GENRE AND ENUNCIATION: THE CASE OF HORROR Author(s): EDWARD LOWRY Source: Journal of Film and Video, Vol

. 36, No. 2, SPECTATORSHIP AND NEW TECHNOLOGY (Spring 1984), pp. 13-20, 72 Published by: University of Illinois Press on behalf of the University Film & Video Association Stable URL: . Accessed: 13/03/2011 17:27
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Lowry LOWRY has Comment. by an posit ? Copyright 1984by Edward Lowry this example. in war films. in their variety castles settings. ofHaitian voodoo in the original zombie films. of times to modem horror and movies are set in a places. Wood's nevertheless suggests the difficulties in volved in seeking generic specificity in structures "other. it remains producers. is often Other for genres the threat to normality posed the Indian. with identify the monster (The Bride of Frankenstein). and its component films diverse enough.D. (Spring 1984) 13 .and ofHasidism in the story taught Film Studies at the University and the University of Texas of Iowa. and is subject to systematization mainly according to a fairlywide range of sub genres: is threatened by theMonster. motels." "other" of conflict. largely tories). As a category. In westerns. Clearly. more than perhaps has any of the golem. the sym bologies of ancient Egypt surrounding the mummy. EDWARD nomies in thewestern2) for individual films to champion values on either or both sides of the conflict: that is. but generalizations of this sort do more to demonstrate the superficiality of iconographic definitions than to define horror as a genre. film. sexualities. to present significant problems for the two major and inter related methods of analyzing genres: 1) according its specificities. eluded scholars in theirattempts to define inclusive enough. (like other of psychological (other classes. of certain consistencies on Observations ing to the structurationof conflict. axes. "normality Wood served in mind ity" put itmost concisely when he ob that. it OF JOURNAL FILM AND VIDEO XXXVI. the Black Robin Lagoon. many of the sub labora graveyards.GENRE AND ENUNCIATION: THE CASE OF HORROR EDWARD LOWRY The horror other genre so readily identifiedby both audiences and film. Wood's regarded in the horror tered labs of demented scientists to the fog-bound streets of 19thcenturyLondon. there are points of contact categories between (castles. monsters. to iconography. The iconography of the horror film seems equally eclectic when taken as a whole.we may be asked to with the victims (Dracula).we may note at least two advantages which this formulation offers to structural analysis: 1) it allows the threat of the monster to represent a variety "others" tures."1 insistence as a be Keeping that "normal "non-evaluative" superstition and of Christianity in tales of and werewolves. a creature be from a psycho or it a vampire. He studied at the Centre Universitaire du Cinema in Am6ricain Paris and received his Ph. Take One and Velvet Light Trap. with both (Curse of theWerewolf) or with neither (Texas Chainsaw Massacre). and is currently an Assistant Professor at Southern Illinois University. and 2) accord Unlike such genres as thewestern and the which remain fairly specific gangster film. etc. While definition quite apt. from the Univer has published in Film sity of Texas. the technologi the trappings of Eastern term inhis definition.). from medieval from the clut the narrative level seem to reveal a bit more: horror films relate the genesis and the threatof someone or somethingwhich is monstrous. and structuration and other 2) of social cul anti it allows European vampires cal and clinical instruments in stories of the tools of butch associated (knives. chainsaws) Jim Kitses' human-made ery with the psychopathic killer.

" "familial" structures by no means they demonstrate generic exclusive. Night as of order.3 to its structures of con or Ultimately. whole. gangster characteristic movies and detec of ideologi for articulating and ideological the contradictions threats individual.g. Girls). tive films which "genres horror The Schatz classifies describes Alien. to similar to without strategieswhich often intermingle the problem of generic specificity is furthercomplicated on the empirical level by the existence of the generic "hybrid": the western western horror musical the horror Such which as cases generic are cop film (Coogan's (The (Phantom (Young indicate may that further Haney Bluff). where conflict is moti graphies What Iwish to propose is the examination No audience so thoroughly other genre depends and filmic spectacle. for generic resolving (e. on the sado-masochistic relationship between 14 JOURNAL OF FILM AND VIDEO XXXVI. according into either Schatz. Thomas externalized the westerns.fairly consistently treats the threat posed arising to bourgeois from Nor normality by an "otherness" the intrusion of an outsider can the horror the "genres Certainly. Psycho and Mr. which integration." equally films as Frankenstein. By Exorcist. vated or strongly linked to emotional fac tors. Jekyll and either version of movies like The and any version of Dr. the ease mesh. Family melodrama group is the re-integration of the aberrant character. comedy comedies screwball family melodramas. such of the Living Dead Thing. to the category and musicals. flict. Hyde conform.. these observations do less to by a change in a member of the social group. of "genres occur in a civilized. Frankenstein). contrast. film be fit as or a is usually the enemy. challenge the identification of specific structures of conflict within popular film than to suggest different that these structures represent strategies threats society) narratives of order" the the "genres of integration" outlined by cally contested space where conflict is in violence. and where the goal of the social space. with even icono the the musical regard boundaries. 2 (Spring 1984) . along with of the Paradise). Of course.

is both and a process of tional power. the audience for the genre's emo ters the theater in full knowledge that the film will attempt to terrorize them. con spectacle frequently fronting the spectator with images of vio Neale..of horror dress. the actual to produce horror. least of as "Each Neale continues. thisdynamic relationship does a good deal to account active-screaming. mode cess at to lence. . but it is so inand for a subject. is the monster willing to acknowledge that an important characteristic of the horror film is its at tempt to produce a horrific subject-posi tion for the viewer. Noel Burch discusses confronted the raison It is the "that with d'2tre spectacle mixture . no other type of film depends so thor oughly on a sado-masochistic relationship between the audience and the filmspecta cle as does the horror film." film likeBlood Feast to the grotesqueness in Whatever Hap the itself. genre. from themystery. itswill to horrify the viewer. Such mutilations of mayhem. Certainly. which in volves the links between the formal and rhetorical systems of a text. for exam ple. These are precisely the iconographies. of suspense and terror which characterize the horror filmand separate it. graphic of of decay.5 articulation pro are if we appearance is withheld (The Cat People) or revealed (the unmasking of The whose Phantom of the Opera) according to codes spectacle Frequently. of re of Narrative production . images presented simply from of the eerieness. and position. word) "enounced. .. (Spring 1984) 15 . of enunciation and thatwhich is (for lack of a better relation the text. where the killer is usually seen throughoutbut not identified as such until the conclusion. moving the subject dif ferently in theirvarious semiotic pro cesses. . address. "has. its own version between of the the balance" Therefore.4 For this involves both the process the inscribed latter in producing distinct modes of aggression. we may learn a great deal about the genre by examining the enunciative strategies it involves. ration. As Stephen Neale writes. covering the eyes. the fanaticism of its de votees and its frequent dismissal as pure sensationalism. conflicts in the cinema linked and as a mode of ad im clearly to certain structural Although nearly all narrative films proceed according to the promise of pleasure and its portantly. range implying the positioning of the viewer in the narrative. In the horror involves or genre. . . where the thing withheld is a solution and not a OF JOURNAL FILM AND VIDEO XXXVI. It is this ques tion of address and of the discursive re lationships established between audience and spectacle which provides a means to discuss what is unique about the horror film: that is.6 and this teases with which the enunciation threatens itself the viewer. Examining horror from this perspective requires focusing attention on the textual works strategies by which the horror film strategies of filmic enunciation. performance of narrative and filmiccodes in relation to the viewer. This is exem suspense sequence assumes this manner subsequent postponement (charac plified by the fact that the spectator's rela tion to the horror film is often quite laughing either nervously or derisively." to some its own extent. but more terized by the hermeneutic code). ror movie Sensation and is what the hor en promises. Different modes of signification an activity of structu pugnance and fascination experienced by the viewer horror" as images of cinematic of horror produce different functionings of subjectivity. and the of presentation as a strictformal strategy. engaging the viewer in a very specific type of discourse. in a "gore" pened actresses decaying to Baby Jane? of horror of address.

2 (Spring 1984) poses the case of the moving point-of-view JOURNAL .-t ."8 to these brutal assaults on bodies that after are terrifyingly aspects to the extent that the viewer is placed ina position where the spectacle of horror is presented as the pleasurable fulfillment a desire. as the spectacle Burch of decay.." takes on overtly sadistic 16 ation."7 This clearly involves an aggressive structuration. and masochism. paid for at the box of office. the scopophilic impulse. which "arises from the pleasure inusing another person as an object of sexual stimulation through sight. though for our pur camera position associated with themon ster or killer is exemplary." all.. substance Burch is horror argues." we may observe that.w -':'ssM .... which according to of Mulvey "demands identification the ego with the object on the screen. but then absolutely everything is revealed to him." places the spectator of the horror film in a simulta neously masochistic position shared with the victim of the horror. in the horror ject's tendency to shift positions infantasy between the active and passive roles. the narcissistic aspect of the conventional construction of the viewer's look. On the other hand. "whose invariably very per (except by persons of extremely perverse sensibility) through a cloud of ceived pain.9 The seeming contradictions of this duality adhere to a psychoanalytic logic described by Freud in the dynamic relationship between sadism It is useful here to examine the sado masochism of the spectator position in a bitmore detail. Elaborated most fully in the horror films of Dario Argento and thoroughly conventionalized OF FILM AND VIDEO XXXVI. based on the sub On a textual level. . since "each of us similar is vulnerable to our own. this duality is charac terized by a variety of conventional strate gies in the horror film. Following Laura Mulvey's definition of the "two contradictory as pects of the pleasurable structures of looking in the conventional cinematic situ film.9 "Horror spectacle." a (Psycho) common outlines enunciative strategy in the presentation of horrific scenes: the spectator "is titillated at first by the suggestion of horror and thinks he (sic) has gotten off easily with a little shiver runningup his spine.

sented. whatever is repressed.. is transformed. (Spring 1984) 17 . not the killer's does point of view frequently rect inmaintaining that every affect belonging to an emotional impulse. how activity. sadistic the perpetrator of horror. The Freud on a closely related subject. until it is late). on the victim." is uncanny was itself it tolerable of the aggressor. Elr "In Halloween. identification restricted but of to the with the victim and with an overtly sadis tic mise-en-scene killer's a more point-of-view general represents the re seem to be verified by experience against the laws of logic. Of course." .12Most especially it is associated with the repression of the fear of death. then among if psychoanalytic preclude the viewer's the victim. of the killer (nor can the victim."10 conflict The between genre attraction presents and and re the specta should note that a central conflict inmany narratives the dif cle of horror as a kind of forbidden scene. spectator's the duality involved in the simultaneous is not shot.. the camera places the spectator sadistic position of the perpetrator of horror. identification the 13th) with the JOURNAL OF FILM AND VIDEO XXXVI. in com scene which the mechanisms of the film repress. to a even serves." in complete (similarly scopic in Friday. simultaneously desired dreaded-a ficulties experienced by the rational (the educated and scientific) in recognizing and dealing with the irrational ( its use this device of in John Carpenter's places the Halloween. if it into anxiety. difficult horror about which.13 revolves around he Here ob it we find characteristic lationship between the horror filmand its viewer which Noel Carroll has described as "the pulsion. identificationwith ity. Freud. spectator with the sadistic plete scopic identification position when it is pre psychic energy called forth This recalls He the observations of only to increase the amount of pleasure derived by looking through the killer's eyes is further en hanced by a scopophilic prelude to the violence which involves the voyeuristic intrusion sexual ever. and it must be a matter of indifference whether carried For what some something repressed which recurs. usually presented state of extreme vulnerabil sympathetic instances of frightening things there must be one class in which the frighteningelement can be shown to be This class of frighteningthingswould then constitute the uncanny. topic the most "educated" remain rational. its kind. The masochism of this position is further emphasized by the fact that the viewer too that cannot see the the face or the actions on the the only person present one and in a screen. writes. yet position point-of-view the horror be witnessed requires from the in originally frightening or whether other the affect. theory is cor eroticized by her/hisnudity and/or overtly At the same time. the "uncanny. when "uncanny" discarded frequently beliefs" arises "irrational.

His analysis of the Bodega Bay" sequence from symbolic con all the enunciative strategies by which danger and horror are concealed prior to course. enables point between the operation connections enunciation gaze. man-made demon monsters.15 vation American to "a ment can Moreover.'7 Stephen Neale observes that"Mainstream narrative is a mode of significationwhich 18 FILM VIDEO 2(Spring OF JOURNAL AND XXXVI. is a key device The Birds especially focuses on themech anism of suspense (a subject quite perti nent to the horror film) as it relates to with Melanie's (Tippi viewer identification Hedren's) gaze. assertion marks the session). resulting in the introduction of a shot representing his Bellour of view. or monstrous or from claw space from which a hand rigorous alternation between shots of her looking off-screen and shots representing what she sees. Both deny access to an off-screen may thrust forth to grab the shoulder of the protagonist. that cinema never we be given Bellour's in the obser classical according ele the in from enunciation in which frighteningas the harbinger of death itself by means of textual repressions on the level of framingand lighting. 14 in Argento's Suspiria and Deep to a specific character. Such camera movement of course includes the stalking killer's point-of-view.which obscures certain parts of the frame indarkness. we may now begin to In his pioneer work on enunciation and the cinema. but the "stalking" camera can be ominous even when it is not related understand the genre as a privileged site for the playing out of male castration anxieties in terms of horror. and given the enuncia tive logic of the genre. the spectator may assume that such direction holds rightfully a potential threat. and the aggression narratively at manifested to draw of the of according to a Freud's observation that "it is a matter of indifference whether what is uncanny was itself originally frightening" is quite enlightening in ex plaining how the hand of a companion or a harmless housecat can be made as of the male the end the sequence in the first (and otherwise by a unexplained) attack on Melanie gull. camera women. Camera movement may be employed to an is organized system the aggressive flection it receives ence. shock. Framing. and at the ex pense of the female body. 1984) . Raymond Bellour has carefully analyzed the patterns of editing in several Hitchcock films in order to demonstrate the links between viewer positioning (exe cuted according to established codes of point-of-view) "crossing and the structions of the text. unknown corpses. which occurs when Mitch (Rod Taylor) discovers Melanie." Shifting our attention back to the level of examine how the horror filmpositions the viewer in such a way that irrational fears are played canniness" upon and the sensation Here of "un cite is generated.beasts. camera/narrator. pos and that in any case the monstr of genre death. ideal site for the generation of the "un canny. we may enunciation."16 ation lence should separated be a from sexual differ alerted to the pos equally "uncanny" effect by threatening to reveal horrors which lie outside the frame's direction immediate of the view. enunciated lighting. from which a cat may leap to which may a senseless provide a murderous axe appear. sibilities offered by an analysis of enunci for providing the horror against significant penchant allowing explana for vio us to tion of film's movement conveys the sense of a willful spectator position by the Further. as an exemplified by the camera's dollying inon victims Red. Here. as is in this respect. The complication of this pattern. walking lycanthropy. of their "uncanny" appearance. a fact most clearly ous almost invariably represents the illogi cal This. and of unexpected course.

of classical Indeed. examination the entire passing all understanding involves approach textual usages specific of filmic codes. tive codes with fixedmeanings. to our This of range taken as a semiotic of the the of techniques of the horror film: the shock cut. of editing and of special effects. to the type of narrative to the previous and according OFFILM VIDEO JOURNAL AND XXXVI. but it is precisely the disruption of thatcoher ence which the horror film markets in its usage of codes in a specific historical con text. the stantaneous in an materialization of horror scream classically once the coherent spectator has the hand scene. 1984) (Spring 19 . Witness temporary. gives way Marion Crane in Psycho. in the is murdered to the narra of sound. What I have attempted here is to outline some of the ways inwhich the study of film enunciation. Finally. according or genre.on the eni inciative level by an shock to the narrative ismanifested camera m< ntage. Similarly. place tic context but the event of a character's at the moment vated logically by the horrorswhich came before. from from may encom the elements the theater the grave seat when at the end of Carrie. horror sition and structures ". since the relationships constantly not only but also current Eisensteinian The classicism of most horror films re quires a quick restoration of coherence to both the enunciation and the narrative. of mise-en-scene. otherwise Certainly. leapt bursts he/she diege moti method with psychoanalytic implications. the and classical of the viewer coherence. aural punctuation the unexpected by a a burst or in of music. coherence when shower enunciative sion of of the shock.18 and there posi is a coherence it seems in the dualistic that one constantly to produce coherence in promise extent centers of that sensationalism. of the wholesale. to panic. contributes horror film. I can only note here the important historical work which remains to be done. characteristic film involves disruption coherence. film as to the narrative the source film which sensa the ego of meaning the horror narrative tion enunciated by the horror filmfor the Yet. Clearly the specific codes have chsnged significantly since Georges Melies em ployed his technique of "trick editing" to awe and disorient show. perceptual in the context of an audience It is therefore a lexicon between fruitless of enuncia code and to the shock tive is manifested and enhanced on the by an incoherent explo camera and disorienting angles level montage. in the coherent dream. it should be noted that the most work in the fieldof genre during significant shift. of the most of the if only po shock the enunciative of strategies the viewer's is that genre spectators promises tion of temporary the occasional insanity. to compile assumptions of a magic attempt textual viewer the logical." (Psycho) and Eisenstenian angles disorienting "The works incoherent explosion of the subject through and across of the effects that it heterogeneity the mobilizes certainly viewer.

ed.g. more broadly. 1981). p. sion." dard Edition. better as "horror" understood lightingconventions of film noir). 4 Genre British Neale. 10 Noel Carroll. p. 1980). 14. pp.. the fact remains that the study of genre cannot be limited to the identification of icons or structures. pp. 2 Jim Kitses. 6 Noel Burch. Film: "Visual and Nar Pleasure Mulvey. Citi films a a non-horror frequently capitalize on the codes of hor a Western like Ulzana's Tarnished DePalma's Raid. Scarface. 10-12. melodrama like film like gangster and. precisely from the perspective of address and the textual relations established between audience and the past several years has taken place in must be said regard to the topic at hand. re Picture Show) seem farmore pertinent to understanding genre. Horror Get Rocky viewer. p. rative Cinema." Screen. 69-91 (mostly on Mar nie). "Ibid.." Neurosis. p. 1979). respect. 105 132 (on Psycho).. 16 Perver Neurosis.g.. Specifically. 27. 26. 5 Ibid. pp." Camera Obs 2 (Fall 1977). in and spectacle. 118. 25. and the Horror "Nightmare *Ibid." Camera 3/4 (Summer Obscura. p. since all of these terms posit specific relationships between audi ence the gangster 23 (1975). Horizons West (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. the musical ing of narrative conflicts common to the Furthermore. p. & Warburg. "The 'Uncanny'. it should be added than a catalog York: Random House. it while stories of monstrosity may that. cura. (This article provides an overview of Be on (continued page 72) 20 FILM VIDEO 2(Spring OF JOURNAL AND XXXVI. Angels. As such. 10.19 The musical has served as Notes 1 Robin Wood. The American Nightmare (Toronto: Festival of Festivals." p. 242-243. Whatever taxonomy scholars may choose. 24-38. of conflict that placement to the but could makes of not ac for that factor which musical: The a musi perfor spectacle. blocage symbolique. Other works by Be llour dealing with filmic enunciation include: "Le Communications. 14 Noel Carroll notes the use of this type of ''disembodied" but ominous camera movement in The Changeling. Bellour. constitute the cinema examined tion. pp. which of filmic horror can best enuncia in be an ideal site for such analysis. 33-69. 9 Laura than as genres the western. 1979). belonging detective film. 1979). where the camera circles one of the characters. Perversion. butmust be conceived in terms of filmdiscourse. 235-350(on North byNorthwest). they might be grouped with other modes of address such as the documentary." "Hitchcock: The Enunciator. 17 see On this point. "Les Oiseaux: Raymond description d'une du Cin?ma.the study of the musical. thatmusical moments in filmswhich are not specifically musicals themselves are quite zen ror common Kane). a narrative is a process at the level formula.. the comedic and the pornographic. ings. Theory of Film Practice (Lon don: 7 Seeker Ibid. 3 Thomas Genres Schatz. 16:3 (Autumn 1975). pp. 17. pp. and each represents a Camera 3/4 (Summer Obscura. Janet Bergstrom. (in (e. p. mode of address which can inflecta wide range of subject matter. 11 Stan Sigmund Freud. 1973). Guys The Dolls. and Sexual Difference "Enunciation (Part I). musical within themusical text. and "Psychosis. 248." Film Quarterly. Gun. 2. 1984) . since the study of that particular genre gained very littlefrommethods which sought its deep structures count cal a mance. Hollywood (New is. 15 Bellour. In this and as "musical" of movie to the same are address order the and modes in the expressionistic The Symbolic of Fantastic Be Biology 34:3 (Spring 1981).. "Ibid. p. (London: Stephen Film Institute. 241. "Psychosis. just The as Big Sleep. 126. p. Cahiers 216 s?quence.pp. see especially Ch. 1970)." (Octobre 1969). 128. itspresentation as performance self Annie be performance and and its lationship to the narrative (which may it generic: Your e.

7. consult MGM/UA's cited used for assessing report. 27"Francis Ford Coppola Wells. 44-6." Gary Fisher. Reporter. 1982. September (continued frompage 49) looks quite good when viewed on a tube. 19 ed. February "Future and Fujio. and Jane Feuer. Whatever the system which ultimately emerges. Office.) usefulness 18 p. Tokyo: NHK Technical Monograph number 32. and "Onrush nology occupies world television community. broadcasting inHigh-Definition television. for 30' field of view utilized for 35mm theatrical exhibition was (the general target for HDTV) used for determining the spectator's field of view encompassed in a home HDTV display. Genre: See especially Rick Altman. home the past f. 1. 166." Take One. there is no required vertical movement as there is in viewing a the spectator in normal. p. 56Hooten. 30 Technology "Letter from Toronto: June IMAX After." high-definition Television. see "Beam me up to the example. 1983. interview. interview with Saul Swimmer. interview. 22RCA Corporation Annual Report. We will see. interview. 2 (Spring 1984) . 1983 telephone p. Reporter. Box Office. especially the comments of Joseph Pelton." op cit. 3 24Variety. The and for conventional television presentation "Criteria for Motion viewing. 36. 37. March of satellite tech 1984. Interview. Neale. 84. 54Bridge. June 1983.p. 1983-see Broadcasting. Picture Viewing and for a New 70mm System: Its Process and Viewing Arrangements. and Kusaka. August 58Alan Colins.16. As an additional confirmation of the theatrical vs. 1981. Ben Schlanger. 1981). "Telephone President of MobileVision Inc." 21. 60Hooten.(continued from page 20) (continued from page 19"The Broadcasting. 1975. "Ibid. 1983. 20Takashi Brave 42) World of HDTV. 1982. the and Jim Freeman. 808." "Producing American Cinematographer 57 (1976): 751-752. interview. p.13. 25. September 25"The Brave New World of HDTV. p. p. 23For video tv in the same period. itwill most likely be one which has benefited from the pioneering work of Coppola and his associates at Zoetrope Studios." booth." Hollywood 23. Englund. p. film and large-screen everyday visual experience. 87. 28-9. pay video annual figures. 21Hollywood July 20. Weed. 52While the wide-screen film formats such as and CinemaScope Cinerama do require (in certain horizontal and head eye houses) movements in order to watch the drama on the screen. 1982. interview. years. pp. privately. in Box 1983. 9. The Musical & Kegan (London: Routledge The Hollywood Paul. p.y. Scotty. Indiana Musical University (Bloomington: Press. New 1. but its video image in no sense compares favorably with that of film. Sakata. and a discussion to feminist theory." of its llour's work on film. that electronic imaging will never compare favorably with that of photochemical systems. 1982). 162. Over revenue from theatrical distribution and pay five has SMPTE Journal 75 (1966):Figure 1. p. March 14. Five Years 1983 telephone interview." the viewing angle of the 35mm theatrical field of view were jumped from$63 million to $260 million. June. (continued frompage 30) spectator's f.. Bridge.y. 61Harrington. for jumpwas from$3 million to $144 million. Film Journal. pp. 30 interview with Donald August 72 OF JOURNAL FILM AND VIDEO XXXVI. "Englund. 568. 1983. "1Greg MacGillivary the Imax Motion Picture: 'To Fly'. 26"Spectre of labor unrest future: Aldrich. 84. looms in videotape October Jeffery 1981. 37. 1. p. pp. 7.There are even some electronic engineers who argue. p. pp. 62Telephone 1983. 53Hatada.

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