(a) A yellow ppt. is formed. Pb2+ is confirmed. (2) Original solution + Potassiu m Chromate solution. (b) A brick red ppt. is formed.

Ag+ is confirmed. (3) Origi nal solution + KCl sol. ppt. obtained + water and heat it. A yellow ppt. soluble in hot water, on cooling reappears as golden yellow spangles. Pb2+ is confirmed. The yellow ppt. is insoluble in hot water. SECOND GROUP OF BA SIC RADICALS The basic radicals of this group are Pb2+, Hg2+, Cu2+ and Cd2+.The group reagent is Dilute HCl + H2S gas. EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE May be P b2+ Hg2+ &Cu2+ (a)A Black ppt. is observed. Original solution + Dilute HCl + H2S gas. (b)A yellow ppt. is observed. May be Cd2+ The identification of Pb2+, Hg2+ , Cu2+ and Cd2+ are as follows: EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE (a) Original so lution + Potassium Chromate. A yellow ppt. is observed. Pb2+ is confirmed. (b)Or iginal solution + NH4OH A bluish white ppt. soluble in excess of NH4OH is observed which gives rise to a deep blue solution. May be Cu2+ (c) Original solution + dil. acetic acid + potassium Ferro cyanide s ol. A chocolate red ppt. is observed. Cu2+ is confirmed. (d) Dissolve the black ppt. in aqua regia2 + 1ml of distilled water, heat & add 2 drops of SnCl2 A white ppt. is observed which turns grey. Hg2+ is confirmed. (e) Original solut ion + dilute acetic acid + H2S gas. A yellow ppt. is formed. Cd2+ is confirmed. 2 Aqua regia is mixture of 3 drops of HCl + 1 drop of HNO3 -5THIRD GROUP OF BASIC RADICALS The basic radicals of this group are Al3+, Fe2+ an d Fe3+ .The group reagent is NH4Cl + NH4OH EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE May be Al3+ (a) A white gelatinous ppt. is obtained. (b) A dirty green ppt. is obtai ned May be Fe2+ (1) Original solution + NH4Cl(s) + NH4OH in excess (c) A reddish brown ppt. is obtained May be Fe3+ (a) White gelatinous ppt. solub le in excess of NaOH is obtained which gives a colourless sol. The basic radical is Al3+ (b) Dirty green ppt. insoluble in excess of NaOH The basic radical is F e2+ (2) Original solution + NaOH solution (c) Reddish brown ppt. insoluble in ex cess of NaOH The basic radical is Fe3+ (3) Clear solution of 2(a) + solid NH4Cl and heat The white gelatinous ppt. reappears. Al3+ is confirmed. (4) Original solution + acidified KMnO4solution which is added drop wise. (a) The pink colour of KMnO4 is not discharged. Fe3+ is confirmed. FOURTH GROUP OF BASIC RADICALS The basic radicals of this group are Zn2+, Mn2+, Co2+ & Ni2+.T he group reagent is NH4Cl + NH4OH And H2S(g). EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE M ay be Zn2+, Mn2+ or Co2+ (a) a white ppt. is obtained (1) Original solution + NH 4Cl(s) + NH4OH in excess + H2S(g) (b) Buff or pale pink or flash coloured ppt. s oluble in dilute HCl is obtained. May be Mn2+ (a) The white ppt. is soluble in e xcess of NaOH giving a colourless solution. Zn2+ is confirmed (2) Original solut ion + NaOH solution+. (b) The white ppt. insoluble in excess of NaOH but turns b rown. Mn2+ is confirmed -6A Blue colour in the alcohol layer is obtained. FIFTH GROUP OF BASIC RADICALS Th e basic radicals of this group are Ca2+, Sr2+ & Ba2+ .The group reagent is NH4Cl (s) + NH4OH and (NH4)2 CO3. EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE (1) Original soluti on + NH4Cl(s) + NH4OH in excess + (NH4)2 CO3 solution. (a) A white ppt. is obtai ned. May be Ca2+, Sr2+ or Ba2+ A yellow ppt. is obtained. May be Ba2+. A thin wh ite ppt. is obtained. May be Sr2+ . (2) Dissolve the white ppt. obtained in smal l amounts of dilute acetic acid. Divide the solution in three parts.

wire in non luminous flame till no colour is imparted to the flame. (b) Crimson red coloured flame is obtained. _________________________________________ . Mg2+ is confirmed. (a) Apple green coloured flame is obtaine d. HCl in a watch glass. (3)Flame tests: Make a paste of the given salt with few drops of Conc. Part (3) + Ammonium exalate solution. Part (2) + Calcium Sulphate Sol. Heat a Pt. and heat. Ba2+ is confirmed. Sr2+ is confir med. is obtained. is obtained. Ca2+ is confirmed. SIXTH GROUP OF BASI C RADICALS EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE (1) Original solution + excess of NH 4OH + Ammonium Hydrogen Phosphate. wire in the paste and hold it in the flame. May be Ca2+. A white ppt. A white ppt.Part (1) + Potassium chromate solution. (c) Brick red coloured flame is obtained. Dip the Pt.