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An Overview of Earthquake Hazards in Myanmar

၁။



။ ၂
၊ ၊ ၊

(၁) ။
(၂) ။

3.5
) ၍
2.5-3 cm/yr
(Bertrand et al., 1998; Curray, 2005)။



(၂)
( ၇ ၃ )
( ၇
) ။
၍ ။

၊ ၊

(Win Swe, 1972 & 1981; Vigny
et al., 2003; Soe Thura Tun, 2006) ။



၅ ၃
။ (၁)

၁၅

1

(၁) ၊ ။ ( 1950-2008 ANSS Catalogue 1912- 1949 ။ ။) 2 .

(၂) 1964-2004 ၊ ၊ ။ ။ (Maung Thein and Tint Lwin Swe. 2006) 3 .

2006) ။ 4 .(၃) ( 1964 – 2004 NEIC Catalogue 1912 – 1963 ။ ။)(modified after Tint Lwin Swe.

PGA) ။ -၅ ( .၃ . ၊ ၊ ၊ ၊ ၊ ၊ ၊ ၊ ။ -၂ -၃ . . - (၃) ။ ၃။ ၊ ။ ၁၇ ၇ ၁၆ ။ ။ (၁ Richter Type of Earthquake Frequency Time Range Data Source Magnitude Great >8 1 1839-2008 Historical record and NEIC Major 7-7.၅ ၉ ။ (၄) . .9 549 1950-2008 ANSS Catalogue ၃။ ( (၅) ။ ။ (peak ground acceleration . .9 15 1839-2008 Historical record and NEIC Strong 6-6. . ၊ - . ၊ .9 25 1950-2008 ANSS Catalogue Moderate 5-5. .၄ . ၊ . ။ ။ -၄ .၂ -၃ ။ 5 .၄ ) ၊ ၊ .၂။ ( -၃) ( -၁) (၃) ။ ၁။ ၊ ။ ၂။ ၊ ။ .

1934) ။ Halstead (1843) ။ Halstead ၆ ၃ ၇ ။ Chandra (1978) (in Satyabala. 2007) ၂ ၇ ။ ၄ ၊ ၁၇၆၂ ၂ (Chhibber. 2003) 1762 22 N 88 E ( ။ Ganse Nelson (1982) 22 N 92 E ။ - BC ၁၄ AD ၁၈၆ ၊ ၃၄ ၁၇၆၂ (၃) (Than Tin Aung et al. 2007. 2008)။ ၁ ၁၈ ။ ။ ။ ။ ၌ ။ ၊ ။ ၁၈၃၉ ၂၃ 6 .. ၇၅ ။ ။ ၊ ။ ။ ( ၊ ၊ ) ၅ ၇၅ ။ ၊ ။ ။ ၄။ ၄။၁။ (Cummins. Sieh.

၃ (၁၉၃၄) ။ ၅ ၅ ။ ၃ ၃ ။ Rossi-Forel ၉ ၃၇၅ ၊ ။ (၁၉၃ ) (၁၈၃၉) ) ။ ။ (၂) ။ ၄။၂။ ၁၉၅၆ ၁၆ ( ၇. ။ ( ၅ ၂ ။ ၃ ၄ ။ ။ ၈ ၁၈၃၉ ၁၉၁၂ ၂၃ ။ ၂ ။ ၃၇၅ ။ ၊ ။ Rossi-Forel scale ၉ ၌ ။ ၁၉၃ ၅ ၇.၈ ၁၁ ၁၃ ။ ၂ ၃ ၂၂ ၆. ။ ။ ၅ ။ ၁၉၇၆ ၈ ။ ၆.၈ ။ ၊ ။ ၃၆ ၌ ။ 7 .

2003)။ ၊ ။ ၁၈ (Myanmar Earthquake Committee. 1646 11 June 1648 1 Sept. (Soe Thura Tun et al. 1714 ။ ။ 4 June 1757 ။ 2 April 1762 M=7. 1637 ။ 10 Sept.. 1660 3 April 1690 15 Sept. 2003)။ ၍ ၇ ၄၃ ။ (၄) ၂ ။ (၂) ( ။) / 868 ။ 875 ။ 1429 ။ 1467 ၊ ။ 24 July 1485 ၃ ။ 1501 ။ 13 Sept. ၊ ။ 27 December 1768 ။ 15 July 1771 9 June 1776 ။ 26 April 1830 21 March 1839 ။ 23 March 1839 ။ ။ ။ ၃ ၃၄ ။ 6 February 1843 ။ 3 January 1848 ။ 24 August 1858 ၊ ၊ ။ ၊ 8 . 1564 ။ 1567 ။ 1582 ။ 9 February 1588 ။ 30 March 1591 ။ 23 June 1620 ။ ။ 18 Aug. 1696 ၄ ။ 8 Aug.

5 16 July 1956 ။ ၄ ၅ ။ 8 July 1976 M=6.3. ( ) ၃၇ Imax=IX ၅ ၅ ။ 3 December 1930 M=7. ။၃ ။ )။ 27 January 1931 M=7. ။ ။) 10 August 1931 27 March 1931 16 May 1931 21 May 1931 12 Sept. ၊ ။ 8 October 1888 ။ 6 March 1913 ။ 5 July 1917 ။ 10 September 1927 17 December 1927 ။ 8 August 1929 ။ ၊ ။( ။) 5 May 1930 M=7. 1946 M=7. 2003 ။ ၇ ။ 9 .6.3. Imax=IX.8 ။ ။ 22 Sept.

(၄) ( ) ၁၉၁၇ (Mw 6. 2006)။ ( -၅) ၁၉၉၂ European Macroseismic Scale (၅) (၁) ( )၊ (၂) ( )၊ (၃) ( )၊ (၄ )၊ (၆)( ) ။( (၅) ။) ။ 10 .8) ( ) ( ) ၅။ ၅။၁။ (၂ ၅) ၂ ၃ ၂ ၅ ၊ ။ (Maung Thein and Tint Lwin Swe.

(PSHA map ၅ ၁ ။ ၂ ၅ ၂ ၇ ၍ ။ ။ - (၆) ။ ( ၅) ။ ၂ ၄ ။ (၁၉၇၃) ။ ၂ ၉ ။ ၅။၂။ ၊ ၊ Uniform Building Code (UBC) ၊ ၊ ။ (Than Myint et al.. 2007) ။ ။ ။ ၊ ။ 11 .

2006 ။) 12 .(၅) (Maung Thein and Tint Lwin Swe.

၃ ။ (Eyn Keey. 2006) Table 2 ( ။) \ I II III IV V 35 30 20 15 55 22 23 95 5 18 27 32 23 98 1 30 50 20 15 50 35 45 40 15 20 70 10 15 85 10 65 25 40 40 20 85 15 40 23 20 17 13 . (၆) .

၆။ (၂ ၄) (၂ ၈) ။ ။ ။ 1. ) ။ - ။ (Vigny et al. ။ ၂ . - ။ ၁၉၁၂ ၂ ။ 4. ။ ၂ ၄ Stein Okal (2005) ၄ ။ ၂ ၅ ၂ ၈ - (၃) ။ ၍ ။ ၈ ±၂ ။ ။ 2. ။ (၂) ၂ ၊ ။ ၆။ - ။ 14 . 2003)။ ၌ ။ 3.. .

R. J. Nature 449.. Thesis. 187–232 . Nelson (1982) Catalog of significant earthquakes 2000 BC to 1979. Acad. of Asian Earth Sciences 25. Maury.Res. Rangin. (M. G. including quantitative causalities and damage. C..R. 2005). Cummins. Seis. P. Myanmar Earthquake Committee... 75-79. R. H. (2007) The potential for giant tsunamigenic earthquakes in the northern Bay of Bengal. Myanmar Earthquake Committee (2003) Survey report on TaungTwinGyi Earthquake. R.P. 479–484.R. Sci. Guillaud.L. H.M. and J. London. Soc. C. 1998. Curray. 22 September 2003. Htun.. Bull.. University of Yangon) Ganse. (Unpublished) 15 . (2005) Tectonics and history of the Andaman Sea region. Amer. Bellon. Chhibber. Paris 327. H. 72. B. 3.. 873-877. 530p. A. Eyn Keey (2006) Engineering Geology of the Mandalay-Amarapura area. Myanmar Engineering Society. ။ ။ ။ ၊ ၌ ။ ။ (၁) ၊ ၊ (၂ ၊ (၃) (continuous GPS) ၊ (၄) (၅) ၊ ၊ ၊ ၊ ၊ ၊ ၊ Bertrand. J. Department of Geology. Jourl. The Singu basalts (Myanmar): new constraints for the amount of recent offset on the Sagaing Fault. Maung Thein and Tint Lwin Swe (2006) The seismic zone map of Myanmar (Revised version. (1934) The Geology of Burma: Macmillan & Co..

M.. (presentation) Soe Thura Tun (2006) The Sagaing Fault: a desk study report on seismotectonic implications in Myanmar.Sc. University of Rangoon Win Swe (1972) Strike-slip faulting in Central belt of Burma. Okal (2005) The 2004 Sumatra Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami: what happened and why.Satyabala. Aung (2008) Geologic evident for great Holocene earthquakes off Myanmar. Earthquake occurrences in the Myanmar region (Map). (Dec. C. 1.. 1-5. Geophys. Myanmar. T. W. Malaysia. Pubellier. Satoru Ohya Memorial Workshop on Seismotectonics in Myanmar and Earthquake Risk Management. 2009) Vigny. Tint Lwin Swe. P. 63-7. 2003. Soc. Swe.A. in Haile. K (2007) Recent and future behaviour of the Sunda Megathrust. and Zaw Zaw Aung (2007) Progress report on building code development and implementations in Myanmar. S. Tun and T. Chamot-Rooke. SMERM 2007. p. 2006. Saw. Regional conference on the geology of Southeast Asia. H. 23 Than Tin Aung. 16 . Y. Saw Htwe Zaw. Bertrand. Win Swe (1981) A major Strike-slip fault in Burma: Contributions to Burmese Geology 1. Shishikura. Satoru Ohya Memorial Workshop on Seismotectonics in Myanmar and Earthquake Risk Management. School Family Day National Seminar.. Satake. The Earth Scientist 11. 2. SMERM 2007. N. L. Tin Maung Nyunt and Win Naing (2003) September 22 Earthquake in the Taungdwingyi Area. Win Aung Cho. and M. Okamura. Myanmar. S. Rangin. M. Yangon. Res. Chap. Thesis. western Central Myanmar. Geol. Abstract. Yangon. (Internal publication) Myanmar Earthquake Committee. Yangon. 25-28 January 2007. Bouin. M. ETG 6-1-10 Win Naing (1973) Geology and Groundwater Hydrology of Greater Rangoon. 59. ed. Sieh. Myanmar. 108. A. Yu Maung. G. K.. S. Diggles. T.-N. International Symposium on Giant Earthquakes and Tsunamis. Personal communication (February. Abstract Volume. University of Yangon. J. Min Swe. 9-10. E. 6-11 Than Myint.S. M. Socquet. Myanmar) Stein. and E. N. Abstract Volume. (2003) The historical earthquakes of India in International Handbook of Earthquakes and Engineering Seismology edited by M. Swe. p. Phuket 2008. Becker (2003) Present-day crustal deformation around Sagaing Fault. Annex to Newsletter 34. C. Department of Geology. 113 Soe Thura Tun.