Entropy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about entropy in thermodynamics. For entropy in information theory, see Entropy (information theory). For other uses, see Entropy (disambiguation). For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to entropy.

Ice melting in a warm room is a common example of increasing entropy,[note 1] described in 1862 by Rudolf Clausius as an increase in the disgregation of the molecules of ice. [1]
Entropy articles Introduction History Classical Statistical

Entropy is a thermodynamic property that is a measure of the energy not available for useful work in a thermodynamic process, such as in energy conversion devices, engines, or machines. Such devices can only be driven by convertible energy, and have a theoretical maximum efficiency when converting energy to work. During this work entropy accumulates in the system, but has to be removed by dissipation in the form of waste heat. The concept of entropy is defined by the second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of a closed system always increases. Thus, entropy is also measure of the tendency of a process, such as a chemical reaction, to be entropically favored, or to proceed in a particular direction. It determines that thermal energy always flows spontaneously from regions of higher temperature to regions of lower temperature, in the form of heat. These processes reduce the state of order of the initial systems, and therefore entropy is an expression of disorder or randomness. This model is the basis of the microscopic interpretation of entropy in statistical mechanics describing the probability of the constituents of a thermodynamic system to be occupying accessible quantum mechanical states, a model directly related to the information entropy. Thermodynamic entropy has the dimension of energy divided by temperature, and a unit of joules per kelvin (J/K) in the International System of Units. The term entropy was coined in 1865 by Rudolf Clausius based on the Greek toward, from - [en-] (in) and [trop ] (turn, conversion). [2][note 2] [entropía], a turning

Contents
¢¡

[hi

y y

y

y

y y y y y

[edit] Thermodynami al and statisti al descri tions

³

Any method involving the notion of entropy, the very existence of which depends on the second law of thermodynamics, will doubtless seem to many far-fetched, and may repel beginners as obscure and difficult of comprehension.

²Willard Gibbs, Graphi al M thods i the Thermodynami s of Fl ids (1873)[citation needed ]

©

¦

£

¥

¨

§

£

y y y

1 Thermodynami al and statisti al descri tions 2 The second law of thermodynamics 3 Definitions and descri tions o 3.1 Statistical thermodynamics o 3.2 Classical thermodynamics 4 History 5 Consequences and applications o 5.1 The arrow of time o 5.2 The fundamental thermodynamic relation o 5.3 Entropy in chemical thermodynamics o 5.4 Entropy change o 5.5 Entropy balance equation for open systems o 5.6 Entropy in quantum mechanics (von Neumann entropy) 6 Approaches to understanding entropy o 6.1 Order and disorder o 6.2 Energy dispersal o 6.3 Relating entropy to energy usefulness o 6.4 Ice melting example o 6.5 Entropy and adiabatic accessibility o 6.6 Standard textbook definitions 7 Interdisciplinary applications of entropy o 7.1 Thermodynamic and statistical mechanics concepts o 7.2 Entropy and life o 7.3 Cosmology o 7.4 Information theory o 7.5 Mathematics o 7.6 Sociology 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

¤

¦

 

´

often taken to be a measure of "disorder" (the higher the entropy. The constant of proportionality is the Boltzmann constant. this definition describes the entropy as being proportional to the logarithm of the number of possible microscopic configurations of the individual atoms and molecules of the system (microstates) which could give rise to the observed macroscopic state (macrostate) of the system. means that it is energetically more efficient. it suggests an arrow of time. thus reducing the entropy of the air of that system. providing an explanation and a deeper understanding of its nature. As a result. the total of entropy of the room plus the entropy of the environment increases.[5][6] For isolated systems. Boltzmann went on to show that this definition of entropy was equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy to within a constant number which has since been known as Boltzmann's constant. involved in the operation of the air conditioner. It follows from the second law of thermodynamics that the entropy of a system that is n ot isolated may decrease. thus allowing for a decrease in disorder even in a closed system. the entropy of that system will tend not to decrease. an energy T RS is not available to do useful work. Thermodynamic entropy is a non-conserved state function that is of great importance in the sciences of physics and chemistry. It follows that heat will not flow from a colder body to a hotter body without the application of work (the imposition of order) to the colder body. [5] Entropy is as such a function of a system's tendency towards spontaneous change. is given by . making it unlikely.[4] This fact has several important consequences in science: first. The statistical definition was developed by Ludwig Boltzmann in the 1870s by analyzing the statistical behavior of the microscopic components of the system. such as a chemical reaction. it prohibits "perpetual motion" machines. More explicitly. the concept of entropy evolved in order to explain why some processes are spontaneous and others are not. and second. for example. while the statistical definition of entropy extends the concept. it would result in a transient decrease that w ould affect only a limited number of particles in the system. For further discussion. such an event has a small probability of occurring. Hence. where TR is the temperature of the coldest accessible reservoir or heat sink external to the system. entropy never decreases. An air conditioner.[15] The entropy change of a system at temperature T absorbing an infinitesimal amount of heat q in a reversible way.[3][4] Historically. see Exergy. [16] . Even if such event were to occur.There are two related definitions of entropy: the thermodynamic definition and the statistical mechanics definition. [edit] The second law of thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics states that in general the total entropy of any system will n ot decrease other than by increasing the entropy of some other system. it makes no reference to the microscopic nature of matter. Statistical mechanics demonstrates that entropy is governed by probability. The thermodynamic definition was developed in the early 1850s by Rudolf Clausius and essentially describes how to measure the entropy of an isolated system in thermodynamic equilibrium. [3][8][9][11][12][13][14] Specifically. systems tend to progress in the direction of increasing entropy. Importantly. Finally. entropy is essentially a measure of the number of ways in which a system may be arranged. The heat expelled from the room (the system). limiting the amount of work a system can do. because some energy must be expended as waste heat. it is impossible for any device operating on a cycle to produce net work from a single temperature reservoir. Thus. may cool the air in a room.[3][7][7][8][9][10] In statistical mechanics. Secondly. the second law in conjunction with the fundamental thermodynamic relation places limits on a system's ability to do useful work. in agreement with the second law of thermodynamics. the higher the disorder). In summary. in a system isolated from its environment. Although this is possible. the thermodynamic definition of entropy provides the experimental definition of entropy. there is no possibility of a perpetual motion system. In mechanics. Increases in entropy correspond to irreversible changes in a system. the production of net work requires flow of heat from a hotter reser voir to a colder reservoir. it follows that a reduction in the increase of entropy in a specified process. will always make a bigger contribution to the entropy of the environment than will the decrease of the entropy of the air of that system.

observer B can cause an effect that looks like a violation of the second law of thermodynamics to observer A. in which the molecular nature of matter is explicitly considered. and internal energy are fixed (the microcanonical ensemble). number of molecules. In other words: the set of macroscopic variables one chooses must include everything that may change in the experiment. the entropy of a system in which all states. the classical thermodynamics definition developed first. equal to 1. but in any situation where a classical notion of probability makes sense. of number . In contrast to the macrostate. this can be taken as the fundamental definition of entropy since all other formulas for S can be mathematically derived from it. then. are equally likely. or mixedupness in the phrase of Gibbs. V. More specifically. in which the molecular interactions are not considered and instead the system is viewed from perspective of the gross motion of very large masses of molecules and the behavior of individual molecules is averaged and obscured. but not vice versa. [edit] Statistical thermodynamics The interpretation of entropy in statistical mechanics is the measure of uncertainty. entropy can be defined for any Markov processes with reversible dynamics and the detailed balance property. have been taken into account. (In some rare and recondite situations.[18] This uncertainty is not of the everyday subjective kind. is given by     In thermodynamics. For a given set of macroscopic variables. The qualifier "for a given set of macroscopic variables" above has very deep implications: if two observers use different sets of macroscopic variables. The equilibrium state of a system maximi es the entropy because we have lost all information about the initial conditions except for the conserved variables. such a system is one in which the volume. entropy is a logarithmic measure of the density of states:  constant. The more such states available to the system with appreciable probability. and it has more recently been extended in the area of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. the greater the entropy. W. and Pi is the probability that the system is in the ith microstate.38065×10 23 where kB is the Bolt mann J K 1. which remains about a system after its observable macroscopic properties. which characteri es plainly observable average quantities. pressure and volume. but rather the uncertainty inherent to the experimental method and interpretative model. Historically. the above is the entropy. Alternatively entropy can be defined from a classical thermodynamics viewpoint. The summation is over all the microstates the system can be in. For example. and observer B uses U. maximi ing the entropy maximi es our ignorance about the details of the system.) In what has been called the most famous equation of statistical thermodynamics. the most general interpretation of entropy is as a measure of our uncertainty about a system. then they will observe different entropies. a generali ation of this formula may be needed to account for quantum coherence effects. X. by changing X.    . otherwise one might see decreasing entropy![19] In general. In essence. V and W. The interpretative model has a central role in determining entropy. if observer A uses the variables U.[edit] Definitions and descriptions Thermodynamic entropy is more generally defined from a statistical thermodynamics viewpoint. such as temperature. a microstate specifies all molecular details about the system including the position and velocity of every molecule. the entropy measures the degree to which the probability of the system is spread out over different possible microstates. [17] For almost all practical purposes.

for a reversible process That means the line integral So we can define a state function S called entropy. and its entropy falls by S. Otherwise the process will not go forward..In Bolt mann's 1896 Lectures on Gas Theory. In the ice melting example. To obtain the absolute value. a property depending only on the current state of the system. and temperature tend to become uniform over time because this equilibrium state has higher probability (more possible combinations of microstates) than any other. . From a macroscopic perspective.e. independent of how that state came to be achieved. when multiplied by a reference temperature. In classical thermodynamics. pressure. in any process where the system gives up energy E. which satisfied With this we can only obtain the difference of entropy by integrating the above formula. density. he showed that this expression gives a measure of entropy for systems of atoms and molecules in the gas phase. i. see statistical mechanics. work mediated by thermal energy [citation needed]. the entropy of a system is defined only if it is in thermodynamic equilibrium. In a thermodynamic system. it can be understood as a measure of the amount of energy in a physical system that cannot be used to do thermodynamic work. The state function has the important property that.    is path independent. thus providing a measure for the entropy of classical thermodynamics. which states that S=0 at absolute ero for perfect crystals. [edit] Classical thermodynamics Conjugate variables of thermodynamics Pressure Volume (Stress) (Strain) Temperature Entropy Chemical potential Particle number Main article: Entropy (classical thermodynamics) According to the Clausius equality. begins to be equali ed as portions of the thermal energy from the warm surroundings spread to the cooler system of ice and water. in classical thermodynamics the entropy is interpreted as a state function of a thermodynamic system: that is. we need Third Law of Thermodynamics. the difference in temperature between a warm room (the surroundings) and cold glass of ice and water (the system and not part of the room). More precisely. a quantity at least TR S of that energy must be given up to the system's surroundings as unusable heat (TR is the temperature of the system's external surroundings).

Building on this work. the dispersal of energy from warmer to cooler always results in a net increase in entropy. If the substances are at the same temperature and pressure. falls through a temperature difference. The entropy of the thermodynamic system is a measure of how far the equali ation has progressed. In other words. In an isolated system such as the room and ice water taken together. as calculated in the example. Entropy began with the work of French mathematician La are Carnot who in his 1803 paper Fundamental Principles of Equilibrium and ovement proposed that in any machine the accelerations and shocks of the moving parts all represent losses of moment of activity. the first law. lacks in its ability to quantify the effects of friction and dissipation. At a statistical mechanical level. which is conserved in all processes. Thus. in 1824 La are's son Sadi Carnot published Reflections on the otive Power of Fire in which he set forth the view that in all heat-engines whenever "caloric". when the "universe" of the room and ice water system has reached a temperature equilibrium. the entropy change from the initial state is at a maximum. the entropy of mixing. that work or motive power can be produced from the actions of the "fall of caloric" between a hot and cold body. However. occurs when two or more different substances are mixed.A thermodynamic system Over time the temperature of the glass and its contents and the temperature of the room become equal. deals with the concept of energy. originator of the concept of entropy Main article: History of entropy The first law of thermodynamics. in any natural process there exists an inherent tendency towards the dissipation of useful energy. A special case of entropy increase. however. [20]  [edit] History Rudolf Clausius. the entropy of the system of ice and water has increased more than the entropy of the surrounding room has decreased. This was an early insight into the second law of thermodynamics.the entropy change will be entirely due to the mixing of the different substances. The entropy of the room has decreased as some of its energy has been dispersed to the ice and water. formali ed based on the heat-friction experiments of James Joule in 1843.[21]      . there will be no net exchange of heat or work . this results due to the change in available volume per particle with mixing. or what is now known as heat.

that "no change occurs in the condition of the working body". In 1877. that heat was an indestructible particle that had mass. Carathéodory linked entropy with a mathematical definition of irreversibility. Later. such as a body of steam. Josiah Willard Gibbs. according to Erwin Schrödinger. Hence. e. i. Carnot reasoned that if the body of the working substance. the essential problem in statistical thermodynamics. that no change occurs in the working body. Henceforth. this relation is: dU = TdS í PdV Since the internal energy is fixed when one specifies the entropy and the volume.g. in terms of trajectories and integrability. [edit] Entropy in chemical thermodynamics . pressure and temperature may not exist). Important examples are the Maxwell relations and the relations between heat capacities.Carnot based his views of heat partially on the early 18th century "Newtonian hypothesis" that both heat and light were types of indestructible forms of matter. and gave this "change" a mathematical interpretation by questioning the nature of the inherent loss of usable heat when work is done. such as the volume.e. in which he defined entropy to be proportional to the logarithm of the number of microstates such a gas could occupy. i. i.e. Boltzmann visualized a probabilistic way to measure the entropy of an ensemble of ideal gas particles.[22] Accordingly. and it was this comment that led to the development of entropy. sometimes called an arrow of time. This relation is known as the fundamental thermodynamic relation. heat produced by friction. In the thermodynamic limit this fact leads to an equation relating the change in the internal energy to changes in the entropy and the external parameters. [citation needed] In the 1850s and 1860s. which are attracted and repelled by other matter. of a thermodynamic system or working body of chemical species during a change of state. German physicist Rudolf Clausius gravely objected to this latter supposition. [edit] The fundamental thermodynamic relation Main article: Fundamental thermodynamic relation The entropy of a system depends on its internal energy and the external parameters. This latter comment was amended in his foot notes. As time progresses. independent of the microscopic details of the system.[23] Clausius described entropy as the transformation-content. is brought back to its original state (temperature and pressure) at the end of a complete engine cycle. based on the theories of Isaac Newton. The fundamental thermodynamic relation implies many thermodynamic identities that are valid in general. and partially on the contemporary views of Count Rumford who showed in 1789 that heat could be created by friction as when cannon bores are machined. If the volume is the only external parameter. has been to determine the distribution of a given amount of energy E over N identical systems. dissipative energy use. this relation is valid even if the change from one state of thermal equilibrium to another with infinitesimally larger entropy and volume happens in a non-quasistatic way (so during this change the system may be very far out of thermal equilibrium and then the entropy. scientists such as Ludwig Boltzmann. from this perspective.[23] This was in contrast to earlier views. [edit] Consequences and applications [edit] The arrow of time Main article: Entropy (arrow of time) Entropy is the only quantity in the physical sciences that seems to imply a particular direction of progress.e. and James Clerk Maxwell gave entropy a statistical basis. entropy measurement is thought of as a kind of clock. the second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of an isolated system never decreases.

In many processes it is useful to specify the entropy as an intensive property independent of the si e. Thus. S. R is the ideal gas constant. meaning that it scales with the si e or extent of a system. typically the kilogram (unit: Jkg-1K-1). volume. Entropy change describes the direction and quantifies the magnitude of simple changes such as heat transfer between systems ± always from hotter to cooler spontaneously. Thermodynamic entropy is an extensive property. For cases where the specific heat doesn't change and either volume. The Clausius equation of qrev/T = S introduces the measurement of entropy change. Cp is the specific heat at constant pressure. S must be incorporated in an expression that includes both the system and its surroundings. pressure or temperature) are constant. the change in entropy is given by: . the change in entropy can be given by[29] either: . [27] Entropy is equally essential in predicting the extent and direction of complex chemical reactions. This expression becomes. pressure or temperature is also constant. a fundamental physical property and an indicator of the amount of energy stored by a substance at 298K. For some other transformations. as a specific entropy characteristic of the type of system studied. the change in entropy is given by: . increases during all spontaneous chemical and physical processes. When specific heat and pressure are constant. The second law of thermodynamics states that entropy in an isolated system. for only 1 mole of an ideal gas.[25]   [edit] Entropy change When an ideal gas undergoes a change. the combination of a subsystem under study and its surroundings. and the unit joule per kelvin (J/K) in the International System of Units (SI). Suniverse = Ssurroundings + S system. the sum of the incremental values of qrev/T constitute each element's or compound's standard molar entropy. the change in entropy can be easily calculated. and n is the number of moles of gas. enabling changes to be quantified and the outcome of reactions predicted. In these equations Cv is the specific heat at constant volume. the change in entropy is given by: . When specific heat and temperature are constant. [24] The thermodynamic entropy therefore has the dimension of energy divided by temperature. In these cases. Alternatively.[25][26] Entropy change also measures the mixing of substances as a summation of their relative quantities in the final mixture.[28] When specific heat and volume are constant. via some steps. in chemistry. when one mole of substance at 0K is warmed by its surroundings to 298K. For such applications. it is also referred to one mole of substance. Specific entropy may be expressed relative to a unit of mass. the Gibbs free energy equation for reactants and products in the system: G [the Gibbs free energy change of the system] = H [the enthalpy change] T S [the entropy change]. in which case it is called the molar entropy with a unit of Jmol -1K-1.Thermodynamic entropy is central in chemical thermodynamics. not all of these properties (specific heat. its entropy may also change.

Using this generic balance equation. (shaft work) and P(dV/dt) (pressure-volume work). causes a change in the entropy of the system. we start with the general balance equation for the change in any extensive quantity in a thermodynamic system. i. To derive a generali ed entropy balanced equation. the rate of change of in the system. i.e. those in which heat. the heat flow. the total entropy of the system will also change due to this convected flow. such as energy. a quantity that may be either conserved. the entropy balance equation for an open thermodynamic system is: [30] ! where = the net rate of entropy flow due to the flows of mass into and out of the system (where = entropy per unit mass). the principles of thermodynamics are commonly applied to "open systems". During steady-state continuous operation. plus the rate at which is generated within the system. and mass flow across the system boundary. but not the work flow. an entropy balance applied to an open system accounts for system entropy changes related to heat flow and mass flow across the system boundary.e. in addition.e. If. with respect to the rate of change with time of the extensive quantity entropy S. . [edit] Entropy balance equation for open systems In chemical engineering. In a system in which there are flows of both heat ( ) and work. This rate of entropy change is where T is the absolute thermodynamic temperature of the system at the point of the heat flow. The basic generic balance expression states that d /dt.or . across the system boundaries. such as entropy. = the rate of entropy flow due to the flow of heat across the system boundary. minus the rate at which leaves the system across the system boundaries. work. i. or non-conserved. equals the rate at which enters the system at the boundaries. there are mass flows across the system boundaries.

" S= kB ™ p logp i i i . where is [edit] Entropy in quantum mechanics (von Neumann entropy) Main article: von Neumann entropy ³ My greatest concern was what to call it. This upholds the correspondence principle. because in the classical limit. and more important. I thought of calling it µinformation¶.e. but the word was overly used. so I decided to call it µuncertainty¶. for two reasons. the term is to be replaced by the heat flow and Tj is the temperature at the jth heat flow port into the system. Note.= the rate of internal generation of entropy within the system. µYou should call it entropy. also. . whenever the classical notion of probability applies. When I discussed it with John von Neumann. Von Neumann told me. that if there are multiple heat flows. so it already has a name. so in a debate you will always have the advantage. he had a better idea. ´ ²Conversation between Claude Shannon and John von Neumann regarding what name to give to the ³measure of uncertainty´ or attenuation in phone-line signals [31] In quantum statistical mechanics. i. nobody knows what entropy really is. namely where is the density matrix and Tr is the trace operator. In the second place. the concept of entropy was developed by John von Neumann and is generally referred to as "von Neumann entropy". this expression is equivalent to the familiar classical definition of entropy. In the first place your uncertainty function has been used in statistical mechanics under that name.

Using this concept. [34][35][36][37] One of the simpler entropy order/disorder formulas is that derived in 1984 by thermodynamic physicist Peter Landsberg. The traditional qualitative description of entropy is that it refers to changes in the status quo of the system and is a measure of "molecular disorder" and the amount of wasted energy in a dynamical energy transformation from one state or form to another. It is well known that a Shannon based definition of information entropy leads in the classical case to the Boltzmann entropy. But the latter is problematic from quantum information point of view. Landsberg argues that when constraints operate on a system. He provided in this work a theory of measurement. in conjunction with the density matrix he extended the classical concept of entropy into the quantum domain. in an isolated system internal portions at different temperatures will tend to . such that it is prevented from entering one or more of its possible or permitted states. Pomeransky. in recent years. which usually have meanings directly opposed to equilibrium. which is the entropy of the parts contained in the permitted ensemble. have derived exact entropy formulas to account for and measure disorder and order in atomic and molecular assemblies. [32] # [edit] Approaches to understanding entropy [edit] Order and disorder Main article: Entropy (order and disorder) Entropy has often been loosely associated with the amount of order. the measure of the total amount of ³disorder´ in the system is given by the following expression: [36][37] Similarly. a number of authors. [35] [edit] Energy dispersal Main article: Entropy (energy dispersal) The concept of entropy can be described qualitatively as a measure of energy dispersal at a specific temperature. [33] In this direction. and the excess statistical entropy of mixtures. and with the development of statistical thermodynamics and quantum theory. Bachmat and Cohen have introduced a new definition of entropy that reflects the inherent uncertainty of quantum mechanical states. which is based on a combination of thermodynamics and information theory arguments. disorder. Ambiguities in the terms disorder and chaos. an expression similar to Shannon's channel capacity. the total amount of "order" in the system is given by: In which CD is the "disorder" capacity of the system. Consequently Stotland. where the usual notion of wave function collapse is described as an irreversible process (the so called von Neumann or projective measurement). entropy changes have been described in terms of the mixing or "spreading" of the total energy of each constituent of a system over its particular quantized energy levels. It is tempting to regard the Von Neumann entropy as the corresponding quantum mechanical definition.Von Neumann established a rigorous mathematical framework for quantum mechanics with his work Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechani . contribute to widespread confusion and hamper comprehension of entropy for most students. [38] Similar terms have been in use from early in the history of classical thermodynamics. and/or chaos in a thermodynamic system. as contrasted with its forbidden stat es. CI is the "information" capacity of the system.[39] As the second law of thermodynamics shows. and CO is the "order" capacity of the system. This definition allows to distinguish between the minimum uncertainty entropy of pure states.

As the temperature of the cool water rises to that of the room and the room further cools imperceptibly. Therefore. It is important to realize that the decrease in the entropy of the surrounding room is less than the increase in the entropy of the ice and water: the room temperature of 298 K is larger than 273 K and therefore the ratio.adjust to a single uniform temperature and thus produce equilibrium. Energy has spontaneously become more dispersed and spread out in that "universe" than when the glass of ice water was introduced and became a "system" within it. A recently developed educational approach avoids ambiguous terms and describes such spreading out of energy as dispersal. of Q/298 K for the surroundings is smaller than the ratio (entropy change). The entropy of the system will change by the amount dS = Q/T. at many increments. it is possible (in a thermal context) to regard entropy as an indicator or measure of the effecti eness or usefulness of a particular quantity of energy. [edit] Entropy and adiabatic accessibility . in which there will be no available energy to do work. the H for ice fusion. it is now unable to do useful work. the sum of the Q/T over the continuous range. some thermal energy Q from the warmer room surroundings (at 298 K or 25 °C) will spread out to the cooler system of ice and water at its constant temperature T of 273 K (0 °C).e. i. the entropy of the system increases. the melting temperature of ice. we reach a similar conclusion: that. who previously wrote of dispersal leading to a disordered state. i. of Q/273 K for the ice+water system. (The thermal energy Q for this process is the energy required to change water from the solid state to the liquid state. The total entropy change is positive. ice. the room is destined to remain in the same condition for all eternity. at a certain point in the distant future. following the same reasoning but considering the whole universe as our "room". as there is no longer a temperature gradient. In this universe.) The entropy of the surroundings will change by an amount dS = í Q/298 K. with low entropy) tends to be more useful than the same amount of energy available at room temperature. has increased in entropy. a thermodynamic system consisting of the "surroundings" (the warm room) and "system" (glass. this will lead to the " heat death of the Universe". means that its total energy is becoming less useful: eventually. the fact that the entropy of the universe is steadily increasing. In this situation. So in this example. $ [edit] Ice melting example Main article: disgregation The illustration for this article is a classic example in which entropy increases in a small "universe". Notice that the system will reach a point where the room. which leads to loss of the differentials required for work even though the total energy remains constant in accordance with the first law of thermodynamics[40] (compare discussion in next section). Physical chemist Peter Atkins. To find the entropy change of our "universe". Thus. since it is a closed system). (entropy change).[24][41] [edit] Relating entropy to energy usefulness Following on from the above. this is always true in spontaneous events in a thermodynamic system and it shows the predictive importance of entropy: the final net entropy after such an event is always greater than was the initial entropy. in the initially cool to finally warm water can be found by calculus.e. The entire miniature "universe". for example. cold water). the glass and the contents of the glass will be at the same temperature. the amount of thermal energy is the same as in the beginning. in this example Q/273 K.e. now writes that "spontaneous changes are always accompanied by a dispersal of energy". This condition is known as the " heat death of the Universe". the whole universe will be a uniform. we add up the entropy changes for its constituents: the surrounding room and the ice+water. Mixing a hot parcel of a fluid with a cold one produces a parcel of intermediate temperature. whereas the entropy of the surroundings decreases. isothermic and inert body of matter. nothing else can happen: although thermal energy does exist in the room (in fact. this thermodynamic system. in which the overall increase in entropy represents a ³loss´ which can never be replaced.[42] This is because energy supplied at a high temperature (i. and is called the enthalpy of fusion. Unless an external event intervenes (thus breaking the definition of a closed system).

Tsallis entropy . and extensive under scaling. Residual entropy .is the entropy associated with the physical arrangement of a polymer chain that assumes a compact or globular state in solution. [edit] Entropy and life Main article: Entropy and life . psychodynamics.the change in the entropy when two different chemical substances or components are mixed. for a unit amount of the substance under consideration.the entropy of a monatomic classical ideal gas determined via quantum considerations. [50] Sackur-Tetrode entropy .is the entropy lost upon bringing together two residues of a polymer within a prescribed distance." and equal to one calorie per Kelvin per mole. A simple but important result within this setting is that entropy is uniquely determined.the usual statistical mechanical entropy of a thermodynamic system.184 Joules per Kelvin per mole. and evolution. which neglects internal statistical correlations in the overall particle distribution.a generalization of the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy. and statistical variations. y y a measure of energy dispersal at a specific temperature. Boltzmann entropy . [edit] Standard textbook definitions The following is a list of additional definitions of entropy from a collection of textbooks. including information theory. (1 í ). two reference states X 0 and X1 such that the latter is adiabatically accessible from the former but not vice versa.a type of Gibbs entropy.the entropy present after a substance is cooled arbitrarily close to absolute zero.I.Lieb and J. in the state X0. by the following properties: It is monotonic with respect to the relation of adiabatic accessibility. Entropic explosion ± an explosion in which the reactants undergo a large change in volume without releasing a large amount of heat.H. it has been adapted in other fields of study. apart from a choice of unit and an additive constant for each chemical element. Free entropy . or 4. Loop entropy .a microscopic force or reaction tendency related to system organization changes. [46] [edit] Interdisciplinary applications of entropy Although the concept of entropy was originally a thermodynamic construct.[43] This approach has several predecessors.an entropic thermodynamic potential analogous to the free energy. Standard molar entropy . Defining the entropies of the reference states to be 0 and 1 respectively the entropy of a state X is defined as the largest number such that X is adiabatically accessible from a composite state consisting of an amount in the state X 1 and a complementary amount. usually denoted "e. under conditions of standard temperature and pressure. thermoeconomics. Yngvason in 1999.A definition of entropy based entirely on the relation of adiabatic accessibility between equilibrium states was given by E. unit of thermodynamic entropy.u. Entropic force . molecular frictional considerations. Giles from 1964. including the pioneering work of Constantin Carathéodory from 1909 [44] and the monograph by R. [49] Gibbs entropy . Entropy of mixing .[35][47][48] [edit] Thermodynamic and statistical mechanics concepts y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Entropy unit .a non-S.[45] In the setting of Lieb and Yngvason one starts by picking. Entropy change ± a change in entropy dS between two equilibrium states is given by the heat transferred dQrev divided by the absolute temperature T of the system in this interval. Conformational entropy . [24] a measure of disorder in the universe or of the availabilit y of the energy in a system to do work.is the entropy content of one mole of substance. additive on composite systems.

Ecological entropy . then²as Roger Penrose has pointed out²gravity plays an important role in the increase because gravity causes dispersed matter to accumulate into stars. Although entropy does increase in the model of an expanding universe. however. Recent work has cast some doubt on the heat death hypothesis and the applicability of any simple thermodynamic model to the universe in general. The entropy of a black hole is proportional to the surface area of the black hole's event horizon. experience. and beneficial mutations allow successive organisms to transfer more energy within their environment. Hawking has. it is argued that the "order" produced within cells as they grow and divide is more than compensated for by the "disorder" they create in their surroundings in the course of growth and division.. showing how natural selection and the principle of least action can be connected by expressing natural selection in terms of chemical thermodynamics. for example.a measure of biodiversity in the study of biological ecology. moving the universe further from the heat death with time. which collapse eventually into black holes. It has been speculated. are difficult to reconcile with thermodynamical models. and capacity and drive for improvement and growth. energy. [51] In the 1982 textbook Principles of Biochemistry by American biochemist Albert Lehninger. according to Lehninger. life. making any predictions of large-scale thermodynamics extremely difficult. and returning to their surroundings an equal amount of energy as heat and entropy. and on the Limits of its Action".[33] Extropy ± a metaphorical term defining the extent of a living or organizational system's intelligence. evolution explores possible paths to level differences in energy densities and so increase entropy most rapidly. "living organisms preserve their internal order by taking from their surroundings free energy. This results in an "entropy gap" pushing the system further away from the posited heat death equilibrium. vitality. The argument that life feeds on negative entropy or negentropy as asserted in the 1944 book What is Life? by physicist Erwin Schrödinger served as a further stimulus to this research. such as the energy density of the vacuum and macroscopic quantum effects."[52] Evolution-related concepts: y y y y Negentropy . [citation needed] The role of entropy in cosmology remains a controversial subject. [54] [edit] Cosmology Main articles: Heat death of the universe and Black hole thermodynamics Since a finite universe is an isolated system then. that the universe is fated to a heat death in which all the energy ends up as a homogeneous distribution of thermal energy. an organism serves as an energy transfer mechanism.[55] Jacob Bekenstein and Stephen Hawking have shown that black holes have the maximum possible entropy of any object of equal size. beginning with Clausius' 1863 memoir "On the Concentration of Rays of Heat and Light. by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. in the form of nutrients or sunlight. the maximum possible entropy rises much more rapidly. This makes them likely end points of all entropyincreasing processes.a shorthand colloquial phrase for negative entropy. Recent writings have used the concept of Gibbs free energy to elaborate on this issue. Ville Kaila and Arto Annila of the University of Helsinki describe how the second law of thermodynamics can be written as an equation of motion to describe evolution. much writing and research has been devoted to the relationship between thermodynamic entropy and the evolution of life. If the universe can be considered to have generally increasing entropy. Thus.a measure of the tendency of a dynamical system to do useful work and grow more organized. so that no more work can be extracted from any source. not closer. its total entropy is constantly increasing.For nearly a century and a half. functional order. recently changed his stance on this aspect. [56] Other complicating factors. In this view. if they are totally effective matter and energy traps.Template:70 . In short. since the 19th century.[53] Ectropy . In a study titled ³Natural selection for least action´ published in the Proceedings of The Royal Society A.

and is expressed in terms of a discrete set of probabilities pi: In the case of transmitted messages. [17] The question of the link between information entropy and thermodynamic entropy is a debated topic. the Shannon entropy (in bits) is just the number of yes/no questions needed to determine the content of the message. where p is the probability of a system being in a particular microstate.is a natural distance measure from a "true" probability distribution P to an arbitrary probability distribution Q. was first expressed by Bolt mann: S = kBlog(1 / p). if the units are bits. however.[62] There are many ways of demonstrating the equivalence of "information entropy" and "physics entropy". For example.a generali ed entropy measure for fractal systems. these probabilities were the probabilities that a particular message was actually transmitted. The information entropy H for equal probabilities pi = p = 1 / n is where k is a constant which determines the units of entropy. While most authors argue that there is a link between the two.e. [17] Relative entropy .a mathematical type of entropy in dynamical systems related to measures of partitions. the equivalence of "Shannon entropy" and "Bolt mann entropy".a Riemannian invariant measuring the exponential rate of volume growth. then k = 1/ln(2). times the number of yes/no questions that must be asked in order to determine the microstate of the system.[61][17] The expressions for the two entropies are very similar. given that we know the macrostate. It can be seen that one may think of the thermodynamic entropy as Bolt mann's constant. entropy is the measure of the amount of information that is missing before reception and is sometimes referred to as Shannon entropy. given that it is in a particular macrostate. divided by log(2). from a statistical mechanical point of view. & % . Rényi entropy . The definition of the information entropy is. quite general. some authors argue for dropping the word entropy for the H function of information theory and using Shannon's other term "uncertainty" instead. Topological entropy . Nevertheless. [edit] Information theory Main articles: Entropy (information theory) and Entropy in thermodynamics and information theory In information theory. that is. [58][59][60] a few argue that they have nothing to do with each other. For the case of equal probabilities (i.[57] Shannon entropy is a broad and general concept which finds applications in information theory as well as thermodynamics. The link between thermodynamic and information entropy was developed in a series of papers by Edwin Jaynes beginning in 1957. and kB is Bolt mann's constant. each message is equally probable).The entropy gap is widely believed to have been originally opened up by the early rapid exponential expansion of the universe. and the entropy of the message system was a measure of how much information was in the message.[63] % % % [edit] Mathematics y y y y y Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy . The thermodynamic entropy S. It was originally devised by Claude Shannon in 1948 to study the amount of information in a transmitted message. Volume entropy .a way of defining entropy in an iterated function map in ergodic theory.

which tends to seek equilibrium or balance among all the structures of the psyche.e. society (macrosocietal variables) measured in terms of how the individual functions in society (microsocietal variables). having both theoretical and statistical interpretations. [59][65] Entropology ± the study or discussion of entropy or the name sometimes given to thermodynamics without differential equations.energy waste as red tape and business team inefficiency. rather than as a direct measure of thermodynamic or information entropy: y y y y y Corporate entropy .[66][67] Psychological entropy . also related to social equilibrium. i.[edit] Sociology The concept of entropy has also entered the domain of sociology.) ‚ ‚ no. energy lost to waste.) Economic entropy ± a semi-quantitative measure of the irrevocable dissipation and degradation of natural materials and available energy with respect to economic activity. generally as a metaphor for chaos. disorder or dissipation of energy.the distribution of energy in the psyche. [69] ' [edit] See also Thermodynamics [show]Branches [show]Laws [show]Systems [hide]System properties Property Intensive and extensive properties diagrams State Temperature Pressure Chemical (‚ Vapor Reduced properties / / potential / Entropy functions: (intro.[64] (This definition is comparable to von Clausewit 's concept of friction in war. [68] Social entropy ± a measure of social system structure.e. i. ‚ Volume Particle Conjugate variables) quality .

such as temperature and pressure.V) = U TS G(T.V) H(S. if the spontaneous crystalli ation of a supercooled liquid takes place under adiabatic conditions the entropy of the resulting crystal will be greater than that of the 1 . ^ In complex systems of molecules. entropy can either increase or decrease depending on system parameters. For example.p) = U + pV A(T.p) = H TS 0 0 [show]Scientists v·d·e y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Autocatalytic reactions and order creation Brownian ratchet Chaos theory Clausius±Duhem inequality Configuration entropy Departure function Entropy rate Geometrical frustration Laws of thermodynamics Multiplicity function Orders of magnitude (entropy) Randomness Stirling's formula Thermodynamic databases for pure substances Thermodynamic potential Baryogenesis [edit] Notes 1.Process Work · Heat [show]Material properties Specific heat capacity c = T N 1 ( functions: Compressibility = V 1 V Thermal expansion = [show]Equations [show]Potentials Internal energy Enthalpy Helmholt free energy Gibbs free energy [show]History and culture ) U(S. such as at the critical point of water or when salt is added to an ice-water mixture.

php?term=entropy. (2006). Chemistry.html. J. 81. vol. Erickson. Inc. Oxford. 3. Harper & Row. Raymond (1998).1 -22 ^ Ben-Naim. 9. Cambridge University Press. Arnab. and Werndl. 48. The Principles of Chemical Equili rium.. M. Physical Chemistry. LXXIX (Dover Reprint). ^ Clausius. 19. Introduction to Thermal Physics.nasa.. Cambridge University Press. Peter. Daniel. 4th Ed. (1876).. Simon J. Online Etymology Dictionary.1-10 ^ a b c d Frigg. pp. L. supercooled liquid (Denbigh. A. Donald.com/biography/CarnotSadi. "Entropy . 2007. vol.. 12. vol. 2004 ^ Daintith. Physical Chemistry. 2007 Link ^ "Carnot. K. A.. D. Richard. 2010 ^ EntropyOrderParametersComplexity." In Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods. Jurs (2005). Physics. C. Ice-melting and Entropy Change ± discussions ^ A machine in this context includes engineered devices as well as biological organisms. (2002). On the So-Called Gibbs Paradox. Van Nostrand. 6. John Wiley and Sons. Biological Thermodynamics. vol. p.). New York: McGraw Hill. S. 2. Rudolf (1862). D. New York: Addison Wesley Longman. 27. G. S. Oxford University Press. (1982). 209.. Saha. 22. ^ Schroeder.H. 11. Joel (1979). Beisbart C. Arieh. cxvi. ^ Haynie. (2000). 201. In Probabilities in Physics. R. Neudorfer.A Guide for the Perplexed". 23. 5th edition. ISBN 0-471-19113-2. Poggendorff's Annalen der Physick.-trained biochemist . ISBN 0-07-115221-0. when ice melts. Physical Chemistry: A Molecular Approach. A. J. in Poggendorff¶s Annalen. Oxford University Press. and on the Laws which can be deduced from it for the Theory of Heat. 1862. V.T. Jayannavar. N. Eds.grc. S. 16. ^ McCulloch. and in the Journal des Mathematiques of Paris.I. vii. D.. Johnson. 26.htm ^ http://www. 1992. Oxford University Press. increases. R. P.gov/WWW/k12/Numbers/Math/Mathematical_Thinking/ideal_gases_under_constant. however. T. The Molecular Science.etymonline. Here are some further tutorials: Ice-melting ± JCE example. 14. University Science Books. published in the Vierteljahrschrift of this Society. 7.grc. http://scienceworld. xxiv. 18.2. The American Physical Society: 14 July 2009. J. McGraw-Hill. ^ Chang. In general. ^ a b Clausius. (1998). Journal of Chemical Education 83: 1686-1694 ^ Levine. ^ "Entropy". ^ a b c Atkins. Treatise on the Mechanical Theory of Heat and its Applications to the Steam-Engine. Entropy. Smith. C. 4th edition.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/entropy. 5. 21. 20. Sausalito 1997 pp 817. New York. and Hartmann. John (2005). Statistical Mechanics Oxford University Press 2006 p78 ^ a b Oxford Dictionary of Science. C. 15. Eds. http://www. 28. the hot and cold bodies. Chemistry. 8. P. May 1862. Lahiri. ^ Barnes & Noble's Essential Dictionary of Science. ISBN 0-201-38027-7. 8th edition. Brooks Cole. 10. the entropy of the two adjoined systems. Retrieved 2010-02-24... ISBN 0-19-870072-5. vii." Physical Review E. J. On the Motive Power of Heat. C. Wolfram Research.. Kenneth.. O. ISBN 0-06-011029-5. S. ISBN 0486-59065-8. p.com/index.nasa. Ice-melting and Entropy Change ± example. Communicated to the Naturforschende Gesellschaft of Zurich. ISBN 0-07-231808-2.pdf ^ Jaynes. E. ³Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property´. 4. 73. 2 [edit] References 1. 132-136. Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics. ^ http://www. Rudolf (1850). 24. P. Julio De Paula (2006). 3rd Ed. ^ Jungermann. (2001). ^ a b Cutnell. ^ "Entropy production theorems and some consequences. 1999 p91 ^ a b McQuarrie D. 17. Sadi (1796-1832)". January 27. Stanistski. 2004 ^ a b Sandler S. Publishers. Oxford Dictionary of Physics. 4. ISBN 0-521-65838-1. 2005 ^ de Rosnay. p.html 3 2. John. 29. . 6th Ed. Sourabh. ^ a b Sethna. ^ a b c McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Chemistry. in the Philosophical Magazine. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht. 9. I. The Macroscope ± a New World View (written by an M. Thermal Physics. and on the Real Paradox. 25. etc. 13. Ralph (2003). W. ^ Baierlein. Retrieved 2008-08-05. T. P. ISBN 0-534-42201-2. ISBN 0-19-280628-9.wolfram. I. "The Gibbs Paradox. Wiley. ISBN 0-52179165-0. ^ a b Moore.

an Analytical Thermodynamic Theory. 700 (2004) 33. World Scientific. ^ a b Landsberg. 42. ³Can Entropy and ³Order´ Increase Together?´ Physics Letters 102A:171-173 38. Khaleej Times (Galadari Press.T. (2009). Tribus. 57. 35. E. McIrvine.the Physical Aspect of the Living Cell. Raymond. Entropy ± Protean Concept (PDF). Victor J. ^ Stenger. ISBN 0-7167-5004-X. ISBN 0-674-01387-5. and black holes: The entropic connection". PMID 9964684.. ISBN 0-87901711-2.1103/PhysRevE.´ Entropy (Journal). (2005). VijaySekhar. & Pudritz.30. Albert (1993).71. R. E. (1989). P. Harvard University Press. 1-96 (1999) 44. ^ Atkins. P. Christian.C. Information Theory. Math. 32. The Entropy Law and the Economic Process. ISBN 981-238-399-9. 40. ^ IUPAC. ^ Schrödinger.physorg. R. ^ Serway.53. Jakob Yngvason: The Physics and Mathematics of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Scientific American Library. John Wiley and Sons. Prometheus Books. ^ Avery. 2000 47.html. Science and Information Theory. 71 (5): 666±669. World Scientific. ^ Frank L. 1[1]. Harvard University Press. (1984). God: The Failed Hypothesis. R.. ^ Gribbin's Encyclopedia of Particle Physics. Stanley. "Entropy and area". Kings College. and the Origin of Life. E. ³Is Equilibrium always an Entropy Maximum?´ J. Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics. 59. 224 (September 1971). ISBN 0-521-42708-8. ^ Lisa Zyga (2008-08-11). "Book Review of ³A Science Miscellany´". Royal Society of Chemistry. 48.O. Scienti¿c American.html. "Evolution as Described by the Second Law of Thermodynamics". ^ Lehninger. ^ Constantin Carathéodory: Untersuchungen über die Grundlagen der Thermodynamik. ^ The information entropy of quantum mechanical states. ^ a b c Brooks. ^ Balian. P. ^ Chen. Callaway DJE (April 1996). 56. Physics for Scientists and Engineers. 54. ^ Frank L.2002 Papers. Cambridge University Press. Rev. ISBN 0-674-25781-2. 55. 43. Principles of Biochemistry. Saunders Golden Subburst Series. Shu-Kun. Herbert. and J. ^ Elliott H. 58. 49. Sergey G.. Daniel.Srednicki M (August 1993). name.A Dynamical Systems Approach. Lieb.1103/PhysRevLett. The Physical Foundation of Economics . 51. Phys. http://www. Wiley. Online corrected version: (2006-) "Entropy unit". Evolution. John Wiley & Sons. Europhysics Letters 67. (2007). ^ a b Landsberg. Rep. Lambert. JCE 2002 (79) 187 [Feb] Disorder²A Cracked Crutch for Supporting Entropy Discussions 41.the New Language of Science. Dubai) (23 February 1993). B (2001). Information .. Phys Rev E Stat Phys Plasmas Fluids Relat Interdiscip Topics 53 (4): 3738±3744. Poincaré Seminar 2: 119-45. 36. ISBN 159-102-481-1. 53. 37. (1984). ^ Sandler. 2nd ed. 1909 45. ^ Lin. 61. ^ Brillouin. ISBN 0-521-80293-8.T. ^ Yockey. Jing (2005). 2nd Ed. ^ M. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Evolution as Entropy± Towards a Unified Theory of Biology.3738. M. 67:355±386. Cambridge University Press. http://DLMcN.. E. Phys. Chemistry Education . A Student¶s Approach to the Second Law and Entropy 39. ³Diversity and Entropy. PMID 10055336. Latifa Girls¶ School. Stat. (2005). Erwin (1944).com. Retrieved 2008-08-14.com/entropy2.. ^ Robin Giles: Mathematical Foundations of Thermodynamics". ^ Callen. UAE): XI. Lambert. ³A thermodynamic basis for prebiotic amino acid synthesis and the nature of the first genetic code" Accepted for publication in Astrobiology 52. 60. 2nd Ed. ISBN 981-256-323-7.com/news137679868.. Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics. ISBN 0-226-07574-5. G. Nicholas (1971). 31. hydrophobicity. doi:10. A. ISBN 0-471-83050-X. Pergamon. 50. Physics 35: 15969. What is Life . Physorg. ISBN 0-691-12327-6. Lett. Nersesov. (2003). Leon (1956). John (2003). ^ Sandra Saary (Head of Science. Peter (1984). ^ Higgs. 310. 178±184. Hubert. . (1999). Roger (2003). H. The Second Law. "Surface tension. (1992). doi:10. ISBN 0-03-096026-6. Wassim M. (1988). 1-3. I.666. University of Chicago Press. Worth Publishers. ^ a b Georgescu-Roegen. Chellaboina. Energy and information. ^ Carson. Princeton University Press. Information Theory and Evolution. Thermodynamics . ISBN 0-486-43918-6. ^ von Baeyer. Oxford 1964 46. 34. Watson (Department of Educational a nd Professional Studies. ^ a b Haddad. ISBN 0-471-86256-8. Undergraduate students' understandings of entropy and Gibbs Free energy University . Ann. London). P. Compendium of Chemical Terminology.

Ed.P. Retrieved 2009-12-06.html. Harvard University Press. ^ Bailey. ISBN 07914. Vernon J. 1998-03-02. Peter. Random House. Laboratory of Mathematical Biology. Fermi. Foster.wustl. Economics and Thermodynamics ± New Perspectives on Economic Analysis. ISBN 0387965262. 67.). ISBN 0-679-43342-2. 64.a chapter from an online textbook Entropy on Project PHYSNET Entropy . National Cancer Institute.P. (Information Theory Analysis of binding sites). ISBN 0-679-45443-8. Kluwer Academic Publishers. entropysite.A. Taylor and Francis (UK). Enrico (1937). ISBN 0-452-01186-8. should be the word for the discipline that devotes itself to the study of the process of disintegration in its most evolved forms. Physics and Philosophy´. Maxwell's Demon: Why Warmth Disperses and Time Passes. ISBN 0387965262. Springer Verlag. CRC (US). Kroemer. Entropy Demystified. translated by John Russell of Tristes Tropiques by Claude Lévi-Strauss. not anthropology. ISBN = 0-387-90581-2. ^ Example: "Entropology. Jaynes Bibliography". Charles Kittel (1980). Benjamin Gal-Or = title = ³Cosmology. the free dictionary.. Herbert. World Scientific. Dorset House Publishing Co. McGraw-Hill. Penrose. ISBN 0-486-43932-1. ISBN 981-270-055-2. ISBN 0748405690.an Open Access journal .A Basic Understanding A primer for entropy from a chemical perspective Interactive Shockwave Animation on Entropy Max Jammer (1973).62.). ^ "Edwin T. 66. ^ DeMarco. (1999). y y y y y y y Entropy . Entropy and its Physical eaning (2nd ed. G. ISBN 0-932633-43-9. Roger (2005). S. 1983. Box. Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Entropy Frank L. DELILA system (Deoxyribonucleic acid Library Language). Oxford University Press. (1990). Timothy (1999). Pierre (1998). 1981. ^ Hall. Arieh (2007). Kenneth. 1987. Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams. ISBN 0-19-856552-6. The Refrigerator and the Universe. (1996). Freeman Company. Lambert. Foundations and Applications. ISBN 0-674-75325-9. Dover. Thermodynamics.. W. Fundamentals of statistical and thermal physics.. USA. Nordby. ISBN 0-7167-1088-9. ^ Schneider.O. Dugdale. A Primer of Jungian Psychology. Martin. FCRDC Bldg.). Bayes. New York: A. Thermal Physics (2nd ed.edu/etj/node1. D. Entropy for beginners [edit] External links Look up entropy in Wiktionary. ^ Burley. New York: Meridian. [edit] Further reading 4 y y y y y y y y y y y Ben-Naim. ISBN 0-7923-9446-1.. H. http://bayes. 397. Rm 144. State University of New York Press. 1981. Knopf. pg. 2nd. 1961. 65.. ISBN 0-486-60361-X. 70. Prentice Hall. Lister. B Frederick. 1987. 469..oxy. Beretta (2005 Template:Cite book. E. Goldstein. vonBaeyer." (In A World on Wane. P. Hans Christian (1998). ³Cosmology. (1965). F. Thermodynamics .edu ± links to articles including simple introductions to entropy for chemistry students and for general readers. Thermodynamics. Springer Verlag.) 68. 1983. Physics and Philosophy´. A to Z of Thermodynamics. ISBN 0-07-051800-9. London. Gyftopoulos. J. 69. Tom. F (1993). 63. The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe. MD 21702-1201. Benjamin Gal-Or. Inge. John (1994).wustl. ^ Perrot. Tom. Calvin S. Reif. Social Entropy Theory.edu. ISBN 0-38790581-2.

y An Intuitive Guide to the Concept of Entropy Arising in Various Sectors of Science .a wikibook on the interpretation of the concept of entropy. .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful