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Executive Summery

This project gives us a detailed idea of what is stress and also the
definition of stress is been defined. For more detailed study the types of the
stress is also defined. By looking at the starting of the project you will find:
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Introduction to Human resource
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Introduction and Definition of stress
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Stress in biological terms
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What is stress?
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Coping with stress at work place.
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Stress management
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Workplace stress
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Reducing of stress.
After the theoretical part I have included the research part. My
research work includes two questionnaires.
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Burn out test
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Stress analysis Questionnaire
My research includes the research methodology which contains the
information as follows:
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Research objectives
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Sampling (types and methods of sampling)
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Research instrument
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Data analysis and interpretation
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Employee’s opinion to reduce stress.
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Research flowchart
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Time consideration
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Limitation of survey
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Advantages and disadvantages of written
questionnaire
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Finding
INDEX
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No
Content
Page no
1
Conceptual Framework
1
1.1
Introduction to HR
1
1.2
Concept of stress
3
1.2.1
Introduction to stress
3
1.2.2
Stress in Biological terms
8
1.2.3
What is stress
9
1.2.4
Coping with stress at workplace
11
1.2.5
Stress Management
15
1.2.6
Workplace stress
18
1.2.7
Reduce your stress
22
2
Research Methodology
27
2.1
Research objective
27
2.2
Sampling
29
2.3
Research instrument
32
2.4
Data analysis and interpretation
36
2.5
Employees opinion about how to reduce stress
48
2.6
Research flowchart
50
2.7
Time consideration
51
2.8
Limitation of the survey
52
2.8.1
Advantages of Written Questionnaires
52
2.8.2
Disadvantages of Written Questionnaires
53
2.9
Findings
55
3
Bibliography
58
4
Annexure
59
1. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
(1.1) INTRODUCTION TO HR
Human Resource Management is an art of managing people at work in such a manner
that they give their best to the organization. In simple word human resource management
refers to the quantitative aspects of employees working in an organization.
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Human Resource Management is also a management function concerned with hiring,
motivating, and maintains people in an organization. It focuses on people in organization.
Organizations are not mere bricks, mortar, machineries or inventories.
They are people. It is the who staff and manage organizations.
HRM involves the application of management functions and principles. The functions
and principles are applied to acquisitioning, developing, maintain, and remunerating
employees in organizations.
Decisions relating to employees must be integrated. Decision on different aspect of
employees must be consistent with other human resource decisions.
Decision made must influence the effectiveness of organization. Effectiveness of an
organization must result in betterment of services to customers in the form of high-
quality product supplied at reasonable costs.
HRM function s is not confined to business establishment only. They are applicable to
non-business organizations, too such as education, health care, recreation etc.
The scope of HRM is indeed vast. All major activities in the working life of his or her
entry into an organization until he or she leaves-come under the previews of
HRM.specifically, the activities included are HR planning, job analysis and be sign,
recruitment and selection, orientation and placement, training and development,
performance appraisal and job evaluation, employee and executive remuneration,
motivation and communication, welfare, safety and health, industrial relations and the
like.
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HRM is a broad concept Personnel management and human resource


development is a part of HRM.
Before we define “Human Resource Management”, it seems good to first define
heterogeneous in the sense that they differ in personality, perception, emotions, values,
attitudes, motives, and modes of thoughts.
Human resource management plays an important role in the development process of
modern economy. In fact it is said that all the development comes from the human mind.
“ Human Resource Management is a process of producing development, maintaining and
controlling human resources for effective achievement of organization goals.”
(1.2) CONCEPT OF STRESS
(1.2.1) INTRODUCTION TO STRESS
A lot of research has been conducted into stress over the last hundred
years. Some of the theories behind it are now settled and accepted; others are
still being researched and debated. During this time, there seems to have been
something approaching open warfare between competing theories and
definitions: Views have been passionately held and aggressively defended.
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What complicates this is that intuitively we all feel that we know what
stress is, as it is something we have all experienced. A definition should therefore
be obvious…except that it is not.
Definition:
Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. His
view in 1956 was that “stress is not necessarily something bad – it all depends
on how you take it. The stress of exhilarating, creative successful work is
beneficial, while that of failure, humiliation or infection is detrimental.” Selye
believed that the biochemical effects of stress would be experienced irrespective
of whether the situation was positive or negative.
Since then, a great deal of further research has been conducted, and
ideas have moved on. Stress is now viewed as a "bad thing", with a range of
harmful biochemical and long-term effects. These effects have rarely been
observed in positive situations.
The most commonly accepted definition of stress (mainly attributed to
Richard S Lazarus) is that stress is a condition or feeling experienced when
a person perceives that “demands exceed the personal and social
resources the individual is able to mobilize.” In short, it's what we feel when
we think we've lost control of events.
This is the main definition used by this section of Mind Tools, although
we also recognize that there is an intertwined instinctive stress response to
unexpected events. The stress response inside us is therefore part instinct and
part to do with the way we think.
The types of stress are as follows
Mechanical
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Stress (physics), the average amount of force exerted per unit area.

Yield stress, the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically.

Compressive stress, the stress applied to materials resulting in their
compaction.
Biological

Stress (biological), physiological or psychological stress; some types
include:
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Chronic stress, persistent stress which can lead to illness and
mental disorder
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Eustress, positive stress that can lead to improved long-term
functioning
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Workplace stress, stress caused by employment
Music

Accent (music).

Stress (band), an early '80s melodic rock band from San Diego.

Stress (punk band), an early '80s punk rock band from Athens.

Stress (Neo-Psychedelic band), from the late 1980's.

Stress, a song by the French band Justice on their debut album
Other

Stress (game), card game

Stress (linguistics), phonological use of prominence in language
Stress (physics), the average amount of force exerted per unit area.
Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area. It
is a measure of the intensity of the total internal forces acting within a body
across imaginary internal surfaces, as a reaction to external applied forces
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and body forces. It was introduced into the theory of elasticity by Cauchy
around 1822. Stress is a concept that is based on the concept of continuum.
In general, stress is expressed as
Where
Is the average stress, also callede ngine e r ing or nominal stress, and
Is the force acting over the area .
Chronic Stress
Chronic stress is stress that lasts a long time or occurs frequently. Chronic
stress is potentially damaging.
Symptoms of chronic stress can be:

upset stomach

headache

backache

insomnia

anxiety

depression

anger
In the most severe cases it can lead to panic attacks or a panic disorder.
There are a variety of methods to control chronic stress, including exercise, healthy diet,
stress management, relaxation techniques, adequate rest, and relaxing hobbies.
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Ensuring a healthy diet containing magnesium may help control or eliminate
stress, in those individuals with lower levels of magnesium or those who have a
magnesium deficiency. Chronic stress can also lead to a magnesium deficiency,
which can be a factor in continued chronic stress, and a whole host of other
negative medical conditions caused by a magnesium deficiency.
It has been discovered that there is a huge upsurge in the number of people who
suffer from this condition. A very large number of these new cases suffer from
insomnia.
In a review of the scientific literature on the relationship between stress and disease, the
authors found that stress plays a role in triggering or worsening depression and
cardiovascular disease and in speeding the progression of HIV/AIDS.
Compressive stress:
Compressive stress is the stress applied to materials resulting in their
compaction (decrease of volume). When a material is subjected to compressive
stress, then this material is under compression. Usually, compressive stress
applied to bars, columns, etc. leads to shortening.
Loading a structural element or a specimen will increase the compressive stress
until the reach of compressive strength. According to the properties of the
material, failure will occur as yield for materials with ductile behavior (most
metals, some soils and plastics) or as rupture for brittle behavior (geometries,
cast iron, glass, etc).
In long, slender structural elements -- such as columns or truss bars -- an
increase of compressive forceF leads to structural failure due to buckling at
lower stress than the compressive strength.
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Compressive stress has stress units (force per unit area), usually with negative
values to indicate the compaction. However in geotechnical engineering,
compressive stress is represented with positive values.
(1.2.2) Stress in Biological terms:
Stress is a biological term which refers to the consequences of the failure of a
human or animal body to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats
to the organism, whether actual or imagined. It includes a state of alarm and
adrenaline production, short-term resistance as a coping mechanism, and
exhaustion. It refers to the inability of a human or animal body to respond.
Common stress symptoms include irritability, muscular tension, inability to
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concentrate and a variety of physical reactions, such as headaches and


accelerated heart rate.
The term "stress" was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye in the 1930s
to identify physiological responses in laboratory animals. He later broadened and
popularized the concept to include the perceptions and responses of humans
trying to adapt to the challenges of everyday life. In Selye's terminology, "stress"
refers to the reaction of the organism, and "stressor" to the perceived threat.
Stress in certain circumstances may be experienced positively. Eustress, for
example, can be an adaptive response prompting the activation of internal
resources to meet challenges and achieve goals.
The term is commonly used by laypersons in a metaphorical rather than literal or
biological sense, as a catch-all for any perceived difficulties in life. It also became
a euphemism, a way of referring to problems and eliciting sympathy without
being explicitly confessional, just "stressed out". It covers a huge range of
phenomena from mild irritation to the kind of severe problems that might result in
a real breakdown of health. In popular usage almost any event or situation
between these extremes could be described as stressful.