities of his creatures outside the two limits. without body (jism). All-seeing (basīr). He has no partner (sharīk). Living (hayy). and no adversary (didd). . Whoever speaks of anthropomorphism (tashbīh) creates partners for God (mushrik). can have their meanings understood according to the significance of similar passages in the Qur’ãn. Absolutely Unique (ahad). without surface (sath). to Him [alone] belongs [the power of] Creation (khalq) and Command (amr). but He perceives it. Unique. but He perceives the observation. nor will He cease. Wise (hakīm). without lightness (khiffah). and thus He has no heir.Imãmī Mutakallims 113 (WOFIS) has published. Omnipotent (qãdir). and traditions which the ignorant imagine to attribute human qualities to Allãh. without place (makãn).

pp. p. etc.154-5. pp.184-6.322-3. fine work". for him in Naysãbūr in the year 368/979. although things have been attributed to him which are not confirmed as far as we are concerned. vol. session no. 4. about which an-Najãshī said it was "a large. p. and ‘Ãishah). Zubayr. pp. pp.524-6." He wrote:1. al-Bihãr. pp.5. which were convened. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. he was well known for the many debates which he held with Abū Hanīfah.240 [= 438].93.132-56. 2. §121. ready to give answer.154. vol.16. p. an-Najãshī. Abū Ja‘far al-Bajalī al-Ahwal al-Kūfī. pp. (many more)]. Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn an-Nu‘mãn.3. vol. Amalu 'l-ãmil. al-‘Allãmah.283. pt. 3. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Our Shaykh as-Sadūq made similar statements in learned sessions. Mu’minu 't-Tãq (c. al-Amãlī [al-Majãlis]. 5. vol. [al-Kishshī. Kitãb kalãmi-hi ‘ala 'l-Khawãrij (Book of his Debates Concerning the Khãrijis).3. pp. p. Kitãbu 'l-Jamal fī amr Talhah wa Zubayr wa ‘Ãishah (Book of the [Battle of the] Camel Concerning the Affair of Talhah. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.160/777): He met Imãm Muhammad al-Bãqir and narrated from Imãm Ja‘far as-Sãdiq (peace be upon both).292301.10. vol. Kitãb majãlisi-hi ma‘a Abū Hanīfah wa 'l-Murji‘ah (His Debating Sesions with Abū Hanīfah and the Murji’ites). p. 6.100. and where they asked him if he would describe briefly for them the peculiarities of the religion of the Imãmiyyah.2.2.302-6.90/709–c.185-91 [= 324-34]. pp.639-54. ar-Rijãl. 547-718. [Ibn] an- . and to which the shaykhs of the Shī‘ah came as well as the common Shī‘ī people. Kitãb if‘al lã taf‘al (Book on What Should be Done and What Should not be Done). Kitãbu 'l-Ma‘rifah (Book of Knowledge). peace be upon him).) [at-Tūsī. vol. Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm. about whom it was said that he was "reliable in his kalãm and his narration of hadīth. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. pp. Ibn Dãwūd.114 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd agrees with this and does not dispute it. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt.147. he is too well-known [to need description].269-73.6. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.1. p.495. vol.324-5. pp. p." an-Najãshī said: "As for his status in knowledge and quick-wittedness. pp. vol. Kitãbu 'r-Radd ‘ala 'l-Mu‘tazilah fī imãmat al-mafdūl (Refutation of the Mu‘tazilah Concerning the Imãmate of the Less Excellent). (ash-Shaykh as-Sadūq.135 [= 215].3.393-405. 7. al-Fihrist. pp. vol. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. Kitãbu 'l-Ihtijãj fī imãmat Amīr al-Mu’minīn ‘alayhi 's-salãm The Proving of the Imãmate of Amīr al-Mu’minīn. He was one of the best-known Imãmī mutakallims.

al-Wãfi bi 'l-wafayãt. and contains many smaller kalãm treatises. One of his pupils compiled an index of his works in which more than seventy-four books are mentioned. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. as it means the same. 2. which has been printed.36-46.7. pp. a philologist. Majma‘u 'r-ruwãt. . such as adh-Dhahabī.17. and wrote many of his books.5. which means tents. encompassing many systematic investigations of scientific topics. It is like an encyclopaedia. Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn ‘Uthmãn ibn ‘Alī." ash-Shahīd al-Awwal describes him with the words: "The religious authority. p." al-Karãjik. Naqd risãlah Fardãn-ba‘d al-Marwazī fi 'l-jazã’ (Disproof of the Treatises of Fardãn-ba‘d al-Marwazī on the Divine Recompense). Ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Hayy. Ibn Hajar and others.302.138. the support of the religion. pp. p. a mutakallim. 4.4). vol. fiqh.325-6 [= 886].369/950–449/1057): His Imãmī biographers say: "A trustworthy man of knowledge. of an exalted position." Non-Imãmīs. an-Najãshī. was a pupil of ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã and Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī.158-9. Ghãyatu 'l-insãf fī masãili 'l-khilãf (The Goal of Justice Concerning the Matters of Disagreement). Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. pp. p. He migrated from Ramlah to Iraq in 411/1020 (Kanzu 'l-fawãid. al‘Allãmah. a physician. al-Fihrist. faqīhs and mutakallims. kalãm. vol. al-Karãjikī supports the opinion of al-Murtadã in the places where there was a difference between him and al-Halabī. which contains the refutation of Abu 's-Salãh al-Halabī (see §158) in those matters in which he disagreed with ashSharīf al-Murtadã. p. pp. Among them are:1. He also visited Halab (Aleppo) and Damascus. where he stayed for a considerable time.2. p. al-A‘lãm. vol. Abū Dãwūd.2-8. arRijãl.84-85.4. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. Kanzu 'l-fawãid (The Treasury of Beneficial Things). He wrote a great deal on hadīth. 359.Imãmī Mutakallims 115 Nadīm.326-7. a very versatile scholar. a calculator of inheritance. an astrologer.6. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’ pp.] §122. that was why he was sometimes called "al-Khiyamī". an expert in their fiqh. 3. literature and other subjects. one of the greatest scholars. pp. a commentary on the work of his teacher ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã (see §39/bk.157-8. where he was in 426/1035 and he stayed for a considerable time in Egypt. pp.154. at-Tūsī. say of him: "He was a faqīh. and made an extended visit to Tarãbulus (Tripoli – in Lebanon). vol. Sharh jumal al-‘ilm wa 'l-‘amal. a grammarian. p.104. He returned to Ramlah and Cairo. usūlu 'l-fiqh. al-Qãdī Abu 'lFath al-Karãjikī (c. vol. p. an erudite mutakallim." as-Safadī says: "He was one of the luminaries of the Rãfidites. vol. the very learned scholar.300-1. 394.224.267).

al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb. al-A‘lãm. pp.7. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Muhammad ibn Bahr. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. 70.16. a faqīh.209-15. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. in the region of Kirmãn. p.27. 198-9. p.2. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. Īdãhu 'l-maknūn.11. pp. pp.325. Shadharãtu 'dh-dhahab.72. pp.108-9. vol.2. adhDharī‘ah. 342.7. pt.15.6. Amalu 'l-ãmil. p. and he was the author of something like five .154.2. vol. in a chapter in which he wrote about the Imãmate.130. 205. the Mu‘tazilī [d. pp.1. p. vol. [ash-Shaykh Muntajabu 'd-Dīn.302-8.162. al‘Allãmah. 178. p.4. p. al-Fawãidu 'r-Radawiyyah.] §124. pp. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. vol. pp.3. vol. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. pp. p.5. vol. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil.287-8. p.1. vol. 160. vol.337-8. vol.300. 8. and he was a knowledgeable man in hadīth. and the proof of its Creator. containing discussions on the coming into being of the universe. p. containing a refutation of the Ash‘arites and an undermining of their opinions about the Shī‘ah.156. al-Ghãyah fi 'l-usūl (that is usūlu 'd-dīn). al-‘Ibar.159. Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī says: "He was a mutakallim. p.164. pp.109. 7. vol.1. vol. vol. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. pp. pp. p. vol. vol.261.3. vol.116 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars 5. vol. Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm. at-Tanbīh ‘alã aghlãt Abu 'l-Husayn al-Basrī (The Notification of the Errors of Abu 'l-Husayn al-Basrī. pp. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn.17.328. p.1.3. p. Lu’luatu 'l-bahrayn. vol.] §123. p. pp. pp.497-500.211-2. vol. p. p.515. vol.97. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.3. pp.89. vol. Muhammad ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn ‘Umar ibn Mus‘ab ibn az-Zubayr ibn al-‘Awwãm: an-Najãshī says: "He was a skilled mutakallim from among our co-sectarians.70. vol. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. vol.160.3. and "ar-Ruhnī" refers to Ruhnah.3. a place near Kirmãn. Dãmighatu 'n-Nasãrã (The Refutation of the Christians) in which he refuted the words of Abū Hãshim an-Nasrãnī concerning how he wished to reconcile the Trinity with Monotheism. he has a great book on the Imãmate which is known as the book of as-Sūrah. pp. vol. Tãju 'l-‘arūs. 105-6. pt.29. 35. vol. vol. vol. vol.386-91.163. 30. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. p. 102.8. p. 6. vol.220.3. vol. pp. Abu 'l-Husayn ash-Shaybãnī arRuhnī as-Sijistãnī (d. p. vol." [an-Najãshī. p. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. 436/1044]). before 330/941): He lived in Narmãshīr. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. Jawãb risãlati 'l-akhawayn (Replies to the Treatises of the Two Brothers [?]).46.571-4. 595.2. Marãqidu 'l-ma‘ãrif. Mir’ãtu 'l-jinãn.2.14.107. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. Ibn Dãwūd. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.3767.70. al-Wãfī bi 'l-wafayãt. p.

but he was a believer in wa‘īd (see §17).38. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī.226.5. Yãqūt al-Hamawī mentioned him and spoke well of him. (Ibn) an-Nadīm. Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’.1368.104.2.249. vol.299-300. p. p. vol. man of letters and narrator of hadīth: "a pre-eminent Shī‘ī counted as trustworthy and of an exalted rank". p. p. vol. p.). p. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.147. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. p. vol. p.80. al‘Allãmah.161-2. p. p.5. p. His books are still to be found. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.5.4.500. al-‘Allãmah al-Mãmaqãnī defended him.242. vol. pp..85-86. jurisprudent (usūlī).340/951) says of him: "He was a resentful (haniq) exaggerator" (al-Kishshī. p. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. most of them in Khurãsãn. Shaykhu 't-Tãifah Abū Ja‘far at-Tūsī (385/995–460/1067): A legist (faqīh). Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn.306).85. Muhammad ibn Bishr. vol.2. their mutakallim and author" according to as-Subkī (Tabaqãtu 'sh-Shãfi‘iyyah. Ibn Dãwūd. and a pious mutakallim. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. pp. vol.15. "The Legist of the Imãmī Shī‘ah." He also mentions that he had written some books on the Imãmate. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. pp.1.294-5. c.158." As mentioned in §112. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.141. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah.158. commentator (of the Qur’ãn).2.252. vol.126. pt. especially from the accusation of exaggeration. p. an-Najãshī mentions: "He was a mutakallim. pp.5.] §126. ar-Rijãl. p. vol.. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. pt.379. mutakallim. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. vol. vol.Imãmī Mutakallims 117 hundred literary works and tracts. 4th cent. vol.93. al-Fihrist. outstanding in kalãm." an-Najãshī mentions him and narrates that others accused him of exaggeration in belief (ghuluww). p. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. p. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.7.316). pt. an-Najãshī says: "He was one of our outstanding co-sectarians. and al-Kishshī (d. p. p. p. 4th cent. [at-Tūsī. p. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. vol. pp. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.108. an-Najãshī. Majma‘u 'rrijãl. al‘Allãmah.417-8. and so does (Ibn) an-Nadīm. p.89.2. an-Najãshī. pp. [at-Tūsī.79. according to his friend and associate an-Najãshī (p. Ma‘ãlimu 'l‘ulamã’. p.2.162-3.295.164. and narrated matters concerning him in various places in his book Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn.] §125. al-Fihrist.3. Ibn Dãwūd.2. pp. and he mentions him as a Shī‘ī mutakallim. pp.296.3. al- .2. vol. correct in his beliefs.87. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.443.5. p. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. p. p. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. vol.298. according to Ibn Dãwūd (p. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. "Shaykhu 't-Tãifah (Leader of the [Shī‘ī] Sect) and pillar of their (community)".6. Abu 'l-Husayn as-Sūsanjirdī alHamdūnī: Shaykhu 't-Tãifah counts him among the students (ghulãm) of Abū Sahl an-Nawbakhtī (see §96).510. vol.248-9. p.

as-Sayyid Muhammad al-Mahdī Bahri 'l-‘Ulūm at-Tabãtabã’ī (1155/1742–1212/1797).58. after which he was with ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã until he too died in 436/1044. p. one of the greatest Imãmī scholars of recent times. literature.97. vol.452. be it Shãfi‘ī or other. vol. Tabaqãtu 'sh-Shãfi‘iyyah.1581. adDãwūdī.349. and taught the speculative and transmitted sciences: the absolute Shaykhu 't-Tãifah.3. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn.202). i. p. and was an educator in the doctrines of the roots of religion (usūl) and its branches (furū‘).127. Ibnu 'l-Athīr.2. as-Safadī.9. Ibn Kathīr.. and it can been seen from the lives of Imãmī scholars that they studied science from non-Imãmī teachers wherever they had to. p. honest. vol." as-Safadī mentions him. p. vol. p. as-Suyūtī. said: "He was the chief of the Imãmiyyah. and all the excellences associated with them. the Imãmī legist . vol. said: "The true Shaykhu 't-Tãifah (Chief of the Sect). He arrived in Baghdad and went to serious study of the Shãfi‘ī sect. knowledgeable in traditions. vol.227-8). Kashfu 'z-zunūn. an-Nujūmu 'z-zãhirah. pp.126. who are the exemplars and models for others whether . vol. Tabaqãtu 'l-mufassirīn.1. . alWãfī bi 'l-wafayãt.8. After them.118 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars Muntazim.e. usūl (Principles of Faith).12. famous as al-Mufīd. Shaykhu 't-Tãifah was born in Tūs in Khurãsãn. p. leader (imãm) of the sect (firqah) after the impeccable Imãms. vol. One of the strange things that as-Subkī tells us about Shaykhu 't-Tãifah is that "he belonged to the Shãfi‘ī school . He combined all the perfection of the soul in both knowledge and deed" (Khulãsatu 'l-aqwãl fī ‘ilmi 'rijãl.2. p.10. trustworthy. . who promoted the distinguishing marks of the true sharī‘ah. He wrote on every subject in Islamic sciences.4. .2. We cannot preclude that Shaykhu 't-Tãifah studied non-Imãmī fiqh. . and adds.252. He read usūl (ad-dīn) and kalãm with ‘Abdullãh Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn an-Nu‘mãn. revered. fiqh (jurisprudence). the Leader of the Sect (tãifah. the most illustrious figure in Shī‘ī sciences after the era of al-Mufīd and at-Tūsī. alMurtadã and at-Tūsī. the Imãmiyyah). p. Tabaqãtu 'l-mufassirīn. as do those who rely on him: "He stayed permanently with ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd and became a Rãfidite" (as-Subkī. p.82). kalãm. and pillar of the Imãmī Shī‘ah in everything connected with (their) rite and religious. p.148). vol. al-‘Allãmah al-Hillī (648/1250–726/ 1325). He investigated the roots (usūl) and the branches (furū‘) (of the religion). its leader towards whom all heads turn" (Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm. and man of exalted rank and high standing. p.5. and he left for Iraq in 408/1018. p. vol.29. vol. He was with ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd from the time he arrived Bahgdad up to the time of his teachers' death in 413/1022. he took over the position of teaching and leading the Shī‘ī sect. and in the list of such scholars we find the names of the shaykhs al-Mufīd.

509). p. He had therefore already been studying Imãmī texts with Imãmī teachers before coming to Baghdad. . 76. i.41. p. He is famous for having been an imbiber of nabīdh. honest and had heard a great deal of hadīth. as can be seen from the biography of Abū Mansūr as-Sarrãm an-Naysãbūrī.e. pp. but al-‘Allãmah al-Hillī mentions among his non-Imãmī (‘ãmmah) masters: "Abū ‘Alī ibn Shãdhãn. Moreover. vol.509-10).. He followed the Ash‘arite School in kalãm.136. . 118. Shaykhu 't-Tãifah did not study any kalãm with any other teachers apart from al-Mufīd and al-Murtadã. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. and before being a pupil of ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd. the mutakallim" (Ijãzatu 'l-kabīrah li Banū Zuhrah: al-Bihãr.Imãmī Mutakallims 119 they be scholars in hadīth or kalãm.279-80.37-42) and fifty-two (in Introduction to al-Bihãr. a memorizer of hadīth. dates. 70. 136-7). vol. before he was 23 years old. p. pp. until he eventually gave it up . We also find the figure of thirty-three (in Ãl Bahru 'l‘Ulūm.3.107. . al-Muntazim. his Imãmī biographers would have indicated it and counted it as one of his virtues and of his teacher ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd (that he brought a Shãfi‘ī into the fold of Shī‘ism).1. a slightly alcoholic beverage made from raisins. etc. This is al-Hasan ibn Abī Bakr Ahmad ibn Ahmad ibn al-Hasan. pp. vol. pp. eleven of them non-Imãmī. Introduction to Rijãlu 't-Tūsī. vol. Nor can any non-Imãmī shaykh be found among Shaykhu 't-Tãifah's teachers who was a Shãfi‘ite legist from whom he could have learnt Shãfi‘ī fiqh. and thirteen of them Imãmī (al-Ijãzatu 'l-kabīrah li-Banū Zuhrah: al-Bihãr.63-66). as was the case for many other scholars (see #s. he must have studied with Abū Hãzim in Naysãbūr before 408/1018. Ãghã Buzurg. he was a jurisprudent and a mutakallim." adh-Dhahabī says of him: "He was the principal link in most Irãqī chains of transmission (of hadīth)" (Tãrīkh Baghdãd. vol.. 21 ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī studied with a great number of scholars of hadīth.1.1.3. Abū ‘Alī ibn Shãdhãn al-Bazzãz ad-Dawraqī alBaghdãdī (339/951–426/1034). at-Tūsī studied his Bayãnu 'd-dīn with Abū Hãshim anNaysãbūrī in Naysãbūr. 43.7. and al-‘Allãmah al-Hillī counted twenty-four of them. vol. vol. His original books of hadīth were authentic (sahīhu 'l-usūl). thirty-seven (in Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. It is said of him: "He was trustworthy. 21 For references see §17. etc.35-42).). 77. for it is true. However. But we must condemn any kind of religious propaganda which is not based on the facts and is not supported by historical evidence and which claims that the Shaykhu 't-Tãifah was in the beginning a Shãfi‘ite and then became an Imãmī. and perhaps honey. Since at-Tūsī was born in 385/995 and came to Baghdad in 408/1018. pp.107. Introduction to at-Tibyãn.

17-18.7. p.445. vol. 1075). vol. vol. p.86-87. 5th cent. al-Miatu 'l-manqabah min manãqib Amīru 'l-Mu’minīn ‘alayhi 's-salãm (One Hundred of the Virtues of Amīru 'l-Mu’minīn. Ibnu 'l-Athīr. p. but this is not so. vol..15.12. p. Abu 'l-Hasan ibn Shãdhãn al-Fãmī al-Qummī.3.7. and property.120 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars vol. p. narrated to us from him.8.295. vol. vol.5. vol. and for the nature of at-Tūsī's narration from him. p. was shed. Ibn Kathīr. 299. 300. and for the confusion between them see ash-Shaykhu 't-Tūsī.1.104. pp.49.73. Shaykhu 'n-Nasab (d. ash-Shaykhu 't-Tūsī lived in Baghdad after the death of his teacher alMurtadã (436/1044) as the head of the Imãmiyyah for several troublesome years filled with bloody clashes and successive riots between the Shī‘ī and Sunnī Muslim brothers. vol. pp.150-1. peace be upon him). vol. see at-Tūsī. an-Nassãbah. pp. vol. alAmãlī. adh-Dharī‘ah. vol.421. p. vol. which Allãh ordained should not be spilt and drained away.3. for he himself specifies what he learnt from him in his biography of al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Yahyã. Now. p.2. 282. pt. Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidãl. al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb. the Muslims' honour. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.156-7. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.d. and 3. 259. For his biography see: Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. al-Ansãb.394. 317.3. 358/969): "Abu 'l-Husayn ibn Abī Ja‘far. Raddu 'sh-shams ‘alã Amīru 'l-Mu’minīn (The Reflection of the Sun in Amīr al-Mu’minīn).500.5. p. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. pp.39.9. Mir’ãtu 'l-jinãn. vol. It has been thought that Shaykhu 't-Tãifah studied kalãm under this Ibn Shãdhãn.241-2. vol. Shadharãtu 'dh-dhahab.63. as did Abū ‘Alī ibn Shãdhãn among the non-Imãmiyyah" (ar-Rijãl.228-9.3. the Imãmī. vol. the nonImãmī. vol.521. Īdãh dafãini 'n-nawãsib (Explanation of the Buried Treasures of the Nawãsib).2. This person was Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Alī ibn al-Hasan.62. who was another one of at-Tūsī's shaykhs.2.2-3. author of the following books:1. Kanzu 'l-fawãid.252-3). pp. pp. pp. pp. p. was disgraced.465). Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. p. Amalu 'l-ãmil. which Allãh commanded to be protected. 2.323. pp. Tadhkiratu 'l-huffãz. p. [al-Karãjikī (see §122) was one of those who narrated from him].2. which Allãh .2. And in the chains of transmission of non-Imãmite hadīth he is also one of the narrators of Ibn Akhī Tãhir (Tãrīkh Baghdãd. and Ibn Shãdhãn.2. al-Muntazim. p. p.2. vol. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. 412/1021). Abū Muhammad Ibn Akhī Tãhir al-Husaynī.19.1. vol.8.44. pp. in which innocent blood. the legist (a. vol. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah.494-5. the Nawãsib were a sect famous for their detestation of Amīr al-Mu‘minīn. there has been a confusion between this Ibn Shãdhãn. pp.

Kashfu 'z-zunūn. p.637-8. al-A‘lãm. This continued until 448/1056.71-72).127. alKunã wa 'l-alqãb.135. vol. p. .31. vol. vol.127. Ibn Kathīr. the notes and memoranda which he availed himself of in his errings and innovations to which he called the people of his country and creed – may Allãh be praised". plundering and tearing apart.982. Introduction to his Rijãl.2. in an-Najaf al-Ashraf and the noble holy place of al-Husayn at Karbalã’. among mankind. 449 (April. vol. of manjanīq [catapult]. 78). peace be upon him.8. where Amīr al-Mu’minīn. especially libraries and colleges.12. p. vol. pl." (EI 1 . pp. which is a kind of banner denoting official status) which the pilgrims from al-Karkh used to take with them when they went to visit the tomb of Amīr al-Mu’minīn.1.3. p. the ‘Abbãsid (391/1001 – became caliph in 422/1031– d.Imãmī Mutakallims 121 commanded be made safe from spoliation. Ibn Kathīr. p. p. had been laid to rest) – "and his house in Baghdad was plundered" (al-Muntazim.9. Ibnu 'l-Athīr. by arson. All these things were burnt. vol. Tabaqãtu 'l-mufassirīn. p. especially Islamic civilization. The phenomenon of the annihilation of the signs of civilization and scientific and intellectual wealth is one of the evils with which mankind is afflicted. vol. just like Ibn Kathīr – and how many Ibn Kathīrs there are. of sanjaq.1. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. pp. 1057).4.2.179. and it turned to ashes. p. ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī. the Sacred.12. when Shaykhu 't-Tãifah was compelled to emigrate to an-Najaf alAshraf (also then known as al-Ghariyy. vol.75.8. unfortunately. was pillaged. p. p. vol. 467/1075) out of esteem for him (Tanqīhu 'lmaqãl.395. Ibn Kathīr. vol. pt.6.97). Among the items were "his books. The books of Shaykhu 't-Tãifah "were burnt several times before the people in the public square of the mosque of the palace" – that is. peace be upon him.173.69).105. the caliphal palace (Tabaqãtu 'sh-Shãfi‘iyyah. vol. pp.452. Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm. this is an error for sanãjiq.12. p. The like of these tragedies and crimes will continue to repeat itself as long as men can be put to the test by what is in their mentality. The chair (kursī) had been given to at-Tūsī by the caliph al-Qãim. the mutakallim of the Shī‘ah and the legist of the Imãmiyyah was attacked. vol. together with the chair in which he sat to debate and give his lessons.315). vol. In Safar.5. wrecking. his note-books and his books were plundered and taken away. and whatever was found in it of his works. according to Ibn Kathīr (al-Muntazim. p. p. as well as three white majãniq (pl. for the second time "the house in al-Karkh of Abū Ja‘far at-Tūsī. and one of the first things which destroyers of ideas and knowledge set out to do it to get rid of the scientific and intellectual heritage. his house was burnt down. "In the end.

most of whom were Imãmī Shī‘īs.3. the direction of the "Dãru 'l-‘Ilm" fell to ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã (Gharsu 'nNi‘mah.11. p. this was an area where the people were the declared enemies of the people of al-Karkh in terms of both their sects and their intellectual lives. p. an-Nujūmu 'z-zãhirah. p. the wazīr of Bahãu 'd-Dawlah Abū Nasr ibn ‘Adudī 'd-Dawlah adDaylamī (360/971–403/1012).4. pp. vol. vol.101. He called it "Dãru 'l-‘Ilm" (House of knowledge). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Then he had many books brought there. purchased a house in al-Karkh in Baghdad in a place called "Baynu 's-Sūrayn". vol. 451 (Dec. for what they did with the Sãbūriyyah treasury of books was worse and more abominable. vol. about two years after the tragedy of Shaykhu 't-Tãifah's library and the disturbances and riots to which Iraq was witness. Ibnu 'l-Athīr.9.28-29. p. After the death of Sãbūr. catalogued them. "There was no more beautiful (collection of) books in the world than this.400 volumes of scientific writings in the "Dãr". 1059). vol. as well as one of the most populated (see Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn.4. p. Tãrīkhu 'l-khulafã’. they were all in the script of the leading learned men in their original amended manuscripts". vol. vol. vol. Shadharãtu 'dh-dhahab.312.279. p. vol. the Hãshimīds rebelled.122 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars And what they did to the books of Shaykhu 't-Tãifah and his works is not the worst of what the criminals did in these series of successive hideous tragedies. and supervisors for the running of it. according to Yãqūt al-Hamawī.7. In 381/991 the wazīr Bahãu 'd-Dawlah Abū Nasr Sãbūr [= Shãpūr] ibn Ardashīr (336/948–416/ 1025). He assigned someone to take over the direction of the "Dãr".164. vol. he endowed it with munificent bequests (al-Muntazim. Ibnu 'l-Athīr.104. a scholar who had an extensive knowledge of antiquities. EI1. p. vol.1.172. Marãsidu 'l-ittilã‘. vol.35). Muhammad ibn Mīkã’īl as-Saljūqī al-Ghuzzī (c.11. and after Tughrul-beg. p.245.8. They went in to al-Karkh and pillaged it. which was one of the largest and most beautyful quarters in al-Karkh. and improved it.2.656). p.19. Sãbūr ibn Ardashīr. [Arabic ed..8. Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn. They were related to Banū ‘Abbãs.10.8.350. p.534. p.754). this is what happened.]. they .359). and left it as a religious endowment to the people of al-Karkh. al-Hafawãtu 'n-nãdirah.9. geography and manuscripts. one of the most famous calligraphers in the first Islamic centuries (al-Muntazim.12.6. and this was completed in 383/993.143-4. And the people of Bãb al-Basrah joined them.385/995–455/1063) had entered Baghdad. Among them were a hundred copies of the Holy Qur’ãn in the script of Banū Muqlah. p. p. whitewashed it. vol. Ibn Kathīr. He reconstructed it.1. which he had bought and collected while he had been wazīr.22.3.1. Briefly. p. p. vol. In Dhu 'l-Qi‘dah. vol. vol. There were 10. vol.22. vol. pp. p. the caliphal dynasty in those days. Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’. Finally. p.534. p.

Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah.20-21).26. We desire by all means to safe- . p. including the writings of the Imãmī mutakallims which we have mentioned. Ibn Kathīr.28-29). pp. p. every one of which was of great value (alMuntazim. but I have not sought to disclose the inner reasons or motives for them. He wrote books on kalãm and fiqh. 205. one of the most important centres of learning of all the various Islamic cultures had suffered a tragedy on a par with that of al-Karkh about thirty years before.8. 6th cent. vol.12. pp. They set fire to Darb az-Za‘farãnī in which there were one thousand two hundred houses.Imãmī Mutakallims 123 spread fire in the market area. vol. not because I have decided not to investigate the history of these things.4. Ibnu 'l-Athīr.9 p. and burnt down the library which had been bequeathed by Sãbūr and which had been called "Dãru 'l-‘Ilm" (House of Knowledge).1. pp.9. I have made a passing reference to these painful events. of the things he did. vol. nor have I mentioned the perpetrators. and every book which opposed his religious beliefs (Hanafite).22. one was to burn all the Imãmī and Zaydī Shī‘ī books he could find. but because I am most anxious that we should not anger our brothers. so that nothing was left for him to take possession of (al-Muntazim. 8. Ibn Khaldūn. pp.386-7. had built in his capital. 85. pp. EI1. vol.4. It is for these and similar reasons. p.6. that we find that of the titles that are included in the famous indices of Imãmī books. the Fihrist of at-Tūsī and the Fihrist of an-Najãshī. Rayy. p. and other Shī‘ī libraries met the same fate (Khitãtu 'sh-Shãm. He was the pupil of Ibnu 'l-Barrãj (see §3) and occupied his position when he died.375-6. all but an extremely small number have been lost or destroyed..350. then. vol. Some years later.19. Lebanon). vol.210.1. 216. especially in these sensitive times. p. pp. vol. But towards the end of his life he went to Hayfã (Haifa) and established a library where he collected together more than four thousand volumes (Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidãl. These tragedies were not unique of their kind. When Mahmūd ibn Sabuktikīn al-Ghaznawī (361/971–421/1030) conquered Rayy in 420/1029.8. as well as the Mu‘tazilī books. vol.372.186). Ibnu 'l-Athīr. vol.12. Ibn Kathīr. 478). vol. pp. taking over the judiciary in Tripoli (Tarãbulus.38-40. vol. before 530/1135) had built. ‘Alī ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn Hamdãn al-Hamdãnī (303/915–356/967). the same thing happened to the library which As‘ad ibn Ahmad ibn Abī Rawh al-Qãdī Abu 'l-Fadl atTarãbulusī (d. vol. A similar event occurred at the same time in Halab (Aleppo) in connection with the great "Dãru 'l-Kutub" (library) which the Imãmī monarch Sayfu 'd-Dawlah.10. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn.

4. p. . May Allãh cause affection to exist between us and those among them who treat us as enemies? "Allãh is all-Powerful. after he moved there the intellectual atmosphere became much more animated. all-Forgiving. Among those. ed. In many ways it has been one of the liveliest of all the great and important centres of learning. Whatever feelings we harbour towards them are the scoldings of brotherly fault finding. It was printed in Yãdnãmah Shaykh-e Tūsī. can forgive the major sins without repentance. and to avoid their anger and antipathy.124 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars guard their friendship and love for us. 2. ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī lived in an-Najaf al-Ashraf till he died. (it was the doctrine) that the mind cannot accept that Allãh.217). (Iran). School of Theology and Islamic Studies. but it was erratic and somewhat feeble. al-Iqtisãd al-hãdī ilã tarīqi 'r-rashãd fī-mã yajibu ‘ala 'l-‘ibãd (The Provident Course Which Guides to the Path of Reason Concerning . This was a commentary on Jumalu 'l-‘ilm wa 'l-amal by his teacher ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã (see §39/bk. the author of ar-Rawdãt. may He be exalted. 3. At first he a believer in the doctrine of wa‘īd (threat). Allãh knows. pp. The commentary to this Introduction called Riyãdatu 'l-‘uqūl (The Exercise of Minds). and it explains quite adequetly the terminology of kalãm. describes thus: ". University of Mashhad. these brothers of ours today are not those who perpetrated these crimes.148. as all the wa‘diyyah believers in wa‘īd) maintain. vol. are the following:1." Then he renounced this belief (al-‘Allãmah.4). His tomb is still to be seen near the mosque which bears his name – Jãmi‘u 't-Tūsī. vol. Shaykhu 't-Tãifah is oe of the great Imãmī mutakallims. p. all-Compassionate" (quoted from the words of Allãh in sūrah al-Mumtahanah [The Woman Tested). and he was buried there. M. Muqaddamah fi 'l-madkhal ilã ‘ilmi 'l-kamãl (Introduction to the Beginning of the Science of Theology).2. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. which deal with the discussions within kalãm. He created it so that it became one of the most important centres of learning for the Imãmiyyah from the middle of the 5th/11th century upto the present day. for.6. Wã‘iz-zãdeh. however. He wrote works in all the branches of Islam. He himself described it as being "without equal". and which was originally his resting place. that they should judge people favourable when they are managing their own affairs and yield to others when they are doing what they want to do. Tamhīdu 'l-usūl. which al-Khwãnsãrī. .184-214. 60:7). There was already a climate of learning in an-Najaf al-Ashraf before Shaykhu 't-Tãifah migrated there.

17. 12. It is in two parts: i) What he should believe in. and ii) What actions he should perform. Mã yu‘allal wa mã lã yu‘allal (What Needs a Cause and What does not Need a Cause). al-Istīfã’ fi 'l-imãmah (The Complete Book on the Imãmate). p. an-Naqd ‘alã Ibn Shãdhãn fī mas’alati 'l-ghãr (On the 'Cave': this is the cave in which the Prophet and Abū Bakr took refuge when fleeing from Meca. 6. Mas’alah fi 'l-husn wa 'l-qubh (On Good and Evil).20. p. which has been printed. 18. 19. Mas’alah fi 'l-ahwãl (The "States". al-Masãilu 'r-Rãziyyah fi 'l-wa‘īd. About three hundred questions and answers. al-Masãilu 'r-Rajabiyyah. (Consult the contents of: ash-Shaykhu 't-Tūsī. al-Masãilu 'l-Halabiyyah. Twelve Questions and Answers. pp.1. al-Mufsih fi 'l-imãmah (manuscript) (The Clarification of the Imãmate). 9. Istilãhãtu 'l-mutakallimīn (The Terminology of the Mutakallims). ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã.168. was killed. al-Kãfī fī ‘ilmi 'l-kalãm (The Sufficient Book on the Science of Theology). 7. Thirty-three short articles (adh-Dharī‘ah. of some of the Mu‘tazilites such as al-Jubbã’ī). He described these as "commentaries on the . What is Incumbent upon Man). Mã lã yasa‘u 'l-mukallafa 'l-ikhlãl bih (What Whose Infringement is not Permitted the Person under Obligation [to God]). vol.350. I believe this to be Abū ‘Alī Ibn Shãdhãn whom we mentioned in our list of the teachers of ash-Shaykhu 't-Tūsī. This is a large commentary. 8. 11. Talkhīs "ash-Shãfī" (printed). p.) al-Masãilu 'l-Hãiriyyah. (Junbulã’ is a small town between Wãsit and Kūfah – Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn.) al-Masãilu 'l-Junbulãiyyah.) al-Masãilu 'd-Dimashqiyyah.Imãmī Mutakallims 125 5. 20. (al-Hãir is a name given to Karbalã’. 22. and the argument about it concerns its being a sign of Abū Bakr's legitimacy as caliph). 15. vol. 13. Usūlu 'l-‘aqãid (Principles of Faith). 21.364). Twenty-four questions and answers. where al-Husayn ibn ‘Alī. the more important section and the more extensive. It contains a great many opinions from kalãm.233-309. 16. al-Masãilu 'l-kalãmiyyah fī usūli 'd-dīn (Kalãm Matters Concerning the Principles of the Religion). The abridgement of the book of his teacher.2. Tafsīr "at-Tibyãn". the Chief of the Martyrs. 14. 10. peace be upon him. Marãsidu 'l-ittilã‘. which he himself describes as "a handsome [book]". 23. vol.

6. idem. Introduction to arRijãl (126 pages). pp.6. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Alī. p. pp. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. 25. in which many scholars and researchers. pt. pp.191-4. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. a narrator of hadīth. Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm. pp.2.5. al-Masãilu 'l-Ilyãsiyyah.22740. Nasīru 'd-Dīn at-Tūsī. p. The proceedings of the conference collected together the papers and the discussions. Iran.270-5. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. mutakallim. University of Baghdad). ashShaykh Abū ‘Alī al-Fattãl (Ibn) al-Fãrisī an-Naysãbūrī (d. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. Hasan ‘Īsã al-Hakīm ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī – M. by ash-Shahrastãnī (Muhammad ib ‘Abdi 'l-Karīm [479/1086–548/1153]) in which he criticizes some of the beliefs and opinions of Ibn Sinã (al-Husayn ibn ‘Abdillãh [370/980–428/ 1037]). vol. thesis. the philosopher. vol.126 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars Qur’ãn." 24. idem. a Qur’ãnic exegete. (50 pages).3. vol. the like of which has not been written..3. pp.1023.316. §127.. It is necessary to point out that some biographers have made the mistake of confusing Shaykhu 't-Tãifah with Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn alHasan. Introduction to Tafsīru 'l-Tibyãn (78 pages).176-212. pp.188-90. pp.15.104-5. the famous servant of the speculative sciences and mathematics. .216-49. legist and scholar of hadīth. among which were manuscripts published for the first time. Eastern and Orientalist took part.514/1120): A faqīh. Introduction to al-Amãlī (50 pages). pp.1. ash-Shaykh Ãghã Buzurg. Dalīlu 'l-qadã’i 'sh-shar‘ī. pp. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. called Khwãjah (597/1201–672/1274). vol. p. vol. Introduction to an-Nihãyah. or c.3.3. an-Najãshī.315) under the entry accorded to Shaykhu 't-Tūsī some of the books of Khwãjah Nasīru 'd-Dīn. 508/ 1114-5. vol. as-Sayyid Muhammad Sãdiq Ãl Bahri 'l-‘Ulūm. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil.A. The most important sources for the life of ash-Shaykhu 't-Tūsī are: atTūsī. and he mentions Masãri‘u 'l-musãri‘ written in refutation of the book al-Musãri‘. in three large volumes. az-Ziriklī mentions in his alA‘lãm (vol.72. He describes these as "a hundred questions and answers on a variety of topics". vol. took part in the celebrations of thousandth anniversary of the birth of Shaykhu 't-Tãifah by holding a conference which took place from 11th – 15th Muharram 1390/19th–23rd March 1970. al-Masãil fi 'l-farq bayna 'n-nabiyy wa 'l-imãm (Concerning the Difference Between the Prophet and the Imãm). The School of Theology and Islamic Studies at the University of Mashhad. from about twenty countries. vol. trustworthy in narration.505-510. al-Fihrist. and a renowned mutakallim. Matba‘atu 'l-Ãdãb – an-Najaf al-Ashraf 1375/1975 (704 pages with indexes).

vol. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Hamzah. .295. vol.2. Shihãbu 'd-Dīn at-Tūsī ash-Shãfi‘ī [d.514/1120. p. pp.395.260. a Qur‘ãnic exegete.37-38. vol. p. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. al-Fawãidu 'r-Radawiyyah. 598. pp. muftī and debater). and "ash-Shaykh ash-Shahīd Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Fãrisī. p.1. Īdãhu 'l-maknūn. alKunã wa 'l-alqãb. p.3. (Muntajabu 'dDīn. author of the book Rawdatu 'l-wã‘izin": al-Bihãr.2. 515/1122].9.246-7. p.2. vol.) [See: Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. . Ibn Dãwūd. p. p. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.253-62.).] §128. while Ibn Dãwūd and a group including al-‘Allãmah al-Amīnī. p. vol. p. pt. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. and a scholar of hadīth. vol. vol. vol. called Shihãbu 'l-Islãm. the chief of Naysãbūr.105. vol. . 6th cent. Rawdatu 'l-wã‘izīn (printed in an-Najaf al-Ashraf).17.103 (Muhammad al-Hasan . a mutakallim. vol. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. vol. p. ash-Shahīd (the Martyr)". p. p. Abū Ya‘lã al-Ja‘farī al-Baghdãdī (d. p. wazīr of Sultãn Sanjar as-Saljūqī. between Muhammad ibn al-Hasan.2. vol. The biographers differ over his personal name. al-Fihrist: "ash-Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Alī al-Fattãl an-Naysãbūrī. Both of the last two contain the same as is found in the following: Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. which has been printed. say: "He was killed by Abu 'l-Mahãsin ‘Abdu 'r-Razzãq (ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn ‘Alī. adh-Dharī‘ah..Imãmī Mutakallims 127 He studied under ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã and Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī.1. who agree with him. He wrote a number of books. author of a commentary . the faqīh. .288. vol.272. 463/1071): He was a faqīh.288.20. it must be c. 64. and over his laqab between al-Fattãl and al-Fãrisī. p. p. pt. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. . Introduction to at-Tūsī's Rijãl. Shuhadã’u 'l-fadīlah. pp. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. pp." Muntajabu 'd-Dīn describes him in one of his biographical writings as "ashShaykh. Amalu 'l-ãmil. Amalu 'l-ãmil.44.305.": al-Bihãr.73.155. Manhaju 'l-maqãl.3.62. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. He was a descendant of Ja‘far ibn Abī Tãlib.289.1. vol.158.392.2.212-3. p. The result is that some biographers have claimed these were two different persons. p. pp.200.242. pt. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.47. 508/1114-5. the most famous of which is Rawdatu 'lwã‘izīn.6.59. Muhammad ibn ‘Alī and Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Alī. p. 574. p. The Introduction. Amalu 'l-ãmil.504.334. vol. as-Sayyid Muhammad Mahdī al-Khirsãn verifies in his introduction to Rawdatu 'l-wã‘izīn that if he was killed in the days when Abu 'l-Mahãsin was wazīr. pp.105.5. vol. p.2.15. They also differ about the death: most say his death was in the year given by Ibn Hajar. pupil of the Imãmu 'l-Haramayn al-Juwaynī. p.20 [under Shī‘ī mutakallims]. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn.2. vol. vol. pp.

p. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.156. vol.5.15. p. Jawãbu 'l-mas’alati 'l-wãridah min Saydã (Answer to Question Which Came from Saydã). 7. al-Mas’alah fī anna 'l-fa‘‘ãl ghayr hãdhihi 'l-jumlah (Treaties on the Fact that the Agent [Man] is Other than [merely] this Totality [of Limbs and Organs]) (see §149/bk. vol. 8. pp.1.12.235-7. pp. (Answers to Diverse Questions on Various Matters of Knowledge). al-Mūjaz fi 't-tawhīd (The Concise Statement on Divine Unity). Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt.2. peace be upon him).499-500.316-7. 9.271.68-69. pp.e. Ibnu 'l-Athīr. Ibn Dãwūd.104. ‘Umdatu 't-Tãlib. 4. Among his writings are:1.e.382. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. p.] §129.185. the Imãm al-Husayn]). pp. and excelled in his knowledge of the two usūls (usūlu 'ddīn and usūlu 'l-fiqh. Tanqīhu 'lmaqãl.128 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars He was very close to ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd and studied under him. vol. vol.299-300.304. al-Muntazim.164.. pp. p. he even married his daughter.30-31.6). Abū ‘Abdillãh alWarrãq at-Tarãbulusī: A faqīh. pp. mutakallim and trustworthy narrator . vol. He was the representative of ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd and participated in his sessions. and when al-Mufīd died he left him his library. may peace be upon the Lord of the place [i. pt.360.201. [an-Najãshī. Jawãbu 'l-masãili 'l-wãridah min Tarãbulus (Answers to Questions Which Came from Tripoli).2.91. 5th cent. 2.. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah. pp.3. an-Najãshī says: "He was close to ashShaykh al-Mufīd. ‘alayhi 's-salãm (Question on the Birth of the Twelfth Imãm. vol. pp. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn.8. p. vol. p.300. Jawãbu 'l-masãili 'l-wãridah min al-Hãir ‘alã Sãhibihi 's-salãm (Answers to Questions which Came from Karbalã’.5. vol.5. Ajwibat masãil shattã fī funūn mina 'l-‘ilm. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah.20. 6.4. p. p. 5.10. vol. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.9.101. p. He also studied under ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã. al-Mas’alah fi 'r-radd ‘ala 'l-ghulãt (Refutation of Extremism [About the Imãmate]). al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb. kalãm. vol. p. kalãm and fiqh)". p. He was a mutakallim and a faqīh. Ibn Kathīr. p. vol.. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. and jurisprudence) and fiqh.159-60. al-Mas’alah fī mawlid Sãhibu 'z-Zamãn. vol. ad-Darajãtu 'r-rafī‘ah. 3.35. Muhammad ibn Hibatillãh ibn Ja‘far. al‘Allãmah.186-7. and an expert in both subjects (i. p. vol.1.73. p. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. Jawãb mas’alat ahli 'l-Mawsil (Answers to Questions from the People of al-Mawsil).

360. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. pp. pp. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. p. Amalu 'l-ãmil.245. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. vol. vol.657. peace be upon him. vol. pt. the blessing and peace of Allãh be upon him and his Household. and what did they say to you?" and he was pleased with what he had done. at-Tūsī. p.2. vol. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. and al-Usūl wa 'l-fusūl (Principles and Parts). p.10. p. Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn Abi 'l-Khattãb. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. vol. p. p. p. pp. Ibn Dãwūd.1. [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. p. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. among which are:1. including: al-Wãsitah bayna 'n-nafy wa 'lithbãt (The Middle-Way Between Negation and Affirmation [i. 262/876): It is said of him: "An important one of our scholars. pt. vol.1. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. pp. vol." It is also narrated that al-Kãzim. vol. p. [al-Kishshī.1.1. and was completely trustworthy. when he had acquitted himself of this task. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.200.e. vol. and complete reliance can be had on his narration. his excellence requires no mention).5. Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘ulūm. the Imãm.448-9. pp. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. pp. vol.187.189. al-Fawãidu 'r-Radawiyyah.. al-Fihrist.37-40.166. al-Ma‘rifah wa 'l-badã’ (Recognition of Allãh and al-Badã’). Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. p.121. peace be upon him). vol. let him alone (i. vol. of great rank.302.324-9. vol. p. at-Tawhīd (The Unity of God).2.4. 5th cent.285-6. p.. [an-Najãshī. al-‘Allãmah. p.] §130. p.96-97. Abū Ja‘far az-Zayyãt al-Hamdãnī al-Kūfī (d. vol. He narrated many ahãdīth. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. 3.16.198. of the "states" of some Mu‘tazilites]).141.5." He wrote several books.] . p. al-‘Allãmah. Muhammad ibn Hukaym al-Kath‘amī: He was one of the companions of the Imãms as-Sãdiq and al-Kãzim (129/746–183/799). p.e.109. pp. ordered him to sit down with the people of Medina in the mosque of the Messenger of Allãh.90. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. p.212. Ibn Dãwūd.2.400.105. pt.265. He was excellent in writing.151.3.15. p.] §131. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. 2.308-9. vol. peace be upon them both.3. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.312-3. adh-Dharī‘ah.21.102-3. peace be upon him. p. p.17. al-Kishshī narrates that someone named those who were experts in kalãm to Abu 'l-Hasan (al-Kãzim.481. p. said to him: "What did you say to them. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. He wrote several books. and he said: "As for Ibn Hukaym. pp. vol.Imãmī Mutakallims 129 who studied under Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī all the latter's books and writing. and to discuss and debate with them.354. p. vol. ar-Radd‘alã ahli 'l-qadar (Refutation of the Deniers of Predestination).196.

362) and al-‘Umad fī usūli 'l-fiqh (The Foundations Concerning the Principles of Jurisprudence) (alMajãzãt.242. with the result that the majority of his biographers did not pay attention to him and study his personality except from this side. . just as he also learnt from al-Qãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr (320/932–415/1025). p. the remaining parts of his great and famous Qur’ãnic tafsīr. the most outstanding are the Talkhīsu 'l-bayãn fī majãzãti 'l-Qur’ãn (Summary of the Proof Concerning the Allegories of the Qur’ãn) and al-Majãzãtu 'nnabawiyyah (The Prophetic Allegories). The result was that his brother's learned character rather eclipsed his and the scholarly aspect of his own personally was played down by the generality of his biographers. Among the books he studied with him were: Taqrību 'l-usūl (Clarification of the Principles). The title "as-Sayyid" also gives the same meaning. as well as the attribution of injustice and 22 ash-Sharīf (noble). and more important than these two. that is the title given to the descendants of the Holy Prophet. ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã (see §39). for this latter surpassed him in the scholarly aspect. He studied fiqh and kalãm. Sometimes "ash-Sharīf " is given to all the descendants of Hãshim. and a faqīh. p. a mutakallim.180). about which he said that in it he works through "the obscure ãyahs (verses) which seem to indicate God's anthropomorphism and the attributing of a body to Him. together with his brother al-Murtadã. may Allãh bless him and his praogeny and preserve them. The literary aspect of the personality of ash-Sharīf ar-Radī predominated over the learned and scholarly aspect of it. being conspicuously superior. ash-Sharīf ar-Radī – even though the literary aspect of his personality was quite prominent. which reveal the scholarly side of his character. it was his fate that his eleder full brother. and also lived thirty years longer than he did. Sharhu 'l-usūli 'l-khamsah (Commentary on the Five Principles). We shall give his complete lineage in the biography of his elder brother. Haqãiqu 't-ta’wīl wa mutashãbihu 't-tanzīl (The Realities of Hermeneutics and the Obscurity of the Sending Down). and he held the position of he syndic of the Tãlibids (naqību 't-Tãlibiyyīn) after his father – was a scholar. Abu 'l-Hasan ashSharīf 22 ar-Radī al-Mūsawī (359/970–406/1015): The famous man of leters and poet. concerning kalãm (Talkhīsu 'l-bayãn. the famous Mu‘tazilī scholar (Talkhīsu 'l-bayãn fī majãzãti 'l-Qur’ãn. However. p. ashSharīf al-Murtdã. also concerning kalãm (al-Majãzãt. p. alMajãzãti 'n-nabawiyyah. with ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd (see §144).130 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars §132. pp.212-3). What is more.48). from the time when he was young. Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn Mūsã. should be his contemporary. Of the books of ar-Radī.

374. 177. what he notices in the middle part and the 'hump' of it.277-8. Talkhīsu 'l-bayãn. 190. 259. the arriving. the solution of the problems of doubtful matters. according to the influence of longer time for the clarification of obscurities. pp. ash-Sharīf ar-Radī deals with the topics of kalãm.8. Muhammad ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Wahhãb.10. The most interesting part of all this is that ash-Sharīf ar-Radī himself mentions that he went through a period in his intellectual and scientific life when "schools of thought would swing back and forth and then settle. 138. 22. from Abū ‘Alī alJubbã’ī. in what we wrote indicating our inclination to belief in irjã’ (the doctrine of suspended judgement). 245. 10.) There are many references concerning the interpretation of Qur’ãnic verses as well as ahãdīth from his teacher al-Qãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr (see Haqãiqu 't-tawīl. and the coming to the surface of underlying factors influencing ideas and reflection. 126. 234. 41. the exegete.Imãmī Mutakallims 131 oppression to Him. which show in what he relates of their view of things that sometimes he agrees. 68. 218. the author of a commentary on the Qur’ãn (Haqãiqu 'tta’wīl. and sometimes he argues against and gives an opposite view. 243.167).11-12). at previously undiscovered proofs. 349. the original one and the subsequent one. 204. 273).137. the former and the . 224. 281. as well as other Mu‘tazilī scholars. Introduction [by the Author]." (Haqãiqu 't-ta’wīl. 184-5. 333. starting out from "the foundation of the judgement of the intellect and the principles of justice (‘adl). among whose most famous books is his great commentary on the Qur’ãn: Jãmi‘u 't-ta’wīl lī muhkami 't-tanzīl (Haqãiqu 't-ta'wīl. and then. mutakallim and man of letters. pp. 52. going through the clarification of obscurities and making clear what has been mistaken" (al-Majãzãtu 'n-nabawiyyah. pp. and ideas would become agitated and then calm down. 135. to the extent that they are connected with the ãyãt (verses) and ahãdīth (traditions) under considetration. and also the matters we referred to before in Talkhīsu 'l-bayãn and al-Majãzãt). 156. pp. 59. and this is the true root of the principles of religious thinking (usūlu 'd-dīn) which necessitates action in accordance with it and about which no further questions can be asked. of (our) statement indicating that belief in wa‘īd (see § 17) had been found to be true. p. 262. 273. In thse books of his. [saying we were] certain of it and believed in it. "Amongst this is what the reader comes across in the beginning of our book (Haqãiqu 't-ta’wīl). 120. from Abū Muslim Muhammad ibn Bahr al-Isfahãnī the Mu‘tazilī 254/868– 322/934). 231. pp. The reason for the disparity in [holding] these two opinions. the famous Mu‘tazilī scholar (235/849–303/916).

it is possible that we could find evidence for this.8.234. was the ramification of questioning and doubts as time went on drawing out [this process]. if we had the rest of his tafsīr. and Geschichte des Arabischen Schrifttums. 38. p. pp. p. pp. c. pp.. vol. It is said of him: "(He was) of a great rank. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt." Then he gives the answers to this ayah with adequate detail.195-6. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. (Haqãiqu 't-ta’wīl. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. His help and His settling of the matter.525-6." He arrived in Baghdad.3. vol. [an-Najãshī. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.97-98. till what had been holding them back rushed forward and hesitancy about them gave way [to confidence]. vol.310. and a mutakallim.83. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. vol.1. al-Fawãidu 'r-Radawiyyah. Ibn Dãwūd. pp. p. and then follows their proof by saying: "The leading scholars who believe in ‘adl (justice) have gone in depth into the answers to this. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn.230.2. Muhammad ibn Ibrãhīm ibn Ja‘far.290. Sezgin. p. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.1. pp. correct in his convictions. by the grace of Allãh. Amalu 'l-ãmil.297-8. p. al-‘Allãmah.16. vol. adh-Dharī‘ah.] . p. He wrote several books. [these difficulties] were driven on like a worn out camel and a way was cleared through their rough ground.246-8).360/971): A scholar.127-9.10. vol.2.281. §133. p.195. p. al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb.43. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn.79.162. and perhaps he abandoned this afterwards.5. p. then left for ash-Shãm." (Haqãiqu 't-ta’wīl. and the circa is added to his entry in Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. The Introduction to his book al-Ghaybah.6. Īdãhu 'lmaknūn.46.281.2. And Īdãhu 'l-maknūn says that he died in 360/971. famous as Ibn (Abī) Zaynab (d.16-17. p. vol. p. p.). vol. he knew a great many ahãdīth. vol. vol. pp. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. among which is: al-Ghaybah (which has been printed and ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Ismã‘īliyyah (Refutation of the Ismã‘īlites). p. and settled in Dimashq. (last ed.105.5556. Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Kãtib an-Nu‘mãnī.14. 543.2. pp.337.361-75.) ash-Sharīf himself gives an ayah by which the Murji’ites proved their beliefs. pp. of noble degree. The last date that is found for his narrated ahãdīth is that which comes in his narration of the occultation from the year 342/953-4. I. vol. vol.232-3. then he went to live in Halab (Aleppo) and died in ash-Shãm. pp. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. His granting of success. narrator of hadīth.132 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars latter. 4th cent. p. p.) Perhaps among these "agitated" opinions was ash-Sharīf ar-Radī's opinion about the creation of Paradise and the Fire (Haqãiqu 't-ta’wīl.

13-14. [Ibn] an-Nadīm.57.223.267 [he adds: "He wrote books according to the school of the Shī‘ah. a man of knowledge. he used to make out that he was of the Shãfi‘ite school of fiqh. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.2.24.159." (Ibn) an-Nadīm says of him. vol. and he wrote books according to both sects. 4.2. 4th cent. Abū Ja‘far al‘Ubaydī al-Yaqtīnī al-Baghdãdī: One of the ompanions of the Imãms ar-Ridã.288. vol. vol.8.86-87. p.5. al-Istibsãr (The Ability to Reflect). Muhammad ibn ‘Īsã ibn ‘Ubayd ibn Yaqtīn. vol. praised him." an-Najãshī says of him: "He was one of our important co-sectarians.2. vol. vol. pp. p. pp. 3. Naqdu 'l-‘Abbãsiyyah (The Refutation of the ‘Abbãsids). al-Fadl ibn Shãdhãn (see §57) was fond of him.237-8. (Ibn) an-Nadīm. Ibn Dãwūd. . pp. p. Among his books written according to Imãmiyyah beliefs are:1. and an eminent person. al-Fihrist. pp. p.18.287-8.226.282. p. Tabaqãtu 'shShãfi‘iyyah.. pp. he studied with Yūnus ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn (see §165) and was so attached to him that he was given the name "Yūnusī"."]). p.246-7.63. al-Isti‘dãd (Preparedness). Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. An important narrator of hadīth. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. al-‘Allãmah.144. including him among the Shãfi‘ite faqīhs: "He was one of the important Shãfi‘ites" (as-Subkī. vol. ar-Rijãl.] §135. p.Imãmī Mutakallims 133 §134. Mu‘jam rijãli 'lhadīth. Kashfu 'l-qinã‘ (The Removal of the Veil). vol. al-Hãdī and al-‘Askarī. Mu‘jamu 'lmuallifīn. vol. and said of him: "there is no-one like him among his associates. p. peace be upon them.100. p. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.291. p. reliable (in narration). p. Abu 'l-Hasan al-Kãtib (281/894–c. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah." The Shãfi‘ites say: "He is one of our important faqīhs.2.15. 5. vol. an-Najãshī. among which are:1. a mutakallim. adhDharī‘ah." He wrote several books. al-‘Uddah (Readiness). He was a faqīh of the two sects.52. and one of their faqīhs. al-Imãmah (The Imãmate).353/964): One of the Imãmī mutakallims. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. 28. and he was also known as Abū Bakr ashShãfi‘ī.14. Muhammad ibn Ibrãhīm ibn Yūsuf ibn Ahmad ibn Yūsuf. p.511. although. commended him and was favourably disposed towards him. but he secretly held the opinions of the Imãmī Shī‘ah.2. p.44. 2. p.231.3. He knew many narrations and was a good author. p. vol. pt.44. Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī and (Ibn) an-Nadīm says: "He practised fiqh according to the Shãfi‘ite school ostensibly. [at-Tūsī. p.

2." (Ibn) an-Nadīm also mentions him: "He was a teacher of ‘Izzu 'dDawlah Abū Mansūr (Bakhtiyãr ibn Mu‘izzi 'd-Dawlah ibn Būyah [331/942 –367/978]) and he was a memorizer (of the Qur’ãn and hadīth. 422. 3. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.100. al-Khatīb mentions that al-Mahãmilī heard (hadīth) from him in 371 (981–982).242. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. anNajãshī says: "He was a mutakallim. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.3. vol. ar-Rijãl." His contemporary. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. and a narrator of traditions. 376/986): anNajãshī says: "He was an important figure in grammar and lexicography in Baghdad. vol. vol. p.537. 274/887) narrated from him.182.'" And Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī said: "He wrote books about kalãm and about traditions. He says: 'Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khãlid informed us from him. vol. and was correct in traditions. pt.167-70. al-Wãfī bi 'l-wafayãt. vol.] §136.21. at-Tūsī. al-Fihrist. He was also much occupied with kalãm.2. and this is the one we have quoted. an orator. famous as Ibn al-Marãghī (d.513.7. ar-Rijãl. pp. Abū Hayyãn at-Tawhīdī says of him: "He had great skill with words.2.45. al-Ma‘rifah. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.6. p.) a grammarian.5.2. p. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.327. pp. [al-Kishshī. pp. p. p. p. at-Tūsī. and he says that he has a number of writings. p. and nobility of soul. he was an effective speaker. He had a good memory.57.167. an extensive memory. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. al- .2.16-18. peace be upon him (195/811–220/835). Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. Among his books is: Kitãbu 'lKhalīlī fi 'l-imãmah (The Book of al-Khalīlī on the Imãmate). Abu 'l-Fath alHamadãnī al-Wãdi‘ī. Jãmi 'r-ruwãt.278-9. vol. vol. But the actual date is that which Ibnu 'l-Jawzī mentions.11.336. vol.] §137. p. Ibn Dãwūd. pp. Ibn Dãwūd. Muhammad ibn Ja‘far ibn Muhammad. vol.297. and a narrator of many traditions. vol. p. al-Fihrist.14.141-2. vol.176. p. al-Barqī.508-9. p. Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khãlid al-Barqī (d. 511. pp. p. p.393." Yãqūt praises him and mentions that he died in his youth.25.126-34. pt. p.266. pp. pp.166-8.307.245.1. (Ibn) an-Nadīm.282. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.56-57.17. vol.134 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars 2. adh-Dharī‘ah. vol. pp. al-Wãdihu 'l-makshūf fi 'r-radd ‘alã ahli 'l-wuqūf (The Unveiled Clarity in Refutation of the Wãqifah). pp. 292.1. pp. al-‘Allãmah. Muhammad ibn Ishãq al-Qummī: He was one of the companyions of al-Imãm al-Jawãd.302." [an-Najãshī. arRijãl. and as-Suyūtī makes this the date of his death. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. pp. p. [an-Najãshī. 435. Ibn Buttah mentions him. 148. others agree with him. p.

p. p. Ibn Dãwūd. Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’. vol.2.2. Among the works ascribed to Ibn Jarīr are:1. p.178. either those he mentioned or those he did not. al-Fihrist.1. and Ibn Hajar quotes him: "He was one of the most outstanding mutakallims.9. p.95-96.86. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. vol. pt.95.5. p.] §139. Ibn Jarīr.152-3.7. Ibn Jarīr. al-‘Allãmah.1. p. pp. vol. vol.] §138. p.6.157. [an-Najãshī. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. Bughyatu 'l-wu‘ãt. and 3. al-Mustarshid fi 'l-imãmah (Guidance Concerning the Imãmate). al-Imtã‘ wa 'l-muãnasah. vol. pp.298.94. He has a book called Kitãbu 'l-Jabr wa 'l-istitã‘ah (Book on Predestination and Humany Capacity for Action)". was excellent in kalãm and trustworthy in (the narration of) hadīth. al-Fãdih (The Disgrace). p. (Ibn) an-Nadīm. pp. pp.160. 83. subsequently ar-Rãzī (d. p. vol. vol. vol. vol. and dated his birth and death at 226/841 and 310/923 respectively. but asSayyid Abu 'l-Qãsim al-Khū’ī defends him and rejects this accusation. al-A‘lãm. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Ta’sīsu 'shShī‘ah. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.2. 4th cent.): He was someone other than the nonShī‘ī commentator of the Qur’ãn and historian. and I suppose he confused them.50. p. p. p. vol.466-7. Tãrīkh Baghdãd. al-Muntazim.6.2. these are the dates of the non-Shī‘ī.258.258.307. and correct in hadīth. al-Īdãh fi 'l-imãmah (The Elucidation of the Imãmate). Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl." ‘Umar Ridã Kahhãlah wrote his biography in Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. Abu 'lHusayn al-Asadī al-Kūfī. p. p. they differed in their grandfather's name although they were contemporaries. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn.5. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'shShī‘ah. vol. p.. Abū Ja‘far at-Tabarī alÃmulī al-Kabīr (4th/10th cent.2.184-8. at-Tūsī." ash-Shaykh Muntajabu 'd-Dīn Ibn Bãbawayh says in Tãrīkhu 'r-Rayy. pp. 312/924): anNajãshī says: "He was trustworthy..94.86. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. 2.163. p. . Naqdu 'r-rijãl. and Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī calls it: ar-Radd ‘alã ahli 'listitã‘ah (Refutation of the believers in Human Capacity for Action).15.134. vol. vol. had much knowledge. pp.179. p. but I could not find these dates in any sources. 4th cent. vol. pt. Muhammad ibn Ja‘far ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Awn.70. p.95-96.289. Muhammad ibn Jarīr ibn Rustam.Imãmī Mutakallims 135 ‘Allãmah. p. adh-Dharī‘ah.298.177-8.502. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. p. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.2.2. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. vol. except that he used to accept predestination and anthropomorphization.2.133-4.15. vol. an-Najãshī says: "He was revered among our co-sectarians. pp.

Majma‘u 'rrijãl. p. p. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. vol.514. an-Najãshī.95.153-7. pp.13. p.2. Abū Ja‘far as-Sakkãk al-Baghdãdī: He was a companion and pupil of Hishãm ibn al-Hakam.9.4.9-10.250-3. vol. p. "He differed from him in several matters. pp.187.317. Abū Bakr ar-Rãzī: an-Najãshī says: "An outstanding mutakallim from among our co-sectarians.115. vol.173. pp.16.5. al-Fihrist. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’.19.7. p. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. p. vol. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.. vol.243. vol.] §141.293-5.] §140. pt.2.29. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. p. vol. vol.5. p.161.301.379.) al-Ash‘arī. vol.3. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. vol. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.84. an-Najãshī. Ibn Dãwūd. pp. vol. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. p.5.84. al-Ash‘arī. vol. Ibn Dãwūd. pt.8." [an-Najãshī. p.1112. p. 4th cent.1. vol.158.2.111. vol. vol. [at-Tūsī. but not in the principle of the Imãmate" as ashShaykh at-Tūsī and (Ibn) an-Nadīm said. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. al‘Allãmah. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.1.362. Ma‘ãlimu 'l‘ulamã’.. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. vol.1.208-9. "He was a mutakallim who was proficient and well-versed in the art of kalãm".44. vol. vol.24. pp. p. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. p.310. p.499.2. p. also see: 5th cent.16. p. p.305-6.146-7.5. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth." but some scholars have disagreed with this saying of an-Najãshī.208.136 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars [at-Tūsī.296.355. vol. p. vol. pp. al-‘Allãmah. p.1. pt. p. pp. vol. pp.91. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. p.353.127. He has a book on the Imãmate. an-Najãshī said of this book: "It is (to do with) anthropomorphism (tashbīh). p. pp. vol. pp. pt. p. adh-Dharī‘ah.489-90. p.2. al-Fihrist. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.3.2.1. ash-Shahrastãnī. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah lī ‘ulmi 'l-Islãm.190] .15. and when Yūnus ibn ‘Abdi 'rRahmãn (see §165) died "not a single person succeeded (him) except asSakkãk" according to al-Fadl ibn Shãdhãn. Several books are mentioned as being his. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. vol. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.481. ar-Rijãl.334-5. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. al-‘Allãmah. vol. Ibn Dãwūd. adh-Dharī‘ah. p.85. p. p.310. pp. Maqãlãtu 'l-Islãmiyyīn. p. ash-Shahrastãnī and others count him as one of the Imãmiyyah mutakallims and one of the authors of their books.114. vol. p. Muhammad ibn al-Khalīl. Mīzãn 'l-i‘tidãl. p. al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb. vol. p. including Kitãbu 't-Tawhīd (Book of Divine Unity). and criticism of it was written (by Shī‘ī scholars).539.3.3. (Ibn) an-Nadīm. p. pp. p.252. vol. p. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. p. vol.241-7.139-40. Ta’sīsu 'shShī‘ah.161. p. p. al-Milal wa 'n-nihal.164-5. p. p. (al-Kishshī.225. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. pp. Muhammad ibn Khalaf.103.

Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad. Abu 'l-Hasan alBusrawī al-Baghdãdī (d.2.4. al-Lubãb. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. vol. al-Fihrist.2.6.1. and obtained his permission to publish it in 417/1026. an-Nujūmu 'z-zãhirah.3. adh-Dharī‘ah.236. vol.14. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah.2." an-Najãshī and al-‘Allãmah say: "He is truthful and veracious. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. and his books hold a very high position throughout Khurãsãn. vol. a notable person among the notables of this sect and a great man in it.129-30.9. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. vol. al-Ansãb. pp. pp.17.252-8.158. p. al-‘Allãmah.12.183.262. vol. vol. pp. pp. an-Najãshī. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Kitãbu 'l-Badã’ (Book on Badã’) aand Kitãbu 'l-’Īmãn (Book on Faith). pp.580- .270-3. p. Tãrīkh Baghdãd. vol. p. letters. ar-Rijãl. pp." (Ibn) an-Nadīm says: "He is an Imãmī Shī‘ī jurist. as-Sam‘ãnī and Yãqūt both say: "He learnt kalãm from al-Murtadã and remained with him for a long time. p. p. pp. vol. al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb.. adh-Dharī‘ah. vol.88-89. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.3. pp.32-33. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. p. [at-Tūsī. (Ibn) an-Nadīm. pp. c.244-6. vol.] §143. vol.490-1. pp. p. vol.3. a learned man. 4th cent. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. p. Muhammad ibn Mas‘ūd.21.320/932): One of the most learned Imãmī scholars of his time. p.328. He was not in the beginning a Shī‘ī. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. Ibn Kathīr. he compiled a list of his master's writings and sought. and a gifted poet.12. vol. Abu 'n-Nadr al-‘Ayyãshī as-Sulamī as-Samarqandī (d. p. vol. Mustadraku 'lwasãil.482." He wrote Kitãbu 'l-Mufīd fi 'l-taklīf (The Beneficial Book on Duty [towards God]). vol.8.1. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.145. p.17..333.210. p.510.316.63. but he became Shī‘ī and accepted the Imãmate. vol. p.20.52.380. unique in his era and time in the abundance of (his) knowledge. vol. pp. a faqīh. [Amalu 'l-ãmil.6. vol. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī says: "He is the greatest among the people of the East (Khurãsãn and Transoxania) in knowledge.2. p. pt. pp. vol. vol.252-3. Ibnu 'l-Jawzī and Ibn Kathīr both say: "He was a mutakallim. vol. p. p.3. pp.183. vol. Fawãtu 'l-wafayãt. vol. erudition. p. pp.192-3. Ibn Dãwūd.664-5.56.497." He studied under ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã. al-Wãfī bi 'l-wafayãt. vol. Ibnu 'l-Athīr. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn.3. p.373-4.305-6. and understanding and he is the most noble of his time.335. 5th cent. vol.7. 433/1051): He was a mutakallim. pp. al-Muntazim.152. pp. vol. al-A‘lãm.235- 298-9. p. vol." He wrote more than two hundered books among which are the following related to our subject: Kitãbu 't-Tawhīd wa 's-sifah (Book on Divine Unity and Attributes).1. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.41-46.5. p.120.2. p.Imãmī Mutakallims 137 §142.

34). .114). pp. p. vol. vol.424).4. an-Najãshī (see §22) said: "His excellence in fiqh.154. the tongue of the Imãmiyyah. p. and all who come after him learn from him. * "The faqīh of the Imãmiyyah" (Ibnu 'l-Athīr. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. vol.507).6. and he was a faqīh.181. Shaykhu 't-Tãifah. kalãm. p. p. one of the most famous persons in the Imãmiyyah tradition and one of their most eminante scholars (648/1250–726/1325) said: "One of the greatest shaykhs of the Shī‘ah. Ibn Hajar. The leading position among the Imãmiyyah of his time finally settled with him. al-Wãfi bi 'lwafayãt.6. p. and in knowledge in a general sense is too renowned to need description" (Fihrist. in the place where he enumerates the Imãmī mutakallims.1.1.5. vol. vol. vol. vol.12.147). says of him: "In our time. vol. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. . fiqh and rhetoric" (adh-Dhahabī. His excellence in fiqh. All his Imãmī biographers concur with this. . Ibnu 'l-Wardī.329.311. p. and quick to give his answer . al-‘Allãmah al-Hillī. p. p. al-Muntazim." (Khulãsatu 'l-aqwãl. he is the principal scholar in the practice of kalãm in the schools of . an-Nujūmu 'z-zãhirah. Another student of his. vol.11. the leader in kalãm. p.] §144.12. al-‘Ibar. * (Ibn) an-Nadīm. Those who were not of his sect and his ideas. p. p. He was in the first position in the science and practise of kalãm. was meticulously astute and quick to give his answer .138 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars 1. * "He was unique in his time in his sciences" (as-Safadī. p. the leadership of the Shī‘ī mutakalims has fallen on him. he was the most reliable authority of his time. vol. Ibn Taghrī Birdī.116). the most knowledgeable among the (people of his time)." (al-Fihrist. ash-Shaykh Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Mufīd Ibnu 'l-Mu‘allim al-‘Ukbarī al-Baghdãdī (336/948 or 338/950–413/1022): 1) A Short Biography: His student.1. as a reliable authority. the defender of what is in their possession" (Ibnu 'l-Jawzī. he had a most superior mind.441-2.258.2. He had a most superior mind. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. was meticulously astute. . the best of their writers. p. p. their leader and their teacher. p. Abū Ja‘far at-Tūsī (see §126) says of him: "The leading position among the Imãmiyyah of his time finally settled with him. and hadīth is too renowned to need description. hadīth. Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn.33). * "The shaykh of the Imãmiyyah. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn.9. vol. being foremost in that science.1.186.8. Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn an-Nu‘mãn. vol.3. kalãm. give his biography thus: * "(He was) the shaykh of the shaykhs of the sect. Abu 'l-Fidã’. vol. Ibn Kathīr.

p. * "He never used to sleep during the night. He held sessions of philosophical speculation at his home in Darb Riyãh. al-Muntazim. vol. p. adh-Dhahabī.246.114). frequently in prayer and fasting. Shadharãtu 'dh-dhahab. good in dialectics. Shadharãtu 'dh-dhahab. an-Nujūmu 'z-zãhirah.368).12.3. 23 a quarter in the west of Baghdad which practically all the ‘ulamã’ from the other sects attended" (Ibnu 'l-Jawzī.4. vol. Mukhtasar duwali 'l-Islãm.5. vol. * "He was brilliant in kalãm.85. p. it even being said that the good-will towards all the Imãmī's was due to him" (Ibn Hajar.1. * "He had great power and influence on account of ‘Adudu 'd-Dawlah" (adhDhahabī. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. and in fiqh. or read.258). and was much devoted to knowledge. p. p.1.4. . p. 23 ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd had a mosque in this quarter where he led the prayer. vol. p. Ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Hayy. he had an argument for every occasion maintained secrecy.12. Mir’ãtu 'l-jinãn. vol. with a meticulous astuteness.114. vol. 92. al-‘ibar. Mukhtasar duwali 'l-Islãm. Ibn Taghrī Birdī. p.28. vol. and his behaviour was attractive" (Abū Hayyãn at-Tawhīdī – his contemporary – al-Imtã‘ wa 'l-mu’ãnasah. Ibn Kathīr. pp. vol. p. al-‘Ibar.246. steadfast against an adversary.26.15. p.368).368). vol. He distinguished himself in Imãmī doctrine.4.3..3.1.8. a penetrating intellect. vol. except when he nodded off (haj‘ah). p. p. was extremely humble.226). vol. al-‘Ibar.3. al-Yãfi‘ī. p. * "He held great respect and position in the state of ‘Adudu 'd-Dawlah (adDaylamī [324/936–372/983])" (adh-Dhahabī. or study. * "He had prestige before the rulers of the various regions. Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidãl.Imãmī Mutakallims 139 thought of his co-sectarians.30. owing to the inclination of the people of that time towards Shī‘ism.3. many were educated by him. and he had position and great respect in the Būyid state" (adh-Dhahabī. Ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Hayy. p. * "And he gave away much charity.3.199-200). vol. Ibn Hajar. or read the Qur’ãn out loud" (ibid. I have observed him and seen that he is brilliant" (al-Fihrist. he would confront people of every persuasion..200). vol.114. p28.247). Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidãl. kalãm and traditions" (ibid.3.5. and neatly dressed" (al-Yãfi‘ī. in dialectics.141). p. p. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. p. pp. vol. and he says in the place where he counts the Shī‘ī faqīhs: "On him finally settled the leading position among his fellow Imãmī Shī‘ah in fiqh. then he would stand up to pray. * "He was eloquent. and where many of his dictations (amãlī) were delivered (see al-Amãlī. vol. vol. Mir’ãtu 'l-jinnan. * "He led an extremely simple way of life (kathīru 't-taqashshuf) was exceedingly humble. vol. 211). p.

Shadharãtu 'dh-dhahab. vol. p. Mir’ãtu 'l-jinãn. vol. p.316). both those who had opposed him and those who had supported him" (al-Fihrist.3.3. vol.11. and those who followed their enemies. let us be content to report what Abū Bakr Ahmad ibn ‘Alī ibn Thãbit.501-2) . p. vol. vol. Mir’ãtu 'l-jinãn.3. p.1. and the multitude of those who wept. p.368. Ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Hayy. He discredited the ones who came before who were companions and successors to the companions (of the Prophet) (as-sahãbah wa 't-tãbi‘īn) (i. vol. al-‘Ibar. p. vol.200).30. vol.115. Mukhtasar duwali 'l-Islãm. Now.3. Ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Hayy.28.4.187). al-Yãfi‘ī. p. a great number of people perished because of him. p.000 people attended his session [in hadīth].200). and 100. and he and alYãfi‘ī and Ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Hayy add: "Allãh has freed (the people) of him" (adhDhahabī. eighty thousand Rãfidites escorted him to his burial place". al-‘Ibar. adh-Dhahahbī adds: "May Allãh not bless them". * "His funeral procession was well attended" (adh-Dhahabī. led the prayer for him in the Maydãnu 'l-‘Ushnãn (one of the biggest open places in Baghdãd at that time). the Umayyids) the majority of the faqīhs and mujtahids. 24 and it was too confined for the people despite its size" (al-Fihrist. Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī says of his funeral cortège and burial: A greater day than the day of his death has not been seen in terms of the multitude of people who attended the prayer for him." (Siyar a‘lãmi 'n-nubalã’.28. Shadharãtu 'dh-dhahab. al-‘Ibar. He was one of the Imãms of misguidance (aimmatu 'd-dalãl).3. this number was assayed for this meeting in the Maydãn al-‘Ushnãn. alYãfi‘. vol. al-Khatīb al-Baghdãdī al-Ash‘arī ash-Shãfi‘ī (392/1002–463/1076). vol.115.28. Mukhtasar duwali 'l-Islãm.3. * "When he died.114. p. al-Baghawī said: "Luwayn [Muhammad ibn Sulaymãn ibn Habīb Abū Ja‘far al-Baghdãdī (c. He wrote a great many books on their misguided ideas and defended what they believed and what they said and wrote. p. Mir’ãtu 'l-jinãn. Ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Hayy. till Allãh rid the Muslims of him" (Tãrīkh 24 To indicate the extent of this maydãn. and. as an exposition of what his enemies knew of him.5. p. . p. Ibn Hajar.127/746–246/860). those of them who turned away from the Ahlu 'l-Bayt. vol. al-Yãfi‘.246.. vol.1. vol. p. said of him: "(He was) the shaykh of the Rãfidites and the (leading) mutakallim in accordance with their sect. peace be upon them. vol.246.200).3.e.3. pp. Shadharãt 'dh-dhahab.140 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars * "‘Adudu 'd-Dawlah would pay visits to his home and come to see him if he were ill" (adh-Dhahabī. p. p. an-Najãshī says: "That day ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã . Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. . the famous scholar of hadīth] came to Baghdad [from Kūfah]. Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidãl.3.

416). did. vol. p. vol. But those under whom the science of kalãm was studied were: 1. al-Qãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr al-Hamadãnī al-Mu‘tazilī (320/932–415/1025). p. pp.8. Tãrīkhu 'l-khulafã’. al-Muntazim.231. vol. the Imãmī mutakallim. If there were no other good acts of his than this." (Refer to what has been mentioned in §149. as-Safadī. p.5.12. p. p. vol. head of the Karrãmites (asSafadī.282. famous as Ibnu 'n-Naqīb (305/917-8–415/1024). according to al-Khatīb and others: "He (Ibnu 'n-Naqīb) was a confirmed Sunnī and it reached us that he held a meeting for (others to offer him) congratulations when Ibnu 'l-Mu‘allim.222. vol.74-77. head of the Mu‘tazilites. ‘Ubaydullãh ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn al-Husayn. after I have witnessed the death of Ibnu 'l-Mu‘allim. Abū Yãsir Tãhir. Shadharãt 'dh-dhahab. and the echo of these words of al-Khatīb is repeated in each of the following: adh-Dhahabī. head of the Ash‘arites. ash-Shaykh Abū Ishãq Ibrãhīm ibn Muhammad al-Asfarã’īnī al-Ash‘arī ash-Shãfi‘ī (d. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. it would suffice him before Allãh. al-Wãfi bi 'l-wafayãt. vol.11-14. Ibn Taghrī Birdī.116. who adds: "I said: 'That which proves his [Ibnu 'n-Naqīb's] religion and the correctness of his beliefs is his hatred of the Shī‘ah.268. fifty-nine in the introduction to Bihãru 'l-anwãr. vol. vol. p. vol. Abu 'l-Qãsim al-Haffãf. Ibnu 'l-Jawzī. 418/ 1027). Ibn Hajar.5.'" (al-Khatīb. an-Nujūmu 'z-zãhirah. Ibn Kathīr. They come to fifty in Mustadraku 'l-wasãil.18. al-Wãfi bi 'l-wafayãt.1.3. Ibn Taghrī Birdī.Imãmī Mutakallims 141 Baghdãd. pp. Ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Hayy. and sixtyone in the introduction to Tahdhību 'l-ahkãm.4. head of the Imãmiyyah. vol. (336/947 – became caliph 381/991–422/1031). may ignominy be upon them.18. one of the last of the line of their caliphs.4.3667. This is what his contemporary. and said: 'What worries do I have now about when I die. as-Suyūtī. vol. p. together with those from whom he narrated hadīth. p. 409/1019). vol. and under 3 and 4 below. an-Nujūmu 'z-zãhirah. "Our Shaykh. it is enough to point out that when the heads of the sects and groups are enumerated during the time of the caliph al-Qãdir. the shaykh of the Rãfidites died. 30. and Abū Muhammad ibn alHaysam an-Nãwī an-Naysãbūrī (d.26. vol. Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidal. Tãrīkh Baghdãd.258).261.) .3.10.520-1. vol. the ‘Abbãsid. pp.171. we find enumerated ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd.4.1. Abū ‘Abdillãh. began his studies with him. student of Abu 'l-Jaysh alKhurãsãnī (see §149).'") As far as a description of the standing of ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd and his position in his own time. . pp. p. p.3. al-‘Isãmī. pp. p. Samtu 'n-nujūmi 'l-‘awãlī. who governed the state in his time.3. 2) His Teachers in Kalãm Alone: al-Mufīd's teachers are listed here. vol.1.

648. 529). about whom it was said: "It was with him. He was a distinguished Mu‘tazilī. p. 27 See above §33. Ibn Idrīs and Warrãm mention that after al-Mufīd moved (with his father) from ‘Ukbarã to Baghdãd "he studied recitation of the Qur’ãn with Shaykh Abū ‘Abdillãh. likewise in Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. at-Tūsī. vol. may Allãh have mercy on him. 40-41. III. 93. therefore seems to be evidence for only two Imãmī kalãm teachers that alMufīd had: Abū Yãsir and Abu 'l-Jaysh. Abu 'l-Jaysh al-Balkhī alKhurãsãnī. of which an-Najãshī gives more details as being a book on the Imãmate. pp.E. and further references to follow. pp. pp.62.1. 27 and thereby establishes another link with the kalãm of Abū Sahl anNawbakhtī. al-Mu‘tazilī al-Hanafī. al-Husayn ibn ‘Alī ibn Ibrãhīm. subsequently al-Baghdãdī. al-Amãlī.72. litho. in the Qum edition: Abu 'l-Haysh. 132. ar-Rawdu 'l-mi‘tãr. Abū ‘Abdillãh [al-Mufīd] studied.1. p.459. Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Basrī. 3. 302. al-Amãlī.18. From this it can be concluded that this Abū Yãsir was the student of Abu 'l-Jaysh whose biography is given above [107]. II. the correct being Abu 'l-Jaysh. this seems dubious.115-6. for at-Tūsī says in his biography of an-Nãshi’: "The Shaykh al-Mufīd. narrating from the Sarãir. McDermott mentions another teacher of al-Mufīd. ed. to begin with. Qum. the student of Abū Sahl an-Nawbakhtī (see §96) and the teacher of Abū Yãsir (see the references under §19). 367/977-8). However. 190.493. although this would appear to be incorrect]." 26 2. Abu 'l-Hasan. 166. Then he studied after him with Abū Yãsir. 28 at-Tūsī. an-Nãshi’ al-Asghar. Both of these are copyists' errors. famous as al-Ju‘al [the third of his kalãm teachers. Majmu‘at Warrãm. pp. 19. 202. p. the Imãmī mutakallim (d. Tãrīkh Baghdãd. 97. al-Fihrist. which is used for hadīth and not for kalãm. Muassasat an-Nashr al-Islãmī. al-Muzaffar ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad. using the phrase "akhbara-nã ‘an-hu". 243-4.142 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars They used to study under him in his house at the Khurãsãn Gate (Bãb Khurãsãn) (originally it was the eastern [or N. p. subsequently al-Baghdãdī.39. 120. pp. ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd often related hadīth from him. 239. the ghulãm of Abu 'l-Jaysh 25 at Bãb al-Khurãsãn. 175. an-Najãshī. narrated to us from him". 215. vol. al-Irshãd. 74. 218.1.] gate of the circular city of al-Mansūr.271 [=809]. vol. (See §149). 28 There. that our shaykh. and was of the first rank in the sciences of 25 In the lithograph edition of as-Sarãir. 234. which shows that he also studied traditions with him (al-Mufīd. 251).111. He also mentions a work by an-Nãshi’." 26 as-Sarãir. 125. . then it became one of the localities on the western side of Baghdad – Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn.. 76. famous as Ju‘al (293/906–369/980)..

with his father from his birth-place. and this was after he studied under Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Basrī. 315. litho. vol. would start to study the science of kalãm with a non-Imãmī mutakallim. vol. and expert in the sciences of philology and grammar.160-1. but the evidence given by the scholars of biography (‘ulamãu 'r-rijãl) corrects this mistake of the narrator. It is mentioned that: "ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd came down. p. Majmu‘at warrãm.648. who was one of the greatest scholars of kalãm .". an Imãmī who was under the watchful eye of his Imãmī father. was a mutakallim.1. vol.390. Majmū‘at warrãm. for what is really unlikely is that al-Mufīd.3.142.345. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt." (See as-Sarãir.519. in some versions of this episode.2. vol. p. and it was this man who gave him the name "al-Mufīd" (the Beneficial. vol. p. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. Marãsidu 'l-ittilã‘. to say that ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd studied first.493.232. It would seem that his teacher Abū Yãsir who guided him to study the science of kalãm under ar-Rummãnī. III.) It can be seen that what is here related does not tell us whether ashShaykh al-Mufid studied under Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Basrī before he was a student under Abū Yãsir. However. pp. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. 4. al-Ansãb. III.953).648-9. Safīnatu 'l-bihãr.302.4.493-4.314-5. Lu’luatu 'l-bahrayn. vol.2. p. and Dujayl is still there in Iraq with the same name – it is ten farsangs from Baghdad – Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn. vol.3. 160. but Abū Yãsir was sometimes too weak to talk with him.. p.9. who is mentioned next. but it suggests that it was before he studied under his teacher ar-Rummãnī. pp.Imãmī Mutakallims 143 kalãm and fiqh.. . when he was a child. so he advised him to leave and go to ‘Alī ibn ‘Īsã ar-Rummãnī.2. . Abu 'l-Hasan ar-Rummãnī alBaghdãdī al-Mu‘tazilī (296/908–384/994). p. p.6.2. . pp. or Instructive).314. we are told: "He engaged himself in study under ash-Shaykh Abū ‘Abdillãh. pp.209).6. commentator of the Qur’ãn. as the result of a dispute that arose between the teacher and the pupil (as-Sarãir. pp. ‘Ukbarã (a small town on the shore of the Tigris near Dujayl. vol.3.302-3. p. then under Abū Yãsir.359.180. man of letters.17. p..6. ‘Alī ibn ‘Īsã ibn ‘Alī ibn ‘Abdillãh. vol. Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm. vol. Qum ed. famous as al-Ju‘al.. He came to Baghdad. vol. pt. p. al-Ansãb. Qum ed.3. pp. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. with Abū Yãsir. pp. Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm. as far as he did study. p. p. and could not maintain his responsibility. vol. litho. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. He therefore went to study with him. and engaged himself in study under Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Basrī in his house in the street called Riyãh (one of the streets in al-Karkh in the western part of Baghdad. vol.159. vol.

13. al-Wãfi bi 'l-wafayãt.390. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. Mustadraku 'l-wasãil. the shaykh of the Shī‘ah in his time. p. 366. 194. who studied under Abū Sahl.101. section on the Mu‘tazilī. and under whom al-Mufīd studied. Rather. Ibn al-Murtadã az-Zaydī said: "He inclined strongly towards ‘Alī.222. without doubt.144 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars Safīnatu 'l-bihãr. because al-Mufīd. 29 The Qãdī ‘Abdu 'lJabbãr was one of Abū ‘Abdillãh's students. 30 Thus.2. Ibn Hajar says in his biography of Abū Sahl an-Nawbakhtī (237/851– 311/923) (see §96): "Abū ‘Abdillãh ibn an-Nu‘mãn.189-90. alJu‘al al-Kãghadī [(2) 3]. the Qãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr left Baghdad again in 366/976. pt. pp. then with Abū Hãshim himself. p. al-Mufīd shared one teacher with the Qãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr.190-1. p. according to the biography in beginning of the Fadlu 'l-i‘tizãl. Lu’luatu 'l-bahrayn. with whom he completed his studies in kalãm.2. vol. p.7. pp.1. vol. . Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.7374. vol. pp.261. having first studied with Abū Ishãq ibn ‘Ayyãsh in Basrah before moving to Baghdad. pp.3. who was born in 336/948 or 338/950.424). 3) The Legacy of al-Mufīd's Study with his Two Mu‘tazilī Teachers: The first of them was Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Basrī. which is the most likely time at which he would have begun studying with Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Basrī. famous as al-Mufīd. vol. vol. 31 Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Basrī followed the Basran school of Mu‘tazilism. who was Abu 'l-Jaysh al-Khurãsãnī. see further: Tãrīkh Baghdãd. 29 [Ibn] an-Nadīm.e.3. vol. p. pp. al-Muntazim.365. al-Munyah wa 'l-amal. one of the leading companions of Abū Hãshim al-Jubbã’ī. 31 This would seem to be one of the reasons which led McDermott to compare the ideas of alMufīd and the Qadī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr in his The Theology of al-Shaykh al-Mufīd. say for ten years after 356/967. peace be upon him.17. He studied first with Abū ‘Alī ibn Khallãd. Fadl al-i‘tizãl. vol.155-6.232-3.325-8. vol. peace be upon him. he was the teacher of the teacher of al-Mufīd. and wrote Kitãbu 't-Tafdīl (i. would never have seen Abū Sahl. a mistake. p. on the pre-excellence of Amīr al-Mu’minīn above all men except the Prophet). pp. vol. No evidence has been found that they met or that they were acquainted with each other's ideas.303. vol. pp. Tabaqãtu 'l-mufassirīn. but there is a strong possibility that they would have met in the classes of Abū ‘Abdillãh.. 30 Fadlu 'l-i‘tizãl. al-Mufīd would have been either 18 or 20 years old at the beginning of that period.8.17.1. This is.180. Ashãn Abī Hanīfah. p. except that he did not hold their particular views concerning Amīr alMu’minīn.519-20. for if the Qãdī studied with him. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.1. al-Baghdãdī al-Hanafī. studied with him" (Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. where he studied with Abū ‘Abdillãh for an extended period.359-61). al-Munyah wa 'l-amal. p. pp. pp.

He found that that his first teacher was unable to answer the questions to which he sought the answers. al-Wãfi bi 'l-wafayãt. p. He was taught in kalãm by Abū ‘Abdillãh Muhammad ibn ‘Umar as-Saymarī alBasrī. Fadlu 'l-i‘tizãl. [Ibn] an-Nadīm.213. p. vol. 33 The father of Ahmad ibn ‘Alī ibn Bayghajūr. In his opinions he opposed al-Ka‘bī.221. pp. but acquaintance with a new way of thinking. and his students followed him in this.7. p. pp. pp. years 321-30. this represented not merely a change of teaching for him. which the 32 33 al-Munyah wa 'l-amal. Siyar a‘lãmi 'n-nubalã’. who was one of the companions of Ibn al-Ikhshīdh. renowned for his good works and piety.4.185-6. and was most likely in the same class as the Qãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr and was at least aware of his opinions.Imãmī Mutakallims 145 in which he wrote exceedingly well. vol. Lisãnu 'lmīzãn. 331-3.308-9. . seven of which [Ibn] an-Nadīm mentions. and the latter's son Abū Hãshim. 191.220-1. to the second. Abū Bakr ibn al-Ikhshãdh/Ikhshīdh al-Baghdãdī ash-Shãfi‘ī (270/ 883–326/938) had Turkish ancestors. 34 Fadlu 'l-i‘tizãl. and wrote works on kalãm and fiqh. and he transgressed every limit in his strong opposition [to Abū Hãshim al-Jubbã’ī and his father]. p. vol.281. and became governor of the border regions.193. if the Shaykh al-Mufīd studied with Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Basrī. and his followers were known as the Ikhshīdhiyyah. He was an expert in fiqh and Arabic. Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’.15.3.1. and I never went back to him. p. Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī. Tãrīkhu 'l-Islãm.217-8. p. vol. pp. 34 Despite this he was an opponent of the Basran School. It is this. Could it have been that the intellectual environment in Baghdad had some effect on him? Again. p." 35 These two Mu‘tazilī teachers of the Shaykh al-Mufīd thus represented two different schools of thought within Mu‘tazilism. why should he have held opinions which were different from those of both of them? The second of al-Mufīd's teachers was ar-Rummãnī. al-Munyah wa 'l-amal. p.186-7. and in moving to his second teacher he found someone who was able to satisfy his strong intellectual curiosity. p. He lived in Sūq al-‘Atash in Baghdad in the Darb al-Ikhshãdh. [Ibn] an-Nadīm. disagreeing with each other on many points.190.309.5. The Mu‘tazilah said of him that he was strongly opposed to Abū Hãshim al-Jubbã’ī. EI." 32 It seems legitimate to ask the question as to why Abū ‘Abdillãh should have differed from his Basran colleagues on this matter.807.333. 35 al-Munyah wa 'l-amal. according to Ibn Hazm. vol. ar-Rummãnī. p. Abū ‘Abdillãh. Ibn al-Ikhshīdh was a leading Mu‘tazilī. Tãrīkh Baghdãd. al-Balkhī [al-Ka‘bī] said: "I went to him to learn his way in [kalãm]. vol. When al-Mufīd went from his first teacher.216.

129f. * * * 36 On his disagreements with the school of Basrah. incidentally far from the views of al-Ka‘bī. On his disagreements with Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbã’ī. 96. who was one of the greatest mutakallims of his time (although it would seem unlikely that Abū ‘Abdillãh would have told his student this. This also tells us that Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Basrī had differences with his student which he was unable to resolve. pp. see: Awãilu 'l-maqãlãt. The conclusion that can be drawn from all of this is al-Mufīd began his studies with two Imãmī mutakallims. see alHikãyãt. 100. on his disagreements with Abū Hãshim al-Jubbã’ī. not that al-Mufīd was here uniquely in agreement with al-Ka‘bī. rival mutakallim. Qum. 85. It is said that there were three unreasonable things in kalãm. 113. One of the consequences of this changes of teachers was that al-Mufīd turned against the school of Basrah. When he found that al-Basrī was unable to answer his questions. 1994. one of them being the dosctrine of states (ahwãl) of the Bahshimiyyah. Wishing to extend his knowledge he went first of all to Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Basrī. pp. 91. who were the last who can properly be said to have represented the Basran school. and told him to go to ‘Alī ibn ‘Īsã ar-Rummãnī. as will be explained below). 97.92. 102-6. see ibid. 111. and on his disagreements with both of them. 59ff. arRummãnī was.86. 88f. This sems to be a much more likely conclusion than that it was Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Basrī who referred him. and therefore the one who he was now most likely to have the kind of friendly relationship..146 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars narrations from Ibn Idrīs and Warrãm tell us: that this teacher prior to arRummãnī was unable to debate with him and to find the answers. Abū Yãsir was alMufīd's first teacher. a teacher of the eminence of Abū ‘Abdillãh is unlikely to have confessed himself unable to answer his pupil and then refer him to another. al-Mufīd found that his second teacher was more satisfactory to his purposes. 125. which would have allowed Abū Yãsir to continue benevolently guiding the career of his former pupil. where he believed there were clear errors of. 109. 36 So. and contradictions in. he went to his previous teacher Abū Yãsir who then advised him to go to ar-Rummãnī.61.. Awãilu 'l-maqãlãt. see ibid. Firstly. and in particular against the teachings of its two leading figures. 93. pp. and learnt new methods of proof from him. for this. 56. as Ibn Idrīs and Warrãm reported.45-46. and this would rather seem to indicate that if there are common points in the doctrine of alMufīd and al-Ka‘bī these doctrines were common to all the Mu‘tazilīs and Imãmīs.. see ibid. 103. 105. Abū ‘Alī alJubbã’ī and his son Abū Hãshim.52. pp. pp. pp. and that he was unable to convince him of the correctness of the views of Mu‘tazilī school of Basrah. Second. reasoning. . 98. as well as acquainting himself with him many more opinions than had his first teacher.53f.

the city of teachers and pupils. Taqiyyah (dissimulation) was not something generally used to the benefit of the Shī‘ah. 41 Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. 37 ‘Alī [Ibn] an-Nadīm. p. Doha. which is now missing. was the most excellent of people after the Messen-ger of Allãh. 362/973). He wrote extensively in all the sciences. vol. and others. 40 More important than this. was Abu 'l-Hasan ‘Alī ibn ‘Īsã an-Nahwī. . Cairo ed. p. p. ed.Imãmī Mutakallims 147 ibn ‘Īsã. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn.82-83 (adh-Dhahabī added "Li'llãh darru-h). vol.248.534. 39 Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’. but that he wrote what he did because he had changed his mind. vol. al-Wãfi bi 'l-Wafayãt.16. vol." 39 al-Qiftī mentioned among his kalãm works a book entitled Kitãb tafdīl ‘Alī (Book of the pre-excellence of ‘Alī). if not greater. who was his pupil and narrated from him. Siyar a‘lami 'n-nubalã’. al-Mufīd was known for his courage in not resorting to taqiyyah. and at-Tanūkhī. vol. ibid.237.256. and kalãm. p. 40 Inbãhu 'r-ruwãt.2. He was known as one who was confirmed in his doctrines and his school.204. Ibn Hajar.280-1. the Qur’ãn. 37 ar-Rummãnī also held a debate with an-Nãshi’ al-Asghar (§33) in which he was defeated and was forced to remain silent.296. vol. al-Fihrist. Nahid ‘Abbãs ‘Uthmãn. peace be upon him.4.'" 41 This is however in part of the Fihrist.5. 1985.326. logic. p. a specialist in many sciences including fiqh.. p. said: "One of the Mu‘tazila who held the opinion that ‘Alī.. In fact.248. p. and it would seem unlikely that ar-Rummãnī had to resort to taqiyyah in front of his students. it is also clear that he was not only firm in his convictions but also tried to bring people round to the Mu‘tazilī way of thinking.5. 38 Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’.4. he only wrote them dissimulating (taqiyyatan) because of the widespread nature of Shī‘ism in that time. Tãrīkhu 'l-Islãm.11. especially in those days in Baghdad. p. Arabic grammar. al-Qiftī said: "Despite his Mu‘tazilism he was a Shī‘ī". pp.. This would seem to indicate that the influence of al-Mufīd on his teacher was as great as. Abu 'l-Hasan ar-Rummãnī al-Baghdãdī (296/909–384/994) was one of the foremost Mu‘tazilīs of his time. vol. than that of his teacher on him. Tajaddud ed. and was not to be moved in intellectual debates or sectarian disputes.218 (in the margin). Ibn Hajar said: "[Ibn] an-Nadīm mentioned in al-Fihrist: 'the writings which ‘Alī ibn ar-Rummãnī wrote concerning Shī‘ism were not his opinions. the Arabic language and literature. ibid. may the blessings and peace of Allãh be upon him and his Family.. pp. year 381–400. which he had mastered. known as arRummãnī al-Ikhshīdhī. From the report of an encounter between ar-Rummãnī and as-Sariyy ar-Rafã’ (d. p. 38 With all of this he has been called a Rãfidī Mu‘tazilī by adh-Dhahabī.

the Qur’ãn. he had one of the best memories. exceeding everyone in them. and make myself humble before him. or the Jabriyyah. much given to prayer and fasting.'" [al-Mufīd] would provide for his pupils everything.e. continuously applying himself to study and thought. who did many good and charitable works. yet he held [the highest degree of] honour and respect with the Buyid state. ‘aqãid and fiqh]. so that he was able to answer the questions people posed to him in debate. and was brown-skinned. [Knowledge] which stubbornly refuses [to go forward] always ends up by being compliant. the tongue of the Imãmiyyah. and adhDhahabī gave an abbreviated report of his account." He used to say to his pupils: "Never give up with knowledge. and look after his needs. In this way he had many pupils." Another said: "al-Mufīd held an exalted position with the powers [of his time]. "[Ibn Abī Tayy] said: 'My teacher Ibn Shahrãshūb Rashīdu 'd-Dīn alMãzandarãnī reported to me that a number of those who had seen [al-Mufīd] had reported to him: "The Shaykh al-Mufīd would never put away a book by [his] opponents without having memorized it and discussed it [with his students]. or the Qadariyyah. grammar. and ‘Adudu 'd-Dawlah would often visit him. Then he would go to [discuss their education] with their fathers or mothers until he had taken them on and was teaching them. He was unique in all the branches of knowledge: the two usūls [i. and dialectics. fiqh. Many times I go and sit with a shaykh of the Hashwiyyah. "He was a strong-minded person. poetry. For difficult [matters] always end up by becoming easy. hadīth. asking Allãh to make the answer . which they needed. the leader in kalãm. He distinguished himself in learning and in teaching. until I have learnt a mas’alah from him or heard [a hadīth] from him. and a high position with the ‘Abbãsid caliphs. He would go round the primary schools (maktabs) and weavers' shop looking for intelligent youths. He would say to [al-Mufīd]: 'Intercede [for people] and your intercession will be accepted. Whenever he found himself unable to answer a question he would seek refuge in prayer. thin body. fiqh.. most humble [in his worship]. He said: "He was the shaykh of the shaykhs of [that] school (tãifah). tafsīr. The Shaykh al-Mufīd had a well-proportioned. and he wore coarse claosing." Another said: "al-Mufīd was the most eager of people to teach.148 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars Ibn * * * Abī Tayy. Yahyã ibn Humaydah ibn Zãfir al-Ghasãnī al-Halabī (575/ 1179–630/1233) wrote about al-Mufīd in his Tãrīkhu 'l-Imãmiyyah. and the science of transmitters. He would debate with the upholders of every belief.

." (‘Iddat rasãil. controversies. although such an absolute victory did happen in Baghdad subsequent to al-Mufīd's time. vol. "A shaykh from the Mu‘tazilah . and those concerned with fiqh. views. which we shall describe when we mention the books of ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd. . with much regret.68). pp. The most important points of all we have come across are to be found in what is mentioned in al-Fusūlu 'l-mukhtãrah mina 'l-‘uyūn wa 'lmahãsin (selected parts from [the book] al-‘Uyūn wa 'l-mahãsin) written by ash-Sharīf al-Murtdã. owing to the inclination of the people of that time towards Shī‘ism. those concerned with kalãm. .1.76). In an environment such as that of Baghdad. . where different ‘ulamã’ and thinkers came together. ." (al-Fusūlu 'l-mukhtãrah. debate was not suppressed by the supremacy of a particular sect over other sects or opinions.195-9).51). Siyar a‘lãmi 'n-nubalã’. . including the collection of writings of ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd. . except within the narrowest limits. the references that have come down to us – and how few they are. 42 Tãrīkhu 'l-Islãm. . p. and a debater who took on people of every belief. vol. However. dialectics and philosophical speculation – do not reflect this phenomenon except in an extremely limited way. vol. in which he continually held philosophical sessions. as we said previously in our portrait of him.'" 42 4) al-Mufīd. and we shall mention those of them which refer to kalãm. p. He held sessions of philosophical speculation at his home which practically all the ‘ulamã’ of the other sects would attend. and the prestige and acceptance he was given by the kings of the various regions. Those of them who were anonymous: "Some mutakallims of the Mu‘tazilah . ideas and opinions. outstanding in kalãm and dialectics. p. pp. All the controversies and debates whose venues I will now mention took place outside the home of ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd. a) The Mu‘tazilites: 1. pp. quick to give answer. and the investigation of subjects.17." (al-Ifsãh: see ‘Iddat rasãil. al-Mufīd was. and what enabled him to do this was the position and respect which came to him in the Būyid state. Now. "Men from the Mu‘tazilah ." (al-Fusūl.344-5. a faqīh. . . that the following list does not reflect the reality. was still alive. A shaykh from the skillful ones among the Mu‘tazilah and those of them who believed in their ideas . year 401-20. gifted with a penetrating mind. And this is why I have to say.Imãmī Mutakallims 149 easy for him . the Mutakallim and Speculative Thinker: ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd lived at a time.1. . which kindly tolerated all kinds of sects and groups. meticulously astute.333-4.

3. p. p. p.81. he sent for the shaykh and had him brought and asked him what had been happening. .3.6. vol. vol. Ibnu 'l-Athīr. . Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt.) 3. p. Munyatu 'r-rãghibīn. 2. "The debate became famous and it came to the knowledge of ‘Adudu 'd-Dawlah ad-Daylamī.456). al-Muntazim." (al-Fusūl. vol. p.1.390. pp. 386/996]. vol. pp. p. . vol. So. Dhayl tajãribi 'l-umam.315-6. After ‘Adudu 'd-Dawlah's death and Sharafu 'd-Dawlah became the governor of Fars. p.1.1. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. the son of Amīr al-Mu’minīn. p. vol. He told him how it had happened. Lu’luatu 'l-bahrayn. al-Murtadã and ar-Radī) his brother Abū ‘Abdillãh Ahmad. p. p. p. descended from ‘Umar.464-5.2. p. 2nd ed. He was patient and perspicacious (Tãrīkh Baghdãd. Ibnu 'l-Athīr. and there were many people 43 Abu 'l-Hasan al-‘Umarī was ‘Alī ibn Ahmad ibn Ishãq. p.7.399. vol.98. 43 may Allãh make his fame continue.150 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars "A group of the mutakallims of the Mu‘tazilah .86). vol. vol. vol.1. he released these prisoners (372/983) (Abū Shujã‘. vol.1. . vol.6.) He was in charge of law administration in al-Karkh quarter.10. and Qãdi 'l-Qūdãt Abū Muhammad ibn Ma‘rūf..295). one of the most prominent of the Mu‘tazilah. "Some of the Mu‘tazilah . alFusūlu 'l-fakhriyyah. vol. Mawãridu 'l-ithãf.300). So. . and one of their leaders. Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm. . .8. and sent them as prisoners to Fars (Tajãribu 'l-umam.62).180. p.157). pp. vol. "Some of the Mu‘tazilah were in a meeting at which there was a great gathering of speculative thinkers and experts on fiqh . In 369/979 Adudu 'd-Dawlah ad-Daylamī captured the syndic Abū Ahmad alHusayn (the father of the two Sharīfs. Safīnatu 'l-bihãr.2.361-2. p. Abu 'l-Hasan al‘Umarī. vol.4. p." (al-Fusūl.1. pp. who was the syndic of Tãlibiyyīn. Ibn Kathīr. Ibn Khaldūn.11." (al-Fusūl. vol. he bestowed on him a splendid robe of honour and had given him for his service a horse embellished with beautiful trappings. Mustadraku 'lwasãil.367.159. p. "I was present [as ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd himself says] at a meeting of a group of the leaders (of government) and among them was a shaykh from Rayy from those of the Mu‘tazilī persuasion.23." (al-Fusūl. pp.115). al-Qãdī Abū Muhammad al-‘Umãnī al-Mu‘tazilī (‘Abdu 'r-Rahmãn ibn Muhammad [d. peace be upon him. A debate with this man took place "in the session of the naqīb (see §132).17.97).710.3. vol. a post which he held for four years (‘Umdatu 't-tãlib.520.206. he appointed al-‘Umarī as the syndic (naqīb).209-10." (Majãlisu 'l-mu’minīn. vol. and a stipend which came to him every year.233. vol. When ‘Adudu 'd-Dawlah captured Abū Ahmad al-Musawī. al-Qãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Jabbãr al-Asadãbãdī alHamadãnī al-Mu‘tazilī ash-Shãfi‘ī (320/932–415/1025).9. They were extolling him on account of his ancestors and his connection with the government. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. p. pt. p.

pp. pp. "al-Kindī". al-Lubãb. (if he was Muhammad ibn ‘Imrãn. Abū ‘Imrãn Mūsã ibn Riyãh. p. except that a mention is made of him in the session which Abū Hayyãn at-Tawhīdī relates in which Abū Sa‘īd as-Sīrãfī (284/898–368/979) and Abū Bishr. vol. p.107-8.11). It would appear that al-Kutubī was a Mu‘tazilī (al-Fusūl. Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’. p.326.2. vol. p. pp. in this session practitioners of kalãm and others gathered together.c. al-Bihãr.3. Tabaqãtu 'l-mufassirīn. pp.2. vol.2. p. [Ibn] an-Nadīm.1. vol. al-Ansãb.] Concerning those who were present at this session. 6. vol.1. 4.) The debate took place when ash-Shaykh (al-Mufīd) was present at a session held by Abū Mansūr ibn al-Marzubãn and "a gathering of mutakallims of the Mu‘tazilah were present" (al-Fusūl.1.321-2.275-6. the logician and philosopher [d. vol.6. Tãju 'l‘arūs.269-74). There was a debate with ar-Rummãnī "in a session held by one of the leaders (of the government). . al-Kutubī: I have not come across him in the biographies. since the dates of the lives of most of them are unknown.105-6.234. vol. He was famous for his Mu‘tazilism and his propaganda on its behalf. who was ‘Alī ibn ‘Īsã ar-Rummãnī (296/908–384/994). vol. vol. from Abū Hayyãn. p. whereas al-Kindī. vol. And there were perhaps others than these there.400/1010] Fadlu 'l-i‘tizãl. 5. Abū Bakr ibn Subr [or Subar] al-Hanafī [320/932–380/991].2. p. Mattã (ibn Yūnus alQunnã’ī. the student of Ibnu 'l-Ikhshīd ([d. Abū Bakr ibn Sarãyã (and al-Bihãr. fiqh and tafsīr [Tãrīkh Baghdãd. p. there were as-Sīrãfī himself and the narrator.117) and alMarzubãnī.436-9). Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn.252/867). and a large gathering of mutakallims and faqīhs attended" (al-Fusūl. (I strongly suspect that "Sarãyã" or "Sarãmã" is a copying mistake and that he was Muhammad ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn as-Subrī [or as-Subarī]. the Mu‘tazilī.10. companion of Ãl Sãmãn. pp. Abu 'l-Hasan ‘Alī ibn ‘Īsã ar-Rummãnī (the second Mu‘tazilī teacher of al-Mufīd).331. had died a long time before this (c. Ibnu 'l-Furãt in the year 326/937. counting those whose lives extended into the seventies of that century. the famous philosopher. he was an intellectually gifted man and wrote many books on kalãm. vol. vol.3.175/801–c.8. and was their leader in kalãm. called afterwards ar-Rusãfah [Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn. pp. vol.Imãmī Mutakallims 151 present" (al-Fusūl.4. [See: al-Imtã‘ wa 'l-muãnasah.158-9]. gives this as "Sarãmã").85-89. ad-Dãwūdī. vol.221. pp. Abū ‘Ubaydillãh al-Marzubãnī [297/910–384/994]).124]. pp.1.7. This is misrepresented by Yãqūt who narrates. the judge of "‘Askari 'l-Mahdī' – a district in east Baghdad. 328/940]) debated in the presence of the minister.

p.10. al-Bihãr. (al-Fusūl.1. .1.1. p. subsequently al-Baghdãdī al-Ash‘arī al-Mãlikī [38/950–403/1013]. al-Qãdī ibn al-Bãqillãnī: (Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn at-Tayyib ibn Muhammad al-Basrī. vol. p. vol." (al-Fusūl. A shaykh from the Ismã‘īlites who was called Ibn Lu’lu’. skillful in debate and in s[peculative thought. Majãlisu 'l-mu’minīn. p.10. A man from the Mu‘tazilah known as ‘Arzãlh (?). Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. Majãlisu 'l-mu’minīn. And he himself used to say he was a Shī‘ī." There were questions and dispute about the Imãmate of Zayd ibn ‘Alī (a. ash-Shawtī.411.1. vol. pp. "(ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd) was present in the Mosque of Kūfah.152 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars al-Bihãr.1. pp.2. He debated at "the homes of some of the heads of the state" (al-Fusūl.260). al-Bihãr.93-94. e) The Mujabbirah (The Balievers in Predestination): 13.1.69).1.1. and the people of Kūfah and others gathered around him. Those who were anonymous: "A man from the Zaydiyyah .277. pp. p. whenever his name comes). vol. "Some of the Mujabbirah .119). vol.439-43). Ibn Sharãshūb. pp. p. pp. vol.8-9.3. .154. p. p. Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidãl. f) The Ash‘arites: 14. d) The Murji’ites: 12. vol. vol. 10/2. vol. "with learnings towards the school of Abū Hãshim (al-Jubbã’ī). vol.256).413.432). vol. p.12. 7." (al-Ifsãh see ‘Iddat rasãil. vol. .130. . and that no-one could topple him (Tãrīkh Baghdãd. in one copy it is Ghazãlah (al-Fusūl.10. .7.7-8. an Ash‘arite authority and one of their imãms.65. vol.471-2. Abu 'l-Hasan athThaqafī al-Warrãq al-Baghdãdī. famous as Ibn Lu’lu’ (281/894–377/987).66-67). (he is mentioned in the margin of al-Bihãr). vol." (al-Fusūl. al-Muntazim. al-Bihãr. vol.) (al-Fusūl. vol. Majãlisu 'l-mu’minīn.471).89-90. p.s. p. "Some of the Murji’ites . vol. . pp.1. I think he must be ‘Alī ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad. vol. at-Tabarãnī: A shaykh from the Zaydiyyah who was a Mu‘tazilī. c) The Ismã‘īlites: 11. and moreover there were more than five hundred people: a man from the Zaydiyyah who was a disruptor and an evil-wisher presented himself to him . . 8. alBihãr.) He took part in one debate about the .10.1.412-4. He was a book-copier and a collector of hadīth. p.471). al-Manãqib. pp. vol. . and he extolled him and showed preference towards him" (al-Fusūl. A man from the Mu‘tazilah called Abū ‘Amr ash-Shatawī (in al-Bihãr. p.) b) The Zaydites: 9/1. pp.4.

pt. When al-Qãdī Abū Bakr al-Ash‘arī (Ibnu 'l-Bãqillãnī) came in.Imãmī Mutakallims 153 warrant (nass) of Amīr al-Mu’minīn (‘Alī). Mu‘tazilī. and when he had sat down he turned to Ibnu 'l-Mu‘allim and his companions and said to them: "Allãh.181-2. pp.1. . al-Yãfi‘ī.7. (al-Fusūl. pp. pp. . Jahmī.180. "Maryam".169. he wrote many widely distributed works in refutation of his opponents. vol. [i. said: Surely.] with the leaders of the Mu‘tazilites. Ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Hayy al-Hanbali.53-55. [al-Bãqillãnī] reported: 'Ibnu 'l-Mu‘allim [al-Mufīd]. p. vol. . ar-Rãzī. (as above)" The following exegetical note is worth reporting in connection with this report. vol.].4. We sent satans to the people of unbelief in Allãh to prick them. p.3.3. to prick them [Maryam. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. vol.e. peace be upon him. vol. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. pp.1.467. attended one of the speculative sessions with some of his companions.467-470). but alQãdī ‘Īyãd added to it: "Others reported that this debate occurred for him [alBãqillãnī] with the attendents of the session of the King Fannã-Khusraw [‘Adudu 'd-Dawlah ad-Daylamī (324/936–372/983)].159-60). Majãlisu 'l-mu‘minīn. Also see al-Kashshãf. al-Ansãb. p. vol.177-8). vol. Ibn ‘Asãkir. We sent Satans against the unbelievers.3. p. . and I have been sent to you. 19:83: Hast thou not seen how We sent . p.2906]. although he was some distance from them. the most proficient in oratory. p. vol. at-Tabarī said: "Allãh. meaning if I am a satan then you are unbelievers. O Muhammad. .]. al-Khatīb al-Baghdãdī al-Ash‘arī said concerning Ibnu 'l-Bãqillãnī: "He was the most knowledgeable person in kalãm. the most precise in locution." (Jãmi‘u 'l-bayãn: sūrah. all these narrated this episode as al-Bãqillãnī from al-Khatīb. as-Sam‘ãnī.'" He is saying "to motivate them by seducing and misleading them. is saying to His Prophet. vol. vol. Mir’ãtu 'l-jinãn. vol. . al-Qãdī ‘Īyãd.5. p.42. Rãfidī.3.6.21. Shadharatu 'dh-dhahab. adh-Dharī‘ah. in order to egg them on to disobey Allãh and to tempt them to do this until they do it. the Exalted. vol. Tartību 'l-madãrik. emphasizing it."'" (Tãrīkh Baghdãd. p. vol.6. vol. pp. [Būlãq ed. may the blessing and peace of Allãh be upon him [and his family]: 'Do you not see. vol.5253.5. and the clearest of them in explaining. p.216.379 [#. and the third one also (Majãlisu 'l-mu’minīn. The scholars of interpretation say what we have said . al-Bahru 'l-muhīt.1.1.16. . Tabyīn kidhbi 'l-muftarī ‘ala imãm Abu 'l-Hasan al-Ash‘arī. the leader of the Rãfidites and their mutakallim. the best of them in seizing upon a matter (khãtir). Ibnu 'l-Mu‘allim turned to his companions and said to them: "Satan has come to you!" al-Bãqillãnī heard what he said. pp. pp. and another debate concerning the same matter (‘Iddat rasãil. the Exalted. . Khãrijī. etc.217-8.2.94-95.589.

where it gives the same interpretation.3. alIsnawī. al-Muntazim.11. Rūhu 'l-ma‘ãnī. vol. vol.5. author of some of their basic texts and books of jurisprudence. i.9. p. vol. (‘Abdu 'l-‘Azīz ibn ‘Abdillãh in Muhammad. famous as Ibnu 'd-Daqqãq [306/918–392/1002] a Shãfi‘ite jurist.11).171.134-5. (Abū Ishãq al-Harbī. pp. vol. 16/2.983-4. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn.136-7. vol. Lisãnu 'l-‘Arab. Abū Bakr ibn ad-Daqqãq: (Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Ja‘far. When he was asked about this. ash-Shīrãzī.1. the remarks of al-Bãqillãnī would more properly have been addressed to his own followers. g) The Shãfi‘ites: 15/1. vol. vol. the blessing and peace of Alãh be upon him and his Household. Head of the Shãfi‘ite sect in Iraq. There was a dispute in the session of the Naqīb. "It was Ibnu 'z-Zubayr who azza (= pricked on) ‘Ãishah to rise up (in the Battle of the Camel)". It would seem that the above episode was used by al-Bãqillãnī to alKhatīb's allegations against al-Mufīd.222. Tabaqãtu 'sh-Shãfi‘iyyah. vol. and pushed her to rise up. Abū Hamīd al-Isfarãyīnī [344/955–406/1016]. p. Ibnu 'l-Athīr. p. vol.) From this.300/913–375/986].3.5. vol. vol. Abu 'l-Hasan al-‘Umarī "in the presence of a large gathering" (al-Fusūl. pp. pp.203]). it was he who motivated her. al-Harbī said: "The meaning of azz is to push someone to do something through ruses and courtesy until he does it.45.1.18. Ibn Kathīr. pt.4. egged her on. as mentioned by al-Qãdī ‘Īyãd.229-30. al-Qãdī Abū Bakr al-Khabbãt.7. Gharību 'l-hadīth.154 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars pp. said: "I have not seen a more learned faqīh than adDãrakī.522-3. p. p.e.1. pp." when a problem would be brought to ad-Dãrakī for his legal opinion [fatwã] he would think for a long time and then pronounce his opinion and then he would give his fatwã against the ruling of ash-Shãfi‘ī or Abū Hanīfah. p. The same expression is to be found in hadīth.251-2. p.5.90-93). He was appointed as a judge in al-Karkh [a quarter of Baghdad at that time] [Tãrīkh Baghdãd. Tãju 'l-‘arūs. so-and-so narrated from so-and-so from the Messenger of Allãh. vol. Ibnu 'l-Athīr. he would say: "O you poor people. and . that such-and-such. Tabaqãtu 'shShãfi‘iyyah.3. al-Wãfī bi 'l-wafayãt.307-8.16. pp. p.1. to al-Mufīd (see what is said by al-Khatīb concerning al-Mufīd quoted on pp. who uses the verses above in his interpretation." And in other Traditions it is said Talhah and az-Zubayr azza (= pricked on) ‘Ãishah until she rose up. and elsewhere). an-Nihãyah. Abu 'l-Qãsim ad-Dãrakī. by changing the adversaries in the episode from the Mu‘tazilīs.116. p. vol. Abu 'l-Qãsim ad-Dãrakī – Dãrak is a village near Isfahãn – al-Baghdãdī [c. the great Shãfi‘ite jurist.

" or "ash-Sharīf al-Fãdil (the learned) . p. al-Amãlī. al-Ansãb. subsequently al-Baghdãdī [d. p. vol.3. p.) 19/3. vol. 368/978-9].106.1.7. vol. al-Qãdī Abū Bakr Ahmad ibn Sayyãr: (Ahmad ibn Sayyãr ibn Muhammad. "in Dãru 's-Salãm (in Baghdad).39.5. .11.155].12. 42. vol. al-Imtã‘ wa 'l-muãnasah.188-9. pp. may Allãh be pleased with him. 51.154. Ibn Khallikãn.7.Imãmī Mutakallims 155 there is greater reason to accept the hadīth from the Messenger of Allãh. learned and held in esteem [Tãrīkh Baghdãd. ." (See alMufīd. p. 43.1-4. . He was appointed a judge in many places in Baghdad and elsewhere. pp. (‘Alī ibn Muhammad. and as a man who deemed rank and position of no importance and kept himself aloof from accepting posts from those who handed them out [al-Wãfī bi 'l-wafayãt.10. 378/988-9].) h) Those Whose School of Kalãm or Fiqh is not Known: 17/1. at-Tahdhīb. al-Basãir wa 'dh-dhakhãir.307.408-11). unconcerned with this world.6. There was a large gathering present. . at-Tūsī. pp. vol. then to accept the words of ash-Shãfi‘ī or Abū Hanīfah when they go against it [the hadīth]" [Tãrīkh Baghdãd.4. vol. vol. pp.463-5. pp.1. vol. Ibn Kathīr.) . vol.38.413-4.1. pp. and other prominent persons and merchants" (al-Fusūl. pp. ash-Shaykh Abū Tãhir al-Jawharī. al-Baghdãdī [d. He was a learned man of letters and wrote poetry. p. al-Muntazim. vol. vol.275].1. vol. whose number exceeded one hundred persons. vol. peace be upon him. and others sources]. (al-Muhassin ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn ‘Abdillãh. al-Muntazim. Abū Hayyãn at-Tawhīdī said: "He was a noble and revered person. Among them were the sharīfs from the sons of ‘Alī. p. vol. and he describes him as virtuous. Abū Tãhir alJawharī ash-Shīrãzī [by origin]. al-Amãlī. peace be upon him. 395/1004]. 18/2.129-30. vol.1. pp. and he would say: "ashSharīf as-Sãlih (the righteous) .6. 54. a younger brother of al-Muhassin [d. as as-Safadī relates. pp. One 44 He was a person from whom al-Mufīd narrated many ahãdīth.3.) He debated with ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd about the meaning of nass (warrant) and the confirmation of the warrant of Amīr al-Mu’minīn. a man of letters and an eloquent speaker". One of Baghdad's trustworthy bearers of witness [shãhid].229. vol. the blessing and peace of Allãh be upon him and his Household.304.276-8. ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd debated with him "in a session whose convener was the leader of his time" [al-Fusūl. alBihãr. and the sons of al-‘Abbãs (ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Muttalib). al-Qãdī Abū Bakr as-Saymarī. in the house of ash-Sharīf Abū ‘Abdillãh Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tãhir al-Mūsawī 44 . p.123-6]. ash-Shaykh Abu 'l-Hasan al-Jawharī. p.

vol.1. al-A‘lãm. vol. vol.) There was a debate "in the house of ash-Sharīf Abū ‘Abdillãh Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tãhir. vol.62. vol. p. and a large crowd of jurists and mutakallims were there" (al-Fusūl.578-579]. al-Jarrãh: (I suppose that this is ‘Alī ibn al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī. pp. pp. He wrote more than two hundred . Majãlisu 'l-mu’minīn. a widely travelled collector of hadīth [al-Ansãb. A judge who debated with him about the validity of analogical reasoning (qiyãs). al-Lubãb. sheet 580/B. p. whose school is near to that of the Ash‘arite school).) 20/4.231. vol. pp. 372/982-3].7. p.3. p. Abu 'l-Faraj al-Warthãnī as-Sūfī [d. These three debated in one session. pp. vol. vol. vol.358-9.12-14.50-51). vol. Ghãyatu 'n-nihãyah. vol. One of the shaykhs of Banū ‘Abbãs. pp. One of the ashãbu 'l-hadīth (traditionists) who followed the school of al-Karãbīsī (al-Husayn ibn ‘Alī ash-Shãfi‘ī [d. 248/862]. al-Qãdī Abu 'l-Hasan alJarrãhī al-Baghdãdī [298/910–376/986] [Tãrīkh Baghdãd. He asked him (al-Mufīd) "in a session of judges.414-7.1.371].245. vol.472-4 – where this last matter does not appear).7.424). the resting place of the Imãms al-Hãdī and al-‘Askarī. Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn. and the debate iself is a proof of the error (al-Fusūl.10. al-Bihãr. p. pp. vol. p. The Shaykh (al-Mufīd) was in Surra-man-ra’ã (Sãmarrã’ – the Iraqi town. may Allãh grant him mercy.1.5. and a great number of the ‘Abbãsids and others gathered around him. vol. pp.130]). pp. One of the ‘Abbãsid shaykhs said to him . 23/7. known as al-Warthãnī. (al-Fusūl.156 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars of Baghdãd's trustworthy reciters of the Qur’ãn [muqri’] and bearers of witness [Tãrīkh Baghdãd. . See the preceding debate and its references.387.12. p.11. vol. peace be upon them). vol. ash-Sharīf Abū Muhammad ibn al-Ma’mūn (?).1. (al-Fusūl. 25/9. 5. His books and Treatises Concerning Kalãm and Debating: Our Shaykh al-Mufīd had "many writings in usūl (the principles of religion and jurisprudence) kalãm and fiqh (Tãrīkh Baghdãd. vol. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. pp. vol.10. (Maybe he is: ‘Abdu 'l-Wãhid ibn Bakr. p.1.262-3). alMuntazim. p.2. vol. It appears from the debate that they were all knowledgeable in fiqh and hadīth (al-Fusūl. A man who was a faqīh. al-Bihãr.29. . but this is typographical error which should read: "He is one of their (nonImãmiyyah) jurists (fuqahãihim)".4. al-Manãqib.134-6). 21/5.26.2. 24/8. in al-Bihãr we find "one of their jurists (fuqahãihim)"." and in the printed edition of al-Fusūl we find: "He is one our jurist (fuqahãinã)". 22/6. Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidãl.306).3.277-9. vol. p. p. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn.

Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. dialectics.5.358-9." I have not been able to verify who the requester was. p. p. . since. . al-‘Ibar. Introduction to al-Ikhtisãs [Najaf edition].368. pp.114-5. vol.22-23). p. an-Najãshī mentions both of them. .3. 3. (see: adh-Dharī‘ah.15. al-Fihrist. alKhirsãn. ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã. the gems of narrations (‘uyūnan mina 'l-akhbãr) and the beauties of narrations . p. Shadharãtu 'dh-dhahab. After this.186. The following are of relevance to the investigations of kalãm.16. p.25. vol. p. vol. vol. both in substance and in style. p. Mukhtasar duwali 'l-Islãm. His proof for this is what al-Mufīd says in the opening of al-Ikhtisãs: "I wrote this book . .1.3. vol. his student. and debating. vol. . 46). and this later was written as a supplement to Awãilu 'l-maqãlãt. may Allãh perpetuate his renown. may Allãh support you. pp. 4th cent.246. He wrote the first book and then summarized it in the second. wrote al-Fusūlu 'l-mukhtãrah mina (selected parts from) 'l-‘uyūn wa 'l-mahãsin during the lifetime of his teacher. and in al-I‘lãm what they were in agreement about the . when he describes the manuscript copy of al-‘Uyūn.244-5. pp. Ibn Dãwūd. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. vol. so that you may be refreshed by reading it on your journey. At the beginning of it. 1 & 2. al-‘Uyūn wa 'l-mahãsin (The Gems and the Beauties) and al-Fusūl mina 'l-‘uyūn wa 'l-mahãsin (Chapters from the Gems and the Beauties). he says: "You. p. since al-Mufīd mentions in the Awãil what the Imãmiyyah were in agreement about beliefs. . p. I.. Sezgin. alMufīd.386. Mīzãnu 'l-i‘tidãl.33. 550-1. and may spread his remembrance in your home and country ." as-Sayyid Muhammad Mahdī al-Khirsãn disputed this and proves that these are two different books. some of the discussions and remarks in his book known as al-‘Uyūn wa 'l-mahãsin. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. Abū ‘Abdillãh Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Nu‘mãn. Awãilu 'l-maqãlãt fi 'l-madhãhib wa 'l-mukhtãrãt (The Early Thesis Concerning the Sects and Selected [Opinions]).200. have asked that I collect for you some sections of the writings of our Shaykh and Master. al-‘Allãmah.30. (printed). at the request of his student ash-Sharīf alMurtadã.Imãmī Mutakallims 157 books (at-Tūsī.6. p. and included in it the specialized disciplines (funūn) of hadīth.147. vol.334. It seems that ash-Shaykh Ãghã Buzurg was of the opinion that al-‘Uyūn wa 'l-mahãsin is the same book as the one which is called al-Ikhtisãs which has been printed. ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd wrote al-I‘lãm fī-mã ittafaqat al-Imãmiyyah ‘alayhi mina 'l-ahkãm (The information About What the Imãmiyyah are agreed Upon in the Precepts). but ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī only mentions the second. vol.4. pp.1. his description corresponds to al-Ikhtisãs.

Jawãbatu 'l-faylasūf fi 'l-ittihãd (Answers to the Philosopher Concerning Unity). Jawãbãt Muqãtil ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn ‘ammã istakhrajahu min kutubi 'l-Jãhiz (Answers to Muqãtil ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn on What He Extracted . and the like.19 below). or against another writer whose book bore the same name. pp. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Jãhiz fi 'l-‘Uthmãniyyah (Refutation of al-Jãhiz's book al-‘Uthmãniyyah). 6. 73 & 106). 472-3). 18. al-Kalãm fi 'l-ma‘dūm (Remarks on the Non-existent). 9. al-Kalãm fi 'l-insãn (Remarks on Man). vol. (See §s. an-Naqd ‘ala 'l-Jãhiz fī fadilati 'l-Mu‘tazilah (or Naqd fadilati 'lMu‘tazilah li 'l-Jãhiz) (Disproof of al-Jãhiz' Book "The Excellence of the Mu‘tazilah") (see adh-Dharī‘ah.158 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars "branches" or precepts (al-Furū‘). 17. Jawãbãtu 'l-masãil fī latīfi 'l-kalãm (Answers to Questions on the Fine Points of Theology). which the Imãmiyyah mutakallims refuted. the leader of the Mu‘tazilah in his time. the famous Mu‘tazilite mutakallim and man of letters. an-Najãshī mentions this as different book from the preceding one. vol. 4. Tashīhu 'l-I‘tiqãd (The Emendation of Belief) (printed).237. 5. 7. 13. and al-‘Uthmãniyyah was one of his most famous works. pp. Abū ‘Alī (235/749– 303/916). Mas’alah fi 'l-irãdah (An Article on Will). 15. 11. 14. 8. al-Kalãm fi 'l-ma‘dūm wa 'r-radd ‘ala 'l-Jubbã’ī (Remarks on Nonexistent. the heavenly spheres. Naqd fadilati 'l-Mu‘tazilah (Disproof of the Excellence of the Mu‘tazilah). Abū ‘Uthmãn al-Jãhiz (163/780–255/869). Sometimes called: al-Latīf mina 'l-kalãm (see no. There are remarks in it about substance and accident. al-Kalãm fī anna 'l-makãn lã yakhlū min mutamakkin (Remarks on How Place Cannot be Devoid of What is in It). (adh-Dharī‘ah.24. 290).286.2. al-Majãlisu 'l-mahfūzah fī funūni 'l-kalãm (Sessions which have been Preserved Concerning the Skills of Kalãm). 16. Qadiyyatu 'l-‘aql ‘ala 'l-af‘ãl (The Judgement of the Intellect on Actions). This is a work written in explanation of ash-Shaykh as-Sadūq's I‘tiqãdãtu 'l-Imãmiyyah (see §120). 12. This latter is: Muhammad ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Wahhãb. so perhaps it is another book refuting al-Jãhiz. Mas’alah fi 'l-aslah (An Article on the Best [of Possible Worlds]). 10.30. the vacuum. This is: ‘Amr ibn Bahr. and the Refutation of al-Jubbã’ī).

He joined forces with ‘Abdu 'lMalik ibn Marwãn. and was his boon companion and co-reveller. he was an upholder of Divine Attributes according to the position held by the traditionists among the Sunnīs. ar-Risãlatu 'l-muqni‘ah fī wifãqi 'l-Baghdãdiyyīn mina 'l-Mu‘tazilah limã ruwiyah ‘ani 'l-aimah. and according to what is said. 24.5. ar-Radd ‘ala 'sh-Sha‘bī (Refutation of ash-Sha‘bī).54. 21. the famous bearer and transmitter of traditions. vol. rather were the pretext for his killers. ar-Radd ‘alã Ibn Kullãb fi 's-sifãt (Refutation of Ibn Kullãb Concerning Divine Attributes). or which. (al-Husayn ibn Mansūr [244/258–309/922]. 20. The mutakallim: mean by "latīfu 'l-kalãm" those matters of kalãm which are abstruse and ambiguous. This is: ‘Ãmir ibn Sharãhīl. the famous Sūfī. and a pillar of his rule (al-A‘lãm. 241/855]. p. 22. and the sources to which . 19.4.) 25. an-Naqd ‘ala 'l-Balkhī fī khamsah ‘asharah mas’alah (or in an-Najãshī. vol. aqdu 'l-khamsah ‘asharah mas’alah ‘ala 'l-Balkhī) (Refutation of alBalkhī [Abu 'l-Qãsim al-Ka‘bī al-Mu‘tazilī (273/886–319/931)] in Fifteen Matters). ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Mu‘tazilah fi 'l-wa‘īd (Refutation of the Mu‘tazilah Concerning "wa‘īd" [see §17]). Abū ‘Amr ash-Sha‘bī (19/640–103/721).Imãmī Mutakallims 159 from the Books of Jãhiz). Mukhtasar ‘ala 'l-Mu‘tazilah fi 'l-wa‘īd (The Concise Treatise Against the Mu‘tazilah Concerning Their Belief in "wa‘īd"). Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. and to understand which needs a clear-sighted mind and comprehensive discussion. who held the famous views for which he was disgracefully killed. peace be upon them). the Umayyad caliph (26/646– ruled 65/685–86/705). pp. 23. Mas’alatu 'l-farq bayna 'sh-Shī‘ah wa 'l-Mu‘tazilah wa 'l-fasl bayna 'l‘adliyyah minhumã wa 'l-qawl fi 'l-latīf mina 'l-kalãm (The Matter of the Difference Between the Shī‘ah and the Mu‘tazilah and the Separation Between Those Who Believe in Justice from Both Sects and Remark on the Latīf [Subjects] of Kalãm). This is: ‘Abdullãh ibn Sa‘īd ibn Muhammad ibn Kullãb al-Qattãn alBaghdãdī [d. or according to an-Najãshī.18-19. ‘alayhimu 's-salãm (Convincing Letter on the Baghdãdī Mu‘tazalīs' Agreement with Traditions Reported on the Authority of the Imãms. al-Ash‘arī took his opinions from him after he turned away from belief in i‘tizãl. ar-Radd ‘alã ashãbi 'l-Hallãj (Refutation of the Followers of al-Hallãj). He is counted as a Sunnī mutakallim.

(The Invalidation of Analogical Reasoning).224.) 32. nor any reference to him except what the Mu‘tazilites al-Hãkim al-Jushamī and Ibnu 'l-Murtadã mentioned when they said: "Among their co-sectarians (i.) 33. adhDharī‘ah. an-Naqd ‘alã (Disproof of) Ibnu 'l-Junayd (al-Iskãfī. ar-Radd ‘alã Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Basrī fī tafdīli 'l-malãikah ‘ala 'l-anbiyã’ (Refutation of Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Basrī Concerning [his view] of the Superiority of the Angels Over the Prophets). Over the Other Prophets. 26. (See al-Masãilu 's-Sãrawiyyah: in ‘Iddat rasãil. the Blessing and Peace of Allãh be upon him and his Household.1. see §117) fī Ijtihãdi 'r-Ra’y (Concerning his Book "The Derivation of Legal Opinions").17. Ãghã Buzurg called it Ibtãlu 'l-qiyãs. pp. Jawãb al-Kirmãnī fī fadli 'n-nabiyy. salla'llãhu ‘alayhi wa ãlihi wa sallam. al-Mūdih fi 'l-wa‘īd (The Clarifying Treatise on "wa‘īd".391.. Nahju 'l-bayãn ‘an subuli 'l-īmãn (The Method of Clarification of the Paths of Faith). p. the Mu‘tazilites who were of the generation of al-Qãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr [320/932–415/1025]) was Abu 'l-Hasan al-Kirmãnī" (Sharhu 'l-‘uyūn.160 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars this refers). p. salla'llãhu ‘alayhi wa ãlihi wa sallam. 34. p. an-Naqd ‘alã Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Basrī kitãbahu 'l-mut‘ah (Refutation of Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Basrī [one of al-Mufīd's Mu‘tazilī teachers) Concerning his Book on Fixed-Period Marriage). This is the refutation of the treatise. al-Munyah wa 'l-amal. this is Muhammad ibn Ja‘far. . ‘alã sãiri 'l-anbiyã’.170. p.e. 38. Naqdu 'l-Marwãniyyah (Disproof of al-Marwãniyyah [?]). [see §17]. p. Peace be Upon Them). 31. vol.187. Kitãb fi 'l-qiyãs (A Book on Analogical Reasoning).220-1) 27. Abu 'l-Husayn ibn ‘Awn alAsadī (see §138). Mas’alah fī ma‘rifati 'n-nabiyy. 29. Kitãb fi 'l-ijmã‘ (A Book on Consensus). 30. Maqãbīsu 'l-anwãr fi 'r-radd ‘alã ahli 'l-akhbãr (The Borrowed Lights in Refutation of the Traditionists). vol.199). I have not found the biography of al-Kirmãnī. (See adh-Dharī‘ah. vol. Apparently. Rasãlãtu 'l-Junaydī ilã ahli Misr. 35. ‘alayhimu 's-salãm (Answer to al-Kirmãnī Concerning the Excellence of the Prophet. 28. 37. see Fadlu 'l-i‘tizãl. which Ibn al-Junayd wrote to the people of Egypt. ar-Radd ‘alã Ibn ‘Awn fi 'l-makhlūq (Refutation of Ibn ‘Awn Concerning What was Created).5. 36.

Abū ‘Alī al-Basrī alMu‘tazilī [d. al-Kalãm fī dalãili 'l-Qur’ãn (Discussion of the Proofs of the Qur’ãn). ar-Radd ‘ala 'z-Zaydiyyah (Refutation of the Zaydīs). al-Kalãm fī wujūh i‘jãzi 'l-Qur’ãn (Discussion of Aspects of the Qur’ãn's Inimitability). 39. 43. (Questions from the Jãrūdīs (or the Zaydīs) concerning the Imãmate going to the sons of al-Husayn ibn ‘Alī. This is: ‘Abdullãh ibn Muslim al-Qutaybī. p. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Qutaybī (according to at-Tūsī: ‘alã Ibn Qutaybah) fi 'lhikãyah wa 'l-mahkiyy (Refutation of al-Qutaybī or Ibn Qutaybah Concerning his Book al-Hikãyah wa 'l-mahkiyy). 40. the leader of the Mu‘tazilites in his time. grammarian. al-Masãilu 'l-Jãrūdiyyah (an-Najãshī calls it: al-Masãilu 'z-Zaydiyyah) fī anna 'l-imãmah fī wuldi 'l-Husayn ibn ‘Alī. p. peace be upon them both. Abū ‘Alī [235/849–303/916]. Mas’alah fī inshiqãqi 'l-qamar wa taklīmi 'dh-dhirã‘ (Remarks on the Spliting of the Moon and the [Giving of the Power of] Speech to the Forearm [of the Holy Prophet. philologist and student of an-Nazzãm [al-A‘lãm. the man of letters.315. instigated in a special form. 48. [Ibn] an-Nadīm mentions tha he wrote al-Hikãyah wa 'l-mahkiyy [see §96-bk. p. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Jubbã’ī fi 't-tafsīr (Refutation of al-Jubbã’ī's tafsīr). the Blessing and Peace of Allãh be upon him and his Household). Abū Muhammad ibn Qutaybah ad-Dīnawarī [213/828–276/889].7.15-16]. 47.12. 44. This is the controversy. vol. [Ibn] an-Nadīm. 206/821]. ‘alayhima 's-salãm. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn.10].Imãmī Mutakallims 161 bi 'l-kitãbah (Remarks on the Written Knowledge of the Prophet. 46. mutakallim and historian. al-Kalãm fī hudūthi 'l-Qur’ãn (Discussion of the Temporal Production of the Qur’ãn). This is: Muhammad ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Wahhãb. 49–51. pp. the Blessing and Peace of Allãh be upon him and his Household]). Mas’alah fi 'l-mi‘rãj (Remarks on the Night Journey). vol. and the Zaydites in a general form against the Imãmī belief that the Imãmate after al-Husayn. peace be upon .1. the man of letters.86. 41. al-Bayãn ‘an ghalat Qutrub fi 'l-Qur’ãn (Exposition of Qutrub's Error About the Qur’ãn). 42. one of the most famous Zaydī sects. This is: Muhammad ibn al-Mustanīr ibn Ahmad. 45. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. vol. al-Bayãn fī ta’līfi 'l-Qur’ãn (Explanation of the Compilation of the Qur’ãn).41. traditionist. which the Jãrūdiyyah. and his commentary of the Holy Qur’ãn [tafsīr] is one of his most famous works.

the Holy Qur’ãn and the Ahlu 'l-Bayt). one of them being Abū Hãshim al-Jubbã’ī ([Ibn] an-Nadīm. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. al-Muqni‘ah fī imãmat Amīru 'l-Mu’minīn. vol. vol.4. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. at-Tafdīl – ibid. 60. Tãrīkh Baghdãd. a famous Mu‘tazilī mutakallim and one of their leaders.1. 55. Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Wãsitī alBaghdãdī (d. Mas’alah fi 'n-nassi 'l-jaliyy (Remarks on the Clear or Public Warrant [for Amīru 'l-Mu’minīn..203. This is: Ahmad ibn ‘Alī ibn Bighjūr. vol. 59. peace be upon him). from the Qur’ãn). 62. p. an-Naqd ‘alã ‘Alī ibn ‘Īsã ar-Rummãnī (the third of al-Mufīd's Mu‘tazilī teacher) fi 'l-imãmah. an-Naqd ‘ala 'l-Wãsitī (Disproof of al-Wãsitī).e. peace be upon them. p. vol. ‘alayhi 's-salãm.4. pp.. al-‘Umdah fi 'l-imãmah (The Basic Issue in the Imãmate).165. Abū Bakr ibn al-Ikhshīdh (or alIkhshãdh) al-Baghdãdī (270/883–326/936). a Mu‘tazilite mutakallim. al-A‘lãm. vol.1.16673. peace be upon him]). p. 52. a student of Abū ‘Alī alJubbã’ī.6. al-Fisal. an-Naqd ‘ala 'n-nasībī fi 'l-imãmah (Disproof of an-Nasībī Concerning the Imãmate). al-Īdãh fi 'l-imãmah (The Elucidation of the Imãmate)..216.176-80. Ibn Hazm. 56. and a third treatise of his on the preferment of Amīr al-Mu’minīn. al-Wãf‘ī bi 'l-wafayãt. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Karãbīsī fi 'l-imãmah (see §79).200-6). . mina 'l-Qur‘ãn (A Book Proving the Imãmate of Amīru 'l-Mu’minīn. pp. 61. 54. (al-A‘lãm. p. p. ath-Thaqalãn (The Two Charges: i. Among his books is: al-Imãmah.1.220-1. 58.231. p. the blessing and peace of Allãh be upon him and his Household. al-Ifsãh fi 'l-imãmah (The Open Declaration About the Imãmate) (printed). the dispute with the Jãrūdiyyah – is another treatise of al-Mufīd's. p. He received his training from a number of them. and the sources quoted in them). 307/919). vol. pp. 63.10.320). ar-Radd ‘alã Ibn Ikhshīdh fi 'l-imãmah (Refutation of Ibn al-Ikhshīdh Concerning the Imãmate).7. except the Messenger of Allãh. Kitãb fī imãmat Amīri 'l-Mu’minīn..162 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars him. p.367.13. pp. vol. 53. was restricted specifically to his son. The three books have been printed (al-Masãilu 'l-Jãrudiyyah.e. – ‘Iddat rasãil. ‘alayhi 's-salãm (Persuasion Concerning the Imãmate of Amīru 'l-Mu’minīn. 57. vol.309. over all the prophet. peace be upon him. ath-Thaqalãn – ibid. This is: Muhammad ibn Zayd ibn ‘Alī. peace be upon him. an-Naqd ‘alã (Disproof of) Ja‘far ibn Harb (the Baghdãdī Mu‘tazilite [177/793–236/850]) fi 'l-imãmah (Concerning Imãmate). In the treatise itself – i.

vol.7.2.21. pp. vol. al-Hãkim alJushamī and Ibnu 'l-Murtadã. p.159.139. vol. ([Ibn] an-Nadīm.3. I have not found his biography." then he relates many stories (see Akhlãqu 'l-wazīrayn. al-Munyah wa 'lamal. the Hanafite faqīh. p. p.) 66. p.324. Naqd kitãbi 'l-Asamm fi 'l-imãmah (Disproof of al-Asamm's Book on the Imãmate).5. that is. pp.167. p. he doubted all Divine prophecies.3. Abū Bakr al-Asamm al-Basrī alMu‘tazilī (d. vol. This is: ‘Abdu 'r-Rahmãn ibn Kaysãn. p. vol. an-Naqd ‘alã (Refutation of) Ghulãm (in some sources: ‘allãm) al- . also called Muq‘adah. al-Muntazim. peace be upon him.1. see Fadlu 'l-i‘tizãl. Ibn al-Ikhshãdh. Ibn Abī Bishr (i. Abu 't-Tayyib al-Khãlidī alBasrī. 64. vol. p.1.141. vol.Imãmī Mutakallims 163 This is: Ibrãhīm ibn ‘Alī ibn Sa‘īd ibn ‘Alī ibn Zawba‘ah. p. al-Khãlidī.272/885–356/967).107-8.91.e.1. ash-Shahrastãnī.211 – in the margin: Nishwãru 'l-muhãdarah. one of al-Mufīd's Mu‘tazilī teachers (al-Muqãbasãt. p. except where Abū Hayyãn at-Tawhīdī mentions the gathering of mutakallims who were present at a session of the wazīr Ibnu 'l-Furãt in the year 326/937.297. and say: "He possessed dep knowledge. pp. who combined his belief in Mu‘tazilism with a profound belief in irjã’. vol. Abu 'lHasan al-Ash‘arī) and others (al-Imtã‘ wa 'l-mu’ãnasah. Abū Hayyãn most strongly maligns his moral and religion. 200/816). vol.193. p. Abū Ishãq anNasībī/an-Nasībīnī.371.196). This is: Ibrãhīm ibn Muhammad ibn Shihãb.211-3). ar-Radd ‘alã Ibn Rashīd fi 'l-imãmah (Refutation of Ibn Rashīd Concerning the Imãmate).202. p." (Sharhu 'l-‘uyūn. the mutakallim. p. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Khãlidī fi 'l-imãmah (Refutation of al-Khãlidī Concerning the Imãmate).105-6).221.179 – where his name is given completely in the chain of transmission – Akhlãqu 'l-wazīrayn. He was famous for enmity towards Amīru 'l-Mu’minīn. I have heard many doubts about this from him. subsequently al-Baghdãdī (c. the Mu‘tazilī mutakallim and student of Ju‘al. p. al-Munyah wa 'l-amal. Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’." (al-Imtã‘ wa 'l-muãnasah.378. p. 67.1. Fadlu 'l-i‘tizãl. mention him in the generation of al-Qãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr (320/932–415/1025). nor any reference. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. p. vol. al-Faraj ba‘da 'sh-shiddah. 65. p.6. vol. the Mu‘tazilites. pp.1. and among them were Ibn Rashīd. 374). a similar thing is mentioned in Akhlãqu 'l-wazīrayn.. Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Basrī. Abū Hayyãn at-Tawhīdī said of him: "Precise in kalãm. and he says: "He was one of the most morally depraved people. Tãrīkh Baghdãd.6.

There are those who are of the opinion that as-Sãhib was a Zaydī. vol.25.69-86). pp. who took sides with al-Jãhiz" (al-Yaqīn. vol. He says: "Even though his writings contain definite indication of a Shī‘ī conformity in beliefs.403-9.6. pp. I believe that as-Sãhib was a Zaydī at the beginning. pp. and Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’.2. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. may Allãh sanctify his spirit.187.281-2). al-Mufīd Muhammad ibn an-Nu‘mãn. pp.2. relates Ismã‘īl ibn ‘Abbãd to the Mu‘tazilites in his book al-Insãf in which he refutes Ibn ‘Abbãd. pp. p.17. and then changed to become an Imãmī. p.11.4. It discusses the points on which the Imãmīs and the Zaydīs differ. vol. Amalu 'l-ãmil. al-Ghadīr.33-34. apparently it refers to Ismã‘īl ibn ‘Abbãd ibn al-‘Abbãs.231-74. may Allãh fill his grave with light. an-Naqd ‘alã (Disproof of) Ibn ‘Abbãd fi 'l-imãmah. However." The Mu‘tazilites. man of letters and mutakallim. Majãlisu 'l-mu’minīn. p. pp. ash-Sharīf Abu 'l-Qãsim ‘Alī ibn Tãwūs al-Hasanī al-Hillī (589/ 1193–664/1266) counts him as a non-Imãmī. which was dictated by as-Sãhib to an amanuensis who took it down in writing.24.227. we have found that the Shaykh of the Imãmīs in his time. Abu 'l-Qãsim as-Sãhib ibn ‘Abbãd at-Tãlaqãnī (326/938– 385/995). For discussion of his sectarian affiliation see Shaykh Muhammad Hasan Ãl Yã Sīn. pp. vol. The critical editor ‘Abbãs Iqbãl says in the marginalia of Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’: "In the original manuscript: an-Naqd ‘alã ‘Alī ibn ‘Abbãd. 68.164 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars Bahrãnī (in some sources: an-Najrãnī) fi 'l-imãmah. Nãjī Hasan has published his Nusrat madhãhibi 'z-Zaydiyyah (Defending Zaydī Sects) (Baghdad. Mu‘jam rijãli 'lhadīth. p. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. vol.8." Ãghã Buzurg says in adh-Dharī‘ah (vol. vol. and in the book as-Sãhib defends the Zaydī beliefs. vol. Similarly. relates Ismã‘īl ibn ‘Abbãd to the Mu‘tazilites in the introduction of his book Nahju 'l-haqq.2.167). pp.34-39.174. the famous wazīr. Nãjī Hasan printed this work again in Beirut as as-Sãhib ibn . and an-Najãshī. p. p. 1395/1975). adh-Dharī‘ah. The book has reached us through the Zaydīs themselves. p.312. Dr. as-Sãhib Ibn ‘Abbãd (pp. This is how it is given by Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī in al-Fihrist. atTawhīdī thinks he belongs to this sect (Akhlãqu 'l-wazīrayn. 231.288): "This is how it is given in some copies of the book.40-81. vol. and I presume to be so. Dr. and the majority of his Imãmī biographers count him as one of their own and argue against those who attach him to other groups (see: Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. the Zaydīs and the Imãmīs all contend for this Ibn ‘Abbãd.1943. but if it is certain that the correct form of the name is an-Naqd ‘alã Ibn ‘Abbãd. in Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.101. we notice that al-Murtadã.

. ad-Dãr al-‘Arabiyyah li 'l-Mawsū‘ãt.185-7.88-90. 46 ii) His brother. 1986.59 above. p. 45 Neither in the Baghdad's edition." and then procedes to narrate from Abū Tãlib a 45 46 Beirut. Sezgin. vol. has he given any indication of why he attributes the text to as-Sãhib. 49 al-Hūru 'l-‘īn. 212-3. the Rãfidã]. Tãrīkh Tabaristãn. pp.65-67. and then they converted to Zaydīsm. atTūsī's explanation seem to show that they were looking for a school which would allow them to rise up and claim the imãmate. who rose to the imãmate in al-Jīl ad-Daylamī (Gīlãn). nor does he give any information on the manuscript or printed work on which he based his text. vol. He was an Imãmī who turned to Zaydīsm for the reason which at-Tūsī gives at the beginning of at-Tahdhīb. 47 Ibn Isfandiyãr.101. Exactly the same quote comes in Dr. vol. and they found it in Zaydīsm. Cairo edn.94-95 narrates the same quote as an-Nshwãn from the Kitãbu 'd-Di‘ãmah. .e. II. .349. Nãjī Hasan published is the Kitãbu 'd-Di‘ãmah by Abū Tãlib al-Hãrūnī. as-Siyãghī narrates this from him in ar-Rawdu 'n-nadīr. Nashwãn al-Himyarī az-Zaydī said: "as-Sayyid Abū Tãlib Yahyã ibn al-Husayn ibn Hãrūn al-Hasanī relates in his Kitãbu 'dDi‘ãmah: 'All the sects of the community agree on the Imãmate of Zayd ibn ‘Alī. pp. Nãjī Hasan's text: pp.. except the one sect previously mentioned [i. nor in the Beirut edition.185 without saying this was the statement of Abū Tãlib in ad-Di‘ãmah.. anNãtiq bi'l-Haqq az-Zaydī (340/951–424/1033). no. Yahyã ibn al-Husayn.2. and the editor rather surprisingly gives the reference to al-Hūru 'l-‘īn. His attribution would seem to be incorrect. Abu 'l-Husayn al-Hãrūnī al-Hasanī al-Mu‘ayyid bi'llãh az-Zaydī (333/945–411/1021). and it is the text of one of the following two: i) Ahmad ibn al-Husayn ibn Hãrūn ibn al-Husayn. 47 He claimed the imãmate after the death of his brother. p.206ff.Imãmī Mutakallims 165 ‘Abbãd's Zaydiyya. The Zaydī biographers say that he and his brother Abū Tãlib al-Hãrūnī were both Imãmīs with an Imãmī father. 48 The text which Dr.'" 49 Nashwãn al-Himyarī also said: "as-Sayyid Abū Tãlib said in the Kitãbu 'd-Di‘ãmah . If this is the same text which Sezgin attributes to his brother under the title of Nusrat madhãhibi 'z-Zaydiyyah. Abū Tãlib al-Hãrūnī al-Hasanī. Saudi edn. I/iii. pp.101-2. For another example of turning to Zaydīsm for the same reasons see an-Nãsir azZaydī.2. pp. He was one of the pupils of al-Mufīd. 48 al-Hadãiqu 'l-wãrdiyyah. and Ibnu 'l-Murtadã in al-Munyah wa 'l-amal. attributing it to Abū Tãlib. peace be upon him. then this must be a mistake by Sezgin. ..1. al-Hadãiqu 'l-wãrdiyyah. pp. p.

50 Nevertheless. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.325-6.138. peace be upon him.1. vol. p. p. may Allãh bless him and his progeny and grant them peace. he wrote a book about the Occultation in which al-Mufīd found something objectionable and which he refuted. p.50. p. known as atTalhī.3. at-Tūsī.287. p. saying [to ‘Alī. al-‘Allãmah. vol. ‘alayhi 's-salãm (Answers About the Appearance of the Occultation).16.323. Ibn Khallikãn. just as his father was before him.9.158. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. pp. Perhaps this is the same as no.155.253. p. al-Jawãbãt fī khurūji 'l-Mahdi.175.2. pp. al-Masãilu 'l-‘Asharah fi 'l-ghaybah (Ten Questions About the Occultation) (printed). This is possibly: Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn ‘Īsã al-Qummī. 69. the same quote is given with a few changes. 72. In Dr. vol. and for this reason I do not count him as an Imãmī mutakallim: he belonged to Mu‘talizilism because his kalãm works are absolutely Mu‘tazilī. vol. (232/827–260/868). vol.160. Nãjī Hasan's text.) It is possible that after the death of al-‘Askarī. Ibn Dãwūd. vol.150. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. p. 73.1.2. peace be upon him]: "You are to me as Aaron was to Moses"). (an-Najãshī. pp. vol. Mas’alah fī ma‘na qawlihi salla'llãhu ‘alayhi wa ãlihi wa sallam: "Innī mukhallifun fīkum ath-thaqalayn (an-Najãshī) (Remarks on the meaning of his [the Prophet's] saying. p. It is also clear that in his book. . peace be upon him.315. and the confirmation of the Imãmate of those who proceded him" (al-Fihrist.209). may Allãh bless him and his Household and grant them peace: "I leave amongst you two charges"). ‘Alī ibn Abī Tãlib. all that has come down to us of the books and writings of as-Sãhib in usūlu 'd-dīn and doctrine were written in the Mu‘tazilī spirit. p.378-9.230. al-Fihrist. He was one of the eminent personalities in Qum and a governor there appointed by the state. in it. 50 al-Hūru 'l-‘īn. our Shaykh al-Mufīd refuted Ibn ‘Abbãd in his Kitãbu 'l-Imãmah which (Ibn) an-Nadīm and others mention as being his and which they describe thus: "He mentions the superiority of Amīru 'lMu’minīn.5. pt. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn.214. Kitãb fī ma‘na qawlihi salla'llãhu ‘alayhi wa ãlihi wa sallam: "Anta minni bi-manzilati Hãrūn min Mūsã" (Book on the meaning of his [the Prophet's]. Naqdu 'rrijãl.1. vol. Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’.166 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars refutation of the chains of transmission of Twelver traditions. 70. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. p. He wrote a book on his questions and the answers of Abū Muhammad al-‘Askarī.275-6. peace be upon him. p. al-Wãfī bi 'l-wafayãt. p. p.

p. Ibn Khallikãn. al-Mas’alah fī aqda 's-sahãbah (Remarks on the one who is most capable of giving legal decision among the companions [of the Holy Prophet. vol. pp. al-Hãfz Abu 'l‘Abbãs ibn ‘Uqdah al-Kūfī (249/863–336/944). vol. Abū ‘Umar az-Zãhid al-Mutarriz al-Bãwardī. 266-7 and Kashfu 'z-zunūn. b) ash-Shūrã.83.Imãmī Mutakallims 167 74. may Allãh bless him and his progeny and grant them peace]). 75. may Allãh bless him and his progeny and grant them peace). Abu 'l‘Abbãs ar-Rūyãnī (Rūyãn is in Tabaristãn) al-‘Atīqī (331/942-3–413/1022). His book is mentioned by at-Tūsī in al-Fihrist.14.245-6. adhDharī‘ah. p.14. I have not found sure indications concerning the book or the author.53.1431]. p. and that he had excessive love for them and defended them.2. vol.10. Mas’alah fī ma‘na qawli 'n-nabiyy. but I have come across four books with the name: Kitãbu 'sh-Shūrã (see adhDharī‘ah. salla'llãhu ‘alayhi wa ãlihi wa sallam (Remarks on the Prophet's Legacy. written by Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Sa‘īd. may Allãh bless him and his progeny and grant them peace: "My Companions are like the Stars). vol. the famous Zaydī narrator of traditions. a faqīh of the people of Tarsūs (Tarsūs is in Turkey) and their legal au- . if he refuted either of them. Īdãhu 'l-maknūn. vol. an-Najãshī. famous as "Ghulãm Tha‘lab" (student of Tha‘lab [261/875–345/ 956]). The book is mentioned in (Ibn) anNadīm.2. pp. the one I have come across who could have written a book in which al-Mufīd could find something to refute is Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammd ibn Mansūr. p. But neither of them is called al‘Atīqī nor al-‘Aqīqī or an-Nasafī.245-6). Mu‘jamu 'l-udabã’. vol.4. subsequently al-Baghdãdī. p. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-‘Atīqī (Refutation of al-‘Atīqī [in some dubious manuscripts: al-‘Aqīqī.306. and in some manuscripts of an-Najãshī: an-Nasafī] fi 'sh-shūrã (Concerning 'Consultation'). p.330. It is not impossible that two of them are the ones refuted by al-Mufīd: a) Kitãbu 'sh-Shūrã.74. 77. The first of these two is the more likely to have been the book which alMufīd refuted. who associated with the Imãmīs and also wrote books for them. pp. salla'llãhu ‘alayhi wa ãlihi wa sallam: "Ashãbi ka 'n-nujūm" (Remarks on the meaning of the saying of the Prophet. It is known of him that he was extremely favourable towards Mu‘ãwiyah ibn Abī Sufyãn and his son Yazīd. Mas’alah fī mīrãthi 'n-nabiyy. written by Muhammad ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Wãhid. As for al-‘Atīqī. He has writings on this subject. 76.

However. 79. 6. vol.H. Jawãbu 'l-masãil fī ikhtilãfi 'l-akhbãr (Answer to Questions About Contradictions Between Ahãdīth). As for the manuscript. which were addressed specifically to al-Mufīd and to which he answered. peace be upon him. al-Kalãm fi 'l-khabari 'l-mukhtalaq bi ghayri athar (Discussion of the Possibility of a Tradition being Fabricated Without there being any Trace of its Fabrication). whether the questioner himself had asked them. At the end of his life he settled in Baghdãd. of which I have strong doubts. and his son. A.7. vol. which were general points of contention and were not addressed to a specific person. most of them have. salla'llãhu ‘alayhi wa ãlihi wa sallam (A Book on the Excellence of Amīru 'l-Mu’minīn. p. p.280) that there was a shaykh called anNasafī whose name was Ahmad ibn ‘Abdi 'l-‘Azīz who was a Mu‘tazilī who lived in the 4th – 5th cent. p. because. with this name. Companions. Abu 'l-Hasan Ahmad (367/977–441/1049) was one of the trustworthy memorizers of the ahãdīth (Tãrīkh Baghdãd. in the first place. may Allãh bless him and his progeny and grant them peace). over the Angels). they give evidence of a significant aspect of the character of al-Mufīd and show the extent of the scholarly acclaim and popular authority. Masãilu 's-Sãghãniyyah (On Questions from Sãghãn). and refutation of opponents and their arguments. it is mentioned in al-Ansãb. about the correctness. There are answers to a written message sent to him from Sãghãn (a small . over the Rest of his [the Prophet's]. Although the answers to these questions cannot all be counted as coming within the bounds of kalãm. naturally.379. not in the milieu in which he lived and was highly regarded. they indicate the places in which the Imãmī Shī‘ah were to be found in those days. Kitãb fī tafdīl Amīru 'l-Mu’minīn ‘alayhi 's-salãm ‘alã sãir ashãbihī. 78. (vol. and which most of the sources which have reached us have ignored: 1. the air of controversy.9. They are not those questions. speculation. (Tãrīkh Baghdãd. but in the majority of Islamic countries of that time.4. 80. or someone else who had been asked about them had sent them to him.233). who was a contemporary of al-Mufīd. I have not found any book by the father.1. which he had. Tafdīlu 'l-aimmah ‘alayhimu 's-salãm ‘ala 'l-malãikah (The Excellence of the Imãms. Secondly. p.168 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars thority.353). al-Ansãb. peace be upon them. 81. which has "an-Nasafī". I have included all of them in this list. vol. Answers to Questions: Here I confine my research to the questions.

The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. p. which anNajãshī does not mention. pp. .) al-Mufīd mentions it in his al-Masãilu 's-Sarawiyyah (‘Iddat rasãil.e. not the present Khurãsãn which only represents a small part of it – and east of the river Oxus [Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn. Jawãbãt ahl Jurjãn fī tahrīmi 'l-fuqqã‘ (Replies to the Men of Jurjãn Concerning the Prohibition of Beer). followers of the Hanafī school of law) in your region.8. p.252. of what he does to provoke enmity towards those close to Allãh (awliyãu 'llãh. and the acusation of heresy (indicating bid‘ah) against them (the Imãmites) in what they follow of the precepts handed down from the Imãms of true guidance. and perhaps it is the same as no. vol. Jawãbãtu 'l-masãili 'n-Naysãbūriyyah (Replies to Questions from Naysãbūr).223). and it may be the same as no.2. 6.Imãmī Mutakallims 169 town near Marw in Khurãsãn. i. al-Ajwibah ‘ani 'l-masãili 'l-Khwãrazmiyyah (Replies to Questions from Khwãrazm). . And you asked in your message after mentioning this . vol. may Allah perpetuate your renown.234-42). . or. The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. p. 8.395-8.223). (Replies to the People of Tabaristãn. It begins: "I have come to hear. This is listed in an-Najãshī. (Naysãbūr: One of the most well-known towns in Khurãsãn. He mentions it in his al-Masãilu 's-Sarawiyyah (‘Iddat rasãil. 4. al-Ansãb. 7. p. pp.3. The Questions from Tabaristãn). Jawãbãtu 'l-masãili 'l-Mãzandarãniyyah (Replies to Questions from Mãzandarãn). the Imãmīs) among them (the Hanafites).389. p.. . Jawãbãt ahl Tabaristãn (Jawãbãtu 'l-masãili 't-Tabariyyah). and that he has made mention of ten matters concerning them in which there are expressions by which slander is intended and by which he judges them to be wrongly guided . also called Jãghãn [Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn. peace be upon them.443. 5. . vol. Jawãbãtu 'l-masãili 'l-Jurjãniyyah (Replies to Questions from Jurjãn). of those days.392]). . 3. . (Khwãrazm: A large region in the north of Khurãsãn – the Greater.3. Jawãbãt Abu 'l-Hasan an-Naysãbūrī (Replies to Abu 'l-Hasan anNaysãbūrī). It contains an account of the aspersions cast against the Imãmiyyah and their fiqh by a Hanafī faqīh (printed – see ‘Iddat rasãil. pp. 446-59]). it is still inhabited and bears the same name." 2. of what you quote from a shaykh of the upholders of independent reasoning (ashãbu 'r-ra’y.5. that I should notify you of the truth in this matter .

. 13. p. 220-1). . 10. p. ." adh-Dharī‘ah. may Allãh lengthen his life . In it he says: "A scroll containing questions reached me from as-Sayyid ash-Sharīf al-Fãdil. However. The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. Jawãbãtu 'l-masãili 'n-Nawbandjãniyyah (Replies to Questions from Nawbandjãn). pp.5. It is given like this in adh-Dharī‘ah. (vol.307. Jawãbãt ahli 'd-Dīnawar (Replies to the People of Dīnawar) or (Jawãbãtu 'l-masãili 'd-Dīnawariyyah al-Mãzarãniyyah) (Replies to Questions from Mãzarãnī people of Dīnawar). (vol. .545-6.263-5. (Jawãbãt) al-Masãilu 'l-‘Ukbariyyah (Replies to Questions from ‘Ukbarã) = Jawãbãtu 'l-masãili 'l-Hãjibiyyah (Replies to Questions from al-Hãjib) = Jawãbãt Abi 'l-Layth al-Awãnī (Replies to Abu 'l-Layth al-Awãnī).12) in an-Nawbandjãn. and his high standing. may Allãh prolong his survival. but al-Mufīd himself indicated the answer to questions which came from Fãrs in al-Masãilu 's-Sarawiyyah – see ‘Iddat rasãil. no. in which there is an explanation of this naming. His support for him. 189. The name of this book is given in adh-Dharī‘ah. 12.240). according to adh-Dharī‘ah. . pp. (vol. pp. al-Masãilu 's-Sarawiyyah (On Questions from Sãriyah). 227). in anNajãshī we find: "Questions coming from Abū ‘Abdillãh Muhammad ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn al-Fãrisī.225) in this form. p. (The First Question): What does ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd say. 11.207-232). resident at the shrine (the shrine of ‘Uthmãn. 9. and the scroll was too narrow for me to be able to record the answers. p. pp. vol. Dīnawar is a town situated in the mountainous area in the west of Iran (al-Jibãl) near present day Kirmanshãh (Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn. see below. pp. (Sãriyah [called Sãrī today] is the centre of the province of Mãzandarãn. I read all of them.) (Printed: See ‘Iddat rasãil.170 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars Not the same as the previous one.2. The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate.223. quotes from Asãmiy-e dihãt-e kishwar (Names of the villages of the country).5. secure the traces of the religion by protecting his life and refreshing the eyes of the Shī‘ah with the prolongation of his brilliant days . Jawãbãtu 'l-masãili 'sh-Shīrãziyyah (Replies to Questions from Shīrãz). p.5. 14. Awãnã is a township in the administrative district of Dujayl which is situ- ." See also Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn.5. . Jawãb (Reply to) Abū Muhammad al-Hasan ibn al-Husayn an-Nawbandjãnī resident at the shrine of ‘Uthmãn. " All of it is concerned with kalãm discussions.188. vol. 201. (published by the Iranian Interior Ministry): "Nawbandjãn is today one of the territories of Fasã in the province of Fãrs. so I dictated this in a separate book .334.

35.201. vol. vol. Also in adh-Dharī‘ah. p. pp. p. and in another manuscript in the private library of Fakhru 'd-Dīn Nasīrī in Tehran. vol. .5.313.6. The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. (Tehran ed.). (See adh-Dharī‘ah. However. in an-Najãshī (Bombay ed. even if this copy is correct it should read at-Tarqufī. & 228.2. Jawãbãt ahli 'l-Mawsil fi 'l-‘adad wa 'r-ru’yah (Replies to the People of Mawsil on Whether the Beginning of the Month [of Shawwãl] is Determined by Calculation [of the 30 days of Ramadãn] or by Catching Sight of the Crescent Moon) = Jawãbãtu 'l-masãili 'l-Mawsiliyyãt (Replies to Questions from al-Mawsil). p. in the manuscript of an-Najãshī available in the National Library (Kitãb Khãn-e Milli) of Tabrīz. p. 17. which is a small town adjoining ar-Raqqah on the bank of the Euphrates.Imãmī Mutakallims 171 ated in the vicinity of ‘Ukbarã (Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn.259. pp. vol. Jawãbãtu 'l-Fãriqiyyīn fi 'l-ghaybah (Replies to the Fãriqī People Concerning the Occultation) = Jawãbãtu 'l-masãili 'l-Mayyãfãriqiyyãt (Replies to Questions from Mayyãfãriqīn).198).101-3). b) "at-Taraffuqī". Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. (See: Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn. whose location is today situated inside the territory of the Republic of Turkey. 112).6.23. pp.) 15. among others. The name in this title has appeared in a variety forms:a) "al-Burqu‘ī". vol.1. at-Tarquf was a place in the district of Wãsit near al-Bandanijūn (Mandalī) in Iraq. He lived in ar-Rãfiqah. p. Abū Muhammad ar-Rãfiqī (c. Marãsidu 'l-ittilã‘. al-Mawsil is the famous town in Iraq (Mosul). in some readings. But if this (c) reading is correct. It was in the adminis-trative district (‘amal) of al-Jazīrah (Northwest Mesopotamia). The Lands of he Eastern Caliphate. The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. pp. and its site is now within the territory of the Republic of Syria (Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn.198. p. p.5.128. Then the two became one and were called ar-Raqqah.50).5. vol. Mayyãfãriqīn is the most well known town in Diyãr Bakr – al-Jazīrah.384/994–485/1092) (see §67).15.235-8.3. adh-Dharī‘ah (vol. p.274-5.111. p. pp. These are fifty-one questions put forward by al-Hãjib Abu 'l-Layth ibn Sirãj al-Awãnī to which al-Mufīd replies. 219. vol.1.42. vol. al-Ansãb. vol.). 16.5. 58-60.) c) "ar-Rafaqī". one of those who studied with ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd. Jawãbãtu (Replies to) 'r-Rafaqī = at-Taraffuqī = al-Burqu‘ī fī furū‘i 'lfiqh (Concerning the Precepts of Jurisprudence). vol. Marãsidu 'l-ittilã‘. pp.1.285. I suppose that he is al-Hasan ibn ‘Anbas ibn Mas‘ūd. p. in those days it was governed by the Hamdãnids (Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn.

This is given in adh-Dharī‘ah. .196-7).211). pp. 294). Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. vol. wa Abū Tãhir. vol. 358/969). esp. pp. was the king of al-Mawsil. Jawãbãtu (Replies to) 'l-Amīr Abū ‘Abdillãh (al-Hamdãnī). as-Sam‘ãnī mentions many of them: al-Lubãb.216. 2 pts. 26.5. [vol. I strongly suspect that it is a misplacing of diacritical points of al-Ghundajãnī.2. p. Jawãbãt (Replies to) ‘Alī ibn Nasr al-‘Abdajãnī. Jawãbãt (Replies to) an-Nasr (an-Nadr) ibn Bashīr fi 's-siyãm (Concerning Fasting).103.235-6.) 22. 411/B. ar-Risãlah ila 'l-Amīr Abū ‘Abdillãh. It is also possible that Ibn Nubãtah is as-Sa‘dī. p. p. Ghundajãn was a small town in the province of Fãrs. pp. al-Husayn ibn Nãsiru 'd-Dawlah al-Hasan ibn Abi 'l-Hayjã’ ‘Abdullãh ibn Hamdãn at-Taghlibī al-Hamdãnī (d. Jawãbãt (Replies to) Ibn Nubãtah.4.270. Abū Nasr ibn Nubãtah as-Sa‘dī at-Tamīmī alBaghdãdī (327/939–405/1015) (Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. 25. pp. Faysal as-Sãmir: adDawlatu 'l-Hamdãniyyah.5..5. We find in adh-Dharī‘ah (vol.172 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars 18.255). al-Masãilu 'l-Harrãniyyah (On Questions from Harrãn).197] al-Husaynī). Jawãb ahli 'r-Raqqah fi 'l-ahillah wa 'l-‘adad (Reply to the People of ar-Raqqah about the Crescents and Calculations.5.390-1. Harrãn was a city in the Western part of al-Jazīrah. pp. (Refer to Dr.2.260.4. Their father Nãsiru 'd-Dawlah (d. that he is al-Fãriqī. p.1. and his brother. its site is now in the Republic of Turkey (Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn. p. 23.1223. vol. 20. 19. Abū Tãhir Ibrãhīm ibn Nãsiri 'd-Dawlah (d. vol. al-Ansãb. vol. vol. a contemporary of al-Fãriqī whose full name was ‘Abdu 'l-‘Azīz ibn ‘Umar ibn Muhammad. These two are: Abū ‘Abdillãh. vol. 380/ 990). ibnay Nãsiru 'dDawlah fī majlisin jarã fi 'l-imãmah (Letter to the Amīr Abū ‘Abdillãh and Abū Tãhir sons of Nãsiru 'd-Dawlah Concerning a Discussion on the Imãmate [which took place in their presence]). vol. 123). the eldest brother of Sayfu 'dDawlah. pp. The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. 21. Jawãbãt (Replies to) Abu 'l-Hasan al-Husaynī (in adh-Dharī‘ah. 412/A. [see above no. 381/991). 268. and this is ‘Abdu 'r-Rahīm ibn Muhammad ibn Ismã‘īl Abū Yahyã Ibn Nubãtah (335/ 946–374/984). the famous man of letters and orator (al-A‘lãm. and it was the birth place of many scholars and men of letters (Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn. The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate.15]). Jawãbãt (Replies to) Banū ‘Arqal. I have not found any mention of al-‘Abdajãnī nor any reference to ‘Abdajãn. 24. Elsewhere it is difficult to make the title out exactly. p.202.5.

Imãmī Mutakallims


27. Jawãbãt (Replies to) Abū Ja‘far Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Laythī. 28. Jawãbãtu 'sh-Sharqiyyīn fī furū‘i 'd-dīn (Replies to the Eastern on Practical Rules of Religion). 29. Mas’alat (On a Question of) Muhammad ibn al-Khidr al-Fãrisī. 30. Jawãbãt (Replies to) Ibnu 'l-Hammãmī. I strongly suspect that this is ‘Alī ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Umar ibn Hafs, Abu 'lHasan ibn al-Hammãmī al-Muqri’ al-Baghdãdī (328/939-40–417/1026). The Muqri’ (reciter of the Qur’ãn) of Baghdãd and one of the scholars of hadīth there. He was trustworthy in narration, true in his religion, learned and of correct beliefs (Tãrīkh Baghdãd, vol.11, pp.329-30; al-Muntazim, vol.8, p.28; al-Ansãb, vol.4, p.232; Tadhkiratu 'l-huffãz, vol.3, p.1073; Shadharãtu 'dhdhahab, vol.3, p.208; Ghãyatu 'n-nihãyah, vol.1, pp.521-2; Ma‘rifatu 'l-qurrãi 'l-kibãr, vol.1, pp.302-3). This Ibn al-Hammãmī was one of the shaykhs of Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī who narrated from him (al-Amãlī, vol.1, p.389-91). 31. Jawãbãtu 'l-Mãfarrūkhī fi 'l-masãīl (Replies to al-Mãfarrūkhī on Various Matters). 32. Jawãbãt (Replies to) Ibn Wãqid as-Sunnī. 33. Jawãbãt (Replies to) Abū Ja‘far al-Qummī. 34. Jawãbãt Abu 'l-Faraj ibn Ishãq ‘ammã yufsidu 's-salãt (Replies to Abu 'l-Faraj ibn Ishãq on What Invalidates the Prayer). 35. Jawãb (Reply to) Abu 'l-Fath Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn ‘Uthmãn alKarãjikī, (see §122). 36. Jawãbãt (Replies to) Abu 'l-Hasan Sibt (the grandson of) al-Mu‘ãfã ibn Zakariyyã fī i‘jãzi 'l-Qur’ãn (Concerning the Imitability of the Qur’ãn). al-Mu‘ãfã ibn Zakariyyã, Abu 'l-Faraj an-Nahrawãnī al-Baghdãdī (303/ 916–390/1000), faqīh, usūlī (scholar of the principles of Islamic jurisprudence), mutakallim, man of letters, poet, grammarian, philologist, historian. He had recorded links with the Imãmī scholars of his time (al-A‘lãm, vol.8, p.169; Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn, vol.12, pp.302-3; Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah, 4th cent., p.319). I have not come across his grandson, Abu 'l-Hasan in the biographies. [The most important biographies of al-Mufīd are to be found in at-Tūsī, alFihrist, pp.186-7; an-Najãshī, p.311-6; Majma‘u 'r-rijãl, vol.6, pp.33-38; Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl, vol.3, pt.1, pp.180-1; Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth, vol.17, pp.22736; Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt, vol.6, pp.153-77; Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm, vol.3, pp.31123; Mustadraku 'l-wasãil, vol.3, pp.517-21; Introduction to Tahdhību 'lahkãm, vol.1, pp.4-43; Majãlisu 'l-mu’minīn, vol.1, pp.463-80; Sezgin, I, 549-50, 46; Dominique Sourdel, 'L'Imamisme vu par le Cheikh al-Mufid', Revue des Études Islamiques, XL (1972), pp.217-96, esp. pp.217-48; Martin


Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars

J. McDermott, The Theology of al-Shaikh al-Mufid, Beirut, 1978, pp.1-45.]

§145. Muhammad ibn Muslim, Abū Ja‘far ath-Thaqafī al-Kūfī (c.80/699–150/767): His biographers say of him: "He was a man of
distinction among the Imãmiyyah in our science from Kūfah, a pious man and a jurist. He associated with Abū Ja‘far al-Bãqir and Abū ‘Abdillãh asSãdiq, peace be upon them both; he related from them many ahãdīth. He was one of the most trustworthy of people." He was one of the six companions of these two Imãms, peace be upon them both, about whom the Shī‘ah are agreed concerning the truth of their narrations and whom they have accepted in fiqh (see the sources for the biography of Zurãrah). [al-Kishshī, pp.10, 161-9; an-Najãshī, pp.247-8; at-Tūsī, ar-Rijãl, pp.135, 300; Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth, vol.6, pp.47-54; Ibn Dãwūd, p.336; al-‘Allãmah al-Hillī, pp.149-50; Naqdu 'r-rijãl, pp.333-4; Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt, vol.2, pp.1934; Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl, vol.3, pt.1, pp.184-6; Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth, vol.17, pp.278-86.] We shall mention in a future chapter that Muhammad ibn Muslim shared Zurãrah's opinion about istitã‘ah (human capacity for action), and it is attributed to him in an extremely weak tradition that he used to say: "Indeed, Allãh knows nothing until it happens." (al-Kishshī, p.169; Majma‘u 'r-rijãl, vol.6, p.53; Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl, vol.3, pt.1, p.186; Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth, vol.17, p.286.) We shall discuss this matter also in that chapter.

§146. Muhammad ibn Sa‘īd ibn Kulthūm al-Marwazī an-Naysãbūrī:
ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī and Ibn Shahrãshūb count him among the companions of al-Imãm al-Hãdī, peace be upon him (212/827/–254/868), and they say: "He was a mutakallim", (ar-Rijãl, p.421; Manãqib ãl Abī Tãlib, vol.4, p.402; alBihãr, vol.50, p.216) and al-Kishshī says: "He was one of the greatest mutakallims in Naysãbūr. He was a Khãrijite who turned to Shī‘ism. ‘Abdullãh ibn Tãhir (ibn al-Husayn al-Khuzã‘ī [182/798–230/844] the governor of Khurãsãn; he resided in Naysãbūr until he died) caused trouble for Muhammad ibn Sa‘īd, who argued with him, but he was subsequently allowed to go. [al-Kishshī, p.545; Majma‘u 'r-rijãl, vol.5, p.216; Ibn Dãwūd, pp.312-3; al‘Allãmah, p.151; Naqdu 'r-rijãl, pp.308-9; Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt, vol.2, p.118; Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl, vol.3, pt.1, p.120; Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth, vol.16, pp.128-9.]

§147. Muhammad ibn Ya‘qūb ibn Ishãq, ash-Shaykh Abū Ja‘far al-Kulaynī ar-Rãzī, subsequently al-Baghdãdī (d. 329/941): A detailed
biography of our Shaykh al-Kulaynī was given in our Introduction to the

Imãmī Mutakallims


English translation of "The Book of Reason and Ignorance" of al-Kãfī, and it was pointed out there that he was a man of great knowledge; and that in addition to his knowledge and erudition in fiqh and hadīth, he was a brilliant mutakallim, and in this he wrote many works. We can add that the commentaries, which he wrote in "The Book of Divine Unity", of al-Kãfī, even though they are brief and only come where they are absolutely necessary, clearly revealed his expertise in kalãm.

§148. al-Muzaffar ibn ‘Alī ibn al-Husayn ibn ‘Alī ibn Hamdãn, Abu 'l-Faraj al-Hamdãnī al-Qazwīnī: He was trustworthy in hadīth,
socially important, a faqīh and a mutakallim. He contacted ash-Shaykh alMufīd and studied with him; he received his permission to narrate his writings and traditions in 408/1017-8. He took the teaching position of ashSharīf al-Murtadã and Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī in Baghdad and this must have been after ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī's removal to an-Najaf al-Ashraf. This is therefore no evidence that he studied with them. ar-Rãfi‘ī mentions in at-Tadwīn: "He heard many of the dictated discourses (al-amãlī) of al-Qãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr al-Mu‘tazilī (320/932–415/ 1025)." Among his books are: al-Ghaybah, and al-Minhãj. [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn, al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr, vol.105, p.266; Amalu 'l-ãmil, vol.2, pp.323-4; Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt, vol.2, p.155; Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl, vol.3, pt.1, p.220; Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth, vol.18, p.208; Diyãfatu 'l-ikhwãn, p.207; Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah, 5th cent., p.193; adh-Dharī‘ah, vol.16, p.82; al-Fawãidu 'r-Radawiyyah, p.666; Fihrist asmã’ rijãl at-Tadwīn, p.95; from the Alexandrian manuscript of at-Tadwīn, p.490; Ta‘līqãtu 'n-naqd, vol.1, p.136; Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn, vol.6, p.54.]

§149. al-Muzaffar ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad, Abu 'l-Jaysh alBalkhī al-Khurãsãnī al-Baghdãdī (al-Warrãq) (d. 367/977-8):
Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī and an-Najãshī say: "He was a very well-known mutakallim, and he was knowledgeable in traditions. He was a pupil of Abū Sahl an-Nawbakhtī (see §96)." ash-Shaykh al-Mufīd (the greatest Imãmī scholar of his time; see §144) used to study hadīth and kalãm under him. Abū Hayyãn at-Tawhidī called him the "shaykh of the Shī‘ah" and said: "He was the mutakallim of the Shī‘ah (of his time)." (Akhlãqu 'l-wazīrayn, pp.203, 206-7.) He has several writings to his name, including:1. Naqdu 'l-‘Uthmãniyyah (Invalidation of the [Book] al-‘Uthmãniyyah


Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars

[by al-Jãhiz, the Mu‘tazilite]); 2. ar-Radd ‘alã man jawwaza ‘ala 'l-qadīm ta‘ãlã al-butlãn (Refutation of Whoever Admits that the Eternal, the Exalted, May do Something in Vain); 3. al-A‘rãd wa 'n-nukat fi 'l-imãmah (General and Specific Points About the Imãmate); 4. Fa‘alta falã talūm (lit., You have done [this], so do not blame [others for it]), which is a large book; 5. Majãlisuhu ma‘a 'l-mukhãlifīn (His Sessions with Opponents), concerning various topics; 6. al-Insãn wa annahu ghayru hãdhihi 'l-jumlah (Man, He is Other than [Merely] this Totality [of Limbs and Organs]). (See under al-Fadl ibn Shãdhãn [§57], title 11, for an explanation of this title.) [at-Tūsī, al-Fihrist, p.198; an-Najãshī, pp.330-1; Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’, p.101, 110-1; Majma‘u 'r-rijãl, vol.6, pp.95-96; Ibn Dãwūd, p.437; al-‘Allãmah, p.170; Naqdu 'r-rijãl, p.346; Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl, vol.3, pt.1, p.220; Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth, vol.18, p.208; Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah, 4th cent., p.318; adh-Dharī‘ah, vol.2, pp.337-8; vol.10, p.227; vol.16, p.277; vol.24, p.289; al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb, vol.1, pp.43-44; Mustadraku 'l-wasãil, vol.3, p.521; Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrif‘īn, vol.2, p.463; Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn, vol.12, pp.300-1.]

§150. al-Qãsim ibn al-Khalīl ad-Dimashqī: [His biography has been
deleted in the original manuscript.]


§151. Qays al-Mãsir: Nothing of his biography has been found except
what as-Sam‘ãnī has mentioned about him under "al-Mãsirī" where he names him Qays ibn Abī Muslim al-‘Ajlī al-Mãsir, and he says: "Abū Muslim was among the prisoners of war from Daylam [the mountainous district in Gilãn bordering on the Caspian Sea]; the people of Kūfah had captured him and his Islam was without reproach. He had a son, Qays alMãsir, and they say that he was the freed-slave (mawlã) of ‘Alī ibn Abī Tãlib, peace be upon him, then he appointed him as the 'mãsir', and he was the first man to divide up the lands of the Eauphrates and the Tigris [mãsir means the 'limit' or the 'dividing line', and masara 'l-ard means to 'determine the limits of the land' or to 'draw up boundaries for the land', and Qays drew up boundaries in Mesopotamia and parcelled up the lands on either bank of the two rivers: see Tãju 'l-‘arūs, vol.3, pp.543-4; Lisãnu 'l-‘Arab, vol.5, pp.175-6 and Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn, vol.1, pp.38-39]. Thus Qays was called al-

Yūnus says of him: "He was. and kalãm was thus his art. p. pp. (4) The Divine Proof (i). pp. pp. p. He is trust51 S Originally the word mutakallim was used for a person who had the skills.10. p.123. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.26. you go furthest away from (the meaning of) them. vol. transl. but a little of what is correct suffices for a lot of what is incorrect. vol. ibid. in my view.2.258-9.] Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalãnī relates from al-Awzã‘ī (‘Abdu 'r-Rahmãn ibn ‘Umar. the best of them in kalãm from ‘Alī ibn al-Husayn.103-4. (Eng.1. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. and that belief in it was widespread among the great Shī‘ī and Sunnī scholars of hadīth and fiqh (jurisprudence). 276. 88/707–157/774) that he said: "The first man who used kalãm concerning the doctrine of irjã’ (the doctrine of the Murji‘ites) was a man from the people of Kūfah whom they called Qays al-Mãsir" (Tahdhību 'ttahdhīb. p. al-Ihtijãj. 301/914): Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī says: "He was of a high rank with a wide knowledge of traditions.. Sa‘d ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn Abī Khalaf.7. He was of those who revolted with ‘Abdu 'r-Rahmãn ibn al-Ash‘ath in the days of al-Hajjãj [ibn Yūsuf. vol.2. vol. al-Bihãr. §152.48.12. al-Irshãd. (al-Ansãb. the uprising took place in 81/699– 82/700] together with he reciters of the Qur’ãn (al-qurrã’). 16. You and al-Ahwal [Abū Ja‘far Mu’minu 't-Tãq. vol.2. pt. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. "When the debate had finished. pp.149). needed for debating or discussing religious matters of all kinds. (Eng. pt. We shall mention when we discuss the Murji‘ites that irjã’ has many meanings. pp. You mix up what is correct with what is incorrect. peace be upon him. 13.490). pp. Ta’sīsu 'sh-Shī‘ah li ‘ulūmi 'l-Islãm. both rhetorical and scholarly.2. al-Wãfī. al-Imãm as-Sãdiq. pp.540. and wrote much. 125. peace be upon him. vol.). .421. turned to Qays al-Mãsir and said: "You argue so that when you reach nearest to the (meaning of the) traditions of the Messenger of Allãh.2. al-Lubãb.33-34. the blessing and peace of Allãh be upon him and his Household." [al-Kãfī. where they debated with the mutakallim from Shãm.14. 205.273. vol.. one of the mutakallim present in the session] are very agile and skilful. vol. In the early stages there is no specific application to purely theological matters. 544. B/502. pp. vol. vol. transl.3.2. peace be upon him.23. Abu 'l-Qãsim al-Ash‘arī al-Qummī (d. 423).7. al-Usūl. Yūnus ibn Ya‘qūb counted Qays al-Mãsir among the Shī‘ī mutakallim 51 who were present at the session of al-Imãm as-Sãdiq. pp.Imãmī Mutakallims 177 Mãsir. pp.203. I‘lãmu 'l-war.

pp.3. trustworthy and revered. ar-Rijãl. vol. pp.1.2. p.133-5. pp. Marãsidu 'l-ittilã‘. Jãmi‘u 'rruwãt. p.211-2. p." He wrote many books including:1. among which are: al-Ghaybah wa kashfu 'l-hayrah (The Occultation and the Clarification of Confusion). 339/950-1): "A shaykh from among our co-sectarians.55. pp.370. vol. Arzan is a town in Diyãr Bakr.1.1. [at-Tūsī.8.145-6.2..78-79.138.86. vol.7581. and said that he wrote a large book on the Imãmate. al-Fihrist.567). and 6. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.101-2.164. Ibn Dãwūd. vol. and the place where it once stood now falls within the territory of the Republic of Turkey – see Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn.] . vol. p. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn.175. pp. pp. Salãmah ibn Muhammad ibn Ismã‘īl.] §154. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.] §153. Naddu 'l-’īdãh." [an-Najãshī. pp.83.3. pt.475.8.1. 2nd ed. Abu 'l-Hasan alArzanī al-Qummī al-Baghdãdī (d. vol. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-mujabbirah (Refutation of the Believers in Predestination). al-Fihrist. vol. vol.136. 4th cent.150-1. Jawãmi‘u 'l-hujaj (The Comprehensive Arguments). Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’.1. ar-Rijãl.112. p.168. pp. [at-Tūsī.475. vol. p. 5. The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate.1.175. vol. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah." He wrote several books. p. pp.135-6. p. vol. 3.3. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-ghulãt (Refutation of the Extremists). Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. an-Najãshī." an-Najãshī says: "He was a leader of this our sect.9. Maqãlãtu 'l-Imãmiyyah (Opinions of the Imãmite) or Firaqu 'sh-Shī‘ah (Sects of the Shī‘ah).4.3.55. p. vol.16. pp.177-8. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. 2. and he called it Kitãbu 'l-Ihtijãj.178 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars worthy. p.201. pp.105-7. pp.156-7. p.157-8. pt.149. pt. al-‘Allãmah. al-Ansãb. an-Najãshī.394. p. 4. p. p. p. pp. a faqīh and a distinguished scholar in it. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. ad-Diyã’ fi 'l-imãmah (The Brightness in Imãmate). p. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl..16-17. vol. p.44. Mu‘jam rijãli 'lhadīth.198 (#. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. according both to hadīth and kalãm. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. p.].47.1. vol.107. Ibn Dãwūd. p. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn. vol. pp. Mu‘jam rijãli 'lhadīth. al‘Allãmah.1. Tawdīhu 'l-ishtibãh. Sãlih Abū Muqãtil ad-Daylamī: an-Najãshī said: "Ahmad ibn alHusayn [ibn ‘Abdillãh al-Ghadãirī] mentioned him.355-6. al-A‘lãm [3rd ed. ar-Radd ‘ala 'l-Muhammadiyyah wa 'l-Ja‘fariyyah (Refutation of the Muhammadiyyah and the Ja‘fariyyah [two sects of extreme Shī‘ī]). vol. adhDharī‘ah. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. p. pp.

Mustadraku 'l- . vol.1.174. p.2. .1. Ibn Dãwūd. with people living near it and others visiting it. vol. ar-Radd ‘alã Abu 'l-Husayn al-Basrī fī naqdi 'sh-Shãfī (Refutation of Abu 'l-Husayn al-Basrī Concerning [his] Disproof of [the Book] ash-Shãfī).1).171-2. kalãm. p.370-3. vol. among which are:1.2. vol.42. pp. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.Imãmī Mutakallims 179 §155.275). at-Tadhkirah fī haqīqati 'l-jawhar wa 'l-‘arad (The Reminder Concerning the Truth about Substance and Accident). a foremost expert of the Imãmiyyah in fiqh. Tatmīmu 'l-mulakhkhas fī usūli 'd-dīn (The Completion of "The Summary of the Principles of the Religion"). Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.124. The twentieth section of this work is on the Imãmate.125). p. This was written at the order of his teacher ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã.26).105. and ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã refuted what he said there in his ash-Shãfī (130/ bk. p. fī haqīqati 'l-jawharah. Then Sallãr refuted this book of Abu 'l-Husayn's. vol.8. vol. but I strongly suspect that this is an error arising from a confusion between Abū Ya‘lã Sallãr and Abū Ya‘lã al-Ja‘farī whose biography comes as §128.199-200. p. vol. al-‘Allãmah.3.2. p. a pupil of al-Qãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr.4. Amalu 'l-ãmil. p. as we shall see.380): . Naqdu 'r-rijãl. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. the famous mutakallim (320/ 932–415/1025) who wrote the famous encyclopaedic al-Mughnī fī abwãbi 'ttawhīd wa 'l-‘adl. p. pp.369. (Sharhu 'l-‘uyūn. 2. Some say that he died in Ramadãn 463 (June 1071).156. trustworthy in narration.1.86. al-Wãfī bi 'l-wafayãt. al-Munyah wa 'l-amal. a man of social standing. vol. as described by his biographers. Ibn Khallikãn." His tomb is still there today. 436/1044). Lu’luatu 'l-bahrayn. Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. and refers to al-Qãdī ‘Abdu 'l-Jabbãr al-Mu‘tazilī. he also had the Arabic name Hamzah) ibn‘Abdi 'l-‘Azīz Abū Ya‘lã adDaylamī (d. pt. An error appears in Īdãhu 'l-maknūn (vol.387. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. pp. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. which is the completion of the book of his teacher ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã (130/bk.123. Sallãr (the Arabic form of the Persian name Sãlãr. He wrote several books. pp. as-Safadī says: "He died in Safar 448 (April – May 1056) at Khusrawshãh. and that this is the date of the second one's death. p. vol.329-331.299.1. and Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn (vol. 127-8. The Abu 'l-Husayn al-Basrī Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn at-Tayyib alMu‘tazilī al-Hanafī (d. 448/1056): He was a pupil of al-Mufīd (see §144) and ashSharīf al-Murtadã (see §39).4. pp.234. p. . [Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. p. wrote Naqdu 'sh-Shãfī fi 'l-imãmah. 3. a village near Tabrīz.271. a faqīh. p. literature and other sciences. p. where he was buried.

a mutakallim. Ibn Dãwūd.543. adh-Dharī‘ah. peace be upon him (232/846–260/874). vol.118-9. and continued his main studies with ashShaykh Abū Ja‘far at-Tūsī. Amalu 'l-ãmil. p. trustworthy. p.8.235. Bughyatu 'l-wu‘ãt.1. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. pp.10. p. pp. He met Abū Muhammad al-‘Askarī. vol. vol. p. al‘Allãmah. for Yãqūt relates him to one of these referring to something from his poetry (Mu‘jamu 'l-buldãn.3.] §157.56.88. pt.496.1. vol.3. vol. p. He attended the teaching sessions of ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã. p.14. pp. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. vol. vol. an-Najãshī described him with the words "our chief. Suhayl ibn Ziyãd.30610. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt.594.358-60. pp.181-2. a man of distinction.2. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.2. vol. [Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’.179-80.275.258. vol.1. vol. pp. vol.2. p. p.24. vol. p. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.180 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars wasãil.371. p.434-5. vol. vol. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.278.128.1. vol.49. adhDharī‘ah.229. p. p. vol. Hadiyyãtu 'l-‘ãrifīn. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. [an-Najãshī.30.1. 129. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah.357-60.105. pp.361. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn. Īdãhu 'l-maknūn.1. p. Mu’minu 't-Tãq (see §121). p. p. p. Nizãmu 'dDīn Abu 'l-Hasan as-Sahrashtī: He was a faqīh. vol. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.397. al-A‘lãm.145. trustworthy (in narration of hadīth). 553. pp. and it is conceivable that his biographer believed he came from here. vol. vol. vol.203. pt.17. pp. p. vol.436.858). or it could be "Sahrajt" which are two villages in Egypt.1." He wrote books on kalãm and fiqh. a prominent religious personality and a mutakallim.86. vol. p. p.181.3. 5th cent. Marãsidu 'littilã‘. Sulaymãn ibn al-Hasan ibn Sulaymãn (Salmãn). pp. pp. p.1. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah..4.2.14 (manuscript). "Sahrasht" is in the Daylam region. 243.2.4. al-Fawãidu 'r-Radawiyyah. p. Safīnatu 'l-bihãr. vol. pp.394.4.4.235. he studied under ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã. vol.1.380.. vol. Abū Yahyã al-Wãsitī: He was the son of a daughter of Abū Ja‘far al-Ahwal. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.1.8.] §156. However. vol.] §158.1.2. who was a mutakallim". p.11-13. p.639. Muntajabu 'd-Dīn.2. pp. p. of high status (according to what said of T . 5th cent. Marãqidu 'lma‘ãrif. Taqiyy ibn an-Najm (‘Umar) ibn ‘Ubaydillãh. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt (on the history of Tabrīz). vol.3. al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb. p.77-78. Abu 's-Salãh at-Taqiyy al-Halabī (374/984–447/1055): He was a faqīh. vol. vol. vol. p. pp.35. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. extracted from references such as: al-Wãfī bi 'l-wafayãt. Mu‘jamu 'l-muallifīn.343-4. Hadiyyatu 'l-‘ãrifīn.165. vol. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah.

Naqdu 'r-rijãl. adh-Dharī‘ah. vol. the town near Baghdad)..99-100.198. p. p. p. p. . pp. vol.2. pp. al-Kunã wa 'l-alqãb.2. vol. vol. p.392.71.1. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. ar-Rijãl. vol. p. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. 2. vol. p. narrations and fiqh . Abū Muhammad al-‘Askarī 3rd/ 9th cent. Ibn Dãwūd. pp. vol. p. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt. (as-Sãdiq [83/702–148/765]) and the book which is attributed to Abū ‘Īsã al- .] §160.213-4. fiqh and other subjects.28. He composed works on kalãm. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. adh-Dharī‘ah. vol. [at-Tūsī.1.2. p.1.3. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. pp.158-9. Amalu 'l-ãmil. Lu’luatu 'lbahrayn. He was a pupil of ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã.1.29-30. p. vol.74-75. vol. Minhãju 'r-rashãd fi 'l-usūl wa 'l-furū‘ (The Way of Good Sense in the Principles and Branches [of Law]).. He is described as "a man of learning and knowledge. one of the greatest students of ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã and ash-Shaykh atTūsī.255.62. al-‘Allãmah.108.93. vol.277.2. 5th cent. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. vol.Imãmī Mutakallims 181 him).1.5.105. 127/ 745). among which are:1. p. He was the leading scholar. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’ p.2.e. vol.): an-Najãshī says: "He was a skilful mutakallim among the Imãmiyyah scholars of the town of al-‘Askar (i.47. p.139. p. Thãbit ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn Thãbit al-Bunãnī.] §159. pt.1. p. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. faqīh and mutakallim among the Imãmiyyah in Shãm (Syria).107. Abu 'l-Fadl alYashkurī al-Basrī: One of the descendants of Thãbit ibn Aslam al-Bunãnī. pt. vol.46. vol. al-Hujjah fi 'l-imãmah (The Proof Regarding the Imãmate).332-3.287. an eminent narrator of hadīth and man of worship.39. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. p. 5th cent.14. Thubayt was of those who narrated from Abū ‘Abdillãh.214.371. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. vol.25. Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. a mutakallim and trust-worthy". Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'shShī‘ah.192-4.111-7. Thubayt ibn Muhammad. vol.15.457.185.132. Amalu 'l-ãmil. p. p.2]). vol. and he was well informed of hadīth. among which are:ash-Sharhu 'dh-dhakhīrah (a kalãm text by his teacher. peace be upon him. vol. and one of the tãbi‘īn (successors to the companions of the Prophet) (d. . and he wrote many books.105.3. Sãmarrã’. pp.13. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. p. He died in Halab. He was the legal representative of ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã in the region of Halab (according to ash-Shahīd ath-Thãnī).41. pp. p. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. and also ash-Sharīf al-Murtadã's academic representative (according to ash-Shahīd al-Awwal).2. vol. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. ash-Sharīf alMurtadã [see §39/bk. pp. pp.

69. p.13. pp. p.139-40. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. p. vol.64. Tawdīhu 'l-ishtibãh.2. vol.78. al-A‘lãm. vol. vol. pp. trustworthy in hadīth with a detailed knowledge of them. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.168.2. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.21.129.171. 4.2.530. ‘Ubaydullãh ibn Abī Zayd Ahmad ibn Ya‘qūb ibn Nasr. p.466-7.4. alFawãidu 'r-Radawiyyah. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.4.1. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.1. pt.404-5. Among his works was al-Adyãn wa 'lmilal (Religions and Sects).93. p.85. adh-Dharī‘ah. p. pp. al-Fihrist: al-Bihãr. an-Najãshī says: "He was a shaykh from the people of our sect. ‘Ubaydullãh ibn Mūsã ibn Ahmad. a mutakallim. pp. p.1. Lisãnu 'l-mīzãn. trustworthy and pious.3. Ibn Dãwūd. vol.162-4. Abū Tãlib al-Anbãrī al-Wãsitī." ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī mentions that he had one hundred and forty books to his name.299. pp.1. p.6. 3.182 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars Warrãq (al-Mu‘tazilī [d. vol. vol. an-Najãshī.196. ash-Sharīf Abu 'l-Fath ar-Radawī al-Mūsawī: An erudite man.173-4. vol. p.3. p. ash-Shãfī fī ‘ilmi 'd-dīn (The Remedy in Religious Science). vol. vol. vol.343. p. pp. vol. Ibn Dãwūd. (Ibn) an-Nadīm.. [at-Tūsī. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.1. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. adh-Dharī‘ah. p. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’.237.] §161.4. 356/967): One of the Imãmī mutakallims and one of their narrators of hadīth.160-1. p.11.82.214-6.2. vol.1.66.247. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. p.] U §162. vol.111. p. vol. 69.258.194-5. p. al-Fihrist. p. Among them were:1. pp. pp.7. pp. pp. al-Matãlibu 'l-falsafiyyah (Philosophical Problem). Naqdu 'r-rijãl. vol. p. and al-Mufīd ‘Abdu 'r-Rahmãn an-Naysãbūrī (see §10) narrated from him.. p. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.] . Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. pt.244. vol.3. Rawdãtu 'l-jannãt.90. pp. al-‘Allãmah. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. p. p. p. 247/861]) concerning the refutation (naqd) of (the book known as) al-‘Uthmãniyyah (by al-Jãhiz al-Mu‘tazilī [150/767–255/ 869]) was in fact (written) by him" [an-Najãshī.10.140. [Muntajabu 'd-Dīn. Ibn ‘Abdūn (d. vol. 398. pp.1. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. 2. pp.2. vol. a transmitter of hadīth. p. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. vol. Amalu 'l-ãmil. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.43-44. vol. al‘Allãmah. vol. vol.241. 4th cent. at-Tawhīd wa 'l-‘adl wa 'l-imãmah. ar-Rijãl.105.11. p. pt.481-2. 527. vol.119-20. p.1. al-Bayãn ‘an haqīqati 'l-insãn (The Elucidation of the Reality of Man). 5th cent. p. Mu‘jamu 'lmuallifīn.486.

mentioned him in the tabaqãt (chronological biographies) of the Mu‘tazilites. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl." He learnt the science of kalãm from Abu 't-Tayyib ar-Rãzī (see §18). adh-Dharī‘ah. p. al-Hãkim al-Jushamī and Ibnu 'lMurtadã. Kitãb fī ibtãli 'l-qiyãs (Book on the Invalidity of Analogical Reasoning [qiyãs]). scholarly.345. Yahyã ibn Abi 'l-Husayn Muhammad ibn Abī Ja‘far Ahmad ibn Zubãrah al-Husaynī. a scholar.] §164. the pious.4. vol. a mutakallim. 4. an-Najãshī." Shaykhu 't-Tãifah at-Tūsī says: "He was of a high rank (among scholars). Among his writings were:1. p. vol. al-Fihrist. ‘Ulaym ibn Muhammad. Kitãb fi 'l-imãmah. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. ar-Rijãl." an-Najãshī says: "He was a faqīh.118. it was one of the most famous families of Naysãbūr.6. the Mu‘tazilīs and Zaydīs." It is narrated that al-Hãkim ibn al-Bayyi‘ (the famous Sunnī scholar) said: "The great man. 3.1. the scholar. p. he lived an ascetic life and was pious. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl." asSam‘ãnī writes in his biography: "He was erudite. p.2. with nothing at variance with Islam being known about him. p. he grew up amongst us. vol. the man of letters. vol.209. and reached the stage he reached. (he mentions him in two places). and said: "He was Imãmī.518. [at-Tūsī.267. vol.4. Naqdu 'r-rijãl. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.611. a skilled mutakallim. but had tendencies towards irjã’." az-Zabīdī said of him that he was unique in his time. Y . p. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. and in some of their biographies we find that: "He was a believer in the sect of the Imãmī Rãfidites.Imãmī Mutakallims 183 §163. and none of my co-sectarians has told me that he has seen it. which I have not seen. the devout.317. Ibn Shahrãshūb says that he wrote many books about the Imãmate. at-Tawhīd." [an-Najãshī. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt.242. pp. vol. 481. and from which came many men of science and letters.246. al-Usūl (The Principles).1 p. on kalãm. p. Abū Salamah al-Bakrī ash-Shãshī: an-Najãshī says: "He wrote a book. of great social standing. ascetic in his life. This is a book. pt. p. Abū Muhammad al-‘Alawī az-Zubãrī an-Naysãbūrī (318/930–376/986): A member of the ‘Alawī family who resided in Naysãbūr.233. at-Tawhīd wa sãiru abwãbihi (The Oneness of God and the Other Matters [concerning tawhīd]). p.12. the writer. 2. but it is mentioned in the Fihrists [which we have]. as-Sam‘ãnī wrote biographies of many of this family.

He narrated from Abu 'l-Hasan Mūsã and ar-Ridã.374. p.184 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars 264-5. pp. pp.498.1.317. vol. and history. p.1. Sharhu 'l-‘uyūn (see Fadlu 'li‘tizãl. vol. pp. p. p. he saw al-Imãm asSãdiq.3. 339. but he did not narrate from him. vol.1.4.346.485-6. pp.380-1.) Yūnus was among the distinguished Imãmiyyah mutakallims and he was the successor of Hishãm ibn al-Hakam in kalãm and philosophical speculation (nazar). Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. pp. subsequently al-Baghdãdī (c. p.2. 394-5. pp. al-Kishshī. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl. p. pp.196. al-Ansãb.34). [at-Tūsī. (alKishshī.364.24. and also the sources for the biography of Yūnus. p. Tãju 'l-‘arūs. p.37-38.70-71. vol. pp." He was one of the six companions of al-Kãzim and ar-Ridã. his rank was great. Yūnus was one of the two persons who were most knowledgeable in fiqh out of these six. vol. and among their authors.2. p. .115. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.174-6. he wrote many literary works and compositions according to Shī‘ī opinions. vol.2.182.2. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth.3. Abū Muhammad al-Yaqtīnī al-Kufī. al-‘Allãmah. pt. p. peace be upon him. p. al-Munyah wa 'l-amal. p." [Ibn] an-Nadīm said: "He was the most learned of his time. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.. p. p. and in establishing their position in fiqh and other kinds of knowledge.119.556. vol.2. vol. vol. p. al-Lubãb. vol. vol.652. Ibn Dãwūd.353.1. peace be upon him.384-5. hadīth.13. al-Fihrist. p. Ibn Dãwūd.293-307.233. vol. about whom the Imãmiyyah writers are agreed in certifying what is certified of them. Amalu 'l-ãmil. vol.3. al-Ash‘arī and ash-Shahrastãnī count him among the Imãmite mutakallims.20.19. vol. p.339.376.332-3. vol.6. p.125/742–208/823-4): It is said of him: "He was a distinguished man and foremost among the Imãmiyyah in our science.259. (Ibn) an-Nadīm. Ibn Dãwūd. pp. Yūnus ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahmãn. Kitãbu 'lImãmah (Book on the Imãmate) and other books on tafsīr (Qur’ãnic commentary). Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.5657. p. among them: Kitãbu 'lBadã’ (Book on God's Annulin and Establishing What He Wills). Naqdu 'r-rijãl. pp. Mu‘jam rijãli 'lhadīth.211-2. an-Najãshī. vol.378).286-7. used to single him out for his knowledge and his opinions in fiqh.348-9.319.) There was a group of Shī‘ah whom Hishãm and Yūnus trained and taught in kalãm (al-Kishshī.483500. (al-Kishshī.249-50. 4th cent.112. p. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.2.] §165.6. p. pp. p. pp. ar-Rijãl. pp. he was trustworthy. Tabaqãt a‘lãmi 'sh-Shī‘ah. peace be upon them both. in testifying to their truthfulness. al-‘Allãmah. vol. Ma‘ãlimu 'l-‘ulamã’. fiqh. pp. peace be upon them both: and ar-Ridã. Tabsīru 'l-muntabih.5.276. pt. More than thirty books of his are recorded. Talkhīs tãrīkh Naysãbūr li 'l-hãkim. adh-Dharī‘ah. vol.

232-3. his acts of worship kept him from kalãm (i. al-Manãqib.338-43.] §166.238. al-Bahrãnī. vol. pp. p. The mutakallim among the Shī‘ah were his pupils. and they have all agreed that Zurãrah was the one with the deepest knowledge of fiqh among these six." Abū Ghãlib az-Zurãrī said: "He was a disputatious adversary [in debate]. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. vol. under 'Ãl A‘yan'. vol. vol. pp.381-2. and no-one could stand up to his proofs. ash-Shahrastãnī." (See Zurãrah's biographers. Maqãlãtu 'l-Islãmiyyīn. Z .) Also Jamīl ibn Darrãj (a famous Imãmite scholar) said: "By Allãh.235-59. in knowledge of the art of kalãm. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. he was a reciter. we were never around Zurãrah ibn A‘yan but that it was the same situation as students in the Qur’ãnic school around their teacher. a man of letters. vol. however. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.1. a mutakallim. and depositories of their knowledge. (al-Kishshī. Rijãl Bahru 'l-‘Ulūm. al-Ash‘arī.e. vol.186. Zurãrah ibn A‘yan. peace be upon them both. he was trustworthy and truthful in what he narrated. He was younger than his brother Humrãn (see §14).2. and he narrated from them a great number of hadīth. that he was one of the six companions of the Imãms al-Bãqir and as-Sãdiq. al-Milal wa 'n-nihal.56.3.184-5. peace be upon them both. al-Kashkūl. and was even counted as one of their closest followers.384. pt.190. p. A‘yãnu 'sh-Shī‘ah. pp. Abu 'l-Hasan ash-Shaybãnī al-Kūfī (c. even exceeding his description.Imãmī Mutakallims 185 pp. vol." And nearly all his biographers relate the same information about him and are in agreement with an-Najãshī over it. and in the matters of the Shī‘ī faith (tashayyu‘). pp.4.1. whom the Shī‘ah all agree to have been faithful narrators of their hadīth and whom they accept in matters of fiqh.27-28. Ibn Dãwūd. p." (Risãlah Abū Ghãlib.1. pp. who gathered together in himself the good qualities of erudition and religion.2. a jurist.1. speaking or holding discourse with others on matters of doctrine).) It is enough as description of Zurãrah's position. Ibn Shahrãshūb. peace be upon them. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl.60/ 680–150/767): The most famous of the narrators of the traditions of the Ahlu 'l-Bayt.127. p. Zurãrah was a companion of the Imãms al-Bãqir and as-Sãdiq. vol.284-5.101-13. vol. pp. and some say he died in 148/765. p. (Ibn) anNadīm said: "Zurãrah was the greatest of the Shī‘ī scholars in fiqh and hadīth.356-7. peace be upon them. pp. vol. an-Najãshī says: "He was the leader of the Imãmiyyah scholars of our science in his time and the foremost among them.1. a poet. Majma‘u 'rrijãl.20. pp. and it suffices us as evidence of his position among the Shī‘ah and the followers of the Imãms of the Ahlu 'l-Bayt.

pp. pp.46. p. pp. pp. p.3. pp. vol. 133-60." He is also mentioned concerning beliefs in Kitãbu 'l-Istitã‘ah wa 'l-jabr (Book of the Human Capacity for Action and Determinism).218-60.] * * * * * .211. Tanqīhu 'l-maqãl. Jãmi‘u 'r-ruwãt. p.25-51. vol. Naqdu 'r-rijãl.123. Ibn Dãwūd. al-Bihãr. Ma‘ãlimu 'l‘ulamã’. vol.1. at-Tūsī.186 Imãmī Kalãm: Its Origins and Development and Leading Scholars p. pt.7.155-7.2. adh-Dharī‘ah. pp.100. 201. pp. p. al-Fihrist. vol. [For the biography of Zurãrah see al-Kishshī. Mu‘jam rijãli 'l-hadīth. and also the sources for the biography of Zurãrah). p.345. al-‘Allãmah al-Hillī. ar-Rijãl. p. (Ibn) an-Nadīm.2. 350.27.76. Majma‘u 'r-rijãl.276.324-5. vol.1.10. ash-Shaykh at-Tūsī said: "Zurãrah wrote many works.438-46. pp.46.132-3. pp.136-7. an-Najãshī. vol.



CAUTION I – Wherever the author (al-Kulaynī) says in the book of al-Kãfī "A group of our associated", quoting from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Īsã, the Group here means the following five persons: 1. Abū Ja‘far Muhammad ibn Yahyã al-‘Attãr al-Qummī; 2. ‘Alī ibn Mūsã ibn Ja‘far al-Kamandãnī; 3. Abū Sulaymãn Dãwūd ibn Kawrah al-Qummī; 4. Abū ‘Alī Ahmad ibn Idrīs ibn Ahmad al-Ash‘arī al-Qummī; and 5� Abu 'l-Hasan ‘Alī ibn Ibrãhīm ibn Hãshim al-Qummī. II – Wherever the author (al-Kulaynī) says in the book of al-Kãfī "A group of our associates", quoting from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khãlid al-Barqī, the Group here means the following four persons:1� Abu 'l-Hasan ‘Alī ib Ibrãhīm ibn Hãshim al-Qummī; 2� Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn Udhaynah; 3� Ahmad ibn ‘Abdillãh ibn Umayyah; and 4. ‘Alī ibn al-Husayn as-Sa‘d-Ãbãdī. III – Wherever the author (al-Kulaynī) says in the the book of al-Kãfī "A group of our associates", quoting from Sahl ibn Ziyãd, the Group here means the following four person:1� Abu 'l-Hasan ‘Alī ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrãhīm ibn Abãn ar-Rãzī, who is renowned with ‘Allãn al-Kulaynī; 2� Abu 'l-Husayn Muhammad ibn Abī ‘Abdillãh Ja‘far ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Awn al-Asadī al-Kūfī, resident of Ray; 3� Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn Farrūkh as-Saffãr al-Qummī; and 4� Muhammad ibn ‘Aqīl al-Kulaynī. IV – Wherever the author (al-Kulaynī) says in the book of al-Kãfī "A Group of our associates", quoting from Ja‘far ibn Muhammad who quoted from al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Faddãl, one of them is, Abū ‘Abdillãh al-Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Imrãn ibn Abī Bakr al-Ash‘arī al-Qummī. * * * * *



)7( .

signified by the signs (–). ‫ = ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ/ﻋﻠﻴـﻬﺎ‬that is: peace be upon him/her ‫اﻟ ّـﻼم‬ ‫ﺴ‬ (p.u.h.b.p. – ‫ = رﻓـﻌـﻪ‬that is: a narrator mentions the name/s of persons/s from whom he ‫ﻳـﺮﻓـﻌـﻪ‬ narrated.LIST OF Technical terms and special signs used in the Traditions ‫ = أﺧﺒﺮﻧﺎ .h.b. ‫ = روى‬that is: "narrated to us".a.b. .). ‫ = ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ/ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤـﺎ‬that is: peace be upon them ‫اﻟ ّـﻼم‬ ‫ﺴ‬ (p.t.u.). * = that is: starting of a new chain of narration. ‫ = ﻣﺮﺳﻼ – ارﺳﻠـﻪ‬that is: quoting (a Tradition) from ً the Prophet or Imãm without describing the linking sources between the narrator and the Prophet or Imãm.).h. ‫ = ﺻّﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬that is: peace and blessing of Allãh ‫ﻠ‬ be upon him (the Prophet) and his ‫وﺁﻟـﻪ وﺳّﻢ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ progeny (p. ‫ = ﺣـﺪ ﺛـﻨـﺎ‬that is: "related" or "reported to ّ us".اﻧﺒﺄﻧﺎ‬that is: "informed us" or "told us". but the later narrator/s omit his/their names.u. (–) = ‫ = ﻋـﻦ‬that is: "quoted from".


 the Beneficent. ‘Alī ibn Ibrāhīm ibn Hāshim informed me (haddathanī( saying )–( his father )–( al-Hasan ibn Ibrāhīm (–) Yūnus ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahmān (–) ‘Alī ibn Mansūr as saying : "Hishām ibn al-Hakam told me. but the Imām was not available in Medina and he was informed that the Imām had gone to Mecca. 'There was an atheist )zindīq( in Egypt to whom had reached some reports about Abū ‘Abdillāh peace be upon him(� The atheist came to Medina to have debate with him )the Imām). the Merciful  1 CHAPTER ON ORIGINATION (AL HUDŪTH) OF THE UNIVERSE AND PROOFS OF ITS ORIGINATOR 213–1. He then proceeded to Mecca. The atheist 187 . Abū Ja‘far Muhammad ibn Ya‘qūb (the compiler) said.( ) / 4 * * * * * In the Name of Allāh.

u.b.) had made the circumambulation.b. the father of slave of Allāh). the slave of the king). making the circumambulation of the Ka‘bah (the House of Allāh) along with Abū ‘Abdillāh (p.h.' When Abū ‘Abdillāh (p.) inquired further.b.u.).h.4 4 4 4 4 4 4 * * * * * met us when we )the narrator and his associates( were in the company of Abū ‘Abdillāh (p.). you stand defeated�' "Hishām ibn al-Hakam )the narrator( says.u.u.' The Imām then inquired: 'What is your surname?' The atheist replied.b. The atheist jostled the Imām’s shoulder with his own. The name of the atheist was ‘Abd al-Malik and his surname was Abū ‘Abdillāh. 'Do you know there is something beneath the earth and there is something above the earth?' The 188 . and we all gathered around him (the Imām). Upon this Abū ‘Abdillāh inquired about his name� The atheist replied. 'Who is the king whose slave you are? Is he amongst the kings of the earth or amongst the kings of heaven? And let me know about your son whether he is the slave of the god of heaven or the slave of the god of earth? Whichever reply you give.. asked him.e. On this Abū ‘Abdillāh (p. the atheist came and sat before Abū ‘Abdillāh.h.u. 'My name is ‘Abd al-Malik )i�e�. 'Come to us after completion of the circumambulation )of the Ka‘bah).h. Abū ‘Abdillāh addressed the atheist.' Abū ‘Abdillāh (p.). 'I intervened and asked the atheist: 'Why are you not replying to the Imām?' These words of mine proved distasteful to the atheist.h.b. 'My surname is Abū ‘Abdillāh (i.

cannot stand in argument against the one who knows. 'No one except you has ever talked to me like that.' The atheist replied. 189 . it may be thus. 'You are still in doubt about this matter. 'No.) said. 'Perhaps it is so. Does any wise man deny the existense of what he does not himself know?' The atheist admitted. 'No.' (The Imām) asked. 'Do you know what lies in the heavens?' He replied. but I guess there is nothing beneath the earth.' The Imām inquired.b. 'Yes.' Abū ‘Abdillāh (p.h.' Abū ‘Abdillāh (p.' Then Abū ‘Abdillāh further inquired. 'What do you think lies beneath the earth?' The atheist replied.' The Imām inquired. neither descended to the earth nor ascended to the heavens? Never have you passed the boundaries so that you could know what creations lies beyond. and yet you deny the existence of whatever may lie there.) inquired. 'Have you ever ascended to the heavens?' The atheist replied. 'No. 'But a guess denotes (your) weakness since you are not sure. or it may not be thus. 'I know nothing about it. 'O´ man! he who does not know.' Abū ‘Abdillāh inquired further.h.' At this.u. O´ Egyptian brother! take it from me for we never had the slightest doubt in (the existence of) Allāh.u. Ignorance carries no authority. 'Have you ever been beneath the earth?' The atheist replied. the Imām said. 'How strange it is that you have neither reached to the east or the west.4 4 4 4 * * * * * atheist replied.b.

u. the night and the day are constrained to depend on rotation? Without any doubt. mechanical and non-conscious process. O´ Egyptian brother! why has the sky been raised and the earth so spread out? Why do not the heavens come crushing down to the earth. then why does she not bring them back to life? And if she brings them back to life. 'You are right.' Abū ‘Abdillāh (p. why does she do away with them? (If all the cycle of life and death follows the operation of a natural.h.b. 'O´ Egyptian brother! you are under a delusion when you guess that it is nature )which controls the universe(� If it were nature which does away with people.4 * * * * * Don't you see that the sun.) added. then from where does the unchanging uniformity and its inflexible order arise from?). then why has the day not become night and the night day? By Allāh. then why do they return to the same route )in their rounds)? If they were not under complusion. the moon. O´ Egyptian brother! they are under strict compulsion )to remain steadfast in their routine(� And the One Who has forced them )into this routine( has surpreme authority over them!' The atheist replied. and why does it not soar upwards to the higher stars so as to be joined with them and with what 190 . why does the earth not drift from its position. they are under a compulsion to make their rounds� So helpless are they that they are not at liberty to change even their location� If they )the sun and the moon( had the power to change their location.

when he said: 'One of my associates related to me saying. and got himself so highly refined (in his faith) that Abū ‘Abdillāh (p.4 / * * * * * is on them?' The atheist exclaimed.h. replied. Thereupon Humrān ibn A‘yan said. )the learned student of the Imām) take him along with yourself and teach him well!' Hishām.u.) requested the Imām.u. 'O´ Hishām ibn al-Hakam. their Nourisher and their Lord!' )The narrator( says.4 :4 4 .h.b. who became converted at the hands of Abū ‘Abdillāh (p. 'May I sacrifice myself upon you! atheists are becoming converted at your hands just as the infidels become converted at the hands of your father )the Holy Prophet(� The )newly converted( believer – the previous atheist.b. 'I and Ibn Abi '1-‘Awjā’ (‘Abd al-Karīm ibn Abi 'l-'Awjā’ was one of the well-known 191 .h.h.).) was highly pleased with him�' ' 214–2� A group of our associates )–( Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khālid (–) Muhammad ibn ‘Alī (–) ‘Abd ar-Rahmān ibn Muhammad ibn Abī Hāshim (–) Ahmad ibn Muhsin al-Mithamī as saying: "I was in the company of Abī Mansur al-Mutatabbib )physician(.). 'Would you accept me as your disciple and student?' Abū ‘Abdillāh (p.u.b. 'They are being held in their position by Allāh. taught him so well that he then became an instructor in faith for the people of Syria (ash-Shām) and Egypt.b. u. 'The atheist started believing (in God) at the hands of Abū ‘Abdillāh (p.

'Do not do it. and it is said that he was killed during the reign of al-Mansūr [95/714 – 158/775] . 'Do you see the large number of people? On none of them can the lable of "human being" be attached. Abū ‘Abdillāh Ja‘far ibn Muhammad )peace be upon him(� The rest of the people are mere riff-raff and just animals�' Ibn Abi’ l-‘Awjā’ inquired.] and the student of al-Hasan al-Basri. the ‘Abbāsid Caliph for this very reason) and ‘Abdullāh ibn al-Muqaffa‘ ( [106/724 – 142/759] the famous writer and translater of books of Logic and Philosophy into Arabic who was accused of atheism and killed( were in the sacred mosque )of Mecca(. when Ibn al-Muqaffa‘. will topple down before 192 .h. that is.4- * * * * * atheists at the time of al-Imām Ja‘far as-Sādiq [p. 'It is now essential that what you have said about that person should be put to the test. but he deviated from the Unity of Allāh.' Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjā’ replied. except on the man sitting over there.' Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjā’ addressed Ibn al-Muqaffa‘ and said. ignoring all the others?' Ibn al-Muqaffa‘ replied. pointing with his hand to the place where people were circumambulating )the Ka‘bah – the House of Allāh) said.' (The narrator) said Ibn al-Muqaffa‘ addressed (Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjā’) saying.u. 'It is because I have seen in him something which I have not seen in those people. I fear that in doing so you may lose what you have already got in your hands. 'On what grounds have you termed this man as the only human being.b. 'This is not truly what you have in your mind� You really fear that your high opinion about that person and the high esteem in which you hold him.

When everyone had left except myself. 'How is that?' In reply he said. 'Woe unto you O´ Ibn al-Muqaffa‘. 'Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjā’ stood up (to go to the Imām) while I and Ibn alMuqaffa‘ remained sitting. When Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjā’ returned to us. what you agree with and what you do not agree with(� The narrator says. Do not let the reins slip out of your hands in speaking freely. 'If you accuse me of this )fear( then stand up and go to him and guard yourself as much as you can against committing errors. an angelic spirit who can appear in corporate form whenever he wishes and return to his spiritual form whenever he wishes. lest you be tied up in knots� Point out what is with you and what is not with you )i�e�. they have 193 . the person is no human.' I replied to him (the Imām).' Thereupon the Imām said. 'If the truth were as these people circumambulating the Ka‘bah )Muslim believers( say. then eternal peace is on their side. what is it that we say and what is it that they say? My saying and their saying is but one. he (the Imām) started speaking without my asking anything). while you people )the atheists( are casualties� But if the truth were as you say though it is certainly not as you say. then you and they are on the same level as each other.* * * * * me�' Ibn al-Muqaffa‘ replied. that one must be this same noble spirit�' Ibn al-Muqaffa‘ asked. If there is. and )in fact( it is as they say. 'May Allāh have mercy on you. in this world. 'How can your words and their words be one and the same? Since they say. 'I took my seat before him. he started speaking.

giving you health after your sickness. giving you love after their hostility.' Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjā’ says. 'If the truth is what these people )believers( say (that there is Allāh) then what prevents Him (Allāh) from making an appearance before the people and from inviting them )directly( to worship Him? Had this been done. make you sick after your health. grieving you after delighting you. how does He remain hidden from you when He has Himself demonstrated His power in your own person: bringing you into being when you did not exist. rendering you weak after your strength. you )atheists( think that the heaven is desolate and there is none in it.* * * * * to return )to the life hereafter( and for them is the divine reward )for their good deeds( and punishment )for their bad deeds(� And they have their belief in religion which says that there is Allāh in the heaven and there are inhabitants in it� On the other hand. giving you hostility after their love. then raising you from childhood to old age. 'I took this as an opportunity and remarked. 'Woe unto you. making you strong after your weakness. giving you determination 194 . making you angry after making you happy. making you happy after making you angry. then not even two persons would have been there to disagree on this very issue� Why did He remained hidden from the people and send His messengers to them? If He Himself carried out (His mission) it would have been extremely effective in ensuring the people's belief in Him. delighting you after grieving you.' He (the Imām) replied me.

u.u. without speaking and passing any remarks.' Then the Imām continued enumerating the powers of Allāh which are manifest in my being and which I could not deny until I felt I had been over�whelmed in the debate held between us�'" 215–3� Some of our associates )rafa‘ahu( have added to this anecdote of Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjā’ when Abū ‘Abdillāh (p. Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjā’ attended the session of Abū ‘Abdillāh (p." Abū ‘Abdillāh (p.h.b.u. and effaces what is firmly embedded in your mind.b.h.). "Then what prevented you 195 . "Have you perhaps come to continue that same discussion of ours?" He replied. "That was done through force of habit. He attended the session and remained silent throughout. making you hopeful after frustration and frustrated after your hopefulness� He puts into your mind what you cannot even dream of. giving you appetite after satiation and surfeit after your appetite.h. At this Abū ‘Abdillāh said to him. giving you deliberation after the determination. "Yes. addressed him thus: "How strange it is that you deny the existence of Allāh and at the same time you bear witness to my being the son of the Messenger of Allāh! He replied." The ‘Ālim (the Imām. Abū ‘Abdillāh) further inquired. O´ son of the Messenger of Allāh.).b. giving you longing after your disgust and disgust after longing. I had intended to do so.) inquired from him the said questions )to convince him(� They said that on the next day too.4 4 / 4 :4 4 * * * * * after deliberation.

since you find all these attributes within yourself. but never have I been so awe-struck.u. "It was due to awe and reverence for you that I felt myself tongue-tied� I have seen many of the great scholars and had opportunities to debate with the great theologians )of the time(. "Granting that you know that none has asked you a question like this in the past. how do you know that you will not be asked a question like 196 .4 4 :4 * * * * * from speaking?" He replied." Thereupon ‘Abd al-Karīm replied. deep. small." The ‘Ālim asked him. broad. further inquired.). "May be it is like that.b. then confess yourself to be one created." Then the Imām turned towards him and put a question saying. and he did not make any answer� He kept on playfully handling his stick which was before him." Thereupon. "If you do not know the attributes of the created other than the ones you have described. "Were you created or were you not created?" ‘Abd al-Karīm ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjā’ replied. "You have asked me a question which none has asked me before� Nor will any one ask me a question like this after you. as I was in your presence. ‘Abd al-Karīm was struck dumb for a long while and was confounded." Abū ‘Abdillāh (p. dynamic and static. "Describe for me how you would have been if you had been created�" Hearing this. "Long. the ‘Ālim said. but now I shall take the initiative in asking you a question� Be attentive.h." The Imām said. while he said. these are all the attributes of the created. "I was not created.

much broader than the bag� Hence it is quite possible that in such a vast universe there may exist a created thing. and about its attributes as distinct from )those of( another one. "Ask whatever you like�" "What is the proof for the origination of )material( bodies after non197 . how did you put some thing first and the other thing after?" Then the Imām added. non-created one. O´ ‘Abd al-Karīm.b. much vaster.) replied. "This universe is much greater. and someone asks you whether there is any gold in the bag and you deny that there is any gold in the bag� The man again asks you. Abū ‘Abdillāh (p. "O´ ‘Abd al-Karīm I will add some more explanation )to make the matter clear( � Suppose you have got a bag full of jewels. you have yourself destroyed your own stand.h. "Can I change the question?" Abū ‘Abdillāh (p.) said. and that you know nothing about it because you are not aware of the attributes of the created.u. since you assume all things to be completely equal ever since their origin� Then. At this.h. it would not be proper for me. 'Describe to me the characteristics of gold' when you know nothing about the gold� Would it be proper for you to deny that there is gold in the bag while you know nothing about it?" He replied.b." Thereupon." ‘Abd al-Karīm was completely silenced. some of his companions accepted Islam while some other remained with him� ‘Abd al-Karīm came to the Imām on the third day and said.u.4 4 * * * * * this in the future? In addition to this. "No.

4 * * * * * being?" The Imām replied. how would you then prove their later occurrence?" The ‘Ālim replied. and put another universe in its place. except that mixing it with something similar to it makes it bigger� In this lies its cessation and the shift from its original state� If the thing had been eternal. "I agree with you that from these two states )smallness and bigness( and two periods )nothingness and later occurrence( which occur to all bodies. and antiquity can never be collected in one and the same thing. non-entity. you know that there is a later occurrence. that universe proves it in a far better way than )the theory of( later occurrence� But now I give a reply with the same indispensable supposition and imaginning which you have yourself adopted� We say. nor any shift� Because it is quite proper for a thing which can cease or shift from one state to another to exist )first( and then to be obsolete )null and void(� Thus. later occurrence. as you have proved in your agrument� But suppose that all things remain in their smallness )without any cessation or shift occurring to them(. if all things 198 . "I do not find anything. has an element of later occurrence in it� And its existence in eternity was nothing but its non-existence� Thus." Thereupon ‘Abd al-Karīm said. small or big. "We are talking in the context of this universe� If we set aside this universe. there would have been neither such cessation. )coming into( existence of a thing. after its non-existence before. the attributes of eternity.

although it is not so. mix one thing with another like it. the shaving of their heads and the casting of their stone. and we. "No argument during the pilgrimage ceremonies� If the case is as you say. The ‘Ālim (Imām) remarked. "Force of habit. if the case is as 199 4 . the tradition of the country." The Imām said. its alteration puts it in the )category of the things of( later occurrence� After this.).u. there is nothing left more for you to say. "My Master and my chief. removing his covering sheet from his hand. cut him short saying. and this possibility of change does away with its being eternal� In the same way.h. "He has too much of a blind spot against Islam to accept it�" When he saw the ‘Ālim he addressed him." At this )reply( he was completely silenced.4 4 4 4 * * * * * remain small )all the time(. "O´ ‘Abd al-Karīm you are still presumptuous and misguided�" He was about to start a discussion when the Imām (p. O´ ‘Abd al-Karīm. repudiated and humiliated� The next year Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjā’ met the Imām in al-Haram – the House of Allāh – and one of the followers of the Imām informed him that Ibn Abi 'l-‘Awjā’ had accepted Islam. it becomes greater )in the world of our imagination(. in our imagination. "What has brought you here?" He replied. then we both )the believers and the atheists( have secured salvation� On the contrary." Thereupon the ‘Ālim inquired.b. and the desire to witness the spectacle of the people’s mid-summer madness.

) as saying: "An atheist entered the court of Abu 'l-Hasan )ar-Ridā. our fasting. His Messenger and the life hereafter) will bring us no harm at all�' At this the man kept silent� Then Abu 'l-Hasan )p�b�u�h�( said.) addressed the atheist./ 4 4 4 4 * * * * * we say.h. Abu 'l-Hasan (p.b. and undoubtedly it is so as we say. May Allāh not be merciful to him� 216–4� Muhammad ibn Ja‘far al-Asadī narrated to me (–) Muhammad ibn Ismā‘īl al-Barmakī ar-Rāzī (–) al-Husayn ibn al-Hasan ibn Burd ad-Dīnawarī (–) Muhammad ibn ‘Alī (–) Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillāh al-Khurāsānī.u.u.u. 'O´ man. p. "I feel some pain in my heart� Take me back. have you realized that if the truth is as you people say.h. 'If the truth is as we say.b. then both of us are equal in advantage? Our praying. then we )the believers( have secured salvation and you (the atheists) are doomed. although it is not so. 'May Allāh be merciful to 200 . then you would have perished and we are saved' The man replied.h. our paying the poor-tax and our belief (in Allāh. and undoubtedly it is as we say.) when the Imām was in audience with a group of people.b. the personal servant of ar-Ridā (p." His associates took him back where he died." Then ‘Abd al-Karīm advanced towards his associates and said.

while He was without modality� He cannot be known in terms of modality and space� He cannot be perceived through the senses. then I will tell you from when He has existed. 'Tell me from when He has existed�' Abu 'l-Hasan )p�b�u�h�( replied. 'What is the evidence for Him?' Abu 'l-Hasan )p�b�u�h�( replied. 'Since He cannot be perceived through any of our senses. 'Woe unto you! You have gone astray. 'Woe unto you. 'When I observe my body and I find in it nothing in excess or lacking. when you failed to know Him through your senses you refused to accept His Lordship� And when we fail to know Him through our senses then we stand )more( convinced that He is our Lord and He is unlike other things�' "The man inquired. then He is nothing�' Abu 'l-Hasan (p. the formation of 201 . and where He is.h. either in length or in breath.' The Imām replied.u. I thereupon realize that there is some One Who has created this body� I acknowledge this when I observe the planets revolving by His might. I observe its repelling of the undesirable in its pulling of the beneficial. 'Tell me when He was not.:4 4 4 * * * * * you! Explain to me how Allāh is.) replied. nor can He specified by comparison with any thing�' "The man said. Space itself is Allāh’s creation. hence He cannot be )confined( in it� He gave modality to modal existence.' The man inquired.b.

‘Alī ibn Ibrāhīm (–) Muhammad ibn Ishāq al-Khaffāf or (–) his (‘Alī ibn Ibrāhīm’s) father (–) Muhammad ibn Ishāq as saying: " ‘Abdullāh ad-Dayasānī (an atheist) asked Hishām ibn al-Hakam )d� 190/805. Hishām soon started his journey towards Abū ‘Abdillāh (p. 'What did he ask you?' Hishām 202 . the blowing of the winds.b./ 4 4 * * * * * the clouds. 'Has He (Allāh) the power to put the whole world in an egg-shell without increasing the size of the eggshell or reducing the size of the world as a whole?' Hishām said.) inquired.h. He sought permission to (see) the Imām and he was admitted in to the Imām’s presence. 'Yes.b. Hishām said. 'Give me some time to ponder )over the querry(�' The atheist replied. Allāh is Allmighty and Omnipotent.h. 'Certainly.). by observing other signs. p.).u. that there is One Who has ordained and originated them all�' " 217–5. 'O´ son of the Prophet! ‘Abdullāh ad-Dayasānī came to see me with a problem which I cannot resolve except through Allāh’s help and with you.u.' Then the atheist left Hishām. 'Have you any Lord?' Hishām replied. which are astonishing and self-evident. saying.b.' The atheist asked.u. the floating of the sun. h.' Abū ‘Abdillāh (p. the moon and the stars� In addition to these I came to know. 'I allow you one full year.’ The atheist further inquired. 'Is He sovereign over every thing?' Hishām replied. the scholar and disciple of Imām Abū ‘Abdillāh.

) inquired. Abū ‘Abdillāh (p. 'O´son of the Prophet! this is sufficient for me. 'Five. 'I see the heavens.b. head and the feet and said.h.' ad-Dayasānī came out from Hishām’s house and straight away made 203 . houses. the earth. 'It is like a cereal grain or even smaller. it is here.' Hishām replied. 'Even if you have come to demand the answer of your question.u. 'What is the size of the pupil of your eye?' Hishm replied. plains. Hishām fell at (the feet of) the Imām and then kissed his hands. Next day ad-Dayasānī came to see him and touched Hishām by saying. 'The pupil of the eye.' Thereupon.' Thereupon.' The Imām inquired.4 4 4 * * * * * said. He who has the power to put all that you see into the pupil of an eye which is like a cereal grain or even smaller has the power to put the whole world into an egg-shell without decreasing the size of the world and without enlarging the size of the egg-shell.' The Imām addressed Hishām saying.' The Imām inquired. roofs. Hishām said to him. 'O´ Hishām! look in front of you and look above and then say what you see.' Abū ‘Abdillāh addressed him thus: 'Verily.' Then he returned to his house. 'Which of them is the smallest?' He replied. 'O´ Hishām! how many senses do you have?' Hishām replied. 'He asked me such-and-such. and not to demand an answer to my question. mountains and rivers. 'O´ Hishām ! I have come only to pay my respects to you.' Hearing this.

his followers asked why he had not told his name to the Imām. When he sat down before the Imām he addressed the Imām saying.). The Imām called upon the boy. 'What is your name?' Hearing this.b.' The boy handed over the egg to the Imām.' At this. give me the egg. He asked permission to see the Imām which was granted to him.b.h. Abū ‘Abdillāh (p.) said to him.u. He replied.4 4 4 4 * * * * * for the door of Abū ‘Abdillāh (p. 'O´ boy. 'O´ Ja‘far ibn Muhammad! guide me towards my Lord and do not ask my name. nor does the molten silver mix with the liquid gold )in 204 .h. addressed the atheist saying.' At that time one of his small boys was playing with an egg in his hand.u.b. 'Who is that (Allāh) whose slave you are. 'Take your seat. 'O´ ad-Dayasānī! this is a fort with its doors closed� It is covered with a thick layer. 'Guide me towards the One I worship and do not ask me my name�' The atheist returned to the Imām and appealed. Abū ‘Abdillāh (p. u. his followers advised him to return to the Imām and appeal to him. he would have asked me. he came out from the house of the Imām without telling his name� At this.). 'If I had told him my name ‘Abdullāh (meaning slave of Allāh).' Thereupon.h. 'O´ Ja‘far ibn Muhammad! guide me towards the One I worship (Allāh): Abū ‘Abdillāh asked him. below the thick layer there is a thin layer� Below the thin layer there is some liquid gold and some molten silver� This liquid gold does not mix with the molten silver.

verily. "ad-Dayasānī bowed his head in deep thought and then said. who had come (to debate with) Abū ‘Abdillāh (p. ‘Alī ibn Ibrāhīm (–) his father (–) ‘Abbās ibn ‘Amro alFuqaymī (–) Hishām ibn al-Hakam in respect of the talk of the zindīq )i�e�. 'I witness. or both of them must be weak. And you are the Imām – the divinely appointed guide.b.b.u. the One� There is no partner for Him and verily Muhammad is His slave and His messenger. Do you not see any director to direct all this?'" The narrator says.u. and nothing harmful can enter in it to indicate how harmful it is� No one can tell it the egg has been created to produce the male or the female� When it cracks. And I retract my steps from my previous path�' " 218–6.4 / 4 * * * * * spite of their both being fluid(� The egg stays as it is� Nothing precious comes out of it to indicate how rich is the inside. there is no god except Allāh. it presents creatures of bright colouration like peacocks. one who believes in the doctrine of Dualism).) said: "Your contention is that there can exist two eternal beings� )In that case there can only be three alternatives�( Either both of them must be eternally powerful.h.). and Allāh’s evidence for His creatures. During his talk Abū ‘Abdillāh (p.h. or one of them must be 205 .

the sun. then this gap will be a third eternal god with those two (because this gap must be of the same kind). if you point to two gods. the day. the moon operate with precision� The very plan. And if you point to three gods. then again there can only be the possible alternatives that both of them will either agree or disagree with each other in all respects� We see a perfect design in this creation )of the universe( and the heavenly bodies floating )according to a single plan( and the direction )of the whole universe( is homogeneous. you are constrained to suppose a gap between them in order to rectify this duality. harmony and coordination of these affairs prove that they are all working under the orders of one organizer� What is more.* * * * * powerful and the other weak� If both of them were eternally powerful. and that the night. then why would each one of them not try to subjugate and repel his rival so that he may be the sole sovereign (over the whole universe)? If you think that one of them is strong and the other is weak. then what we say is proved that the eternal is the One. because of the patent helplessness of the other� If you )again( say that they )eternal beings( can be two. and three gods will be forced upon you. you are constrained by the same reasoning as was given in the case of two gods and you will have to suppose two gaps among them and there will be five gods� Likewise it proceeds till there is no limit to the multiplicity of gods�" 206 .

u.) replied.b. the Lord's dazzling 207 .) as saying: "'The creatures under the effective control of their Lord. except that He has no body. although you may not have seen him�' The man further inquired. "A group of our associates narrated to me )–( Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Barqī (–) his father (–) ‘Alī ibn Nu‘mān (–) Ibn Muskan (–) Dāwūd ibn Farqad (–) Abū Sa‘īd az-Zuhrī (–) Abī Ja‘far (p. 'He is something quite unlike all other things� I mean to say that God is something )already( proved and that He is something that is a reality by Himself.h. Do not you see that if you look at a strong building already built. 'What is the proof of the existence of one God? Abū ‘Abdillāh (p. no shape and is totally imperceptible by sight or touch and unseekable through the five senses� Notions and imaginnings cannot reach Him and the passage of time has no effect upon Him and cannot bring any change in Him�' " 219–7� Muhammad ibn Ya‘qūb says. the Lord's absolute sovereignty. 'What exactly is He?' The Imām replied. "One of the queries of the zindīq was.u.h. you will know that there must be a builder for the building.b. the Lord's manifest splendour.4 / 4 * * * * * Hishām says. 'The existence of deeds themselves points to the existence of the doer who is responsible for those deeds of creation.

all this is sufficient proof of the Lord )of the Universe(�' " ***** 208 .***** * * * * * effulgence. all that has been sent through the divine messengers and all that has been revealed to mankind. the Lord's giving speech to His creatures' tongues. the Lord's truthful arguments.

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