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In This Issue I


SP 103........ . 40
SP 104 42
Secretary lor R9SOtJfC8S

StatB Geologtsr

Techmcal EdI'or~ Don Dupras

Assis,anl EdItor' L&rla Tablilo
Cover; Oblique aenal view to the south of the south shore of
Graphics and Design: loUIse Huckaby
PublICations Supel'VlSOf;
Mono lake and the Mono Craters chain of volcanoes. Panum
Jell Tambe"
Crater, a nearly parleet pumice and ash (tephra) ring With a
/'fInIed DepaI'lmer11 01 GeneI. SeMces central plug 01 obstdlan is the northernmost Mono Crater and is
Office 01 Slat. P''''bnlI shown in the nght center. The Sierra Nevada is in the distance.
The OCtober 23, 1990 earthquake occurred beneath the north
0Ms00n He3dQuiIrlets '.'6 NiI1\h $l,'" ~ 1)011 shore of Mono lake. An article about this earthquake IS on
s.cr_. CA i511. page 27. Photo by C. Dan Miller.
( T ~ g'&-"~'825)

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February 1991Nolume 44JNumber 2

CGEOA 44 (2) 25-48 (1991)


Mono Lake Earthquake of
October 23, 1990

STEVE MeN UTI, Seismologist,

WILLIAM BRYANT, Geologist, and
RICK WILSON, Engineering Geologist
Division of Mines and Geology


0" October 23. 1990. a moderate

earthquake of local magnitude (M L )
5.7 shook the Mono Lake area. a re-
southeast of Bridgeport. near Black
Point. an isolated fiat-lOpped hill on the
north shore 01 Mono Lake (Hgure 1).
the San Francisco Bay area. Damage
was light because the event occurred in a
sparsely populated region. However.
gion known for jls recent volcanic and Shaking from the earthquake was felt at landslides and rock falls caused by the
tectonic activity. The earthquake approximately Modified Mercalli Inten- earthquake blocked portions of Highway
(38"03'N: 119~08'W: depth 8 miles) sity VI in the local area and weakly t 20. east of Tioga Pass. closing it for
was centered approximately 5 miles throughout much of northcentral Cali- about one half day. Several smaller
north 01 Lee Vining and 16 miles fornia as far west as Sacramento and roads were closed for up to a week.

119 w
To IIIIllgftpon


\ ~
Figure 2



Figure 1. Map the OCtober 23.1990 ma.nshock (star) and aftershock (round dots) locations With respect to the Mono Lake fault
and Mono Lake. A small fault mapped by LaJOie (1968) is located Just east of the ma.nshock. EpiCenter data counesy of the U. S. Geo-
Ioglca/SutVey. Mono Lake fault generalIzed tram Bryant (1984).


The fraction at lhe acceleration at gravity recorded is g. tor verllcal motion v. and horizontal motion H.

Epicentral Maximum
Station Structure Station Distance Acceleration Site
No. Name Type Coordinates Ikm) Ground Structure Geology

55031 Tioga Pass small 37.940 N 12 0.04g H gramte

shelter 119.190W 0.04g V

65500 Bridgeport small 38.2.55 N 26 0.07g H alluvium

shelter 119.220W 0.02g V

55429 June lake 2-story 37.783 N 29 0.02g H granite

bUilding 119.075W 0.03g V

54301 Mammoth lakes- 1-story 37.641 N 46 O.04g H 0.08g H glacial

l-story school gym building 118.963 W 0.02g V deposits

Source: California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMtP)

This article summarizes the seismo- occurred several seconds before the FIELD OBSERVATIONS
logical features of the earthquake and mainshock. This mechanism showed
The Mono lake area was visited by
relates the findings made during a sur- predominantly right lateral strike'slip mo-
DMG staff on October 24 and 25. the
face fault rupture investigation of the tion. with the inferred fault surface (fault
two days following the ML 5.7 earth-
eplcentral area by Division of Mines and plane) aligned along the same trend as
the aftershock zone ry..;. Peppin, Univer- quake. The scope of the field study
Geology (DMG) geologists. To demon-
performed by DMG was two-fold: (1) to
strate how this earthquake fits into the sity of Nevada at Reno. personal com-
Inspect the trace of the Mono lake falilt
regional tectonic selting. the character munication), The subsurface fault plane
[zoned for Special Studies in 1984 un-
of this event is compared to that of was found to be nearly vertical. dipping
der the Alquist-Priolo Act (Hart, 1990)J
other noteworthy seismic events that steeply to the southwest. Although this
dip is towards the Sierra Nevada front. it for evidence of surface rupture associ-
have occurred over the last 12 years.
ated with this earthquake. and (2) to ex-
is stili probable that the earthquake oc-
SEtSMICITY amine the area in the immediate vicinity
curred on the Mono Lake faull; the 8
mile depth of the event and its location of the epicenter for surface effects
The earthquake occurred at 11: IS caused by the earthquake, A smal1fauh
east of the surface trace agree with the
p.m. Pacific Standard Time (PSTI on northwest of Black Point was inspected
high-angle, easterly dip of the faulL
October 23. 1990 at a depth of 8 miles for fault-rupture by U. S. Geological
below the Earth's surface. The location SUIV€Y geologists.
The preliminary local magnitude of
of the mainsllock and the first few days
the earthquake is MIS. 7 based on meas-
of aftershocks are shown in rtgure 1. The Mono lake fault is an approxi-
urements made by University of Califor-
The aftershock sequence was fairly mately II-mile-long, east-dipping nor-
nia. Berkeley. The preliminary body
weak. and included only three events mal fault that offsets late Tioga glacial
wave magnitude provided by the Na-
within 2 magnitude units of the main- outwash deposits and is considered to
tional Earthquake Infonnalion Center
shock during the following month (2 have be€n active during the Holocene
(NElOts M b 5.2. and the preliminary
magnitude units is a commonly used (Bryant. 1984). Traces of the Mono
surface wave magnitude is M~ 5.1
way to compare events of unequal size). lake fault were inspected at three loca·
The largest aftershock was a magnitude tions: (I) the paved Lundy Canyon
Four stations of the California Strong
4, I event that occurred on November 5 Road along the northcentral part of the
Motion Instrumentation Program
at 12:16 PST just southwest of the fault zone. (2) the paved road just north
(CSM1Pl recorded the main shock
mainshock. The aftershocks define a of Lee Vining Creek. and (3) the inter-
(Table I). Peak ground motions ranged
5-mile-long trend roughly north-north- section of the southern Mono lake fault
from 0.02 gravity (g) to 0.07 g at
west to south-southeast. approximately and Highway 120 (Figure O. Evidence
ground sites. and 0,08 g at the roof
parallel to the east-dipping Sierra Ne- of primary surface fault rupture was not
level of a gymnasium in the town of
vada frontal fault. which is called the Mammoth lakes. The four triggered obsetved along the Mono Lake fault
Mono lake fault in this area (Rgure I). zone, Pre-existing extension cracks in
stations ranged in epicentral distance
the pavement of Highway 120, which
from 7 to 29 miles. Seven other local
Fault orientation and direction of slip were generally aligned with the trace of
stations at distances greater than 29
movement (focal mechanism) was deter- the south Mono Lake fault. had fresh-
miles were operational but did not
mined for a smaller foreshock that appearing hairline cracks. However,
trigger (CSMIP staff. 1990).


TABLE 2. SUMMARY OF FIELD OBSERVATIONS (Reier to Figure 2 for locations).

Localily Description (Photos)

Possible shaking cracks along southern flank of Black Point. Cracks

are somewhat sinuous and generally parallel the slope. Most of these
features consist of small, coalescing collapse pits about 2 inches in
diameter on slightly mounded sand.

2 Pre~existing fissures in bedrock trend about N30"E. Many of these

fissures have fresh cracks in the eolian fissure-fill. The cracks occur
along the sides of the fissure at the fissure-fill/bedrock contact
(Photo 2). These cracks have vertical displacements of up to 5 inches
(Photo 1), locally form graben (Photo 2). and often are associated with
collapse pits (Photo 3).

3 Large collapse pit is about 4 feet in diameter and 5 feet deep (Photo
4). However, the pit is located within a linear trough which may be a
southwest extension of the fissures developed in the well-indurated
volcanic deposits.

these fresh cracks are most likely re- cracks. graben. and collapse pits were groundshaking and. in turn. produced
lated to shaking rather than surface found only in the loose fissure-filling lateral spreading and settlement of the
fault rupture because the cracks had no sand. they were probably secondary loose sandy sediments.
measurable vertical displacement. did seismic. or groundshaking. effects
not extend into the road shoulders. and where bridged sediment within the fis- A small fault. mapped by Lajoie
were not observed along a well-defined sures collapsed. Other small sinuous (1968) and located directly above the
scarp to the north and south. cracks contained what appeared to be mainshock epicenter northwest of Black
small cone-shaped collapse pits. These Point. was inspected by Malcolm Clark
Anticipating that bedrock areas in cracks were observed in the loose sand of the USGS for surface rupture. No
the vicinity of the earthquake epicenter away from the bedrock outcrop areas surface rupture was observed along the
may have been affected. DMG geolo- and appeared to be parallel to outcrop }-1/2 mile length of the fault (Malcolm
gists inspected Black Point to ascertain scarps (Figure 2: Table 2). These sinu- Clark. personal communication).
the degree of shaking near the epicen- ous cracks were probably caused by
ter. Table 2 is a summary of the obser-
vations made at Black Point. Black
Point is an exposed remnant of a Mono
Lake guyOt (Christianson and Gilbert.
1964). (A guyot is a flat-topped vol-
cano that erupts under water: wave ac-
tion is responsible for making the top
flal.) Black Point contains sets of verti-
cal fissures. 2- to 3-feet wide and 30- to
50-feet deep. trending predominantly
N30c E through basaltic cinder and
altered basaltic cinder capping the hill
(Lajoie. 1968). Recent cracks (Photo
I). graben (Photos 2 and 3). and col-
lapse pits (Photos 2. 3. and 4) were ob-
served in loose eolian sands that infill
the pre-existing bedrock fissures
(Figure 2: Table 2).

Although the soft-sediment features

were large enough to be quite notice-
able. there was no evidence of recent
fractures or cracks that propagated into
the bedrock outcrops. Because the Photo 1. Crack in eolian sand paralleling pre-existing bedrock fracture. This crack formed
one side of a small graben. Photos by R. Wilson.


Photo 2. Pre-exiSting 'Issures In bedrock 'rend about NJO E.
Many 01 these fissures have fresh cracks In the eolian fissure-Jill.
The cracks occur along the sides of the fissure at the fissure-filii
bedrock contact. These cracks have vertical displacements 0' up
to 5 inches. locally 'orm graben. and often are associated With col·
lapse pits shown In Photo 3. Photo 3. Down·dropped block 01
loosely consolidated. eolian fissure-flit.
The nature of the fissure·till depoSit
was illustrated when one 0' the au-
thors stepped across the crack 'rom
left of the picture. only to have the fill
collapse beneath hiS footln(jlcated by
the hole. The newly 'ormed collapse
Pit was about 10 inches In diameter
and 3 'eet deep

Photo 4 Large collapse Pit IS about

4 feet In dIameter and Sleet deep
However. the Pit IS located Within a hnear
trough whICh may be a southwest e:tten·
sion ot the fissures developed in the welt·
Indurated volcamc depoSits.


• ...
I, l.fJ.rt t

The authors interpret the Mono

Lake event to be primarily tectonic and
not magmatic in nature, based on four
I features:

(1) The event had the smallest num-

ber of aftershocks of any of the princi-
pal events shown in Table 3. It is defi-

{ nitely not swarm-like, as are many

other earthquake sequences that occur
in volcanic areas,

(2) The event occurred in a particular

area that had virtually no previously re-
corded earthquakes within 6 miles.
Most volcanic areas. on the other hand.
have high background seismicity rates.

(3) The Mono Lake event has the

closest relationship to the Sierra Ne-
vada frontal fault system of any of the
principal events based on the location.
mechanism. and fault geometry,

(4) The seismograms appear to be

typical of tectonic events, based on
scanning the available data, There is
no suggestion of enriched low frequen·
cies or any volcanic tremor-like signals.
~b"'="'5",,"~·:"=_"'5"""""-" ." MONO LAKE
SCAlE 1 24000
Based on these observations. the au·
thors conclude that the Mono Lake
Figure 2. Detailed map of Black Point. showing locations 01 observations as described in earthquake was tectonic and that the
Photos 1·4 and Table 2. Pre·e~is\lng fissures In hydrothermally altered basaltic Cinder
shown as thin line With predommanlly N30 E trend. Base map adapted from the U. S. Mono Lake fault was the probable
Geological Survey Negillsland 7.S·minute quadrangle. scale 1:24,000. source. The possibility exists that the
earthquake's source could have been
the small fault northwest of Black
Point. However. due to the relatively
large size of the earthquake and the dis-
tribution of the aftershocks, the only
Over the last 12 years the Mono Long Valley caldera between 1980 fault large enough to be the likely
Craters-Long Valley area of eastern and 1984, (2) uplift centered on the source of the event is the Mono Lake
California has been one of the most resurgent dome of the caldera. and (3) faull. The greater than usual focal
seismically active regions in the state. evidence of increased lumarolic activ- depth of the earthquake may account
Thirty-four earthquakes with ML ~ 5.0 ity--suggested that possible magmatic for the absence of surface rupture on
have occurred in the region bounded by intrusion was occurring (Hill and others. the Mono Lake fault. The earthquake's
Iatiludes 37 25' N to 38 10' and lon- 1985). Because of the recent seismic occurrence demonstrates that the
gitudes 118 OS' W to 119 07' W (Sav- and possible magmatic activity in the Mono Lake fault is active. and suggests
age and Cockerham, 1987). Most of region. the question arises whether the that adjacent sections of the fault are
the larger earthquakes have occurred in Mono Lake earthquake was related to capable of producing moderate-sized
seven distinct episodes: the Mono Lake volcanic processes because of its dose events. The Mono Craters-Long Valley
shock is the Ialest ITable 3). These proximIty to the Mono Craters, which regoo thus continues to be tectonically
eanhquakes-along with (l) repeated last erupted about 600 years ago (Sieh active. and will remain an area of inten-
swarm events in the south moat of and Bursick. 1986), STve interest arx:l study.


VAllEY AREA (1978-1990).

Date Name ,
M' Number of Rererence
(mo,datyr) aflershocks1

10/04f78 Bishop earthquake 5.8 10 Ryall and Ryall (1981)

05'24-27-80 Mammoth lakes 29 Uhrhammer and
earthquakes 6.1. 6.2 Ferguson (1980)
09130'81 Laurel Mountam 5.9 6 Person (1982)
01;07183 Sooth Moat 5.4.54 17 Savage and
swarm Cockerham (1984)
11123-26184 Round Valley 6.1 4 SmJth and others
earthquake (1988)
07120-31/86 Chalfant Valley 5.9.65. 20' Cockerham and
earthquake 5,7.5,6.5,8 eo","" (1987)
10123'90 Mono lake 5.7 2 NEIC (1990)

, Local magl'lltudes from U,C, Bel1lekty as publIshed In monthly Preimlnary

DeterrrunatlOn of EPfCenters bulktllns oflhe NatlOOal Earthquake
InformatIOn Center
1 Number of ahersl'locks Wlthln two magnitude Ul'llts of malnshoc:k wlthm two
days, Data from monthly Pre~mlnary DeterminatIOn of EPICenters
) ThIs event has not been assigned a formal name In the Ilterature Some
workers In the field althe lIme. however. re'erred 10 II as the laurel
Mounta,n earthquake
• ThIS value Includes aherShocks 01 the M 59 !oreshock 01 07/20186


Bryanl, W.A.. 1984. EVIdence of recent Hill. D. P" Bailey. R. A. and Ryall. AS .• Savage. J. C" and Cockerham. R. S..
faulting along the Mono lake fault zone. 1985. ActIVe tectonIC and magmatIC 1984. Earthquake swarm 10 long Valley
Mono County. Call'ornia: California Divi· processes benealh long Valley caldera. caldera. Callfornia, January t983: evi-
slon 01 Mines and Geology Open·File eastern CalifornIa; An overview Journal dence lor dike inflation: Journal 01 Geo·
Report 84-55 SAC. scale 1:48,000 01 GeophYSICal Research. v, 90, P phySIcal Research, v. 89. p. 8315·8324.
Cockerham. R 8" and Corbell. E. J.. "111·1'120. savage. J. C.. and Cockerham. R. S..
1987. The July \986 Chalfant Valley. Lalole. K. R., 1968. lale Ouaternary strati 1987. Ouasl·penodlC occurrence of
Callfornla, earthquake sequence: pre· graphy and geologIC history of Mono Ba- earthquakes In the 1978- 1986 Blshop-
l,mlOary S91smologlcal results 'or the sm. eastern California Ph.D theSIS, U,...- Mammolh Lakes sequence. eastern
ma(Of events and aflershocks: Bullelln verSlty of Caillorma, Bel1letey, 270 p Califorl'Ha: Bulletin 01 the Seismological
01 the seIsmological SocIety of AmerICa. NEIC (NatIOnal Earthquake InformatIOn
SoclOty of Ameoca. v. n. n. 4.
v 77. p 280-289 Center). 1990. Prellmmary Determlna· P 1347-1358.
ChnSbanson. M N , and Gilbert. C M .
1964. BasahlC cone suggests coo·
tIOn 0'Epicenters (weekly). No 43·90,
U, S GeologICal Survey. 2 p
S1eh. K. E.. and Bursik. M I., 1986. Mesl
recent eruption 01 the Mono Craters.
structlOnal ongln of some guyots: Sci· Person, W J , 1982. S9lSmologlCal notes - eastern cenual Califorma Journal of
e~. v, 143. P 240·242, GeophYSICal Research. v 91.
Seplember-Oclober 198\ Bullelln of 1I'IE1
CSMIP Statl. 1990. Summary of CSMIP S9lSmologlcal SocIety 01 AmerICa. v, 72, P 12539-12571.
strong-motIOn records for the OCtober P '451, Struth. K.D Priestly. K_F. and Cockerham.
23. 1990 earthquake near Mono Lake. R,S,. 1988. The 1984 Round VaDey.
Ryall, A_. and Ryall. F.. 1981. SpallaHem·
CaMOITIIa CabfOfOla 0Msi0n of 'o,,"es poral vanallOtlS In selsmlClty precedIng Calrtorl'lla. earthquake sequence· Ge0-
and Geology Strong MelJOn lnstrumen· the May 1980. Mammolh Lakes. Calilor- phYSICal Journal, v 95. p. 215--235
lalJOn Program. Saaamenlo. Cahfomla. 013. earthquakes: Boletm of the S9ls- Uhrhammet. R. A_. and Ferguson. R W
, p
moIoglCal Sooety of AmerICa. v 71. P 1980. The 1980 M3fTWn01h Lakes earth·
Har1. E.W. 1990. Fault ruplure hazard 747-760 quake sequence·. Cal.tOfl"ll3 0MsI0n of
zones In Cal.torl'll8; revtHCl 1990 OM· MInes and Geology Speaal Report ISO.
SIOn oj M,nes and Geology SpeoaJ Pub- P 131-136.
licatIOn 42. 26 P


Displacemen the Manix Fault

. ...
Photo 1. Aerial view of the Mani~ faull zone looking east The main branch of the Manlx fault passes up the linear valley in the right fore-
ground. The Cady Mountains are on the nghl and Alton Canyon IS the rugged area just below the horizon. The dissected mountam In
the left foreground is lhe western granitic fanglomerate deposit lhat has been otfset approximately 3 miles from its counterpan In the
Alton Canyon area. PhD/OS by N. Meek.

The Mojave block IS a CenozOIC age lea- cate that the Manix fault may be about In 1947 a magnitude 6.2 earthquake
ture thai Is presumed to have originated by 24 miles long (Hamilton. 1976). The occurred on or near the Manix fault with
movement relaled to lhe San Andreas and an epicenter near Buwalda Ridge (Rich-
Cady Mountains are to the south of the
Garlock laull systems. Most or the rock
unitS in lhls region underlie a veneer 01 fault and Alton basin is to the north of ter and Nordquist. 1951: Richter, 1958).
Ouaternary allUVium and range in age Irom the fault. Where it is exposed. the Ma- Field investigations of the surface rupture
Precambnan to Miocene. The complex nix fault cuts Pleistocene lake beds and indicated left-lateral offset of 2 to 3
structural geology of thiS region has been forms prominent scarps (Keaton and inches on the Manix fault However. the
notoriously dilticull to comprehend. In re-
cent years, however, the regional lault pat-
Keaton. 1977). Both ends of the fault aftershock sequence suggested right-lat-
lern in the Mojave block has become beller zone are obscured beneath thick upper eral strike-slip motion on a plane per-
understood. This article describes the dis- Pleistocene and Holocene alluvium. pendicular to the Manix fault,
placement ot one MOjave block taul!. the
Manlx lault. Bolded terms within the text Tectonic models of the Mojave Des- Recently. McGill and others (1988)
are placed In a glossary attha end 01 the
artlCle... OOllor ert lead investigators to suspect that the mapped the Manix fault lone west of
Manix fault is a left-lateral strike-slip Buwalda Ridge and found field evidence
fault' (Garfunkel. 1974: Carter and that the fault has been active throughout
others. 1987), Some studies have ac- the Quaternary. However. neither the
he Manix fault is a major east-north- cepted this assumption (such as Dokka amount of lateral offset or the direction
T east trending fault in the central
Mojave Desert (Figure 1. Photo 1). Vis-
and Travis. 1989; 1990), although field
evidence of significantlelt'lateral dis-
of movement could be determined.

ible faulting and geophysical data indi- placement has not been documented. 'Balded terms are In Glossary on page 37,


Figure 1. Fault map 01 southern Cahlorma
showlI'Ig the location of the Mamx fault (fault
map aftor Luyendyk and others. 1980),

,, /
':'4'" _
... ;r,.' ,,"
, To determine whether the two
, granitic fanglomerate deposits were
,' once a single deposit. several represen-
: '. ":~----- , , tative cobbles and mineralogically dis-
,', :" .'::)10 0 M; 50 tinctive clasts were collected from vari-
ous outcrops of the granitic fanglomer-
The following evidence shows that Lateral Displacement ate north and south of the Manix fault.
the total displacement along the Manix Thin sections of clasts from both groups
fault is approximately 3 miles in a left- The granitic fanglomerate can only were prepared and petrographically ana-
lateral sense. be found in the eastern half of the Cady lyzed ITable 1). These analyses indicate
Mountains and appears to have once that lithologically identical clasts in the
DISPLACEMENT OF THE filled a broad northwest-trending two deposits originated from the same
GRANITIC FANGLOMERATE trough. It has been faulted into blocks bedrock source areas.
since its formation (Figure 2). South of
Most of the northern Cady Moun- the Manix fault the granltlc fanglomer- Additional field and laboratory data
tains is composed of dark Miocene vol- ate is bounded on the west by a normal suggest that the granitic fanglomerate to
canic rocks (Danehy and Collier. 1958: fault and is exposed along a 1.3- to 2- the north of the Manix fault and the
Dibblee and Bassett. 1966: Moseley. mile-long segment of the Manix fault granitic fanglomerate to the south of the
1978). However. along the northeast- within Afton Canyon (Photo 2). North Manix fault are parts of the same de-
ern edge of the Cady Mountains there of the Manix fault the granitic fanglom- posit. This hypothesis is derived from
is a light-colored boulder fanglomer- erate is exposed along a 1.3-to 1.7- the following evidence. (1) The granitic
ate that is more than 300 feet thick. mile-long segment as a highly dissected fanglomerate is over 300 feet thick
The fanglomerate is composed of a di- mountain (Photos I and 3). Left-lateral north and south of the Manix faull. (2)
verse mixture of granitic and volcanic movement on the Manix fault appears Analogous sedimentary features exist in
clasts which cannot be traced to nearby to have displaced the granitic fanglom- both areas: a distinctive sequence of al-
bedrock outcrops in the northern Cady erate by about 3 miles to its present lo- ternating boulder and pebbly bedding
Mountains. Because of the contrast be- cation. Fault of/set is only approximate occurs at both sites (Photos 2 and 3).
tween the numerous granite boulders in because: (I) the deposit margins are ei- Moreover. thick paleosol development.
the fanglomerate and the adjacent vol- ther buried or faulted, and (2) no pierc- or other evidence of basin stability dur-
canic bedrock, the thick fanglomerate ing points-or sites that can be used to ing deposition of the granitic fanglomer-
deposit has been informally termed the determine the exact component of fault ate, is absent in both deposits. (3) Com-
"granitic fanglomerate" in this article. offset-have been discovered in the parative clast lithologies. sizes. and ex-
granitic fanglomerate. tent of rounding is similar at both sites.


o, 2

Mile s

Photo 2 location

Photo 1


Figure 2. Map at the eastern Manix fault zone. The shaded areas are outcrops of the granitic fanglomerate. The granitic fanglomerate
has been ollset in a left-lateral sense approximately 3 miles by the main branch of the Manix fault. The terrain is very rugged and many
of the faults disappear beneath the alluvial cover. Geology and faults after Danehy and Collier. (1958). and Moseley (1978).

(4) Due to distinctive bedding, the dis- the lower beach. about 14.000 years The vertical displacement associated
section and weathering of the granitic old. occurs at the same elevation as with the Manix fault zone appears to be
fanglomerate on both sides of the Ma- other beaches in the basin of equivalent caused by increasing north-south com-
nix fault have produced remarkably age. These measurements suggest that pression since the middle Pleistocene.
similar erosional landscapes (Photos 2 local uplift might have occurred periodi- Additional evidence of regional north-
and 3). cally in intervals that were greater than south compression throughout the cen-
14.000 years. tral Mojave Desert has been presented
Vertical Displacement by Bartley and others (1990).
Recent investigations indicate that
significant vertical offset may also have
occurred along the Manix fault (Keaton
and Keaton. 1977: McGill and others.
1988). Investigations west of Buwalda
Ridge indicate that sediments in Afton
basin adjacent to the Manix fault have
been repeatedly warped during the
Quaternary and that wrench-type
folding. found adjacent to the fault.
may indicate strike-slip movement
caused by the fault (McGill and others.

Substantial vertical offset occurred

along the Manix fault during the mid-
and late Pleistocene and rapidly raised
the Cady Mountains south of the fault
(Meek. 1989b). Elevation measure-
ments taken on a series of ancestral
Lake Manix beach ridge crests atop the
west edge of Buwalda Ridge indicate
that at least 6 feet of vertical uplift may
have occurred between 27.000 years Photo 2. Panoramic view of the eastern granitic fanglomerate deposit in Afton Canyon
ago and 17.000 years ago. However. (see Figure 2 for location).


Afton basin is adjacent to the Manix fault and contains an
extensive and mostly continuous record of late Tertiary and
Quaternary sedimentation. On the basis of tephrochronol-
ogy. paleomagnetism. and extrapolated deposition rates.
(Jefferson, 1985; R Adams. written communM::ation. 1989).
portoos of Afton basin near the Manix fault appear 10 have
developed during the late Pliocene as a transtensional
basin associated with Ieft·lateral movemenl on a curved
segment of the Manix fault.


Significant left-lateral displacement on the east-northeast·

striking Manix fault in the northeast comer of the Mojave
block broadly supports previous model predictions by Gar-
funkel (1974) and Carter and others (1987). Moreover, meas-
urements of Ihe amount of lateral offset will facilitate recon-
struction of the Miocene paleogeography.

If left-lateral movement is presently continuing. it may be

responsible for the eastward offset of a possible relict outlet
channel of Lake Manix (Photo 4). Lake Manix was a 200·
square-mile Pleistocene freshwater lake lhat repeatedly inun-
dated some local basins due to increased runoff from the San
Bernardino Mountains and reduced evaporation during the
Pleistocene. For most of its history, Lake Manix was the ter-
minus of the M~ve River and did not overflow the Manix
basin rim. However. during Illinoian time (about 400.000
years ago) it may have spilled over the rim near Afton Can-
yon, carving a broad outlet channel. 10e truncated outlet
channel, originally described by Weldon (19821, now lies sev-
eral hundred feet east of the probable lake edge. and more
Photo 3. Close-up view 01 the western granltlC fanglomerate than 15 feet above lhe highest Iale Pleistocene lake stage
dePOSit (see Figure 2 for location). (see Meek. 1990. for analyses of the relict channel and lake

Although the granitic fanglomerafe
has not been radiometrically dated,
stratigraphic relationships indicate that Sample Clasl Description
;t ;s younger than the early Miocene
volcanic bedrock that lies adjacent to it
in the northern Cady Mountains (Mose- Intrusive A Hornblende·cllnopyroxene·blOllte dlonte WIth large poikJlltlC amphibole
ley, 1978; Miller. 1980). Consequently. encloSing biotite, plagIOClase. cllnopyro~ene. and opaque minerals
Hornblende IS altered In part to tMotJte and/or chlonte.
lhe granitic fanglomerate is either late
Tertiary age (Dibblee and Basseu. IntruSIVe B Coarse-rramed biotite granite wllh large sphene crystals. The potas-
1966; Moseley. 1978) or Plio-Pleisto- SIUm feldspar is perthltJc mlCl"octine. BlOllle has altered to chIonte
cene age (Danehy and Collier. 1958). along cleavage
lnerefore, lateral displacement on the extruSIVe A Orange-brown colored welded rhyolite tuff WIth sarudine and plagIO-
Manix fault is middle Miocene or clase phenoaysts. lithic fragments. biotite and amphibole are moor
younger Sedimentary evidence sug- constJluents Coolams distmctlVe amphibole·och cumulate mduSlOns.
gests that much of the lateral move- E~lJustve B Grey-purple colored fine-gralned rhyolite With strongly zoned plagIO-
ment on the fault occurred more than 2 clase Contall1S fare dinopyroxene, onhopyroltene. and biotrle which
million years ago and couki be contem- are nmmed by opaque minerals.
poraneous with regional late Cenozoic Extrusive C Porphyritic dant grey andeSlte(?llhal e~hlblts Intense but vanable
movement on northwest-striking faults hematitic alteration. Contains clinopyro~ene. orthopyroxene, and fare
(Dokka. 1983). hornblende and biotite. Malic minerals are usually rimmed by opaque


Danehy, EA, and Collier. J.T.. 1958. Areal
economIC geology map ot T. 11 N. R.
5 & 6 E: Southern PaCific Minerai
Survey, 1:24,000.
Dlbblee, T.W Jr.. and Basse". A.M.. 1966.
GeologiC map of the Cady Mountains
quadrangle, San BernardIno County,
California: U.S. Geological Survey, Map
1·467. 1:62.500.
Ookka. R K.• 1983. Displacements 00 late
cenoZOIC stnke-sllp fauJls 01 the central
MOJ3ve Desert. CalifornIa: Geology. v
11. P 305·308.
Doklc.a. R.K, and TraVIS. C.J.. 1989. Time·
space pa"erns of late cenoZOIC stnke-
slip faufbng In the Mo)3ve Desert. cali-
fornia In Reynolds, R.E., editor, The
west-eenlfal MO)3ve Desert: Ouaternary
studies between Kramer and Ahoo Can·
yon: san Bernardino County Museum
SpecIal Publicaoon, p 65-68
Dokka, RK, and TraVIS. C.J.. 1990. Late
CenozOIC strike-slip fauillng In the
MO}3ve Desert. Califorrna: TectonICS. v
Photo 4. Aenal view of Ahon Canyon IooIung east. The relict channel can be seen In the 9. p 311-340.
lower foreground. The Mafllx fauh passes northeast through Ahon Canyon In the lower left Garlunket. Z., 1974. Model lor the late ce-
comer of the photo noZOIC tectonIC hIstory of the Mo,ave
Desert. California, and for its relalloo to
adJacenl regions: GeologICal Soclety 01
Amenca Bulletin, v. 85. p. 1931-1944

Although the late Pleistocene lakes REFERENCES Hamilton, P., 1976. A geophySICal study of
the Manix fauh: Its tectonIC relatlonsrup
did not drain via the channel (Meek. to the western MOjave Desen, San Ber-
Bartley. J.M., Glazner, AF.. and Schermer,
1989b: 1990). earlier lakes in the basin E.A, 1990, North-south contraction 01 nardinO County. California: Unpublished
may have. Significant lateral and verti- the Mojave block and strike-slip tecton- M.S. theSIS. CaJilornia State UniverSity.
cal movements along the Manix fault ICS In southern CaliforOla: SCIence, v Los Angeles, 101 p.
help to explain the present localion and 248, p. 1398-1401. Jefferson. G.T.. 1985. Stratigraphy and
elevation of the relict channel. Carter. J.N.. Luyendyk. B.P.. and Terres. geologiC history of the Pleistocene Ma·
R.R" 1987. Neogene clockWise tectoniC ni. FormaMn, central Mojave Desert
rotation of lhe eastern Transverse Califomla in Reynolds. R.E.. compiler.
Tectonic activity on the fault may be Ranges, California. suggested by paleo· GeologiC investigations along Interstate
responsible for the sudden release of magnetic vectors: Geological Society of 15, Cajon Pass 10 Mani~ Lake, Califor·
water from Lake Manix during the Pleis· America Bulletin, v. 98, p. 199-206. nia: San Bernardino County Museum
tocene. which resulted in carving Afton SpeCial Publication, p. 157·169.
Canyon (Meek. 1989a). Because the
western end of Afton Canyon begins al
the intersection of the Manix fault and
the edge of the ancestral Lake Manix Glossary
(Weldon. 1982). it is possible that
movement on the fault during the maxi- fanglomerate: 5edlmenlary rock UOll usually consisting 01 water·wom clasts Ihat were
mum late Pleistocene lake stand may dePOSIted In an allUVial fan and later cemented
have led to the rapid draining of Lake lake sfand: Water level of an ancestral lake thaI remained stable for an edended pe-
Manix and the formation of Afton riod of lime.
Canyon. left·lateral slrike-sUp fault: Component of movement along the strike of a fauh and
on which displacement appears to the left of lhe side opposite the viewer,
paleosol: A burted anoent SOIl honzon: some paleosols are miDlons 01 years old
We thank Ron Dorn. Arizona Stale
tephrochronology: Descnblng and dat10g tephra (claslJc rock matenal ef8Cled from a
University. Tempe. AZ. for the use of voIcarnc venl).
unpublished cation-ratio dates: Ray In-
gersoll. University of California. Los transtensional basin: A baSIn formed by stnke-slip fault motIOn and is accompamed
Angeles; Sally McGill. California Insti- by a component 01 extensIOn that IS crOSSWIse (or transverse) to lhe fauh.
tute of Technok>gy. Pasadena; and wrench·type fold: Delormatlon caused by strike-slip stress acoompan,ed by a compo-
George Jefferson. George C. Page nent of transverse comprltSSlOn.
Museum. Los Angeles.


Keaton. J.A.. and Keaton, R.T., 1977, Ma- Meek, N" 1989b, Physiographic history of Moseley, C.G., 1978, The geology of a
nix fault zone. San Bernardino County, the Afton basin. revisited In Aeynolds, porlion of the northern Cady Moun-
California: CALIFOANIA GEOLOGY, v. R.E., editor, The west-central MOjave tains, Mojave Desert. California: Un-
30, p. 177-186. Desert: Quaternary studies between published M.S. thesis, University of
Luyendyk. B.P" Kamer!ing, M.J" and Ter- Kramer and Ahon Canyon: San Bernar- California, Aiverside, 131 p.
res, A" 1980, Geometric model for dino County Museum Special Publica- Aichter, C.F.. 1958, Elementary seismol-
Neogene crusta! rotations in southern tion, p, 78-83. ogy: W.H, Freeman & Company. San
California: Geological Society of Amer- Meek, N" 1990. Late Quaternary geochro- Francisco, CA, p, 516-518,
ica Bulletin, v. 91, p. 211-217. nology and geomorphology of the Manix Aichter, C.F., and Nordquist. J.M.. 1951,
McGill, S.F.. Murray, B.C .. Maher, K.A.. basin, San Bernardino County, Califor- Instrumental study of the Manix earth-
Lieske, J.H. Jr., Aowan, L.A" and nia: Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, quakes: Bulletin of the Seismological
Budinger, F" 1988, Quaternary history University of California, Los Angeles, SocielY 01 Amenca, v. 41, p. 347-388.
of the Manix fault. Lake Manix basin, 212 p.
Weldon, R.J, II, 1982, Pleistocene drain-
Mojave Desert, California: San Bernar- Miller, S.T., 1980, Geology and mammalian age and displaced shorelines around
dino County Museum Association Quar- biostratigraphy of a part 01 the northern Manix Lake In Cooper, J.D., compiler,
terly, v. 35, p. 3-19. Cady Mountains. Mojave Desert, Califor- Geologic excurSions in the California
Meek. N" 1989a, Geomorphic and hydro- nia: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File desert: Geological Society of America,
logic implications of the rapid incision of Aeport 80-878. Cordilleran section held trip guidebook,
Afton Canyon, Mojave Desert, Califor- p. 77-81......•
nia: Geology. v. 17, p. 7-10.

Chaos Crags and Chaos Jumbles at the base, Lassen National Park. Lassen County. The Crags formed about 1,000 to 1.200 years
ago and are massive dacite plugs that had erupted into older volcanic craters. Violent volcanic explosive eruptions 01 incandescent
avalanches preceded the formation of the viscous dacite plu9s at the Cra9s. Large quantities of steam were reported (Ising Irom the
Crags from 1854,1857, suggesting that the volcanic life of the Crags extended over 1,000 years. They may not yet be exllnc!. The
Jumbles are a chaotic avalanche deposit formed about 300 years ago. This deposit is 2.5 miles long and covers about 4.5 square
miles. Photo by Sylvia Bender-Lamb:"


A Page for Teachers

Everyone's Challenge
The litter pick-up walk and recycling drive are two ",'aYS to Plastics can be recycled too. Because plastic is made from
involve your students in the recycling challenge-one of the petroleum. a valuable mineral resource. its conselVation is
most important challenges in their lives. It is imperative that especially important. Plastics are also a big part of the prob-
recycling be done. If children learn to be kind to the Earth. lem of overflowing landfills. Most plastics are not bicxlegrad-
the Earth will reward them by being the kind of place It able (they do not decompose by natural processes).
should be - clean and livable. If children are taught to recycle
when they are young. it will become second nature. They will Organize a recycling drive.
meet the challenge and everyone will benefit from it.
1. Decide what you want to recycle. You can collect
These activities can involve your class alone or all the newspapers. glass. plastlc. and/or aluminum Also. decide on
classes in the school. [t would be more effective (and more a time frame for the drive. Will it last for one day or for sev-
fun) if the entire school were involved. Maybe a friendly com- eral months?
petition among the classes would help moliviate students and
teachers alike. 2. Contact a recycling collector several weeks before the
drive is held. Check on the recycling guidelines. For ex-
ample. most glass and can collectors want clean containers.
Also. many glass collectors require that you remove metal
caps and rings and separate the glass by color.

3. Your school is probably a convenient place to hold the

drive. It should have easy access and be visible from the
road. Arrange for a place within the school (maybe an empty
classrooml to store the collected materials. This is especially
important if you are holding the drive over a few months or
cannot transport the materials to the recycling center imme-

4. Organize transportation to haul the materials from the

collection or storage area to the recycling center.

5. Publicize the drive. Make posters and/or niers to tell

people what you are collecling. Include the date. time. and
location of the drive. You can also contact local newspapers
and radio stations to see if they will advertise the drive. Civic
groups can also help get the word OUI.

6. Think about how your school can spend the money it

makes. It could be used for something the school needs. or
Nonproht groups collect recyclable donated to a local wildlife center or other organization.
matenals at drop-ott locations.
Curbside recycling is a viable economic alternative to
landfills. Recycling aluminum cans and glass beverage con-
tainers costs Significantly less than producing them from
mineral resource ores such as quartz sand and borax used
Organize a litter pick-up walk in glass. and bauxite for aluminum. [n addition, recycling
to clean up the area. reduces costs associated with garbage disposing in landfills.
Recycling benefits society and the environment by saving
Tell the students that it may take hundreds of years for energy. reducing pollution. and conserving resources. Some
an aluminum can to decompose. You can also talk about communities in California. such as San Jose. have been
the problems associated with burying trash in landfills. Ex- particularly successful in promoting advanced recycling
plain that toxic runoff (rom landfills is often a very serious practices of beverage containers.
problem. Also. many areas are running out of places to put
their trash. As an added incentive. you can begin your Remind your students to support recycling laws.
recycling drive (see below) with the pounds and pounds of Contact the California Division of Recycling (916) 3234636
glass. aluminum. and plastic you collect during this walk. or (BOOl 642·5669 for information on recycling....


• • • • DMG Releases • • • • • • •

SPECIAL PUBLICATION 103 Riding an ore skip down an inclined-shafl althe Sixteen-Ta-One gold mine in the his-
toric Allegheny mining district. Sierra County. This mine is typical 01 a Mother lode.
MiNES AND MINERAL PRODUC- high-grade. underground gold mine. The Allegheny mining district was discovered in
ERS ACTIVE IN CALIFORNIA (1989· 1852 by Hawaiian sailors. known as Kanakas. who had "jumped ship- in San Francisco
to participate in the Cali!ornia Gold Rush. Gold mining at Allegheny began in 1852. ex-
1990). By J.S. Rapp. M.A. Silva, C.T.
panded over time. and continued throughout World War II. Most o! California's other
Higgins. R.c. Martin. and J.L. Burnett. major gold districts closed in 1942 in response to President Franklin D. Roosevelt's War
1990.162 p., $10,00. Production limitation Order (l-208).
The Allegheny district, Including the Sixteen·To-One mine. is famous for million·dollar
This is the second revised listing of gold ·pockets" found there. These rich pockefs have conspicuous high-grade accumula-
tions ot tree gold within quartz vein material. Several 01 these gold pockets, each con-
active mines and mineral producers in taining more than 10,000 troy ounces. were mined at fhe Sixteen·To-One mine. Most
California. Special Publication 103 pockets were discovered prior to 1930.The Sixteen·To-One mine shut down mining op-
contains the names. addresses. com- erations in 1965 aHer more than 60 years of conlinuouS operation. Currently. a consor-
modities. and locations of more than tium of geologists. mining engineers. and investors is attempting to locale and discern
1.000 mines that were active in Cali- the character o! pocket gold deposits at the mine. The consortium would like to reopen
the mine. however if is a major scientific challenge to determine where the high·grade
fornia during 1988-1989. A broad ore pockets occur. Should these miners be successful, the SiKteen-To-One mine wilt be
variety of mineral recovery operations included in the neKt revision 01 the DMG active mines lis\.
are included in this list including: rock Developers o! pocket mines like the Sixteen-To-One mine are commonly conlronted
quarries. open pits. underground mines. With obtaining and inferpreting subsurface inlormation at acceptable costs. Subsurface
information is typically obtained by drilling programs that can be both expensive and lime
gravel-bar skimming operations. brine consuming. Photograph by J.G. Scarborough (1990).
wells. evaporation systems. and various
types of dredging operations. A mine


• • • • • • • •
is listed as active if it produced at any
lime during the two-year period from
January 1988 to December 1989.

Mine data are presented in three sec-

tions sorted by 0) county. (2) mineral
commodity. and (3) company name.
The Division of Mines and Geology
(DMG) began updating its mineral prop-
erty files in July 1988. and data for this
mine list was compiled from govern-
ment and private sources. The principal
source of information for this listing was
from files of lead agencies in California.
New features of this revised publication
include section/township/range data
where available. and a I: 1.000.000-
scale map of California that shows the
locations and commodities of the active
mines listed in the texl.

In 1988 California produced nearly

$3 billion worth of mineral commodi-
ties; California has the largest and most
diverse mining industry in the United
States. In addition to the active mines
listed in this publication. California has
several dozen intermittent government
borrow pits and several thousand idle
and abandoned mines and prospects.
Of the 1.024 active mines in this list.
681 (66 percent) are construction ag-
gregate operations. 268 (26 percent)
are industrial mineral mines. and 75 (7
percent) are metal mines. These active
mines are broadly distributed throughout
California. although much of the state's
construction aggregate and industrial
mineral production have historically
come from southem California.

Special Publication 103. Mines and

Mineral Producers Actiue in California
Gravity separation of scheelite ore al the Andrew tungsten mine, los Angeles County. (1989·1990) is available at Division of
Scheelile is a calcium tungstate ICaWO.) and is the principal ore of tungsten. The An·
drew mine is a small underground open-pit mine that produces scheelite concentrate Mines and Geology district offices in
from thin scheelite-bearing quartz veins in granitic rock. This mine is located in the Los Angeles. Pleasant Hill. and Sacra-
Sheep Mountain Wilderness, a rugged region in the San Gabriel Mountains near Los mento at a cost of $10.00. Make
Angeles. Although this mine is small in area, the Andrew mine is currently the largest check or money order payable to: Divi-
producer of tungsten in California.
Tungsten is primarily used in steel alloys for high temperature and strength applica- sion of Mines and Geology. Special
tions: such as light-bUlb filaments. machine tools. and advanced weaponry. Because Publication 103 may also be purchased
relatively HUla tungsten is produced In the United States. most tungsten used in the by mail through the:
United Stales must be imported from the Republic of China and other foreign sources.
Small domestic metal mines such as the Andrew mine are important dispite their limited DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY
production. Photograph by J.S. Rapp (1989).
P.O. Box 2980
Sacramento. CA 95812-2980x


• • • • more Releases • • • • • •



ited by Stephen R. McNutt and Robert
H Sydnor. 142 p. $12.00.

The Loma Prieta earthquake killed

63 people. injured 3.757. left over
12.000 homeless. and caused nearly $6
billion in damage. A total of 23.408
private homes were damaged and
1.018 private homes were destroyed.
A total of 3.530 businesses were dam-
aged and 366 businesses were de-
stroyed. Ten highway bridges were
closed due to structural damage and
three had one or more spans collapse.
Severe damage occurred 10 eight
schools and eight other schools under-
went substanlial damage. lnere is lillie
doubt that injuJy and damage lNeJ'e sig-
nificantly lessened by the adoption and
adherence of prudent building codes. RocJdall on Eureka Canyon Road
three days after the earthquake.
In the eplCenlraJ area It was the most significant earth-
quake to affect Californians since the
magnilude 6.4 1971 San Fernando
quake. Although the epicentral area of
the Lorna Prieta event occurred in a
PIKJros by the DMG Environmental ReV/ow ProJtx;t. sparsely populated region 01 the Santa
Cruz Mountains. its impact is second
only to the 1906 San Francisco earth-
quake. The greatest loss of life and
damage to property from the Lorna
Prieta event occurred in seismic hazard
areas that had been clearly identified
and mapped. If a similar magnitude
7. I event occurred in a more densely
populated region of California. the
losses woukl have been considerably

An emergency session of the State

Legislature was convened from Novem·
ber 24. 1989 and a special sales tax of
1/4 percent was adopted for the period
from December 1. 1989 to December
31. 1990, The tax was expected to
raise about $800 million. An estimated
Lateral spread along Hazel Dell Road. santa Cruz County $2.9 billion in additional State and Fed·
eral assistance was needed to help the
len affected counties; about $2.3 billion
was identified for hazard mitigation


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
It is proven that significant loss of
life and damage from earthquakes can
be reduced by enforcing modern build-
ing codes. strengthening existlng struc-
tures. and maintaining an effective
emergency preparedness program.
Many of these issues are addressed in
the "Seismic Safety Element" which is
part of a city or county General Plan.
Residents can consult their planning
department to determine the seismic
hazards at specific locations.

Copies of Special Publication 104

are available for reference al Division
of Mines and Geology offices in Sacra-
mento. Pleasant Hill. and Los Angeles.
Copies may be purchased from these
offices for $12.00. Photos courtesy of
the U.S. Geological Survey....·

Post earthquake collapse of a coaslal bluff. Tunilas

Creek. north of San Gregorio, San Mateo County.

projects with the remainder earmarked for replacement hous-

ing. temporary shelter. and loans. Special Publication 104 is
a collectlon of 14 articles representing the efforts of 35 au·
thors. Most articles are by staff scientists of the Division of
Mines and Geology. This report is divided into three sec-
tions. The first focuses on the geologic. tectonic. and seismic
setting of the quake. The second section focuses on selected
aspects of the earthquake. such as slrong motion investiga-
tions. fault evaluation. and coastal bluff landslides analysis.
The third section focuses on quake response and evaluation.

There are abundant tables. photos. and illustrations

throughout the report. Article topics were chosen to high-
light Division of Mines and Geology activities and responses
resulting from the earthquake, For example. Division staff
scientists participated in analyzing strong motion seismic data.
conducted field investigations for evidence of surface rupture.
and provided expertise to analyze quake-induced landslides
and assisted county governments to determine potential land-
slide risk.

The Loma Prieta event was the 11 th quake of magnitude

5.3 or greater to hit the San Francisco Bay area since 1865.
It occurred along a 25-mile-long section of the San Andreas
fault that runs through the southern Santa Cruz Mountains.
When the fault broke the Pacific plate slipped 6.2 feet north-
west past the North American plate and rode 4.2 feet up- Extensional movement across a surface fracture in the Summit
wards. This quake was felt by people from Los Angeles to Road area, near the Santa Cruz County/Santa Clara County
southern Oregon and western Nevada. boundary. Santa Cruz Mountains.


Book Reviews
Books reviewed III this seeMn are not available 'or purchase from DMG.

Anthropology Energy
RESOURCES. A Guide 10 Manuscripts. into building codes as a result of the Volume IS. Edited by J.M. Hollander.
Artifacts. Documents. Serials. Music. Aeld Act that was passed in 1934 by R.H. Socolow. and D. Sternlighl.
and Illustrations. By Syliv3 Brakke the California State Legislature. This 1990. Available from: Annual Reviews
Vane and Lowell John Bean. 1990. Act mandates stnet building designs for Inc.. 4139 El Camino Way. Palo Alto.
Available from: Ballena Press. Publish- public schools and resulted from the CA 94306-0897.578 p. $62.00
ers Services. P.O. Box 2510. Novato. magnitude 6.3 Long Beach quake of postpaid. U.S.A. and Canada: $68
CA 94948. 399 p. $33.00. paper 1933 that killed 120 people and caused elsewhere. Prepayment reqUired
cover. $45.00 cloth cover. property damage estimated at $41 mU- Hard cover.
lion. In 1935 the Riley Act extended
California Indians are believed to be the requirements of the Aeld Act to all Environmental issues play an in-
descendants of several Asian tribes who new buildings in California. Engineers creasingly greater role in the world's
made their way here over the Bering found that Unreinforced Masonry Build- energy usage, Efnuenls from fossil fuel
Sea land bridge al the close of the last ings (UMBs) nearest a major quake epi- consumption-the world's main source
major Pleistocene glacial period per- center typically undergo the most exten- of energy-are rapidly becoming a se-
haps 29.000 to 34.000 years ago. sive damage. In contrast, most buildings rious worldwide concern. Articles
Evidence of early Indian culture in Cali- designed by recent building codes hold within this book renect that concern.
fornia is among the oldest data for In- up fairly well in large quakes. Articles included are about: energy
dian presence in the Uniled States. It technologies such as photovohaic and
has been estimated that between A relatively recent technological in- nuclear. global trends In motor vehicle
133.000 to as many as 250.000 IncH- novation in quake design is the use of use and emissions. and implementing
cms were living in California when the seismic isolation: also called base isola- environmentally sound energy sources
first Europeans arrived here in the 16th tion. Seismic isolation is a way of build- for developing countries. Extensive
century. This book describes how to ing structures on flexible pedestals made literature citations are included with
access the remaining breadth of Cali- of laminated rubber and steel. called each article.
fornia Indian culture. A list of Indian isolators. which absorb earthquake
resource materials is listed by county. shock. Base isolated structures are de-
signed to slowly move for several inches
on the flexible isolators when respond-
ing to horizontal and vertical ground Hydrogeology
Earthquake DeSign movement during quakes. It is hoped PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL
EARTHQUAKES: An Architect"s that isolators will keep overpasses from HYDROGEOLOGY. By Patrick A.
Guide to Nonstructural Seismic Haz- collapsing. people from being hurled Domenico and Franklin W. Schwartz_
ards. By Henry J. Lagorio. 1990. around inside buildings of fewer than 1990. Available from: John Wiley &
Available from: John Wiley & Sons, 12 stories. and plate glass windows Sons. Inc.. 605 Third Avenue. New
Inc.. 605 Third Avenue. New York, from shattering and becoming airborne York. NY 10158. 824 p. $58.95.
NY 10158. 312 p. $54.95. hard razors. In 1987 the California Office of hard cover.
cover. Price does not include sales tax. State Architect published MAn Accept-
shipping, or handling. able Method for Design and Review of One of the greatest natural resource
Hospital Buildings Utilizing Base lsola- management problems facing California
In recent years a popular adage tion. This manual is now used for hos- in the coming decades will be the availa-
among California building design pro- pital design throughout California. bility. use. and quality of groundwater.
fessionals has been MEarthquakes don't Groundwater in California Is a signifi-
kill people. bUildings do. ~ Most people This book is directed primarily at cant resource that is instrumental to the
who die during earthquakes in Califor- structural designers and includes chap' development of this state's economy_
nia are killed by collapsing structures. A ters on site planning. building design. About 40 percent of California is under-
fundamental problem facing engineers rehabilitation of existing buildings. disas- lain by groundwater basins and there is
in California is how to design and build ter recovery, urban design and plan- an estimated 30 times more groundwa-
structures that can withstand the ex- ning. nonstructural components of de- ter than the total surface water storage
peeted shaking from large earthquakes. sign, and earthquake hazards mitigation capacity of all the reservoirs. There are
However. earthquake-resistant bUilding processes in structure design. 449 groundwater basins of various sizes
codes have long been practiced in Cali- in California. The annual withdrawal of
fornia. They will probably improve over groundwater in California exceeds the
time. The first spedfic seismic provi- annual recharge from rain and snow by
sions lor earthquake-resistant design in about 2.2 million acre-feet. The use of

groundwater in California has more This book, a revised Ph.D. disserta- to consider the potential for landslides
than doubled in the past 30 years; the tion, analyzes policy approaches for when designing and implementing land
rate of its use is projected to increase. preventing or mitigating landslide haz· use plans. Each county and incorpo-
ards. Establishing and implementing rated dty in California must have a
Hydrogeology is the study of land use plans and hillside gravity ordi- General Plan that documents its deci-
groundwater and its relationship to the nances are two effective methods of sions concerning the future develop--
environment. It is an interdisciplinary moderating landslide hazards in regions ment 01 the community. One of the
sdence that incorporales stratigraphy. that are prone to such threats. There seven required elements. the Safety Ele-
petrology. chemistry. math, biology. are five illustrated examples of land- ment (encompasses what was formerly
and physics. Many scientists believe slides problem areas and how local g0v- the Seismic Safety Element). must ad-
that problems concerning groundwa- ernments have addressed these issues. dress the potential for "slope instability
ter-such as its quantity and quality-- Two examples. Blackhawk Ranch and leading to mudslides and landslides."
may affect an increasing num~r of Villa Mira Vista. are in California.
Californians in the future. To protect
this vital natural resource. in current Landslide damage in California costs Loma Prieta Quake
years there has been rapid progress in about $250 million annually. However.
due in large part to California's plan- AFTERSHOCK The Loma Prieta
understanding hydrogeologic concepts
Earthquake and Its Impact on San
and a corresponding increase in the ning ordinances. local governments in
California use landslide hazard infonna- Benito County. By James Z. McCann.
technical capability of managing
tion more than local governments in
1990. Available from: Seismic Publica-
groundwater. This book reflects much
tions. 642 San Benito Street. Hollister.
of the recent research about this fast· most other states. California planning
CA 95023. 80 p. $14.95, paper cover.
evolving science and is designed as a laws explidtly encourage communities
fundamental. although rigorous. text-
book lor beginning hydrogeology stu-
dents as well as profeSSionals who may
use it for reference. A solid back·
ground in math, physics. and chemis- Complete address form on ne~t page
Indicate number Of topIes, Pnce II1cludes
try is recommended as a prerequisite. ~
postage and sales tax.
SR t46 (Part I) Minefal Land c1aSSlfi(;allon: aggregate mate"als In the San FranCISCO'
Monterey Bay area (cenlral Caillorma}· proJOCl desenptlOll, t986 $9,00
Landslides SR t46 (Part II) Minerai land classlflCa\lOn: aggregate mat_Is In !he south
San Fral1ClSCO Bay productlon·consumptlon regiQl'l {Alameda Contra Costa.
LANDSLIDE HAZARD IN THE San Frar1Clsco and San Mateo counties. Caillorn;a} 1988 $20.00
UNITED STATES: Case Studies in SR146 (part III) Mlneraliand classlticatlOn: aggregate malenals In the north
San FranciSCO Bay prOOUCloon-eonsumption region (Mann. Napa. and
Planning and Policy Development. By SOnoma counlleS, Califorma) 1986 .... $20,00
Robert B. Olshansky. 1990. Available SRU6 (Pan IV) Minerai land classl"cat,on: aggleg.a.te materials in the MontlKey Bay
from: Garland Publishing. Inc.. 136 -~ prodUCIlOll·consumplion region (Monterey, Sarl BeMO. San Mateo. Santa ClaJa.
and Santa Cru~ counlleS, Cahfornla) 1988 520 00
Madison Avenue. New York. NY
10016 192 p. $47.00. hard cover SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS
SP82 Minerai commodity reporl salt 1985 , $300
SP90 Minerai commod'ty reporl- talc and relaled mll'l8rals 1986 $3,00
SPt03 Mines and minerai produce~ active in Caillornia (1989·1990), (NEW) $10.00
SPI04 The Loma P"ela (Santa Cru~ Mounta'nli). Cellfornla.
earthquake of 17. October 1989 1990 (NEW) .... $12.00
IMPORTANT MAP SHEETS (scale 162.500)
Please Note MSIS Prehmmary reconrnussance map or malOr landslides. San Gab"el Mounta,ns,
Los Angeles County. Cahfornla 1969 $1.00
_~ M531 Geology of the WiRow Creek quadrangle. Humboldt and T"mlY counties.
Cahfornla 1978 $7.00
Department of Conservation, _~ MS32 Geology of the Fallen Lear Lake (I 5') quadrangle. E' Dorado Country.
Cal,forn,a 1983 $900
Division of Mines and Geology
MS3S Kaweah Peaks Pluton and IR rela\lOnSl'llp to lhe age of the Kern Canyon faull.
Warehouse operations will be Tulare County. Cal,fOfIll8 1976 $3.00
relocating during April. M537 Geoklgy o! the Hamee re5llfVOlr (15'1 quadrangle. Inyo County, Caldorma. 1977 $600


1 yeal (12 ,ssues). $10.00
subscriptions and/or mail 2 yea~ (24 ,ssues) $2000
orders for Division publications Each back ,ssue Sl25
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The magnitude 7. 1 October 17 EARLY PRECAMBRIAN BASIC of the Archean and Early Proterozoic
Lorna Prieta earthquake occurred on a MAGMATISM. Edited by R.P. Hall and eras. which constitute the Early Precam-
section of the San Andreas fault in the D.J. Hughes. 1990. Available from: brian. Such rocks are rarely exposed at
Santa Cruz Mountains immediately Routledge. Chapman & Hall. 29 West the surface of the Earth, but often occur
south of the San Francisco Bay area. 35th Street. New York. NY 10001. in relatively small patches within the
The quake released an amount of en- 486 p .. $141.00. hard cover. Precambrian shields. The Precambrian
ergy equivalent to about 30 million tons shields usually serve as cores to the can·
of high explosives. The death toll from This book is a collection of papers by tinental plates. The more recent Paleo-
this temblor is officially listed at 67. petrologists who study Precambrian zoic, Mesozoic. and Cenozoic rocks are
property loss is about $8 billion: there rocks, It describes, analyzes. and char- generally accreted at the edges of. or lie
were 2.435 reported injuries. and about acterizes Early Precambrian basic igne- atop. the Precambrian shields to make
13.000 people were rendered home- ous rocks, The study of these rocks is up the continents we know today.
less. This book chronicles the impact important because, (1) they are the old-
of the Lorna Prieta earthquake on Hol- est rocks we know of on Earth. (2) they The composition of the Earth's crust
lister and the residents of San Benito give us an idea of the original composi- has evolved dramatically since the Arch-
County. Destructive earthquakes are a tion of the Earth's crust, (3) they give us ean. Key differences can be seen in
fact of life in San Benito County and an idea of what the early geology and basic rock types and textures between
there will certainly be many more. This tectonics were like on Earth, and (4) the Archean rocks and basic rocks of
book has 150 photographs and infer- these rocks are frequently associated similar chemistry from more recent geo-
views with 75 residents. with massive ore deposits. The tenn logic limes. For example. the present-
basic rocks as used here includes basalts. day Mid-Oceanic Ridge Basalts (MORB)
peridotites. norites. anorthosites, and are nearly the chemical equivalents to
related igneous rocks. These rocks are the Archean basic rocks, yet the two
ages of rocks have much different lex-
-----------------------------1 tures due to the higher temperatures of
ADDRESS FORM FOR ALL ORDERS formation of the Archean basic magmas
Please print Of type
and, in some places, metamorphic tex-
PA YMENT MUST BE INCLUDED WITH ORDER tures superimposed on the Archean
NAME _ basic rocks. The development of the
Earth's crust through time is also sug-
ADDRESS _ gested by changes in the ratio of basic
to acidic rocks in continental crust
through geologic time. For example,
STATE _ ZIP _ after the Archean Era there is a marked
increase in the amount of granitic rock
TOTAL AMOUNT ENCLOSED: $, _ over basaltic rock in the continental
crust through the Proterozoic and Pa-
CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY SUBSCRIPTIONS leozoic eras. Thus. the Early Precam-
brian basic rocks should give us a model
1 yr, $10.00 2 yrs, $20.00 (IndiVidual issues are $t.25 each) of the Earth's crust and of tectonic ac-
tivity from the earliest part of the geo-
NEW SUBSCRIPTION: Allow 60 days 10f delivery of first issue.
I logic record we are able to study. 11
RENEWAL: To receive your magazme continuously, send in renewal 60 days before gives us a basis for comparison with all
expiration date shown on your address label. (El\"ample: EXP9112 means
I subsequent magmatism and crustal de-
that the subscription expires on feceipt ot December 1991 Issue.) Please I velopments.
enclose address label trom past issue. Without an address label. renewal
subscriptions will take 3 10 4 months to process.
I This book reviews the general char-
CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY renewals only: fill in InlormalJon Irom you, mailing label or allaCll a ~bel acteristics of the Archean and Early
!,om a pas1lsSlJe,
I Proterozoic basic rocks. particularly the
1.0.# _ ACCT. #. _
I geochemistry and rock textures. 11 also
I draws comparisons with more recent
GIFT: (Gift card trom _ I types of basic rocks and the older lunar

ADDRESS CHANGE: Send us an old address labet and your new address.
I rock types. The authors discuss the
various types of mineralization associ-
Allow 60 days tor address change. I ated with the Archean and Early
Your ordef/subscnplIOn cannot be pfOcessed unless correct amount IS rammed All Foreign and Cana·
II Proterozoic basic rocks and the various
dian orders must be pa>d With an International Money Ot"der Of D,al1 payable If! United Stales tUnds 10' types of large basic igneous complexes
DiVISion 01 Minas and Geology. Address all orders to DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY. P. O. I that are layered. These basic layered
____ ~x~~~f'::.e~.~11~'~581N9~ --.J igneous complexes are relatively com-


moo in the Precambrian shields and Plate TectonICS 5eosmology
relatJYeIy uncommon after Precam· SHAPING TI IE EARm TECTON- SAN FHA oseo BAY ARfA
brian tllTle. Different occurrences of ICS OF CONTINENTS A 0 OCEANS. fARTHQUAKES POSTER By the staff
the early Precambrian basic rocks in Readings from Scientific American, Ed- of the U.S. Geological Soeiety_ 1990
many parts of the world on a case-by- ited by Eldridge M MOOfe5. 1990. Available from: U,S. Geological Survey.
case basts is also examined. Observed Available from: W H Freeman and Branch of Distribution, Box 25286.
IndMdual occurrences of Early Precam· Company. 41 Madi~ Ave.. New Federal Center. Denver. CO 80225 24
brian rocks are compared and con· York. NY 10010 208 p.. 1195. inches wide by 38 inches 1ong. $4 .00.
trasted in terms of the geologic and Note; For orders less than $10.00 in-
soft cover
tectonic histories and hOVJ they rclate clude an addihonal $1.00. Make check
to the seemingly separate pieces of the The discovery of plate tectonics is or money order payable to: Department
Early Precambrian geologjc puzzle. one of the most important scientific of the Interior-USGS,
The infonnation presented leads to revolutions of the 20th century. This
Implications about. and constrainlS on. book is a collectiOn of 12 articles from This color poster depicts earthquake
our model of the early evolution of the Scientific American magazlnc about the activity in the San Francisco Bay area.
Earth's crust. This refines our under lheory of plate teclonics and our cur- The poster indicates eanhquake activity,
standing of geologic events in the Early rent understanding of how mountains. the areas where it is concentrated. and
Precambrian, Besides the substantial oceans. and continents foOll. lltere hO\W the seismIc activity is associated
academic interest in this topic. there are 129 ilIuslratlOns. most of which are lAIith landform features The arca repre-
are practical potential benefits. These in color. that rewallhe dynamic Eanh sented includes a 19.000-square-mile
benefits Include locating further ore processes of plate tectonics. Plate tec- regiOn from lake Berryessa on the
bOOies. eIther like the weD-knovm rich tonic theory was a remarkable break- nonh 10 Monterey on the south. and
deposIts in the Precambrian shiekis. or through in effectively unifying all preVi- from about 20 miles m the Pacifjc
locating more recent ore deposits in ously disparate branches of the earth Ocean on the west 10 Stockton on the
analogous geologic settings. Reuiewed sciences inlO a smgle world view. ThiS east. The image was taken from 563
by Dule Stickney. collection of articles-wnnen by scleo· miles above the Earth The poster m-
tists ",,+to work at the vanguard of their c1udes false-color imaging to enhance
disciplines-clearly dnd accurately ex- the land forms and surlace features.
plain the theory and evidence of plate Various shades of red. for instance. rep-
fARTH SClENCE I VESnGA- tectonics. This book is divided mto resent areas on the ground surface that
nONS. Edited by Margaret A Ooster- three sections. the Dynamic Earth. are covered by vegetation; dark red ar-
man and Mark T. Schmidt 1990 Avail- Plates in Action. and Malong Moun- eas indicate heavy vegetation whereas
able from: American Geologicallnsti tains. Section 1 The Dyndmic Eanh. lightCT red areas show cultivated crops
tute. 4220 King Street. Alexandria. VA has four anKles alxxll the continental Large bOOies of water are depicted in
22302. 234 p. $38.95. paper cover crust. the oceanic crust. the Eanh's hot dark blue. Urbanized areas. such as
Pnce includes shipping and handling. spots. and seismic tomography (a three- most of San Francisco. are shown in
dimensional analylicaltechniqlle for im- turquoise.
This book is designed to meet the aging Earth's internal heat flow). Sec·
need of earth science teachcrs for cur- !ion Il: Plates in Action. has two anicles The epicenters of more than 12.000
rent laboratory exercises that incorpo- about how continents break up and oce- earthquakes of magnitude 2 or larger
rate a Mhands on approach, ~ and that anic fracture zones, The third. Section that occurred in the poster region from
challenge and motivate secondafy"-Ievel Ill: Making Mountains. has six articles January I. 1972 to December 31,
students. lltere are 27 exercises and about terranes, ophlohtes, the structure 1989 are shown by bright yellow dots.
each exercise is divided into Six sections; of mountam ranges. the Appalachians. The magmtudes of the quakes are rep-
(l)the objective of lhe exercise, (2) time the growth of 'NCStem Nonh America. resented by different sized dots; earth-
required. (3) materials needed, (4) a and the fonnalkln of super continents quakes of magnitudes 2-3 are shown by
background section containing concepts through geok>gic time (such as Pan· 1 milhmeter dots. the magnitude 7. 1
and additional resources for reference. gaea). 11lere are abundant c~ aerial Lorna Pocta eanhquake is depjctoo by a
(5) procedure. and (6) questions A photos. cok>r geo6ogK maps and cross 8 millimetCT dot in the Santa Cruz
sampling of exercises in this laboratory sections to aSSiSt the reader in compre- Mountains. In areas of frequent seismiC
manual include; eolian action. block dia- hending the concept presented. activity, saiki yeUow lines or clusters
gram prot»ems. geophysKal investiga- clearly indicate lhe trace of major Bay
tions. micro-weather pallentS. modeling area faults (Hayward. Calaveras. and
crystal growth in magmas, comparing San Andreas faults)."
water hardness. determining the density
of soil panicles. determining groundwa-
ter contamination. and analyzing Nonh
American meteorite impact sites


PO BOX 2980

• • • • Announcements • • • •
Union Pacific Resources Funds USGS Open House at
(AWG) Speakers Bureau Menlo Park in May
The Association for Women Geoscientists announces that The United States Geological Survey (USGS) will host a
funding is available lor the Union Pacific Resources - AWG public open house at its campus in Menlo Park. California on
Distinguished Lectures. Union Pacific Resources Company May 18-19. 1991 The exhibits and all other activities will
has given the AWG Foundation a $2.500 grant for 1991 to explain earth science in layperson's language.
underwrite travel for women geoscientists participating as
speakers. Highlights will include poster exhibits. laboratory tours.
earth science videos. gold panning lessons. and mineral rec-
Grants of up to $300 for direct travel costs are available ognition conducted by USGS mineral specialists. In addition.
on a first come. first served basis to nonprofit. nongovern- visitors will have the opportunity to talk with scientists who
ment institutions or organizations seeking speakers from the conduct research lor the USGS. and to browse through the
AWG Speakers Bureau. The Speakers Bureau provides a list USGS map store which stocks topographic maps 01 13 west·
of over ISO nationally recognized women geoscientists whose ern states.
specialties cover a wide range of topics.
The USGS campus in Menlo Park offers one of the most
The Association for Women Geoscientists was founded in outstanding displays of azaleas. rhododendrons. and roses in
1977 to encourage women to become and remain geoscien- the Bay area. They should all be in full bloom in mid-May.
tists. AWG has chapters and at-large members throughout the
U.S. and in other countries. The AWG Foundation was estab- For more information contact:
lished in 1983 to develop and fund innovative programs de-
signed to encourage women to study earth sciences. to inves' Peter Stauffer
tigate career opportunities, and to advance in the geoscience USGS
professions. Mail Stop 919
Menlo Park, CA 94025
To obtain a list 01 speakers and for information on (4151 329-5100--
speakers travel. contact:

Speakers Bureau
Association for Women Geoscientists Foundation
c/o Resource Center for Associations
10200 West 44th Avenue #304
Wheat Ridge. CO 80033
1303) 422-8527"--