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Atoll

RF Planning and Optimisation Software

Version 2.7.1

Technical
Reference
Guide

AT271_TRG_E6
Technical Reference Guide

Contact Information

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Atoll 2.7.1 Technical Reference Guide Release AT271_TRG_E6

© Copyright 1997 - 2009 by Forsk


The software described in this document is provided under a licence agreement. The software may only be used/copied
under the terms and conditions of the licence agreement. No part of this document may be copied, reproduced or
distributed in any form without prior authorisation from Forsk.

The product or brand names mentioned in this document are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective
registering parties.

About Technical Reference Guide


This document is targeted at readers with a prior knowledge of Atoll, its operation and basic functioning. It is not the User
Manual for Atoll, and does not teach how to operate and use Atoll. It is a supplementary document containing detailed
descriptions of models, algorithms and concepts adopted in Atoll. Therefore, it concerns only the appropriate personnel.

Atoll Technical Reference Guide is divided into three parts with each part comprising similar topics. The first part contains
descriptions of general terms, entities, ideas and concepts in Atoll that are encountered throughout its use. It is followed
by the second part that consists of descriptions of entities common to all types of networks and the algorithms that are
technology independent and are available in any network type. Lastly, the guide provides detailed descriptions of each
basic type of network that can be modelled and studied in Atoll.

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 iii


Technical Reference Guide

iv AT271_TRG_E6 © Forsk 2009


Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1 Coordinate Systems and Units ....................................................... 25


1.1 Coordinate Systems............................................................................................................................... 25
1.1.1 Description of Coordinate Systems .................................................................................................. 25
1.1.1.1 Geographic Coordinate System.................................................................................................. 25
1.1.1.2 Datum ......................................................................................................................................... 25
1.1.1.3 Meridian ...................................................................................................................................... 25
1.1.1.4 Ellipsoid ...................................................................................................................................... 25
1.1.1.5 Projection.................................................................................................................................... 26
1.1.1.6 Projection Coordinate System .................................................................................................... 26
1.1.2 Coordinate Systems in Atoll ............................................................................................................. 26
1.1.2.1 Projection Coordinate System .................................................................................................... 26
1.1.2.2 Display Coordinate System ........................................................................................................ 26
1.1.2.3 Internal Coordinate Systems ...................................................................................................... 26
1.1.3 File Formats ..................................................................................................................................... 27
1.1.3.1 Unit Codes .................................................................................................................................. 27
1.1.3.2 Datum Codes.............................................................................................................................. 28
1.1.3.3 Projection Method Codes ........................................................................................................... 29
1.1.3.4 Ellipsoid Codes ........................................................................................................................... 29
1.1.3.5 Projection Parameter Indices...................................................................................................... 30
1.1.4 Creating a Coordinate System ......................................................................................................... 30
1.2 Units ....................................................................................................................................................... 30
1.2.1 Power Units ...................................................................................................................................... 30
1.2.2 Length Units ..................................................................................................................................... 31
1.3 BSIC Format .......................................................................................................................................... 31

2 Geographic and Radio Data ........................................................... 35


2.1 Geographic Data .................................................................................................................................... 35
2.1.1 Data Type......................................................................................................................................... 35
2.1.1.1 Digital Terrain Model (DTM) ....................................................................................................... 35
2.1.1.2 Clutter (Land Use) ...................................................................................................................... 36
2.1.1.2.1 Clutter Classes...................................................................................................................... 36
2.1.1.2.2 Clutter Heights ...................................................................................................................... 36
2.1.1.3 Traffic Data ................................................................................................................................. 36
2.1.1.3.1 Environment Traffic Maps ..................................................................................................... 36
2.1.1.3.2 User Profile Traffic Maps....................................................................................................... 36
2.1.1.3.3 Live Traffic Maps................................................................................................................... 36
2.1.1.3.4 User Density Traffic Maps..................................................................................................... 37
2.1.1.4 Vector Data................................................................................................................................. 37
2.1.1.5 Scanned Images......................................................................................................................... 37
2.1.1.6 Population................................................................................................................................... 37
2.1.1.7 Other Geographic Data............................................................................................................... 37
2.1.2 Supported Geographic Data Formats .............................................................................................. 37
2.2 Radio Data ............................................................................................................................................. 38
2.2.1 Site ................................................................................................................................................... 38
2.2.2 Antenna ............................................................................................................................................ 38
2.2.3 Transmitter ....................................................................................................................................... 38
2.2.4 Repeater........................................................................................................................................... 38
2.2.5 Remote Antenna .............................................................................................................................. 39
2.2.6 Station .............................................................................................................................................. 39
2.2.7 Hexagonal Design ............................................................................................................................ 39
2.2.8 GSM GPRS EGPRS Documents ..................................................................................................... 39
2.2.8.1 TRX............................................................................................................................................. 39
2.2.8.2 Subcell ........................................................................................................................................ 39
2.2.8.3 Cell Type..................................................................................................................................... 39
2.2.9 All CDMA and WiMAX BWA Documents ......................................................................................... 39
2.2.9.1 Cell.............................................................................................................................................. 39

3 File Formats .................................................................................... 43


3.1 BIL Format ............................................................................................................................................. 43

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 v


Technical Reference Guide

3.1.1 HDR Header File...............................................................................................................................43


3.1.1.1 Description ..................................................................................................................................43
3.1.1.2 Samples ......................................................................................................................................44
3.1.1.2.1 Digital Terrain Model..............................................................................................................44
3.1.1.2.2 Clutter Classes File................................................................................................................44
3.1.1.2.3 BIL File...................................................................................................................................44
3.2 TIF Format ..............................................................................................................................................45
3.2.1 TFW Header File...............................................................................................................................45
3.2.2 Sample ..............................................................................................................................................46
3.2.2.1 Clutter Classes File .....................................................................................................................46
3.3 BMP Format............................................................................................................................................46
3.3.1 BMP File Description.........................................................................................................................46
3.3.1.1 BMP File Structure ......................................................................................................................46
3.3.1.2 BMP Raster Data Encoding ........................................................................................................48
3.3.1.2.1 Raster Data Compression Descriptions.................................................................................48
3.3.2 BPW/BMW Header File Description..................................................................................................49
3.3.3 Sample ..............................................................................................................................................49
3.3.3.1 Clutter Classes File .....................................................................................................................49
3.4 Generic Raster Header File (.wld) ..........................................................................................................49
3.4.1 WLD File Description ........................................................................................................................49
3.4.2 Sample ..............................................................................................................................................49
3.4.2.1 Clutter Classes File .....................................................................................................................49
3.5 DXF Format ............................................................................................................................................50
3.6 SHP Format ............................................................................................................................................50
3.7 MIF Format .............................................................................................................................................50
3.8 TAB Format ............................................................................................................................................50
3.9 ECW Format ...........................................................................................................................................51
3.10 Erdas Imagine Format ............................................................................................................................51
3.11 Planet EV/Vertical Mapper Geographic Data Format .............................................................................51
3.12 ArcView Grid Format ..............................................................................................................................52
3.12.1 ArcView Grid File Description ...........................................................................................................52
3.12.2 Sample ..............................................................................................................................................52
3.13 Other Supported Geographic Data File Formats ....................................................................................52
3.14 Planet Format .........................................................................................................................................52
3.14.1 DTM File............................................................................................................................................53
3.14.1.1 Description ..................................................................................................................................53
3.14.1.2 Sample ........................................................................................................................................53
3.14.2 Clutter Class Files .............................................................................................................................53
3.14.2.1 Description ..................................................................................................................................53
3.14.2.2 Sample ........................................................................................................................................54
3.14.3 Vector Files .......................................................................................................................................54
3.14.3.1 Description ..................................................................................................................................54
3.14.3.2 Sample ........................................................................................................................................55
3.14.4 Image Files........................................................................................................................................55
3.14.5 Text Data Files ..................................................................................................................................55
3.15 MNU Format ...........................................................................................................................................56
3.15.1 Description ........................................................................................................................................56
3.15.2 Sample ..............................................................................................................................................56
3.16 XML Table Export/Import Format ...........................................................................................................56
3.16.1 Index.xml File ....................................................................................................................................56
3.16.2 XML File ............................................................................................................................................57
3.17 Externalised Propagation Results Format ..............................................................................................58
3.17.1 DBF File ............................................................................................................................................58
3.17.1.1 DBF File Format ..........................................................................................................................58
3.17.1.1.1 DBF Structure ........................................................................................................................58
3.17.1.1.2 DBF Header (Variable Size - Depends on Field Count) ........................................................58
3.17.1.1.3 Each DBF Record (Fixed Length)..........................................................................................60
3.17.1.2 DBF File Content.........................................................................................................................60
3.17.2 LOS File ............................................................................................................................................61
3.18 Externalised Tuning Files .......................................................................................................................61
3.18.1 DBF File ............................................................................................................................................61
3.18.1.1 DBF File Format ..........................................................................................................................61
3.18.1.1.1 DBF Structure ........................................................................................................................62
3.18.1.1.2 DBF Header (Variable Size - Depends on Field Count) ........................................................62
3.18.1.1.3 Each DBF Record (Fixed Length)..........................................................................................63
3.18.1.2 DBF File Content.........................................................................................................................63
3.18.2 PTS File ............................................................................................................................................64
3.19 Interference Histograms File Formats ....................................................................................................64

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3.19.1 One Histogram per Line (.im0) Format............................................................................................. 64


3.19.1.1 Sample........................................................................................................................................ 65
3.19.2 One Value per Line with Dictionary File (.clc) Format ...................................................................... 65
3.19.2.1 CLC File...................................................................................................................................... 66
3.19.2.1.1 Description ............................................................................................................................ 66
3.19.2.1.2 Sample .................................................................................................................................. 66
3.19.2.2 DCT File...................................................................................................................................... 67
3.19.2.2.1 Description ............................................................................................................................ 67
3.19.2.2.2 Sample .................................................................................................................................. 67
3.19.3 One Value per Line (Transmitter Name Repeated) (.im1) Format ................................................... 68
3.19.3.1 Sample........................................................................................................................................ 68
3.19.4 Only Co-Channel and Adjacent Values (.im2) Format ..................................................................... 69
3.19.4.1 Sample........................................................................................................................................ 69

4 Calculations .................................................................................... 73
4.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................ 73
4.2 Path Loss Matrices................................................................................................................................. 74
4.2.1 Calculation Area Determination........................................................................................................ 75
4.2.1.1 Computation Zone ...................................................................................................................... 75
4.2.1.2 Use of Polygonal Zones in Coverage Prediction Reports........................................................... 75
4.2.2 Calculate / Force Calculation Comparison ....................................................................................... 76
4.2.2.1 Calculate..................................................................................................................................... 76
4.2.2.2 Force Calculation........................................................................................................................ 76
4.2.3 Matrix Validity ................................................................................................................................... 76
4.3 Path Loss Calculations........................................................................................................................... 77
4.3.1 Ground Altitude Determination ......................................................................................................... 77
4.3.2 Clutter Determination ....................................................................................................................... 78
4.3.2.1 Clutter Class ............................................................................................................................... 78
4.3.2.2 Clutter Height.............................................................................................................................. 78
4.3.3 Geographic Profile Extraction........................................................................................................... 78
4.3.3.1 Extraction Methods ..................................................................................................................... 78
4.3.3.1.1 Radial Extraction ................................................................................................................... 78
4.3.3.1.2 Systematic Extraction ........................................................................................................... 79
4.3.3.2 Profile Resolution: Multi-Resolution Management...................................................................... 80
4.4 Propagation Models ............................................................................................................................... 82
4.4.1 Okumura-Hata and Cost-Hata Propagation Models......................................................................... 83
4.4.1.1 Hata Path Loss Formula ............................................................................................................. 83
4.4.1.2 Corrections to the Hata Path Loss Formula................................................................................ 83
4.4.1.3 Calculations in Atoll .................................................................................................................... 83
4.4.2 ITU 529-3 Propagation Model .......................................................................................................... 84
4.4.2.1 ITU 529-3 Path Loss Formula..................................................................................................... 84
4.4.2.2 Corrections to the ITU 529-3 Path Loss Formula ....................................................................... 84
4.4.2.2.1 Environment Correction ........................................................................................................ 84
4.4.2.2.2 Area Size Correction ............................................................................................................. 84
4.4.2.2.3 Distance Correction .............................................................................................................. 85
4.4.2.3 Calculations in Atoll .................................................................................................................... 85
4.4.3 Standard Propagation Model (SPM) ................................................................................................ 85
4.4.3.1 SPM Path Loss Formula............................................................................................................. 85
4.4.3.2 Calculations in Atoll .................................................................................................................... 86
4.4.3.2.1 Visibility and Distance Between Transmitter and Receiver................................................... 86
4.4.3.2.2 Effective Transmitter Antenna Height ................................................................................... 86
4.4.3.2.3 Effective Receiver Antenna Height ....................................................................................... 89
4.4.3.2.4 Correction for Hilly Regions in Case of LOS ......................................................................... 89
4.4.3.2.5 Diffraction .............................................................................................................................. 90
4.4.3.2.6 Losses due to Clutter ............................................................................................................ 90
4.4.3.2.7 Recommendations ................................................................................................................ 91
4.4.3.3 Automatic SPM Calibration......................................................................................................... 91
4.4.3.3.1 General Algorithm ................................................................................................................. 92
4.4.3.3.2 Sample Values for SPM Path Loss Formula Parameters ..................................................... 92
4.4.3.4 Unmasked Path Loss Calculation............................................................................................... 93
4.4.4 WLL Propagation Model ................................................................................................................... 94
4.4.4.1 WLL Path Loss Formula ............................................................................................................. 94
4.4.4.2 Calculations in Atoll .................................................................................................................... 94
4.4.4.2.1 Free Space Loss ................................................................................................................... 94
4.4.4.2.2 Diffraction .............................................................................................................................. 94
4.4.5 ITU-R P.526-5 Propagation Model ................................................................................................... 95
4.4.5.1 ITU 526-5 Path Loss Formula..................................................................................................... 95
4.4.5.2 Calculations in Atoll .................................................................................................................... 95

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 vii


Technical Reference Guide

4.4.5.2.1 Free Space Loss....................................................................................................................95


4.4.5.2.2 Diffraction...............................................................................................................................95
4.4.6 ITU-R P.370-7 Propagation Model....................................................................................................95
4.4.6.1 ITU 370-7 Path Loss Formula .....................................................................................................95
4.4.6.2 Calculations in Atoll .....................................................................................................................95
4.4.6.2.1 Free Space Loss....................................................................................................................95
4.4.6.2.2 Corrected Standard Loss.......................................................................................................95
4.4.7 Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) Propagation Model .....................................................................................96
4.4.7.1 SUI Terrain Types .......................................................................................................................97
4.4.7.2 Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) Path Loss Formula................................................................................97
4.4.7.3 Calculations in Atoll .....................................................................................................................98
4.4.8 ITU-R P.1546-2 Propagation Model..................................................................................................98
4.4.8.1 Calculations in Atoll .....................................................................................................................99
4.4.8.1.1 Step 1: Determination of Graphs to be Used.........................................................................99
4.4.8.1.2 Step 2: Calculation of Maximum Field Strength.....................................................................99
4.4.8.1.3 Step 3: Determination of Transmitter Antenna Height ...........................................................99
4.4.8.1.4 Step 4: Interpolation/Extrapolation of Field Strength .............................................................99
4.4.8.1.5 Step 5: Calculation of Correction Factors ............................................................................101
4.4.8.1.6 Step 6: Calculation of Path Loss..........................................................................................102
4.4.9 Sakagami Extended Propagation Model.........................................................................................103
4.4.10 Appendices .....................................................................................................................................104
4.4.10.1 Free Space Loss .......................................................................................................................104
4.4.10.2 Diffraction Loss..........................................................................................................................104
4.4.10.2.1 Knife-Edge Diffraction..........................................................................................................104
4.4.10.2.2 3 Knife-Edge Deygout Method.............................................................................................105
4.4.10.2.3 Epstein-Peterson Method ....................................................................................................107
4.4.10.2.4 Deygout Method with Correction .........................................................................................107
4.4.10.2.5 Millington Method.................................................................................................................107
4.5 Path Loss Tuning..................................................................................................................................108
4.6 Antenna Attenuation Calculation ..........................................................................................................109
4.6.1 Calculation of Azimuth and Tilt Angles............................................................................................109
4.6.2 Antenna Pattern 3-D Interpolation...................................................................................................110
4.6.3 Additional Electrical Downtilt Modelling...........................................................................................111
4.6.4 Antenna Pattern Smoothing ............................................................................................................111
4.6.4.1 Smoothing Algorithm .................................................................................................................113
4.7 Shadowing Model .................................................................................................................................113
4.7.1 Shadowing Margin Calculation........................................................................................................116
4.7.1.1 Shadowing Margin Calculation in Predictions ...........................................................................116
4.7.1.2 Shadowing Margin Calculation in Monte-Carlo Simulations......................................................117
4.7.2 Macro-Diversity Gains Calculation ..................................................................................................118
4.7.2.1 Uplink Macro-Diversity Gain Evaluation ....................................................................................118
4.7.2.1.1 Shadowing Error PDF (n Signals)........................................................................................118
4.7.2.1.2 Uplink Macro-Diversity Gain ................................................................................................121
4.7.2.2 Downlink Macro-Diversity Gain Evaluation ...............................................................................121
4.7.2.2.1 Shadowing Error PDF (n Signals)........................................................................................121
4.7.2.2.2 Downlink Macro-Diversity Gain............................................................................................123
4.8 Appendices ...........................................................................................................................................124
4.8.1 Transmitter Radio Equipment .........................................................................................................124
4.8.1.1 UMTS HSPA, CDMA2000 1xRTT 1xEV-DO, IS-95 cdmaOne, and
TD-SCDMA Documents124
4.8.1.2 GSM GPRS EGPRS Documents ..............................................................................................125
4.8.1.3 WiMAX 802.16d and WiMAX 802.16e Documents ...................................................................126
4.8.2 Secondary Antennas.......................................................................................................................127

5 GSM GPRS EGPRS Networks......................................................131


5.1 General Prediction Studies ...................................................................................................................131
5.1.1 Calculation Criteria..........................................................................................................................131
5.1.2 Point Analysis..................................................................................................................................131
5.1.2.1 Profile Tab .................................................................................................................................131
5.1.2.2 Reception Tab ...........................................................................................................................131
5.1.3 Coverage Studies............................................................................................................................132
5.1.3.1 Service Area Determination ......................................................................................................132
5.1.3.1.1 All Servers ...........................................................................................................................132
5.1.3.1.2 Best Signal Level and a Margin ...........................................................................................132
5.1.3.1.3 Second Best Signal Level and a Margin..............................................................................132
5.1.3.1.4 Best Signal Level per HCS Layer and a Margin ..................................................................133
5.1.3.1.5 HCS Servers and a Margin..................................................................................................133
5.1.3.1.6 Highest Priority HCS Server and a Margin ..........................................................................133

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5.1.3.1.7 Second Best Signal Level per HCS Layer and a Margin .................................................... 134
5.1.3.1.8 Best Idle Mode Reselection Criterion (C2).......................................................................... 134
5.1.3.2 Coverage Display ..................................................................................................................... 135
5.1.3.2.1 Plot Resolution .................................................................................................................... 135
5.1.3.2.2 Display Types ..................................................................................................................... 135
5.2 Traffic Analysis..................................................................................................................................... 136
5.2.1 Traffic Distribution .......................................................................................................................... 136
5.2.1.1 Normal Cells (Nonconcentric, No HCS Layer).......................................................................... 136
5.2.1.1.1 Circuit Switched Services.................................................................................................... 136
5.2.1.1.2 Packet Switched Services................................................................................................... 136
5.2.1.2 Concentric Cells........................................................................................................................ 136
5.2.1.2.1 Circuit Switched Services.................................................................................................... 136
5.2.1.2.2 Packet Switched Services................................................................................................... 136
5.2.1.3 HCS Layers .............................................................................................................................. 136
5.2.1.3.1 Circuit Switched Services.................................................................................................... 137
5.2.1.3.2 Packet Switched Services................................................................................................... 137
5.2.2 Calculation of the Traffic Demand per Subcell ............................................................................... 137
5.2.2.1 Traffic Maps Based on Environments and User Profiles .......................................................... 137
5.2.2.1.1 Normal Cells (Nonconcentric, No HCS Layer) .................................................................... 137
5.2.2.1.2 Concentric Cells .................................................................................................................. 137
5.2.2.1.3 HCS Layers......................................................................................................................... 138
5.2.2.2 Traffic Maps Based on Transmitters and Services ................................................................... 142
5.2.2.2.1 Normal Cells (Nonconcentric, No HCS Layer) .................................................................... 142
5.2.2.2.2 Concentric Cells .................................................................................................................. 142
5.2.2.2.3 HCS Layers......................................................................................................................... 143
5.3 Network Dimensioning ......................................................................................................................... 146
5.3.1 Dimensioning Models and Quality Graphs ..................................................................................... 146
5.3.1.1 Circuit Switched Traffic ............................................................................................................. 146
5.3.1.2 Packet Switched Traffic ............................................................................................................ 146
5.3.1.2.1 Throughput.......................................................................................................................... 146
5.3.1.2.2 Delay ................................................................................................................................... 149
5.3.1.2.3 Blocking Probability............................................................................................................. 149
5.3.2 Network Dimensioning Process ..................................................................................................... 150
5.3.2.1 Network Dimensioning Engine.................................................................................................. 150
5.3.2.1.1 Inputs .................................................................................................................................. 150
5.3.2.1.2 Outputs ............................................................................................................................... 151
5.3.2.2 Network Dimensioning Steps.................................................................................................... 151
5.3.2.2.1 Step 1: Timeslots Required for CS Traffic........................................................................... 151
5.3.2.2.2 Step 2: TRXs Required for CS Traffic and Dedicated PS Timeslots................................... 151
5.3.2.2.3 Step 3: Effective CS Blocking, Effective CS Traffic Overflow and Served CS Traffic ......... 152
5.3.2.2.4 Step 4: TRXs to Add for PS Traffic ..................................................................................... 152
5.3.2.2.5 Step 5: Served PS Traffic ................................................................................................... 154
5.3.2.2.6 Step 6: Total Traffic Load.................................................................................................... 154
5.4 Key Performance Indicators Calculation .............................................................................................. 154
5.4.1 Circuit Switched Traffic................................................................................................................... 155
5.4.1.1 Erlang B .................................................................................................................................... 155
5.4.1.2 Erlang C.................................................................................................................................... 155
5.4.1.3 Served Circuit Switched Traffic................................................................................................. 155
5.4.2 Packet Switched Traffic .................................................................................................................. 155
5.4.2.1 Case 1: Total Traffic Demand > Dedicated + Shared Timeslots .............................................. 155
5.4.2.1.1 Traffic Load ......................................................................................................................... 155
5.4.2.1.2 Packet Switched Traffic Overflow ....................................................................................... 156
5.4.2.1.3 Throughput Reduction Factor ............................................................................................. 156
5.4.2.1.4 Delay ................................................................................................................................... 156
5.4.2.1.5 Blocking Probability............................................................................................................. 156
5.4.2.1.6 Served Packet Switched Traffic .......................................................................................... 156
5.4.2.2 Case 2: Total Traffic Demand < Dedicated + Shared Timeslots .............................................. 156
5.4.2.2.1 Traffic Load ......................................................................................................................... 156
5.4.2.2.2 Packet Switched Traffic Overflow ....................................................................................... 156
5.4.2.2.3 Throughput Reduction Factor ............................................................................................. 156
5.4.2.2.4 Delay ................................................................................................................................... 156
5.4.2.2.5 Blocking Probability............................................................................................................. 156
5.4.2.2.6 Served Packet Switched Traffic .......................................................................................... 157
5.5 Neighbour Allocation ............................................................................................................................ 157
5.5.1 Global Allocation for All Transmitters ............................................................................................. 157
5.5.2 Allocation for a Group of Transmitters or One Transmitter ............................................................ 160
5.6 Interference Prediction Studies ............................................................................................................ 160
5.6.1 Coverage Studies ........................................................................................................................... 160

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5.6.1.1 Service Area Determination ......................................................................................................161


5.6.1.1.1 All Servers ...........................................................................................................................161
5.6.1.1.2 Best Signal Level per HCS Layer and a Margin ..................................................................161
5.6.1.1.3 Best Signal Level of the Highest Priority HCS Layer and a Margin .....................................161
5.6.1.1.4 Second Best Signal Level per HCS Layer and a Margin .....................................................161
5.6.1.2 Carrier to Interference Ratio Calculation ...................................................................................161
5.6.1.2.1 Carrier Power Level .............................................................................................................162
5.6.1.2.2 Interference Calculation.......................................................................................................163
5.6.1.2.3 Collision Probability for Non Hopping Mode ........................................................................164
5.6.1.2.4 Collision Probability for BBH and SFH Modes.....................................................................164
5.6.1.3 Coverage Area Determination...................................................................................................165
5.6.1.3.1 Interference Condition Satisfied by At Least One TRX........................................................165
5.6.1.3.2 Interference Condition Satisfied by The Worst TRX ............................................................165
5.6.1.4 Coverage Area Display .............................................................................................................165
5.6.1.4.1 C/I Level...............................................................................................................................165
5.6.1.4.2 Max C/I Level.......................................................................................................................165
5.6.1.4.3 Min C/I Level........................................................................................................................165
5.6.1.4.4 Transmitter...........................................................................................................................165
5.6.2 Point Analysis..................................................................................................................................166
5.7 GPRS EGPRS Coverage Studies ........................................................................................................166
5.7.1 Coverage Area Determination.........................................................................................................166
5.7.1.1 All Servers .................................................................................................................................166
5.7.1.2 Best Signal Level per HCS Layer and a Margin ........................................................................166
5.7.1.3 Second Best Signal Level per HCS Layer and a Margin...........................................................166
5.7.1.4 HCS Servers and a Margin .......................................................................................................167
5.7.1.5 Highest Priority HCS Server and a Margin ................................................................................167
5.7.2 Calculation Options .........................................................................................................................167
5.7.2.1 Calculations Based on C ...........................................................................................................167
5.7.2.2 Calculations Based on C/I Without Considering Thermal Noise ...............................................167
5.7.2.3 Calculations Based on C/I Considering Thermal Noise ............................................................168
5.7.2.4 Ideal Link Adaptation (ILA) ........................................................................................................168
5.7.3 Coverage Study Scenarios .............................................................................................................168
5.7.3.1 GPRS/EGPRS Studies Based on C Without ILA ......................................................................168
5.7.3.1.1 Coding Scheme Based on C Without ILA............................................................................168
5.7.3.1.2 Throughput Based on C Without ILA ...................................................................................168
5.7.3.2 GPRS/EGPRS Studies Based on C With ILA ...........................................................................169
5.7.3.2.1 Coding Scheme Based on C With ILA.................................................................................169
5.7.3.2.2 Throughput Based on C With ILA ........................................................................................169
5.7.3.3 GPRS/EGPRS Studies Based on C/I Without ILA and Thermal Noise .....................................169
5.7.3.3.1 Coding Scheme Based on C/I Without ILA and Thermal Noise ..........................................169
5.7.3.3.2 Throughput Based on Worst Case Between C and C/I Without ILA....................................170
5.7.3.4 GPRS/EGPRS Studies Based on C/I With ILA and Without Thermal Noise.............................170
5.7.3.4.1 Coding Scheme Based on C/I With ILA and Without Thermal Noise ..................................170
5.7.3.4.2 Throughput Based on Worst Case Between C and C/I With ILA.........................................170
5.7.3.5 GPRS/EGPRS Studies Based on C/I Without ILA and With Thermal Noise.............................170
5.7.3.5.1 Coding Scheme Based on C/I Without ILA and With Thermal Noise ..................................170
5.7.3.5.2 Throughput Based on Interpolation Between C/N and C/(I+N) Without ILA ........................171
5.7.3.6 GPRS/EGPRS Studies Based on C/I With ILA and Thermal Noise..........................................171
5.7.3.6.1 Coding Scheme Based on C/I With ILA and Thermal Noise ...............................................171
5.7.3.6.2 Throughput Based on Interpolation Between C/N and C/(I+N) With ILA .............................172
5.7.4 Coverage Display............................................................................................................................172
5.7.4.1 GPRS/EGPRS Coding Schemes Study Display Types ............................................................172
5.7.4.1.1 Coding Schemes .................................................................................................................172
5.7.4.1.2 Best Coding Schemes .........................................................................................................173
5.7.4.2 RLC/MAC and Application Throughput/Timeslot Studies Display Types ..................................173
5.7.4.2.1 Relation Between RLC/MAC and Application Throughputs.................................................173
5.7.4.2.2 Throughput/Timeslot............................................................................................................173
5.7.4.2.3 Best Throughput/Timeslot....................................................................................................173
5.7.4.2.4 Average Throughput/Timeslot .............................................................................................173
5.7.4.2.5 Block Error Rate Computation .............................................................................................173
5.7.4.2.6 BLER Percentage ................................................................................................................173
5.7.4.2.7 Maximum BLER Percentage ...............................................................................................174
5.8 Circuit Quality Indicators Studies..........................................................................................................174
5.8.1 Circuit Quality Indicators .................................................................................................................174
5.8.2 Coverage Area Determination.........................................................................................................175
5.8.2.1 All Servers .................................................................................................................................176
5.8.2.2 Best Signal Level per HCS Layer and a Margin ........................................................................176
5.8.2.3 Second Best Signal Level per HCS Layer and a Margin...........................................................176

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5.8.2.4 HCS Servers and a Margin....................................................................................................... 176


5.8.2.5 Highest Priority HCS Server and a Margin ............................................................................... 176
5.8.3 Calculation Options ........................................................................................................................ 176
5.8.3.1 Calculations Based on C/N....................................................................................................... 177
5.8.3.2 Calculations Based on C/(I+N) ................................................................................................. 177
5.8.3.3 Ideal Link Adaptation (ILA) ....................................................................................................... 178
5.8.4 Calculation Scenarios..................................................................................................................... 178
5.8.4.1 CQI Study Based on C/N Without ILA ...................................................................................... 178
5.8.4.2 CQI Study Based on C/N With ILA ........................................................................................... 178
5.8.4.3 CQI Study Based on C/(I+N) Without ILA................................................................................. 178
5.8.4.4 CQI Study Based on C/(I+N) With ILA...................................................................................... 179
5.8.5 Coverage Display ........................................................................................................................... 179
5.8.5.1 Circuit Quality Indicators Study Display Types ......................................................................... 179
5.8.5.1.1 FER/BER/MOS ................................................................................................................... 179
5.8.5.1.2 Max FER/Max BER/Max MOS ............................................................................................ 179

6 UMTS HSPA Networks ................................................................. 183


6.1 General Prediction Studies .................................................................................................................. 183
6.1.1 Calculation Criteria ......................................................................................................................... 183
6.1.2 Point Analysis ................................................................................................................................. 183
6.1.2.1 Profile Tab ................................................................................................................................ 183
6.1.2.2 Reception Tab .......................................................................................................................... 183
6.1.3 Coverage Studies ........................................................................................................................... 184
6.1.3.1 Service Area Determination...................................................................................................... 184
6.1.3.1.1 All Servers........................................................................................................................... 184
6.1.3.1.2 Best Signal Level and a Margin .......................................................................................... 184
6.1.3.1.3 Second Best Signal Level and a Margin ............................................................................. 184
6.1.3.2 Coverage Display ..................................................................................................................... 185
6.1.3.2.1 Plot Resolution .................................................................................................................... 185
6.1.3.2.2 Display Types ..................................................................................................................... 185
6.2 Definitions and Formulas ..................................................................................................................... 186
6.2.1 Inputs.............................................................................................................................................. 186
6.2.2 Ec/Io Calculation ............................................................................................................................ 190
6.2.3 DL Eb/Nt Calculation ...................................................................................................................... 191
6.2.4 UL Eb/Nt Calculation ...................................................................................................................... 192
6.3 Active Set Management ....................................................................................................................... 192
6.4 Simulations........................................................................................................................................... 193
6.4.1 Generating a Realistic User Distribution ........................................................................................ 193
6.4.1.1 Simulations Based on Raster Traffic and Vector Traffic Maps ................................................. 193
6.4.1.1.1 Circuit Switched Service (i) ................................................................................................. 194
6.4.1.1.2 Packet Switched Service (j) ................................................................................................ 194
6.4.1.2 Simulations Based on Traffic Map per Service and per Transmitter ........................................ 197
6.4.1.2.1 Circuit Switched Service (i) ................................................................................................. 197
6.4.1.2.2 Packet Switched Service (j) ................................................................................................ 198
6.4.2 Power Control Simulation............................................................................................................... 199
6.4.2.1 Algorithm Initialization............................................................................................................... 200
6.4.2.2 R99 Part of the Algorithm ......................................................................................................... 200
6.4.2.3 HSDPA Part of the Algorithm.................................................................................................... 207
6.4.2.3.1 HSDPA Power Allocation .................................................................................................... 207
6.4.2.3.2 Number of HS-SCCH Channels and Maximum Number of HSDPA Users......................... 207
6.4.2.3.3 HSDPA Bearer Allocation Process ..................................................................................... 208
6.4.2.3.4 Fast Link Adaptation Modelling ........................................................................................... 209
6.4.2.3.5 Scheduling Algorithms ........................................................................................................ 215
6.4.2.4 HSUPA Part of the Algorithm.................................................................................................... 216
6.4.2.4.1 HSUPA Users ..................................................................................................................... 217
6.4.2.4.2 Admission Control ............................................................................................................... 217
6.4.2.4.3 HSUPA Bearer Allocation Process ..................................................................................... 218
6.4.2.5 Convergence Criteria................................................................................................................ 220
6.4.3 Results ........................................................................................................................................... 220
6.4.3.1 R99 Related Results................................................................................................................. 220
6.4.3.2 HSPA Related Results.............................................................................................................. 222
6.4.3.2.1 Statistics Tab ...................................................................................................................... 222
6.4.3.2.2 Mobiles Tab ........................................................................................................................ 222
6.4.3.2.3 Cells Tab ............................................................................................................................. 224
6.4.3.2.4 Sites Tab ............................................................................................................................. 225
6.4.4 Appendices..................................................................................................................................... 226
6.4.4.1 Admission Control in the R99 Part............................................................................................ 226
6.4.4.2 Resources Management........................................................................................................... 226

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6.4.4.2.1 OVSF Codes Management..................................................................................................226


6.4.4.2.2 Channel Elements Management .........................................................................................227
6.4.4.3 Downlink Load Factor Calculation .............................................................................................228
6.4.4.3.1 Downlink Load Factor per Cell.............................................................................................228
6.4.4.3.2 Downlink Load Factor per Mobile ........................................................................................229
6.4.4.4 Uplink Load Factor Due to One User ........................................................................................229
6.4.4.5 Inter-carrier Power Sharing Modelling .......................................................................................231
6.5 UMTS HSPA Prediction Studies...........................................................................................................232
6.5.1 Point Analysis..................................................................................................................................232
6.5.1.1 AS Analysis Tab ........................................................................................................................232
6.5.1.1.1 Bar Graph and Pilot Sub-Menu............................................................................................232
6.5.1.1.2 Downlink Sub-Menu.............................................................................................................234
6.5.1.1.3 Uplink Sub-Menu .................................................................................................................238
6.5.2 Coverage Studies............................................................................................................................241
6.5.2.1 Pilot Reception Analysis ............................................................................................................242
6.5.2.1.1 Prediction Study Inputs........................................................................................................242
6.5.2.1.2 Study Display Options .........................................................................................................242
6.5.2.2 Downlink Service Area Analysis ................................................................................................243
6.5.2.2.1 Prediction Study Inputs........................................................................................................243
6.5.2.2.2 Study Display Options .........................................................................................................243
6.5.2.3 Uplink Service Area Analysis ....................................................................................................245
6.5.2.3.1 Prediction Study Inputs........................................................................................................245
6.5.2.3.2 Study Display Options .........................................................................................................245
6.5.2.4 Downlink Total Noise Analysis ..................................................................................................246
6.5.2.4.1 Study Inputs.........................................................................................................................247
6.5.2.4.2 Analysis on All Carriers........................................................................................................247
6.5.2.4.3 Analysis on a Specific Carrier..............................................................................................247
6.5.2.5 HSDPA Prediction Study ...........................................................................................................248
6.5.2.5.1 Prediction Study Inputs........................................................................................................248
6.5.2.5.2 Study Display Options .........................................................................................................248
6.5.2.6 HSUPA Prediction Study ...........................................................................................................252
6.5.2.6.1 Prediction Study Inputs........................................................................................................252
6.5.2.6.2 Calculation Options..............................................................................................................252
6.5.2.6.3 Display Options....................................................................................................................252
6.6 Automatic Neighbour Allocation............................................................................................................254
6.6.1 Global Allocation for All Transmitters ..............................................................................................254
6.6.2 Allocation for a Group of Transmitters or One Transmitter .............................................................258
6.7 Primary Scrambling Code Allocation ....................................................................................................258
6.7.1 Automatic Allocation Description.....................................................................................................259
6.7.1.1 Options and Constraints ............................................................................................................259
6.7.1.2 Allocation Process.....................................................................................................................260
6.7.1.2.1 Single Carrier Network.........................................................................................................260
6.7.1.2.2 Multi-Carrier Network...........................................................................................................261
6.7.1.3 Priority Determination ................................................................................................................261
6.7.1.3.1 Cell Priority ..........................................................................................................................261
6.7.1.3.2 Transmitter Priority ..............................................................................................................264
6.7.1.3.3 Site Priority ..........................................................................................................................264
6.7.2 Allocation Examples........................................................................................................................264
6.7.2.1 Allocation Strategies and Use a Maximum of Codes ................................................................264
6.7.2.1.1 Strategy: Clustered ..............................................................................................................265
6.7.2.1.2 Strategy: Distributed ............................................................................................................265
6.7.2.1.3 Strategy: ‘One Cluster per Site ............................................................................................266
6.7.2.1.4 Strategy: ‘Distributed per Site ..............................................................................................266
6.7.2.2 Allocate Carriers Identically .......................................................................................................266
6.8 Automatic GSM-UMTS Neighbour Allocation .......................................................................................267
6.8.1 Overview .........................................................................................................................................267
6.8.2 Automatic Allocation Description.....................................................................................................267
6.8.2.1 Algorithm Based on Distance ....................................................................................................268
6.8.2.2 Algorithm Based on Coverage Overlapping ..............................................................................268
6.8.2.3 Appendices................................................................................................................................270
6.8.2.3.1 Delete Existing Neighbours Option......................................................................................270
6.8.2.3.2 Calculation of Inter-Transmitter Distance ............................................................................270

7 IS-95 cdmaOne and CDMA2000 Networks ...................................273


7.1 General Prediction Studies ...................................................................................................................273
7.1.1 Calculation Criteria..........................................................................................................................273
7.1.2 Point Analysis..................................................................................................................................273
7.1.2.1 Profile Tab .................................................................................................................................273

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7.1.2.2 Reception Tab .......................................................................................................................... 274


7.1.3 Coverage Studies ........................................................................................................................... 274
7.1.3.1 Service Area Determination...................................................................................................... 274
7.1.3.1.1 All Servers........................................................................................................................... 274
7.1.3.1.2 Best Signal Level and a Margin .......................................................................................... 274
7.1.3.1.3 Second Best Signal Level and a Margin ............................................................................. 274
7.1.3.2 Coverage Display ..................................................................................................................... 275
7.1.3.2.1 Plot Resolution .................................................................................................................... 275
7.1.3.2.2 Display Types ..................................................................................................................... 275
7.2 Definitions and Formulas ..................................................................................................................... 276
7.2.1 Parameters Used for IS-95 cdmaOne and CDMA2000 1xRTT Modelling ..................................... 276
7.2.1.1 Inputs ........................................................................................................................................ 276
7.2.1.2 Ec/I0 Calculation....................................................................................................................... 280
7.2.1.3 DL Eb/Nt Calculation ................................................................................................................ 280
7.2.1.4 UL Eb/Nt Calculation ................................................................................................................ 281
7.2.1.5 Simulation Results .................................................................................................................... 282
7.2.2 Parameters Used for CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Modelling .................................................................. 283
7.2.2.1 Inputs ........................................................................................................................................ 283
7.2.2.2 Ec/I0 and Ec/Nt Calculations .................................................................................................... 287
7.2.2.3 UL Eb/Nt Calculation ................................................................................................................ 287
7.2.2.4 Simulation Results .................................................................................................................... 288
7.3 Active Set Management ....................................................................................................................... 289
7.4 Simulations........................................................................................................................................... 290
7.4.1 Generating a Realistic User Distribution ........................................................................................ 290
7.4.1.1 Number of Users, User Activity Status and User Data Rate..................................................... 290
7.4.1.1.1 Simulations Based on Raster Traffic and Vector Traffic Maps............................................ 290
7.4.1.1.2 Simulations Based on Traffic Maps per Service and per Transmitter ................................. 293
7.4.1.2 Transition Flags for 1xEV-DO Rev.0 User Data Rates............................................................. 297
7.4.1.3 User Geographical Position ...................................................................................................... 297
7.4.2 Network Regulation Mechanism..................................................................................................... 297
7.4.2.1 IS-95 cdmaOne Power Control Simulation Algorithm............................................................... 297
7.4.2.1.1 Algorithm Initialization ......................................................................................................... 298
7.4.2.1.2 Presentation of the Algorithm.............................................................................................. 298
7.4.2.1.3 Convergence Criterion ........................................................................................................ 302
7.4.2.2 CDMA2000 1xRTT Power Control Simulation Algorithm.......................................................... 302
7.4.2.2.1 Algorithm Initialization ......................................................................................................... 303
7.4.2.2.2 Presentation of the Algorithm.............................................................................................. 303
7.4.2.2.3 Convergence Criterion ........................................................................................................ 309
7.4.2.3 CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Power/Data Rate Control Simulation Algorithm .................................... 310
7.4.2.3.1 Algorithm Initialization ......................................................................................................... 310
7.4.2.3.2 Presentation of the Algorithm.............................................................................................. 311
7.4.2.3.3 Convergence Criterion ........................................................................................................ 316
7.4.3 Appendices..................................................................................................................................... 316
7.4.3.1 Admission Control..................................................................................................................... 316
7.4.3.2 Resources Management........................................................................................................... 317
7.4.3.2.1 Walsh Code Management .................................................................................................. 317
7.4.3.2.2 Channel Element Management .......................................................................................... 317
7.4.3.3 Downlink Load Factor Calculation ............................................................................................ 318
7.4.3.3.1 Downlink Load Factor per Cell ............................................................................................ 318
7.4.3.3.2 Downlink Load Factor per Mobile........................................................................................ 319
7.5 IS-95 cdmaOne and CDMA2000 Prediction Studies ........................................................................... 319
7.5.1 Point Analysis: The AS Analysis Tab ............................................................................................. 319
7.5.1.1 Bar Graph and Pilot Sub-Menu................................................................................................. 320
7.5.1.2 Downlink Sub-Menu.................................................................................................................. 321
7.5.1.2.1 IS-95 cdmaOne ................................................................................................................... 321
7.5.1.2.2 CDMA2000 1xRTT.............................................................................................................. 324
7.5.1.2.3 CDMA2000 1xEV-DO ......................................................................................................... 327
7.5.1.3 Uplink Sub-Menu ...................................................................................................................... 328
7.5.1.3.1 IS-95 cdmaOne ................................................................................................................... 328
7.5.1.3.2 CDMA2000 1xRTT.............................................................................................................. 331
7.5.1.3.3 CDMA2000 1xEV-DO ......................................................................................................... 335
7.5.2 Coverage Studies ........................................................................................................................... 338
7.5.2.1 Pilot Reception Analysis ........................................................................................................... 338
7.5.2.1.1 1st Case: Analysis Based on all Carriers ............................................................................ 338
7.5.2.1.2 2nd Case: Analysis Based on a Specific Carrier................................................................. 338
7.5.2.2 Downlink Service Area Analysis ............................................................................................... 339
7.5.2.2.1 IS-95 cdmaOne and CDMA2000 1xRTT............................................................................. 339
7.5.2.2.2 CDMA2000 1xEV-DO ......................................................................................................... 340

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7.5.2.3 Uplink Service Area Analysis ....................................................................................................342


7.5.2.3.1 IS-95 cdmaOne and CDMA2000 1xRTT .............................................................................342
7.5.2.3.2 CDMA2000 1xEV-DO ..........................................................................................................343
7.5.2.4 Downlink Total Noise Analysis ..................................................................................................345
7.5.2.4.1 Analysis on all Carriers ........................................................................................................346
7.5.2.4.2 Analysis on a Specific Carrier..............................................................................................346
7.6 Automatic Neighbour Allocation............................................................................................................346
7.6.1 Global Allocation for all Transmitters ..............................................................................................347
7.6.2 Allocation for a Group of Transmitters or One Transmitter .............................................................350
7.7 PN Offset Allocation..............................................................................................................................350
7.7.1 Automatic Allocation Description.....................................................................................................351
7.7.1.1 Options and Constraints ............................................................................................................351
7.7.1.2 Allocation Process.....................................................................................................................352
7.7.1.2.1 Single Carrier Network.........................................................................................................352
7.7.1.2.2 Multi-Carrier Network...........................................................................................................353
7.7.1.2.3 Difference between Adjacent and Distributed PN-Clusters .................................................353
7.7.1.3 Priority Determination ................................................................................................................353
7.7.1.3.1 Cell Priority ..........................................................................................................................353
7.7.1.3.2 Transmitter Priority ..............................................................................................................355
7.7.1.3.3 Site Priority ..........................................................................................................................355
7.7.2 Allocation Examples........................................................................................................................356
7.7.2.1 Strategy: PN Offset per Cell ......................................................................................................356
7.7.2.2 Strategy: Adjacent PN-Clusters Per Site...................................................................................357
7.7.2.3 Strategy: Distributed PN-Clusters Per Site................................................................................357
7.8 Automatic GSM-CDMA Neighbour Allocation.......................................................................................357
7.8.1 Overview .........................................................................................................................................357
7.8.2 Automatic Allocation Description.....................................................................................................358
7.8.2.1 Algorithm Based on Distance ....................................................................................................358
7.8.2.2 Algorithm Based on Coverage Overlapping ..............................................................................359
7.8.2.3 Delete Existing Neighbours Option ...........................................................................................360
7.9 Automatic cdmaOne-CDMA2000 Neighbour Allocation .......................................................................360
7.9.1 Overview .........................................................................................................................................360
7.9.2 Automatic Allocation Description.....................................................................................................361
7.9.2.1 Delete Existing Neighbours Option ...........................................................................................362

8 TD-SCDMA Networks....................................................................365
8.1 Definitions and Formulas ......................................................................................................................365
8.1.1 Inputs ..............................................................................................................................................365
8.1.2 P-CCPCH Eb/Nt and C/I Calculation ..............................................................................................369
8.1.3 DwPCH C/I Calculation ...................................................................................................................369
8.1.4 DL TCH Eb/Nt and C/I Calculation..................................................................................................370
8.1.5 UL TCH Eb/Nt and C/I Calculation..................................................................................................370
8.1.6 Interference Calculation ..................................................................................................................371
8.1.7 HSDPA Dynamic Power Calculations .............................................................................................371
8.1.8 Smart Antenna Modelling................................................................................................................371
8.2 Signal Level Based Calculations ..........................................................................................................372
8.2.1 Point Analysis..................................................................................................................................372
8.2.1.1 Profile Tab .................................................................................................................................373
8.2.1.2 Reception Tab ...........................................................................................................................373
8.2.2 RSCP Based Coverage Predictions................................................................................................373
8.2.2.1 Calculation Criteria ....................................................................................................................373
8.2.2.2 P-CCPCH RSCP Coverage Prediction .....................................................................................374
8.2.2.2.1 Coverage Condition .............................................................................................................374
8.2.2.2.2 Coverage Display ................................................................................................................374
8.2.2.3 Best Server P-CCPCH Coverage Prediction.............................................................................374
8.2.2.4 P-CCPCH Pollution Coverage Prediction..................................................................................375
8.2.2.5 DwPCH RSCP Coverage Prediction .........................................................................................375
8.2.2.5.1 Coverage Condition .............................................................................................................375
8.2.2.5.2 Coverage Display ................................................................................................................375
8.2.2.6 UpPCH RSCP Coverage Prediction..........................................................................................376
8.2.2.6.1 Coverage Condition .............................................................................................................376
8.2.2.6.2 Coverage Display ................................................................................................................376
8.2.2.7 Baton Handover Coverage Prediction .......................................................................................376
8.2.2.7.1 Coverage Condition .............................................................................................................376
8.2.2.7.2 Coverage Display ................................................................................................................377
8.2.2.8 Scrambling Code Interference Analysis ....................................................................................377
8.3 Monte Carlo Simulations.......................................................................................................................377
8.3.1 Generating a Realistic User Distribution .........................................................................................377

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8.3.1.1 Simulations Based on Raster and Vector Traffic Maps ............................................................ 378
8.3.1.1.1 Circuit Switched Service (i) ................................................................................................. 378
8.3.1.1.2 Packet Switched Service (j) ................................................................................................ 379
8.3.1.2 Simulations Based on Traffic Map Based on Transmitters and Services ................................. 381
8.3.1.2.1 Circuit Switched Service (i) ................................................................................................. 381
8.3.1.2.2 Packet Switched Service (j) ................................................................................................ 382
8.3.2 Power Control Simulation............................................................................................................... 383
8.3.2.1 Algorithm Initialisation............................................................................................................... 383
8.3.2.2 R99 Part of the Algorithm ......................................................................................................... 384
8.3.2.2.1 Determination of Mi’s Best Server (SBS(Mi))...................................................................... 384
8.3.2.2.2 Dynamic Channel Allocation ............................................................................................... 384
8.3.2.2.3 Uplink Power Control .......................................................................................................... 386
8.3.2.2.4 Downlink Power Control...................................................................................................... 387
8.3.2.2.5 Uplink Signals Update......................................................................................................... 389
8.3.2.2.6 Downlink Signals Update .................................................................................................... 390
8.3.2.2.7 Control of Radio Resource Limits (Downlink Traffic Power and Uplink Load) .................... 390
8.3.2.3 HSDPA Part of the Algorithm.................................................................................................... 390
8.3.2.3.1 HSDPA Power Allocation .................................................................................................... 390
8.3.2.3.2 Connection Status and Number of HSDPA Users .............................................................. 392
8.3.2.3.3 HSDPA Admission Control.................................................................................................. 392
8.3.2.3.4 HSDPA Dynamic Channel Allocation.................................................................................. 393
8.3.2.3.5 Ressource Unit Saturation .................................................................................................. 393
8.3.2.4 Convergence Criteria................................................................................................................ 393
8.4 TD-SCDMA Prediction Studies ............................................................................................................ 394
8.4.1 P-CCPCH Reception Analysis (Eb/Nt) or (C/I) ............................................................................... 394
8.4.2 DwPCH Reception Analysis (C/I) ................................................................................................... 395
8.4.3 Downlink TCH RSCP Coverage ..................................................................................................... 397
8.4.4 Uplink TCH RSCP Coverage ......................................................................................................... 398
8.4.5 Downlink Total Noise...................................................................................................................... 398
8.4.6 Downlink Service Area (Eb/Nt) or (C/I)........................................................................................... 399
8.4.7 Uplink Service Area (Eb/Nt) or (C/I) ............................................................................................... 401
8.4.8 Effective Service Area (Eb/Nt) or (C/I) ........................................................................................... 402
8.4.9 Cell to Cell Interference .................................................................................................................. 403
8.4.10 UpPCH Interference ....................................................................................................................... 404
8.4.11 HSDPA Coverage .......................................................................................................................... 404
8.5 Smart Antenna Modelling..................................................................................................................... 405
8.5.1 Modelling in Simulations................................................................................................................. 405
8.5.1.1 Grid of Beams Modelling .......................................................................................................... 405
8.5.1.2 Adaptive Beam Modelling ......................................................................................................... 406
8.5.1.3 Statistical Modelling .................................................................................................................. 407
8.5.1.4 Optimum Beamformer Model.................................................................................................... 408
8.5.1.4.1 Downlink ............................................................................................................................. 408
8.5.1.4.2 Uplink .................................................................................................................................. 409
8.5.1.5 3rd Party Smart Antenna Modelling.......................................................................................... 411
8.5.2 Construction of the Geographic Distributions ................................................................................. 411
8.5.3 Modelling in Coverage Predictions ................................................................................................. 412
8.6 N-Frequency Mode and Carrier-Type Allocation.................................................................................. 413
8.6.1 Automatic Carrier-Type Allocation.................................................................................................. 413
8.7 Neighbour Allocation ............................................................................................................................ 413
8.7.1 Global Allocation for All Transmitters ............................................................................................. 414
8.7.2 Allocation for a Group of Transmitters or One Transmitter ............................................................ 417
8.8 Scrambling Code Allocation ................................................................................................................. 417
8.8.1 Automatic Allocation Description .................................................................................................... 418
8.8.1.1 Allocation Constraints and Options........................................................................................... 418
8.8.1.2 Allocation Strategies ................................................................................................................. 418
8.8.1.3 Allocation Process .................................................................................................................... 419
8.8.1.3.1 Single Carrier Network ........................................................................................................ 419
8.8.1.3.2 Multi-Carrier Network .......................................................................................................... 420
8.8.1.4 Priority Determination ............................................................................................................... 420
8.8.1.4.1 Cell Priority.......................................................................................................................... 420
8.8.1.4.2 Transmitter Priority.............................................................................................................. 423
8.8.1.4.3 Site Priority.......................................................................................................................... 423
8.8.2 IScrambling Code Allocation Example ........................................................................................... 423
8.8.2.1 Single Carrier Network.............................................................................................................. 423
8.8.2.1.1 Strategy: Clustered ............................................................................................................. 424
8.8.2.1.2 Strategy: Distributed per Cell .............................................................................................. 424
8.8.2.1.3 Strategy: One SYNC_DL Code per Site ............................................................................. 425
8.8.2.1.4 Strategy: Distributed per Site .............................................................................................. 425

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8.8.2.2 Multi Carrier Network.................................................................................................................425


8.9 Automatic GSM/TD-SCDMA Neighbour Allocation ..............................................................................426
8.9.1 Automatic Allocation Description.....................................................................................................426
8.9.1.1 Algorithm Based on Distance ....................................................................................................427
8.9.1.2 Algorithm Based on Coverage Overlapping ..............................................................................427
8.9.1.3 Appendices................................................................................................................................428
8.9.1.3.1 Delete Existing Neighbours Option......................................................................................428
8.9.1.3.2 Calculation of Inter-Transmitter Distance ............................................................................429

9 WiMAX BWA Networks..................................................................433


9.1 Definitions and Formulas ......................................................................................................................433
9.1.1 Input ................................................................................................................................................433
9.1.2 Co- and Adjacent Channel Overlaps Calculation............................................................................436
9.1.3 Preamble Signal Quality Calculations .............................................................................................437
9.1.3.1 Preamble Signal Level Calculation............................................................................................437
9.1.3.2 Preamble Noise Calculation ......................................................................................................438
9.1.3.3 Preamble Interference Calculation ............................................................................................438
9.1.3.4 Preamble C/N Calculation .........................................................................................................438
9.1.3.5 Preamble C/(I+N) Calculation....................................................................................................438
9.1.4 Traffic and Pilot Signal Quality Calculations ...................................................................................438
9.1.4.1 Traffic and Pilot Signal Level Calculation (DL) ..........................................................................438
9.1.4.2 Noise Calculation (DL) ..............................................................................................................439
9.1.4.3 Traffic and Pilot Interference Calculation (DL) ..........................................................................439
9.1.4.4 Traffic and Pilot C/N Calculation (DL) .......................................................................................440
9.1.4.5 Traffic and Pilot C/(I+N) Calculation (DL) ..................................................................................440
9.1.4.6 Traffic Signal Level Calculation (UL) .........................................................................................441
9.1.4.7 Noise Calculation (UL) ..............................................................................................................441
9.1.4.8 Traffic Interference Calculation (UL) .........................................................................................441
9.1.4.9 Traffic C/N Calculation (UL) ......................................................................................................441
9.1.4.10 Traffic C/(I+N) Calculation (UL) .................................................................................................442
9.1.5 Channel Throughput Calculation.....................................................................................................442
9.1.5.1 Calculation of Cell Capacity (Total Resources) .........................................................................442
9.1.5.2 Bearer Determination ................................................................................................................443
9.1.5.3 Channel Throughput Calculation...............................................................................................443
9.1.6 Scheduling and Radio Resource Management...............................................................................443
9.1.6.1 User Throughput Calculation.....................................................................................................445
9.1.7 Optimum Beamformer Model ..........................................................................................................445
9.2 Calculation Processes ..........................................................................................................................446
9.2.1 Point Analysis..................................................................................................................................446
9.2.1.1 Profile Tab .................................................................................................................................447
9.2.1.2 Reception Tab ...........................................................................................................................447
9.2.2 Preamble Signal Level Coverage Predictions.................................................................................447
9.2.2.1 Coverage Area Determination...................................................................................................447
9.2.2.1.1 All Servers ...........................................................................................................................447
9.2.2.1.2 Best Signal Level and a Margin ...........................................................................................447
9.2.2.1.3 Second Best Signal Level and a Margin..............................................................................448
9.2.2.2 Coverage Display ......................................................................................................................448
9.2.2.2.1 Coverage Resolution ...........................................................................................................448
9.2.2.2.2 Display Types ......................................................................................................................448
9.2.3 Signal Quality Analysis Coverage Predictions ................................................................................449
9.2.3.1 Coverage Area Determination...................................................................................................449
9.2.3.2 Coverage Parameter Calculation ..............................................................................................450
9.2.3.3 Coverage Display ......................................................................................................................450
9.2.3.3.1 Coverage Resolution ...........................................................................................................450
9.2.3.3.2 Signal Quality Analysis (DL) Display Types.........................................................................450
9.2.3.3.3 Signal Quality Analysis (UL) Display Types.........................................................................451
9.2.4 Calculations on Subscriber Lists .....................................................................................................451
9.2.5 Monte Carlo Simulations .................................................................................................................452
9.2.5.1 Generating a Realistic User Distribution ...................................................................................452
9.2.5.1.1 Simulations Based on Raster Traffic Maps, Vector Traffic Maps, and Subscriber Lists......452
9.2.5.1.2 Simulations Based on Traffic Map Based on Transmitters and Services ............................454
9.2.5.2 Simulation Process....................................................................................................................455
9.2.6 C/(I+N)-Based Coverage Predictions..............................................................................................459
9.2.6.1 Coverage Area Determination...................................................................................................459
9.2.6.2 Coverage Parameter Calculation ..............................................................................................460
9.2.6.3 Coverage Display ......................................................................................................................460
9.2.6.3.1 Coverage Resolution ...........................................................................................................460
9.2.6.3.2 Coverage by C/(I+N) Level (DL) Display Types ..................................................................460

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9.2.6.3.3 Coverage by Best Bearer (DL) Display Types .................................................................... 461


9.2.6.3.4 Coverage by Channel Throughput (DL) Display Types ...................................................... 461
9.2.6.3.5 Coverage by C/(I+N) Level (UL) Display Types.................................................................. 461
9.2.6.3.6 Coverage by Best Bearer (UL) Display Types .................................................................... 462
9.2.6.3.7 Coverage by Channel Throughput (UL) Display Types ...................................................... 462
9.3 Calculation Algorithms ......................................................................................................................... 462
9.3.1 Co- and Adjacent Channel Overlaps Calculation ........................................................................... 462
9.3.1.1 Conversion From Channel Numbers to Start and End Frequencies ........................................ 463
9.3.1.2 Co-Channel Overlap Calculation .............................................................................................. 464
9.3.1.3 Adjacent Channel Overlap Calculation ..................................................................................... 464
9.3.1.4 FDD – TDD Overlap Ratio Calculation ..................................................................................... 465
9.3.1.5 Total Overlap Ratio Calculation ................................................................................................ 465
9.3.2 Preamble Signal Quality Calculations ............................................................................................ 466
9.3.2.1 Preamble Signal Level Calculation ........................................................................................... 466
9.3.2.2 Preamble Noise Calculation ..................................................................................................... 467
9.3.2.3 Preamble Interference Calculation ........................................................................................... 469
9.3.2.4 Preamble C/N Calculation ........................................................................................................ 470
9.3.2.5 Preamble C/(I+N) Calculation ................................................................................................... 470
9.3.3 Best Server Determination ............................................................................................................. 471
9.3.4 Service Area Calculation ................................................................................................................ 471
9.3.5 Permutation Zone Selection (WiMAX 802.16e).............................................................................. 471
9.3.6 Traffic and Pilot Signal Quality Calculations................................................................................... 472
9.3.6.1 Traffic and Pilot Signal Level Calculation (DL) ......................................................................... 473
9.3.6.2 Noise Calculation (DL).............................................................................................................. 474
9.3.6.3 Traffic and Pilot Interference Calculation (DL).......................................................................... 475
9.3.6.3.1 Traffic and Pilot Interference Signal Levels Calculation (DL).............................................. 475
9.3.6.3.2 Effective Traffic and Pilot Interference Calculation (DL) ..................................................... 478
9.3.6.4 Traffic and Pilot C/N Calculation (DL)....................................................................................... 482
9.3.6.5 Traffic C/(I+N) Calculation (DL) ................................................................................................ 483
9.3.6.6 Traffic Signal Level Calculation (UL) ........................................................................................ 484
9.3.6.7 Noise Calculation (UL).............................................................................................................. 485
9.3.6.8 Traffic Interference Calculation (UL)......................................................................................... 486
9.3.6.8.1 Traffic Interference Signal Levels Calculation (UL)............................................................. 486
9.3.6.8.2 Noise Rise Calculation (UL) ................................................................................................ 487
9.3.6.9 Traffic C/N Calculation (UL)...................................................................................................... 487
9.3.6.10 Traffic C/(I+N) Calculation (UL) ................................................................................................ 490
9.3.7 Channel Throughput Calculation.................................................................................................... 493
9.3.7.1 Calculation of Cell Capacity (Total Resources) ........................................................................ 493
9.3.7.1.1 Calculation of Sampling Frequency .................................................................................... 493
9.3.7.1.2 Calculation of Symbol Duration........................................................................................... 493
9.3.7.1.3 Calculation of Cell Capacity - TDD Networks...................................................................... 494
9.3.7.1.4 Calculation of Cell Capacity - FDD Networks...................................................................... 495
9.3.7.2 Bearer Determination................................................................................................................ 496
9.3.7.3 Channel Throughput Calculation .............................................................................................. 496
9.3.8 Scheduling and Radio Resource Management .............................................................................. 498
9.3.8.1 Scheduling and Radio Resource Allocation.............................................................................. 499
9.3.8.2 User Throughput Calculation .................................................................................................... 504
9.3.9 Optimum Beamformer Model ......................................................................................................... 505
9.3.9.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 505
9.3.9.2 Downlink ................................................................................................................................... 506
9.3.9.3 Uplink........................................................................................................................................ 507
9.4 Automatic Allocation Algorithms........................................................................................................... 509
9.4.1 Automatic Neighbour Allocation ..................................................................................................... 509
9.4.2 Automatic Preamble Index Allocation............................................................................................. 511
9.4.2.1 Constraint and Relationship Weights........................................................................................ 512
9.4.2.2 Calculation of Cost Between TBA and Related Cells ............................................................... 512
9.4.2.3 Automatic Allocation Algorithm ................................................................................................. 514
9.5 Glossary of WiMAX Terms................................................................................................................... 514

10 Repeaters and Remote Antennas................................................. 519


10.1 Modelling Repeaters ............................................................................................................................ 519
10.1.1 CDMA Documents.......................................................................................................................... 519
10.1.1.1 Over the Air............................................................................................................................... 519
10.1.1.1.1 Signal Level Received From Repeaters.............................................................................. 519
10.1.1.1.2 Gain Automatic Calculation................................................................................................. 520
10.1.1.1.3 Donor Side Parameter Automatic Calculation..................................................................... 521
10.1.1.2 Microwave Link ......................................................................................................................... 522
10.1.1.2.1 Signal Level Received From Repeaters.............................................................................. 522

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10.1.1.2.2 Gain Automatic Calculation .................................................................................................523


10.1.1.3 Fibre Link...................................................................................................................................524
10.1.1.3.1 Signal Level Received From Repeaters ..............................................................................524
10.1.1.3.2 Gain Automatic Calculation .................................................................................................524
10.1.1.4 Appendices................................................................................................................................525
10.1.1.4.1 Automatic Controls ..............................................................................................................525
10.1.1.4.2 Carrier Power and Interference Calculation.........................................................................526
10.1.1.4.3 Consideration of Repeater Noise Figure .............................................................................528
10.1.2 GSM Documents.............................................................................................................................528
10.1.2.1 Over the Air ...............................................................................................................................528
10.1.2.1.1 Signal Level Received From Repeaters ..............................................................................528
10.1.2.1.2 EIRP Automatic Calculation.................................................................................................529
10.1.2.1.3 Donor Side Parameter Automatic Calculation .....................................................................530
10.1.2.2 Microwave Link..........................................................................................................................531
10.1.2.2.1 Signal Level Received From Repeaters ..............................................................................531
10.1.2.2.2 EIRP Automatic Calculation.................................................................................................531
10.1.2.3 Fibre Link...................................................................................................................................532
10.1.2.3.1 Signal Level Received From Repeaters ..............................................................................532
10.1.2.3.2 EIRP Automatic Calculation.................................................................................................532
10.1.2.4 Appendices................................................................................................................................533
10.1.2.4.1 Automatic Controls ..............................................................................................................533
10.2 Modelling Remote Antennas.................................................................................................................534
10.2.1 CDMA Documents ..........................................................................................................................534
10.2.1.1 Signal Level Received From Repeaters ....................................................................................534
10.2.1.2 Gain Automatic Calculation .......................................................................................................534
10.2.2 GSM Documents.............................................................................................................................535
10.2.2.1 Signal Level Received From Repeaters ....................................................................................535
10.2.2.2 EIRP Automatic Calculation ......................................................................................................536

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List of Figures

List of Figures

Figure 2.1: Digital Terrain Model.................................................................................................................................. 35


Figure 2.2: Schematic view of a DTM file .................................................................................................................... 35
Figure 2.3: Clutter Classes .......................................................................................................................................... 36
Figure 4.1: Example 1: Single Calculation Area .......................................................................................................... 75
Figure 4.2: Example 2: Multiple Calculation Areas ...................................................................................................... 75
Figure 4.3: Ground Altitude Determination - 1 ............................................................................................................. 77
Figure 4.4: Ground Altitude Determination - 2 ............................................................................................................. 77
Figure 4.5: Ground Altitude Determination - 3 ............................................................................................................. 78
Figure 4.6: Ground Altitude Determination - 4 ............................................................................................................. 78
Figure 4.7: Clutter Height............................................................................................................................................. 78
Figure 4.8: Radial calculation method.......................................................................................................................... 79
Figure 4.9: Site-bin centre profile................................................................................................................................. 79
Figure 4.10: Radial calculation method.......................................................................................................................... 80
Figure 4.11: Enhanced Slope at Receiver ..................................................................................................................... 87
Figure 4.12: Losses due to Clutter................................................................................................................................. 90
Figure 4.13: Tx-Rx profile .............................................................................................................................................. 91
Figure 4.14: Knife-Edge Diffraction.............................................................................................................................. 105
Figure 4.15: Deygout Construction – 1 Obstacle ......................................................................................................... 106
Figure 4.16: Deygout Construction – 3 Obstacles ....................................................................................................... 106
Figure 4.17: Epstein-Peterson Construction ................................................................................................................ 107
Figure 4.18: Millington Construction ............................................................................................................................ 108
Figure 4.19: Azimuth and Tilt Computation.................................................................................................................. 109
Figure 4.20: Vertical Pattern Transformation due to Electrical Downtilt....................................................................... 111
Figure 4.21: Vertical Antenna Pattern.......................................................................................................................... 112
Figure 4.22: Peaks and Nulls in the Antenna Pattern .................................................................................................. 112
Figure 4.23: Log-normal Probability Density Function ................................................................................................. 113
Figure 4.24: Normalised Margin .................................................................................................................................. 117
Figure 4.25: Margin - Probability (Case of 2 Signals) .................................................................................................. 123
Figure 4.26: Margin - Probability (Case of 3 Signals with sigma = 8dB, delta1 = 1dB) ............................................... 123
Figure 4.27: Margin - Probability (Case of 3 Signals with sigma = 8dB, delta1 = 2dB) ............................................... 123
Figure 4.28: Reference Point - Location of the Transmission/Reception parameters ................................................. 124
Figure 5.1: Representation of a Concentric Cell TXi.................................................................................................. 138
Figure 5.2: Representation of Micro and Macro Layers............................................................................................. 139
Figure 5.3: Concentric Cells....................................................................................................................................... 140
Figure 5.4: Concentric Cells....................................................................................................................................... 144
Figure 5.5: Reduction of Throughput per Timeslot .................................................................................................... 147
Figure 5.6: Reduction Factor for Different Packet Switched Traffic Loads (Lp, X-axis)............................................. 148
Figure 5.7: Blocking Probability for Different Packet Switched Traffic Loads (Lp, X-axis)......................................... 150
Figure 5.8: Network Dimensioning Process............................................................................................................... 150
Figure 5.9: Minimum Throughput Reduction Factor .................................................................................................. 154
Figure 5.10: Overlapping Zones .................................................................................................................................. 158
Figure 5.11: FER vs. C/I Graphs.................................................................................................................................. 175
Figure 5.12: BER vs. C/I Graphs ................................................................................................................................. 175
Figure 5.13: MOS vs. C/I Graphs................................................................................................................................. 175
Figure 6.1: Description of a Packet Session .............................................................................................................. 195
Figure 6.2: UMTS HSPA Power Control Algorithm.................................................................................................... 200
Figure 6.3: Connection status of HSDPA users......................................................................................................... 208
Figure 6.4: Bearer Allocation Process for Scheduled Users...................................................................................... 208
Figure 6.5: HSDPA Radio Bearers Table .................................................................................................................. 212
Figure 6.6: HSDPA UE Categories Table .................................................................................................................. 212
Figure 6.7: HSUPA UE Categories Table .................................................................................................................. 217
Figure 6.8: HSUPA Radio Bearers Table .................................................................................................................. 218
Figure 6.9: HSUPA Bearer SelectionTable................................................................................................................ 218
Figure 6.10: OVSF Code Tree Indices (Not OVSF Code Numbers)............................................................................ 227
Figure 6.11: Overlapping Zone for Intra-carrier Neighbours ........................................................................................ 255

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Figure 6.12: Overlapping Zone for Inter-carrier Neighbours - 1st Case ....................................................................... 256
Figure 6.13: Overlapping Zone for Inter-carrier Neighbours - 2nd Case ...................................................................... 256
Figure 6.14: Neighbourhood Constraints...................................................................................................................... 262
Figure 6.15: Primary Scrambling Codes Allocation ...................................................................................................... 264
Figure 6.16: Inter-Transmitter Distance Computation .................................................................................................. 270
Figure 7.1: IS-95 cdmaOne Power Control Algorithm ................................................................................................ 298
Figure 7.2: CDMA2000 1xRTT Power Control Algorithm ........................................................................................... 303
Figure 7.3: CDMA2000 1xEVDO Power Control Algorithm ........................................................................................ 310
Figure 7.4: Walsh Code Tree Indices (Not Walsh Code Numbers) ............................................................................ 317
Figure 7.5: Overlapping Zones - 1st Case.................................................................................................................. 348
Figure 7.6: Overlapping Zones - 2nd Case ................................................................................................................ 348
Figure 7.7: Neighbourhood Constraints...................................................................................................................... 354
Figure 7.8: PN Offset Allocation ................................................................................................................................. 356
Figure 8.1: Description of a Packet Session............................................................................................................... 379
Figure 8.2: TD-SCDMA Power Control Algorithm ...................................................................................................... 383
Figure 8.3: Grid Of Beams Modelling ......................................................................................................................... 406
Figure 8.4: GOB Modelling - Determination of the Best Beam................................................................................... 406
Figure 8.5: Adaptive Beam Modelling - Determination of the Best Beam .................................................................. 407
Figure 8.6: Linear Adaptive Array System .................................................................................................................. 408
Figure 8.7: Downlink Beamforming ............................................................................................................................ 408
Figure 8.8: Uplink Adaptive Algorithm ........................................................................................................................ 410
Figure 8.9: Construction of the Geographic Distribution of Downlink Traffic Power ................................................... 412
Figure 8.10: Geographic Distribution of Downlink Traffic Power .................................................................................. 412
Figure 8.11: Geographic Distribution of downlink traffic power and uplink load ........................................................... 413
Figure 8.12: Intra-carrier Neighbours ........................................................................................................................... 415
Figure 8.13: Overlapping Coverages............................................................................................................................ 415
Figure 8.14: Neighbourhood Constraints...................................................................................................................... 421
Figure 8.15: Scrambling Code Allocation Example ...................................................................................................... 423
Figure 8.16: Scrambling Code Allocation to All Carriers .............................................................................................. 426
Figure 8.17: Inter-Transmitter Distance Computation .................................................................................................. 429
Figure 9.1: WiMAX Simulation Algorithm ................................................................................................................... 456
Figure 9.2: Victim and Interfering Mobiles .................................................................................................................. 457
Figure 9.3: Simulation Convergence Stability Factor ................................................................................................. 457
Figure 9.4: Co-Channel and Adjacent Channel Overlaps .......................................................................................... 463
Figure 9.5: Downlink C/(I+N) calculation in Simulations............................................................................................. 477
Figure 9.6: Downlink C/(I+N) calculation in Coverage Predictions ............................................................................. 478
Figure 9.7: Segmentation ........................................................................................................................................... 479
Figure 9.8: Segmentation Interference Scenarios ...................................................................................................... 481
Figure 9.9: Uplink Subchannelization in WiMAX 802.16e Networks (Example) ......................................................... 489
Figure 9.10: Uplink Subchannelization in WiMAX 802.16e Networks (Example) ......................................................... 492
Figure 9.11: Linear Adaptive Array System .................................................................................................................. 505
Figure 9.12: Downlink Beamforming ............................................................................................................................ 506
Figure 9.13: Uplink Adaptive Algorithm ........................................................................................................................ 507
Figure 9.14: Determination of Adjacent Cells ............................................................................................................... 509
Figure 9.15: Overlapping Zones ................................................................................................................................... 510
Figure 9.16: Weighted Distance Between Cells ........................................................................................................... 513
Figure 9.17: Importance Based on Distance Relation .................................................................................................. 514
Figure 9.18: WiMAX Frame .......................................................................................................................................... 515
Figure 10.1: CDMA Documents - Over the Air Repeater ............................................................................................. 519
Figure 10.2: Over the Air Repeater - Downlink Total Gain ........................................................................................... 520
Figure 10.3: Over the Air Repeater - Uplink Total Gain................................................................................................ 521
Figure 10.4: Angle from North (Azimuth) ...................................................................................................................... 521
Figure 10.5: Positive/Negative Mechanical Downtilt..................................................................................................... 522
Figure 10.6: Tilt Angle Computation ............................................................................................................................. 522
Figure 10.7: CDMA Documents - Microwave Link Repeater ........................................................................................ 522
Figure 10.8: Microwave Link Repeater - Downlink Total Gain ..................................................................................... 523
Figure 10.9: Microwave Link Repeater - Uplink Total Gain .......................................................................................... 523
Figure 10.10: CDMA Documents - Fibre Link Repeater ................................................................................................. 524
Figure 10.11: Fibre Link Repeater - Downlink Total Gain .............................................................................................. 525
Figure 10.12: Fibre Link Repeater - Uplink Total Gain ................................................................................................... 525
Figure 10.13: GSM Documents - Over the Air Repeater ................................................................................................ 529
Figure 10.14: Over the Air Repeater - EIRP................................................................................................................... 529

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List of Figures

Figure 10.15: Angle from North (Azimuth) ..................................................................................................................... 530


Figure 10.16: Positive/Negative Mechanical Downtilt .................................................................................................... 530
Figure 10.17: Tilt Angle Computation ............................................................................................................................ 530
Figure 10.18: GSM Documents - Microwave Link Repeater.......................................................................................... 531
Figure 10.19: Microwave Link Repeater - EIRP............................................................................................................. 532
Figure 10.20: GSM Documents - Fibre Link Repeater................................................................................................... 532
Figure 10.21: Fibre Link Repeater - EIRP...................................................................................................................... 533
Figure 10.22: CDMA Documents - Remote Antenna Signal Level ................................................................................ 534
Figure 10.23: Remote Antennas - Downlink Total Gain................................................................................................. 534
Figure 10.24: Remote Antennas - Uplink Total Gain ..................................................................................................... 535
Figure 10.25: GSM Documents - Remote Antenna Signal Level................................................................................... 535
Figure 10.26: Remote Antennas - EIRP ........................................................................................................................ 536

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xxii AT271_TRG_E6 © Forsk 2009


Chapter 1
Coordinate Systems and Units
This chapter presents the different coordinate systems available in Atoll by default. It describes the projection,
display, and internal coordinate systems, and describes the format of the coordinate systems files. This chapter
also provides details of the different power and length units available in Atoll.

Atoll
Atoll
Microwave
RF PlanningLink
Microwave andPlanning
Optimisation Software
Software
Technical Reference Guide

24 AT271_TRG_E6 © Forsk 2009


Chapter 1: Coordinate Systems and Units

1 Coordinate Systems and Units


1.1 Coordinate Systems
A map or a geo-spatial database is a flat representation of data collected from a curved surface. A projection is a means
for producing all or part of a spheroid on a flat sheet. This projection cannot be done without distortion. Therefore, the
cartographer must choose the characteristic (distance, direction, scale, area, or shape) that he wants to be shown accu-
rately at the expense of the other characteristics, or compromise on several characteristics [1-3]. The projected zones are
referenced using cartographic coordinates (meter, yard, etc.). Two projection methods are widely used:
• The Lambert Conformal-Conic Method: A portion of the earth is mathematically projected on a cone conceptu-
ally secant at one or two standard parallels. This projection method is useful for representing countries or regions
that have a predominant east-west expanse.
• The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Method: A portion of the earth is mathematically projected on a cyl-
inder tangent to a meridian (which is transverse or crosswise to the equator). This projection method is useful for
mapping large areas that are oriented north-south.
The geographic system is not a projection. It is only a representation of a location on the surface of the earth in geographic
coordinates (degree-minute-second, grade) giving the latitude and longitude in relation to the meridian origin (e.g., Paris
for NTF system and Greenwich for ED50 system). The locations in the geographic system can be converted into other
projections.

References:
[1] Snyder, John. P., Map Projections Used by the US Geological Survey, 2nd Edition, United States Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 313 pages, 1982.

[2] http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/gps/gps_f.html

[3] http://www.posc.org/Epicentre.2_2/DataModel/ExamplesofUsage/eu_cs34.html
[4] http://www.ign.fr/telechargement/Pi/SERVICES/transfo.pdf (Document in French)

1.1.1 Description of Coordinate Systems


A Geographic coordinate system is a latitude and longitude coordinate system. The latitude and longitude are related to
an ellipsoid, a geodetic datum, and a prime meridian. The geodetic datum provides the position and orientation of the ellip-
soid relative to the earth.
Cartographic coordinate systems are obtained by transforming each (latitude, longitude) value into an (easting, northing)
value. A projection coordinate system is obtained by transforming each (latitude, longitude) value into an (easting, north-
ing) value. Projection coordinate systems are geographic coordinate systems that provide longitude and latitude, and the
transformation method characterised by a set of parameters. Different methods may require different sets of parameters.
For example, the parameters required for Transverse Mercator coordinate systems are:
• The longitude of the natural origin (central meridian)
• The latitude of the natural origin
• The False Easting value
• The False Northing value
• A scaling factor at the natural origin (central meridian)
Basic definitions are presented below.

1.1.1.1 Geographic Coordinate System


The geographic coordinate system is a datum and a meridian. Atoll enables you to choose the most suitable geographic
coordinate system for your geographic data.

1.1.1.2 Datum
The datum consists of the ellipsoid and its position relative to the WGS84 ellipsoid. In addition to the ellipsoid, translation,
rotation, and distortion parameters define the datum.

1.1.1.3 Meridian
The standard meridian is Greenwich, but some geographic coordinate systems are based on other meridians. These
meridians are defined by the longitude with respect to Greenwich.

1.1.1.4 Ellipsoid
The ellipsoid is the pattern used to model the earth. It is defined by its geometric parameters.

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 25


Technical Reference Guide

1.1.1.5 Projection
The projection is the transformation applied to project the ellipsoid of the earth on to a plane. There are different projection
methods that use specific sets of parameters.

1.1.1.6 Projection Coordinate System


The projection coordinate system is the result of the application of a projection to a geographic coordinate system. It asso-
ciates a geographic coordinate system and a projection. Atoll enables you to choose the projection coordinate system
matching your geographic data.

1.1.2 Coordinate Systems in Atoll


Depending on the working environment, there can be either two or four coordinate systems used in Atoll. If you are working
with stand-alone documents, i.e., documents not connected to databases, there are two coordinate systems used in Atoll:
• Projection coordinate system
• Display coordinate system
If you are working in a multi-user environment, Atoll uses four coordinate systems:
• Projection coordinate system for the Atoll document
• Display coordinate system for the Atoll document
• Internal projection coordinate system for the database
• Internal display coordinate system for the database

1.1.2.1 Projection Coordinate System


The projection coordinate system is the coordinate system of the available raster geographic data files. You should set the
projection coordinate system of your Atoll document so that it corresponds to the coordinate system of the available raster
geographic data. You can set the projection coordinate system of your document in the Options dialog.
All the raster geographic data files that you want to import and use in an Atoll document must have the same coordinate
system. You cannot work with raster geographic data files with different coordinate systems in the same document.
Note:
• If you import vector geographic data (e.g., traffic, measurements, etc.) with different
coordinate systems, it is possible to convert the coordinate systems of these data into the
projection coordinate system of your Atoll document.

The projection coordinate system is used to keep the coordinates of sites (radio network data) consistent with the
geographic data.
When you import a raster geographic data file, Atoll reads the geo-referencing information from the file (or from its header
file, depending on the geographic data file format), i.e., its Northwest pixel, to determine the coordinates of each pixel. Atoll
does not use any coordinate system during the import process. However, the geo-referencing information of geographic
data files are considered to be provided in the projection coordinate system of the document.

1.1.2.2 Display Coordinate System


The display coordinate system is the coordinate system used for the display, e.g., in dialogs, in the Map window rulers, in
the status bar, etc. The coordinates of each pixel of geographic data are converted to the display coordinate system from
the projection coordinate system for display. The display coordinate system is also used for sites (radio network data). You
can set the display coordinate system of your document in the Options dialog.
If you import sites data, the coordinate system of the sites must correspond to the display coordinate system of your Atoll
document.
If you change the display coordinate system in a document which is not connected to a database, the coordinates of all
the sites are converted to the new display system.
Note:
• If the coordinate systems of all your geographic data files and sites (radio network data) are
the same, you do not have to define the projection and display coordinate systems
separately. By default, the two coordinate systems are the same.

1.1.2.3 Internal Coordinate Systems


The internal coordinate systems are the projection and the display coordinate systems stored in a database. The projection
and display coordinate systems set by the administrator in the central Atoll project are stored in the database when the
database is created, and cannot be modified by users. Only the administrator can modify the internal coordinate systems
manually by editing the entries in the CoordSys and the Units tables. All Atoll documents opened from a database will have
the internal coordinate systems of the database as their default projection and display coordinate systems.
When exporting an Atoll project to a database, the currently chosen display coordinate system becomes the internal
display coordinate system for the database, and the currently chosen projection coordinate system becomes the internal
projection coordinate system for the database.

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Although Atoll stores both the coordinate systems in the database, i.e., the projection and the display coordinate systems,
the only relevant coordinate system for the database is the internal display coordinate system because this coordinate
system is the one used for the coordinates of sites (radio network data).
Users working on documents connected to a database can modify the coordinate systems in their documents locally, and
save these changes in their documents, but they cannot modify the coordinate systems stored in the database.
If you change the display coordinate system in a document which is not connected to a database, the coordinates of all
the sites are converted to the new display system.
If you change the display coordinate system in a document which is connected to a database, the coordinates of all the
sites are converted to the new coordinate system in the Atoll document locally but not in the database because the internal
coordinate systems cannot be changed.
Atoll uses the internal coordinates systems in order to keep the site coordinates consistent in the database which is usually
accessed by a large number of users in a multi-user environment.

1.1.3 File Formats


The Coordsystems folder located in the Atoll installation directory contains all the coordinate systems, both geographic
and cartographic, offered in the tool. Coordinate systems are grouped by regions. A catalogue per region and a "Favour-
ites" catalogue are available in Atoll. The Favourites catalogue is initially empty and can be filled by the user by adding
coordinate systems to it. Each catalogue is described by an ASCII text file with .cs extension. In a .cs file, each coordinate
system is described in one line. The line syntax for describing a coordinate system is:

Code = "Name of the system"; Unit Code; Datum Code; Projection Method Code,
Projection Parameters; "Comments"

Examples:

4230 = "ED50"; 101; 230; 1; "Europe - west"

32045 = "NAD27 / Vermont"; 2; 267; 6, -72.5, 42.5, 500000, 0, 0.9999643; "United


States - Vermont"

You should keep the following points in mind when editing or creating .cs files:
• The identification code enables Atoll to differentiate coordinates systems. In case you create a new coordinate
system, its code must be an integer value higher than 32767.
• When describing a new datum, you must enter the ellipsoid code and parameters instead of the datum code in
brackets. There can be 3 to 7 parameters defined in the following order: Dx, Dy, Dz, Rx, Ry, Rz, S. The syntax of
the line in the .cs file will be:

Code = "Name of the system"; Unit Code; {Ellipsoid Code, Dx, Dy, Dz, Rx, Ry,
Rz, S}; Projection Method Code, Projection Parameters; "Comments"

• There can be up to seven projection parameters. These parameters must be ordered according to the parameter
index (see "Projection Parameter Indices" on page 30). Parameter with index 0 is the first one. Projection param-
eters are delimited by commas.
• For UTM projections, you must provide positive UTM zone numbers for north UTM zones and negative numbers
for south UTM zones.
• You can add all other information as comments (such as usage or region).
Codes of units, data, projection methods, and ellipsoids, and projection parameter indices are listed in the tables below.

1.1.3.1 Unit Codes


Code Cartographic Units Code Geographic Units
0 Metre 100 Radian
1 Kilometre 101 Degree
2 Foot 102 Grad
3 Link 103 ArcMinute
4 Chain 104 ArcSecond
5 Yard
6 Nautical mile
7 Mile
-1 Unspecified -1 Unspecified

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1.1.3.2 Datum Codes


Code Datum Code Datum
121 Greek Geodetic Reference System 1987 260 Manoca
125 Samboja 261 Merchich
126 Lithuania 1994 262 Massawa
130 Moznet (ITRF94) 263 Minna
131 Indian 1960 265 Monte Mario
201 Adindan 266 M'poraloko
202 Australian Geodetic Datum 1966 267 North American Datum 1927
203 Australian Geodetic Datum 1984 268 NAD Michigan
204 Ain el Abd 1970 269 North American Datum 1983
205 Afgooye 270 Nahrwan 1967
206 Agadez 271 Naparima 1972
207 Lisbon 272 New Zealand Geodetic Datum 1949
208 Aratu 273 NGO 1948
209 Arc 1950 274 Datum 73
210 Arc 1960 275 Nouvelle Triangulation Française
211 Batavia 276 NSWC 9Z-2
212 Barbados 277 OSGB 1936
213 Beduaram 278 OSGB 1970 (SN)
214 Beijing 1954 279 OS (SN) 1980
215 Reseau National Belge 1950 280 Padang 1884
216 Bermuda 1957 281 Palestine 1923
217 Bern 1898 282 Pointe Noire
218 Bogota 283 Geocentric Datum of Australia 1994
219 Bukit Rimpah 284 Pulkovo 1942
221 Campo Inchauspe 285 Qatar
222 Cape 286 Qatar 1948
223 Carthage 287 Qornoq
224 Chua 288 Loma Quintana
225 Corrego Alegre 289 Amersfoort
226 Cote d'Ivoire 290 RT38
227 Deir ez Zor 291 South American Datum 1969
228 Douala 292 Sapper Hill 1943
229 Egypt 1907 293 Schwarzeck
230 European Datum 1950 294 Segora
231 European Datum 1987 295 Serindung
232 Fahud 296 Sudan
233 Gandajika 1970 297 Tananarive 1925
234 Garoua 298 Timbalai 1948
235 Guyane Francaise 299 TM65
236 Hu Tzu Shan 300 TM75
237 Hungarian Datum 1972 301 Tokyo
238 Indonesian Datum 1974 302 Trinidad 1903
239 Indian 1954 303 Trucial Coast 1948
240 Indian 1975 304 Voirol 1875
241 Jamaica 1875 305 Voirol Unifie 1960
242 Jamaica 1969 306 Bern 1938
243 Kalianpur 307 Nord Sahara 1959
244 Kandawala 308 Stockholm 1938
245 Kertau 309 Yacare
247 La Canoa 310 Yoff
248 Provisional South American Datum 1956 311 Zanderij

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249 Lake 312 Militar-Geographische Institut


250 Leigon 313 Reseau National Belge 1972
251 Liberia 1964 314 Deutsche Hauptdreiecksnetz
252 Lome 315 Conakry 1905
253 Luzon 1911 322 WGS 72
254 Hito XVIII 1963 326 WGS 84
255 Herat North 901 Ancienne Triangulation Française
256 Mahe 1971 902 Nord de Guerre
NAD 1927 Guatemala/Honduras/Salvador
257 Makassar 903
(Panama Zone)
258 European Reference System 1989

1.1.3.3 Projection Method Codes


Code Projection Method Code Projection Method
0 Undefined 8 Oblique Stereographic
1 No projection > Longitude / Latitude 9 New Zealand Map Grid
2 Lambert Conformal Conical 1SP 10 Hotine Oblique Mercator
3 Lambert Conformal Conical 2SP 11 Laborde Oblique Mercator
4 Mercator 12 Swiss Oblique Cylindrical
5 Cassini-Soldner 13 Oblique Mercator
6 Transverse Mercator 14 UTM Projection
7 Transverse Mercator South Oriented

1.1.3.4 Ellipsoid Codes


Code Name Major Axis Minor Axis
1 Airy 1830 6377563.396 6356256.90890985
2 Airy Modified 1849 6377340.189 6356034.44761111
3 Australian National Spheroid 6378160 6356774.71919531
4 Bessel 1841 6377397.155 6356078.96261866
5 Bessel Modified 6377492.018 6356173.50851316
6 Bessel Namibia 6377483.865 6356165.38276679
7 Clarke 1858 6378293.63924683 6356617.98173817
8 Clarke 1866 6378206.4 6356583.8
9 Clarke 1866 Michigan 6378693.7040359 6357069.45104614
10 Clarke 1880 (Benoit) 6378300.79 6356566.43
11 Clarke 1880 (IGN) 6378249.2 6356515
12 Clarke 1880 (RGS) 6378249.145 6356514.86954978
13 Clarke 1880 (Arc) 6378249.145 6356514.96656909
14 Clarke 1880 (SGA 1922) 6378249.2 6356514.99694178
15 Everest 1830 (1937 Adjustment) 6377276.345 6356075.41314024
16 Everest 1830 (1967 Definition) 6377298.556 6356097.5503009
17 Everest 1830 (1975 Definition) 6377301.243 6356100.231
18 Everest 1830 Modified 6377304.063 6356103.03899315
19 GRS 1980 6378137 6356752.31398972
20 Helmert 1906 6378200 6356818.16962789
21 Indonesian National Spheroid 6378160 6356774.50408554
22 International 1924 6378388 6356911.94612795
23 International 1967 6378160 6356774.71919530
24 Krassowsky 1940 6378245 6356863.01877305
25 NWL 9D 6378145 6356759.76948868
26 NWL 10D 6378135 6356750.52001609
27 Plessis 1817 6376523 6355862.93325557
28 Struve 1860 6378297 6356655.84708038

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 29


Technical Reference Guide

29 War Office 6378300.583 6356752.27021959


30 WGS 84 6378137 6356752.31398972
31 GEM 10C 6378137 6356752.31398972
32 OSU86F 6378136.2 6356751.51667196
33 OSU91A 6378136.3 6356751.61633668
34 Clarke 1880 6378249.13884613 6356514.96026256
35 Sphere 6371000 6371000

1.1.3.5 Projection Parameter Indices


Index Projection Parameter Index Projection Parameter
0 UTM zone number 4 Scale factor at origin
0 Longitude of origin 4 Latitude of 1st parallel
1 Latitude of origin 5 Azimuth of central line
2 False Easting 5 Latitude of 2nd parallel
3 False Northing 6 Angle from rectified to skewed grid

1.1.4 Creating a Coordinate System


Atoll provides a large catalogue of default coordinate systems. Nevertheless, it is possible to add the description of
geographic and cartographic coordinate systems. New coordinate systems can be created from scratch or initialised on
the basis of an existing one.
To create a new coordinate system from scratch:
1. Select Tools > Options. The Options dialog opens.
2. Select the Coordinates tab.
3. Click the browse button (...) on the right of the Projection field.
4. Click the New button. The Coordinate System dialog opens.
5. In the Coordinate System dialog,
a. Select the coordinate systems catalogue to which you want to add the new coordinate system.
b. In the General properties section: Enter a name for the new coordinate system, select a unit. You can also
enter any comments about its usage. Atoll assigns the code automatically.
c. In the Category section: Select the type of coordinate system. Enter the longitude and latitude for a geograph-
ic coordinate system, or the type of projection and its set of associated parameters for a cartographic coordi-
nate system (false easting and northing, and the first and second parallels).
d. In the Geo section: Specify the meridian and choose a datum for the coordinate system. The associated el-
lipsoid is automatically selected. You can also describe a geodetic datum by selecting "..." in the Datum list.
In this case, you must provide parameters (Dx, Dy, Dz, Rx, Ry, Rz, and S) needed for the transformation of
the datum into WGS84, and an ellipsoid.
6. Click OK. The new coordinate system is added to the selected coordinate system catalogue.
To create a new coordinate system based on an existing system, select a coordinate system in the Coordinate Systems
dialog before clicking New in step 4. The new coordinate system is initialised with the values of the selected coordinate
system.

1.2 Units
1.2.1 Power Units
Depending on the working environment, there can be either one or two types of units for transmission and reception
powers. If you are working with stand-alone documents, i.e., documents not connected to databases, there is only one unit
used in Atoll:
• Display power units
If you are working in a multi-user environment, Atoll uses two type of units:
• Display power units for the Atoll document
• Internal power units for the database
The display units are used for the display in dialogs and tables, e.g., reception thresholds (coverage prediction properties,
etc.), and received signal levels (measurements, point analysis, coverage predictions etc.). You can set the display units
for your document in the Options dialog.

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Chapter 1: Coordinate Systems and Units

The internal units are the power units stored in a database. The power units set by the administrator in the central Atoll
project are stored in the database when the database is created, and cannot be modified by users. Only the administrator
can modify the internal units manually by editing the entries in the Units tables. All Atoll documents opened from a data-
base will have the internal units of the database as their default power units.
Users working on documents connected to a database can modify the units in their documents locally, and save these
changes in their documents, but they cannot modify the units stored in the database.

1.2.2 Length Units


There are two types of units for distances, heights, and offsets:
• Display length units
• Internal length units
The display length units are used to display distances, heights, and offsets in dialogs, tables, and the status bar. You can
set the display units for your document in the Options dialog.
The internal unit for lengths is metre for all Atoll documents whether they are connected to databases or not. The internal
unit is not stored in the databases. The internal unit cannot be changed.

1.3 BSIC Format


Depending on the working environment, there can be either one or two types of BSIC formats. If you are working with
stand-alone documents, i.e., documents not connected to databases, there is only one BSIC format:
• Display BSIC format
If you are working in a multi-user environment, Atoll uses two type of formats:
• Display BSIC format for the Atoll document
• Internal BSIC format for the database
The display format is used for the display in dialogs and tables. You can set the display format for your document from the
Transmitters folder’s context menu.
The internal format is the BSIC format stored in a database. The BSIC format set by the administrator in the central Atoll
project is stored in the database when the database is created, and cannot be modified by users. Only the administrator
can modify the internal format manually by editing the corresponding entry in the Units tables. All Atoll documents opened
from a database will have the internal format of the database as their default BSIC format.
Users working on documents connected to a database can modify the format in their documents locally, and save this
change in their documents, but they cannot modify the format stored in the database.

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 31


Technical Reference Guide

32 AT271_TRG_E6 © Forsk 2009


Chapter 2
Geographic and Radio Data
This chapter defines the different types of data with which you can work in Atoll. These data can be
geographic data, such as maps, and radio network data, such as sites, antennas, other equipment and
parameters.

Atoll
Atoll
Microwave
RF PlanningLink
Microwave andPlanning
Optimisation Software
Software
Technical Reference Guide

34 AT271_TRG_E6 © Forsk 2009


Chapter 2: Geographic and Radio Data

2 Geographic and Radio Data


2.1 Geographic Data
2.1.1 Data Type
Atoll manages several geographic data types; DTM (Digital Terrain Model), clutter (Land-Use), scanned images, vector
data, traffic data, population, and any other generic data.

2.1.1.1 Digital Terrain Model (DTM)


The DTM (Digital Terrain Model or height) files describe the ground elevation above the sea level. DTM files supported by
Atoll are 16 bits/pixel relief maps in .tif, .bil, Planet© and Erdas Imagine formats and 8 bits/pixel relief maps in .tif, .bil, Erdas
Imagine and .bmp formats. DTM maps are taken into account in path loss calculations by Atoll propagation models.
DTM file provides altitude value (z stated in metre) on evenly spaced points. Abscissa and ordinate axes are respectively
oriented in right and downwards directions. Space between points is defined by pixel size (P stated in metre). Pixel size
must be the same in both directions. First point given in the file corresponds to the centre of the upper-left pixel of the map.
This point refers to the northwest point geo-referenced by Atoll. Four points (hence, four altitude values) are necessary to
describe a “bin”; these points are bin vertices.

Figure 2.1: Digital Terrain Model

Therefore, a n*n bin DTM file requires (n)2 points (altitude values).

Figure 2.2: Schematic view of a DTM file

Notes:
• Altitude values differ within a bin. Method used to calculate altitudes is described in the
Path loss calculations: Altitude determination part. Concerning DTM map display, Atoll
takes altitude of the southwest point of each bin to determine its colour.
• In most documents, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Digital Terrain Model (DTM) are
differentiated and do not have the same meaning. By definition, DEM refers to altitude
above sea level including, both, ground and clutter while DTM just corresponds to the
ground height above sea level. In Atoll, the DEM term may be used instead of DTM term.

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2.1.1.2 Clutter (Land Use)


You may import two types of clutter files in ATL documents. These files indicate either the clutter class or the clutter height
on each bin of the map.

2.1.1.2.1 Clutter Classes


Atoll supports 8 bits/pixel (255 classes) raster maps in .tif, .bil, .bmp, Erdas Imagine formats or 16 bits/pixel raster maps
in Planet© format. This kind of clutter file describes the land cover (dense urban, buildings, residential, forest, open,
villages, …). A grid map represents ground and each bin of the map is characterised by a code corresponding to a main
type of cover (a clutter class). Atoll automatically lists all the clutter classes of the map. It is possible to specify an average
clutter height for each clutter class manually during the map description step. Clutter maps are taken into account in path
loss calculations by Atoll propagation models.
Clutter file provides a clutter code per bin. Bin size is defined by pixel size (P stated in metre). Pixel size must be the same
in both directions. Abscissa and ordinate axes are respectively oriented in right and downwards directions. First point given
in the file corresponds to the centre of the upper-left pixel of the image. This point refers to the northwest point geo-refer-
enced by Atoll.

Figure 2.3: Clutter Classes

Therefore, a n*n bin Clutter file requires (n)2 code values.


Note:
• The clutter code is the same inside a bin.

2.1.1.2.2 Clutter Heights


Files supported by Atoll for clutter heights are 8 or 16 bits/pixel raster maps in .tif, .bil and Erdas Imagine formats. The file
provides clutter height value on evenly spaced points. Abscissa and ordinate axes are respectively oriented in right and
downwards directions. Space between points is defined by pixel size (P in metre). Pixel size must be the same in both
directions. First point given in the file corresponds to the centre of the upper-left pixel of the map. This point refers to the
northwest point geo-referenced by Atoll.
These maps are taken into account in path loss calculations by Atoll propagation models.
Note:
• Atoll considers the clutter height of the nearest point in calculations (see Path loss
calculations: Clutter determination part). For map display, Atoll takes clutter height of the
southwest point of each bin to determine its colour.

2.1.1.3 Traffic Data


Atoll offers different kinds of traffic data:

2.1.1.3.1 Environment Traffic Maps


Atoll supports 8 bits/pixel (256 class) traffic raster maps in .tif, .bil, .bmp, Erdas Imagine formats. These maps provide
macroscopic traffic estimation. Each pixel is assigned an environment class, which is a list of user profiles with a defined
mobility type and a density.

2.1.1.3.2 User Profile Traffic Maps


Atoll supports vector traffic maps with .dxf®, Planet©, .shp, .mif and .agd formats. These maps are detailed traffic estima-
tions (lines, polygons or points carrying a specific traffic). Each polygon, line or point is assigned a specific user profile with
associated mobility type and density. They can be built from population density vector maps.

2.1.1.3.3 Live Traffic Maps


Atoll supports maps with .agd format. This kind of map is based on the network feedback. It provides actual information
on connections (and not just subscriber estimation) from the network. It is built from a coverage by transmitter prediction

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Chapter 2: Geographic and Radio Data

study that defines sector boundaries for the traffic distribution in each sector. In UMTS, CDMA2000 and IS95-CDMA, either
data rates or the number of users per service are indicated for each transmitter service area. In GSM/TDMA, Atoll expects
a number of Erlangs in case of voice service and data rate values for packet-switched services for each transmitter service
area.

2.1.1.3.4 User Density Traffic Maps


This kind of map is only available in GSM/TDMA documents. Atoll supports 16 and 32 bits/pixel traffic raster maps in .tif,
.bil, .bmp, Planet© and Erdas Imagine formats. This map is also based on the network feedback as it deals with network
users information as well. Each pixel is assigned a number of users with a given service, terminal and mobility type.
In GSM documents, traffic maps are taken into account for traffic analysis and network dimensioning. In UMTS,
CDMA2000 and IS95-CDMA documents, they are used by the Monte-Carlo simulator to model user distributions and eval-
uate related network parameters (cell power, mobile terminal power, …).

2.1.1.4 Vector Data


These data represent either polygons (regions, etc.), lines (roads, coastlines, etc.) or points (towns, etc.). Atoll supports
vector data files in .dxf®, Planet©, .shp, .mif and .agd formats. These maps are only used for display and provide informa-
tion about the geographic environment.

2.1.1.5 Scanned Images


These geographic data include the road maps and the satellite images. They are only used for display and provide infor-
mation about the geographic environment. Atoll supports scanned image files in .tif (1, 4, 8, 24-bits/pixel), .bil (1, 4, 8, 24-
bits/pixel), Planet© (1, 4, 8, 24-bits/pixel), .bmp (1-24-bits/pixel), Erdas Imagine (1, 4, 8, 24-bits/pixel) and .ecw (24-bits/
pixel) formats.

2.1.1.6 Population
Atoll deals with vector population files (polygons, lines or points) in .mif, .shp and .agd formats or 8, 16, 32 bits/pixel raster
population files in .tif, .bil, .bmp and Erdas Imagine formats. Population map describes the population distribution. They
are considered in clutter statistics and in coverage prediction reports.

2.1.1.7 Other Geographic Data


It is possible to import generic geographic data types, other than those listed above, (Customer density, revenue density,
…) in Atoll. These data can be either vector files in .mif, .shp and .agd formats or 8, 16, 32 bits/pixel raster files in .tif, .bil,
.bmp and Erdas Imagine formats. These maps are taken into account in clutter statistics and in coverage prediction
reports.
The ArcView Grid format (.txt) is an ASCII format dedicated to define raster maps. It may be used to export any raster map
such as DTM, images, Clutter Classes and/or Heights, Population, Generic data maps and even coverage predictions.
The contents of an ArcView Grid file are in ASCII and consist of a header, describing the content, followed by the content
in the form of cell values.
Notes:
• The minimum resolution supported by Atoll is 1m for any raster maps, excepted for
scanned images, for which it is unlimited.
• DTM and clutter map resolution must be an integer.
• All the raster maps you want to import in an ATL document must be represented in the
same projection system.

2.1.2 Supported Geographic Data Formats


Atoll offers Import/Export filters for the most commonly used geographic data formats. The different filters are:

Import/
File format Can contain Georeferenced
Export
DTM, Clutter classes and heights, Traffic,
.bil Both Yes via .hdr files
Image, Population, Other data
DTM, Clutter classes and heights, Traffic, Yes via associated .tfw files if
.tif Both
Image, Population, Other data they exist
Planet© Both DTM, Clutter classes, Image, Vector data Yes via index files
DTM, Clutter heights, Clutter classes, Traffic,
.bmp Both Yes via .bpw (or .bmw) files
Image, Population, Other data
.dxf® Import Only Vector data, Vector traffic Yes
Vector data, Vector traffic, Population, Other
.shp Both Yes
data
Vector data, Vector traffic, Population, Other
.mif/.mid Both Yes
data

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DTM, Clutter classes and heights, Traffic,


Erdas Imagine Import Only Yes
Image, Population, Other data
DTM, Clutter classes and heights, Traffic, Yes automatically embedded in
ArcView Grid Export Only
Image, Population, Other data the data file
Vector data, Vector traffic, Population, Other Yes automatically embedded in
.agd Both
data the data file
Vertical Mapper DTM, Clutter classes and heights, Traffic, Yes automatically embedded in
Both
(.grd, .grc) Image, Population, Other data the data file
.ecw Import Only Images Yes via ers file (not mandatory)

Note:
• The .wld files may be used as georeferencement file for any type of binary raster file.
• Tiled .tif format is not supported.

Thus, to sum up, you can import:


• DTM files in .tif (16-bits, 8-bits), .bil (16-bits, 8-bits), Planet© (16-bits), Erdas Imagine (16-bits, 8-bits), Vertical
Mapper (.grd, .grc) and .bmp (8-bits) formats.
• Clutter heights files in .tif (16-bits, 8-bits), .bil (16-bits, 8-bits), Planet© (16-bits), Erdas Imagine (16-bits, 8-bits),
Vertical Mapper (.grd, .grc) and .bmp (8-bits) formats.
• Clutter classes and traffic raster files in .tif (8-bits), .bil (8-bits), .bmp (8-bit), Erdas Imagine (8-bits) and Vertical
Mapper (.grd, .grc) and Planet© format (16-bits) are also supported.
• Vector data files in .dxf®, Planet©, .shp, .mif and .agd formats.
• Vector traffic files in .dxf®, Planet©, .shp, .mif and .agd formats.
• Scanned image files in .tif (1, 4, 8, 24-bits), .bil (1, 4, 8, 24-bits), Planet© (1, 4, 8, 24-bits), .bmp (1-24-bits), Erdas
Imagine (1, 4, 8, 24-bits), Vertical Mapper (.grd, .grc) and .ecw (Enhanced Compressed Wavelet) (24 bits) formats.
• Population files in .mif, .shp, .agd, .tif (8, 16, 32-bits), .bil (8, 16, 32-bits), .bmp (8, 32-bits), Vertical Mapper (.grd,
.grc) and Erdas Imagine (8, 16, 32-bits) formats.
• Other generic data types in .mif, .shp, .agd, .tif (8, 16, 32-bits), .bil (8, 16, 32-bits), .bmp (8, 32-bits), Vertical
Mapper (.grd, .grc) and Erdas Imagine (8, 16, 32-bits) formats.

Note:
• It is possible to import Packbit, FAX-CCITT3 and LZW compressed .tif files. However, in
case of DTM and clutter, we recommend not to use compressed files in order to avoid poor
performances. If uncompressed files are too big, it is better to split them.

2.2 Radio Data


Atoll manages several radio data types; sites, transmitters, antennas, stations and hexagonal designs. Data definition in
Atoll is detailed hereafter.

2.2.1 Site
A site is a geographical point where one or several transmitters (multi-sectored site or station) equipped with antennas are
located.

2.2.2 Antenna
An antenna is a device used for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic waves.

2.2.3 Transmitter
A transmitter is a group of radio devices located at a site. Transmitters are equipped with antenna(s) and other equipment
such as feeder, tower mounted amplifiers (TMA) and BTS.

2.2.4 Repeater
A repeater is a device that receives, amplifies and transmits the radiated or conducted RF carrier both in downlink and
uplink. It comprises a donor side and a server side. The donor side receives the signal from a donor transmitter. This signal
may be carried by different types of links such as radio link, microwave link, or optic fibre. The server side transmits the
repeated signal.

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Chapter 2: Geographic and Radio Data

2.2.5 Remote Antenna


The use of remote antennas allows antenna positioning at locations that would normally require prohibitively long runs of
feeder cable. A remote antenna is connected to the base station via an optic fibre. The main difference from a repeater is
that a remote antenna generates its own cell whereas a repeater extends the coverage of an existing cell.

2.2.6 Station
A station can represent one transmitter on a site or a group of transmitters on a same site sharing the same properties.
You can define station templates and build your network from stations instead of single transmitters.

2.2.7 Hexagonal Design


A hexagonal design is a group of stations created from the same station template.

2.2.8 GSM GPRS EGPRS Documents


2.2.8.1 TRX
A base station (transmitter) consists of several transceivers or TRXs. One TRX supports as many timeslots as the multi-
plexing factor defined in properties of your frequency band (8 timeslots in GSM networks). Three types of TRXs are
modelled in Atoll:
• The BCCH TRX type: carries the BCCH,
• The TCH TRX type: which is the default traffic carrier,
• The TCH_INNER TRX type: this TRX type is an inner traffic carrier.

2.2.8.2 Subcell
A subcell corresponds to a group of TRXs having the same radio characteristics, the same quality (C/I) requirements, and
common settings. A subcell is characterised by the ‘transmitter-TRX type’ pair. Each transmitter may have one or more
subcells. The most common configurations are the {BCCH, TCH} configuration or the {BCCH, TCH, TCH_INNER} one.

2.2.8.3 Cell Type


A cell type describes the subcells (types of TRXs) that a cell can use and their parameters, which can be different. In the
current Atoll version, the cell type definition must include a TRX type as the BCCH carrier (BCCH TRX type) and another
TRX type as the default traffic carrier (TCH TRX type). Only one TRX type carrying the broadcast and only one TRX type
carrying the default TCH are supported.

2.2.9 All CDMA and WiMAX BWA Documents


2.2.9.1 Cell
Cell comprises the carrier characteristics of a transmitter. Cell is characterised by the ‘transmitter-carrier’ pair. The trans-
mitter-carrier pair must be unique.

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 39


Technical Reference Guide

40 AT271_TRG_E6 © Forsk 2009


Chapter 3
File Formats
Atoll supports a set of file formats for each type of data, may it be geographic data or calculation results.
This chapter contains details of these file formats, their usage, availability, and limitations.

Atoll
Atoll
Microwave
RF PlanningLink
Microwave andPlanning
Optimisation Software
Software
Technical Reference Guide

42 AT271_TRG_E6 © Forsk 2009


Chapter 3: File Formats

3 File Formats
3.1 BIL Format
Band Interleaved by Line is a method of organizing image data for multi-band images. It is a schema for storing the actual
pixel values of an image in a file. The pixel data is typically preceded by a file header that contains auxiliary data about the
image, such as the number of rows and columns in the image, a colour map, etc. .bil data stores pixel information band
by band for each line, or row, of the image. Although .bil is a data organization schema, it is treated as an image format.
An image description (number of rows and columns, number of bands, number of bits per pixel, byte order, etc.) has to be
provided to be able to display the .bil file. This information is included in the header .hdr file associated with the .bil file. A
.hdr file has the same name as the .bil file it refers to, and should be located in the same directory as the source file. The
.hdr structure is simple; it is an ASCII text file containing eleven lines. You can open a .hdr file using any ASCII text editor.
Atoll supports the following objects in .bil format:
• Digital Terrain Model (8 or 16 bits)
• Clutter heights (8 or 16 bits)
• Clutter classes and Environment traffic maps (8 bits)
• Traffic density maps (16 or 32 bits)
• Raster images (1, 4, 8, 24 bits)
• Population maps (8, 16, 32 bits)
• Other generic geographic data (8, 16, 32 bits)
• Path loss or received signal level value matrices (16 bits)

3.1.1 HDR Header File


3.1.1.1 Description
The header file is a text file that describes how data are organised in the .bil file. The header file is made of rows, each
row having the following format:

keyword value

where ‘keyword’ corresponds to an attribute type, and ‘value’ defines the attribute value.
Keywords required by Atoll are described below. Other keywords are ignored.

nrows Number of rows in the image.


ncols Number of columns in the image.
nbands Number of spectral bands in the image, (1 for DTM data and
8 bit pictures).
nbits Number of bits per pixel per band; 8 or 16 for DTMs or
Clutter heights (altitude in metres), 8 for clutter class-
es file (clutter code), 16 for path loss matrices (path
loss in dB, field value in dBm, dBµV and DBµV/m).
byteorder Byte order in which image pixel values are stored. Accept-
ed values are M (Motorola byte order) or I (Intel byte or-
der).
layout Must be ‘bil’.
skipbytes Byte to be skipped in the image file in order to reach the
beginning of the image data. Default value is 0.
ulxmap x coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel.
ulymap y coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel.
xdim x size in metre of a pixel.
ydim y size in metre of a pixel.

Four additional keywords may be optionally managed.

datatype Type of data read (in addition to the length)

It can be:

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 43


Technical Reference Guide

I1 Integer 1 bit
I2 Integer 2 bits
I4 Integer 4 bits
I8 Integer 8 bits
I16 Integer 16 bits
I32 Integer 32 bits
R32 Real 32 bits
R64 Real 64 bits
RGB24 Integer 3 colour components on 24 bits

By default, integer data types are chosen with respect to the pixel length (nbits).

valueoffset Real value to be added to the read value (Vread)


valuescale Scaling factor to be applied to the read value

So, we have V = V read  valuescale + valueoffset

nodatavalue Value corresponding to “NO DATA”

3.1.1.2 Samples
Here, the data is 20m.

3.1.1.2.1 Digital Terrain Model


nrows 1500
ncols 1500
nbands 1
nbits 8 or 16
byteorder M
layout bil
skipbytes 0
ulxmap 975000
ulymap 1891000
xdim 20.00
ydim 20.00

3.1.1.2.2 Clutter Classes File


nrows 1500
ncols 1500
nbands 1
nbits 8
byteorder M
layout bil
skipbytes 0
ulxmap 975000
ulymap 1891000
xdim 20.00
ydim 20.00

3.1.1.2.3 BIL File


.bil files are usually binary files without header. Data are stored starting from the Northwest corner of the area. The skip-
bytes value defined in the header file allows to skip records if the data do not start at the beginning of the file.

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Chapter 3: File Formats

3.2 TIF Format


Tagged Image File Format graphics filter supports all image types (monochrome, greyscale, palette colour, and RGB full
colour images) and Packbit, LZW or fax group 3-4 compressions. .tif files are not systematically geo-referenced. You have
to enter spatial references of the image manually during the import procedure (x and y-axis map coordinates of the centre
of the upper-left pixel, pixel size); an associated file with .tfw extension will be simultaneously created with the same name
and in the same directory as the .tif file it refers to. Atoll will then use the .tfw file during the import procedure for an auto-
matic geo-referencing.
Note:
• Atoll also supports .tif files using the Packbit, FAX-CCITT3 and LZW compression modes.

You can modify the colour palette convention used by Atoll when exporting .tif files. This can be helpful when working on
.tif files exported by Atoll in other tools. In the default palette, the first colour indexes represent the useful information and
the remaining colour indexes represent the background. It is possible to export .tif files with a palette which defines the
background colour at the colour index 0, and then the colour indexes necessary to represent useful information. Add the
following lines in the Atoll.ini file to set up the new palette convention:

[TiffExport]
PaletteConvention=Gis

Please refer to the Administrator Manual for more details about the Atoll.ini file.
Notes:
• Using compressed geo data formats (compressed .tif, Erdas Imagine, or .ecw) can cause
performance loss due to real-time decompression. However, you can recover this loss in
performance by:

- Either, hiding the status bar, which provides geographic data information in real time, by
unchecking the Status Bar item in the View menu.
- Or, not displaying some of the information, such as altitude, clutter class and clutter
height, in the status bar. This can be done through the Atoll.ini file, by adding the following
lines:

[StatusBar]
DisplayZ=0
DisplayClutterClass=0
DisplayClutterHeight=0
• You can also save the produced map in an uncompressed format.
• Please refer to the Administrator Manual for more details about the Atoll.ini file.

Atoll supports the following objects in .tif format:


• Digital Terrain Model (8 or 16 bits)
• Clutter heights (8 or 16 bits)
• Clutter classes and Environment traffic maps (8 bits)
• Traffic density maps (16 or 32 bits)
• Raster images (1, 4, 8, 24 bits)
• Population maps (8, 16, 32 bits)
• Other generic geographic data (8, 16, 32 bits)
.tfw file contains the spatial reference data of an associated .tif file. The .tfw file structure is simple; it is an ASCII text file
that contains six lines. You can open a .tfw file using any ASCII text editor.

3.2.1 TFW Header File


The .tfw files contain spatial reference data for the associated .tif file. The header file is a text file that describes how data
are organised in the .tif file. You can open a .tfw file using any ASCII text editor. The header file consists of six lines, with
each line having the following description:
Line Description
1 x dimension of a pixel in map units
2 amount of translation
3 amount of rotation
4 negative of the y dimension of a pixel in map units
5 x-axis map coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel
6 y-axis map coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 45


Technical Reference Guide

Note:
• Atoll does not use the lines 2 and 3 when importing a .tif format geographic file.

3.2.2 Sample
3.2.2.1 Clutter Classes File
100.00
0.00
0.00
-100.00
60000.00
2679900.00

3.3 BMP Format


This is the MS-Windows standard format. It holds black & white, 16-, 256- and True-colour images. The palletized 16-
colour and 256-colour images may be compressed via run length encoding (though compressed .bmp files are quite rare).
The image data itself can either contain pointers to entries in a colour table or literal RGB values. .bmp files are not system-
atically geo-referenced. You have to enter spatial references of the image manually during the import procedure (x and y-
axis map coordinates of the centre of the upper-left pixel, pixel size). When exporting (saving) a .bmp file, an associated
file with .bpw extension is created with the same name and in the same directory as the .bmp file it refers to. Atoll stores
the georeferencing information in this file for future imports of the .bmp so that the .bpw file can be used during the import
procedure for automatic geo-referencing. Atoll also supports .bmw extension for the .bmp related world files.
Atoll supports the following objects in .tif format:
• Digital Terrain Model (8 bits)
• Clutter Heights (8 bits)
• Clutter classes and traffic density maps (8 bits)
• Raster images (1, 4, 8, 24 bits)
• Population maps (8, 32 bits)
• Other generic geographic data (8, 32 bits)

3.3.1 BMP File Description


A .bmp file contains of the following data structures:
• BITMAPFILEHEADER bmfh Contains some information about the bitmap file (about the file, not
about the bitmap itself).
• BITMAPINFOHEADER bmih Contains information about the bitmap (such as size, colours, etc.).
• RGBQUAD aColors[] Contains a colour table.
• BYTE aBitmapBits[] Image data (whose format is specified by the bmih structure).

3.3.1.1 BMP File Structure


The following tables give exact information about the data structures. The Start-value is the position of the byte in the file
at which the explained data element of the structure starts, the Size-value contains the number of bytes used by this data
element, the Name column contains both generic name and the name assigned to this data element by the Microsoft API
documentation, and the Description column gives a short explanation of the purpose of this data element.
• BITMAPFILEHEADER (Header - 14 bytes):

Name
Start Size Description
Generic MS API
1 2 Signature bfType Must always be set to 'BM' to declare that this is a .bmp-file.
3 4 FileSize bfSize Specifies the size of the file in bytes.
7 2 Reserved1 bfReserved1 Unused. Must be set to zero.
9 2 Reserved2 bfReserved2 Unused. Must be set to zero.
Specifies the offset from the beginning of the file to the bitmap (raster)
11 4 DataOffset bfOffBits
data.

• BITMAPINFOHEADER (InfoHeader - 40 bytes):

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Chapter 3: File Formats

Name
Start Size Description
Generic MS API
Specifies the size of the BITMAPINFOHEADER structure, in
15 4 Size biSize
bytes (= 40 bytes).
19 4 Width biWidth Specifies the width of the image, in pixels.
23 4 Height biHeight Specifies the height of the image, in pixels.
Specifies the number of planes of the target device, must be
27 2 Planes biPlanes
set to zero or 1.
Specifies the number of bits per pixel.
1 = monochrome pallete. # of colours = 1
4 = 4-bit palletized. # of colours = 16
29 2 BitCount biBitCount
8 = 8-bit palletized. # of colours = 256
16 = 16-bit palletized. # of colours = 65536
24 = 24-bit palletized. # of colours = 16M
Specifies the type of compression, usually set to zero.
0 = BI_RGB no compression
31 4 Compression biCompression
1 = BI_RLE8 8-bit RLE encoding
2 = BI_RLE4 4-bit RLE encoding
Specifies the size of the image data, in bytes. If there is no
35 4 ImageSize biSizeImage
compression, it is valid to set this element to zero.
39 4 XpixelsPerM biXPelsPerMeter Specifies the the horizontal pixels per meter.
43 4 YpixelsPerM biYPelsPerMeter Specifies the the vertical pixels per meter.
Specifies the number of colours actually used in the bitmap. If
47 4 ColoursUsed biClrUsed set to zero the number of colours is calculated using the
biBitCount element.
Specifies the number of colour that are 'important' for the
51 4 ColoursImportant biClrImportant
bitmap. If set to zero, all colours are considered important.

Note:
• biBitCount actually specifies the colour resolution of the bitmap. It also decides if there is a
colour table in the file and how it looks like.
- In 1-bit mode the colour table has to contain 2 entries (usually white and black). If a bit in
the image data is clear, it points to the first palette entry. If the bit is set, it points to the
second.
- In 4-bit mode the colour table must contain 16 colours. Every byte in the image data
represents two pixels. The byte is split into the higher 4 bits and the lower 4 bits and each
value of them points to a palette entry.
- In 8-bit mode every byte represents a pixel. The value points to an entry in the colour
table which contains 256 entries.
- In 24-bit mode three bytes represent one pixel. The first byte represents the red part, the
second the green and the third the blue part. There is no need for a palette because every
pixel contains a literal RGB-value, so the palette is omitted.

• RGBQUAD array (ColorTable):

Name
Start Size Description
Generic MS API
1 1 Blue rgbBlue Specifies the blue part of the colour.
2 1 Green rgbGreen Specifies the green part of the colour.
3 1 Red rgbRed Specifies the red part of the colour.
4 1 Reserved rgbReserved Must always be set to zero.

Note:
• In a colour table (RGBQUAD), the specification for a colour starts with the blue byte, while
in a palette a colour always starts with the red byte.

• Pixel data:
The interpretation of the pixel data depends on the BITMAPINFOHEADER structure. It is important to know that the rows
of a .bmp are stored upside down meaning that the uppermost row which appears on the screen is actually the lowermost
row stored in the bitmap. Another important thing is that the number of bytes in one row must always be adjusted by
appending zero bytes to fit into the border of a multiple of four (16-bit or 32-bit rows).

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 47


Technical Reference Guide

3.3.1.2 BMP Raster Data Encoding


Depending on the image BitCount and on the Compression flag there are 6 different encoding schemes. In all of them,
• Pixels are stored bottom-up, left-to-right.
• Pixel lines are padded with zeros to end on a 32-bit boundary.
• For uncompressed formats every line will have the same number of bytes.
• Colour indices are zero based, meaning a pixel colour of 0 represents the first colour table entry, a pixel colour of
255 (if there are that many) represents the 256th entry. For images with more than 256 colours there is no colour
table.

BitCoun Compressio
Encoding type Remarks
t n
Every byte holds 8 pixels, its highest order bit representing the
leftmost pixel of these 8. There are 2 colour table entries. Some
1-bit readers assume that 0 is black and 1 is white. If you are storing
1 0
B&W images black and white pictures you should stick to this, with any other 2
colours this is not an issue. Remember padding with zeros up to a
32-bit boundary.
Every byte holds 2 pixels, its high order 4 bits representing the left of
those. There are 16 colour table entries. These colours do not have
4-bit
4 0 to be the 16 MS-Windows standard colours. Padding each line with
16 colour images
zeros up to a 32-bit boundary will result in up to 28 zeros = 7 'wasted
pixels'.
Every byte holds 1 pixel. There are 256 colour table entries.
8-bit
8 0 Padding each line with zeros up to a 32-bit boundary will result in up
256 colour images
to 3 bytes of zeros = 3 'wasted pixels'.
Every 2 bytes hold 1 pixel. There are no colour table entries.
16-bit
16 0 Padding each line with zeros up to a 16-bit boundary will result in up
High colour images
to 2 zero bytes.
Every 4 bytes hold 1 pixel. The first holds its red, the second its
24-bit green, and the third its blue intensity. The fourth byte is reserved
24 0
True colour images and should be zero. There are no colour table entries. No zero
padding necessary.
Pixel data is stored in 2-byte chunks. The first byte specifies the
number of consecutive pixels with the same pair of colour. The
second byte defines two colour indices. The resulting pixel pattern
4-bit will have interleaved high-order 4-bits and low order 4 bits
4 2
16 colour images (ABABA...). If the first byte is zero, the second defines an escape
code. The End-of-Bitmap is zero padded to end on a 32-bit
boundary. Due to the 16bit-ness of this structure this will always be
either two zero bytes or none.
The pixel data is stored in 2-byte chunks. The first byte specifies the
number of consecutive pixels with the same colour. The second byte
8-bit defines their colour indices. If the first byte is zero, the second
8 1
256 colour images defines an escape code. The End-of-Bitmap is zero padded to end
on a 32-bit boundary. Due to the 16bit-ness of this structure this will
always be either two zero bytes or none.

3.3.1.2.1 Raster Data Compression Descriptions


• 4-bit / 16 colour images

n (Byte 1) c (Byte 2) Description


n pixels to be drawn. The 1st, 3rd, 5th, ... pixels' colour is in c's high-order 4 bits, the
>0 any even pixels' colour is in c's low-order 4 bits. If both colour indices are the same, it
results in just n pixels of colour c.
0 0 End-of-line
0 1 End-of-Bitmap
Delta. The following 2 bytes define an unsigned offset in x and y direction (y being up).
0 2
The skipped pixels should get a colour zero.
The following c bytes will be read as single pixel colours just as in uncompressed files.
0 >=3
Up to 12 bits of zeros follow, to put the file/memory pointer on a 16-bit boundary again.

• 8-bit / 256 colour images

n (Byte 1) c (Byte 2) Description


>0 any n pixels of colour number c

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Chapter 3: File Formats

0 0 End-of-line
0 1 End-of-Bitmap
Delta. The following 2 bytes define an unsigned offset in x and y direction (y being up).
0 2
The skipped pixels should get a colour zero.
The following c bytes will be read as single pixel colours just as in uncompressed files.
0 >=3
A zero follows, if c is odd, putting the file/memory pointer on a 16-bit boundary again.

3.3.2 BPW/BMW Header File Description


The header file is a text file that describes how data are organised in the .bmp file. The header file is made of rows, each
row having the following description:
Line Description
1 x dimension of a pixel in map units
2 amount of translation
3 amount of rotation
4 negative of the y dimension of a pixel in map units
5 x-axis map coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel
6 y-axis map coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel

Atoll supports .bpw and .bmw header file extensions for Import, but exports headers with .bpw file extensions.

3.3.3 Sample
3.3.3.1 Clutter Classes File
100.00
0.00
0.00
-100.00
60000.00
2679900.00

3.4 Generic Raster Header File (.wld)


.wld is a new Atoll specific header format that can be used for any raster data file for georeferencing. At the time of import
of any raster data file, Atoll can use the corresponding .wld file to read the georeferencing information related to the raster
data file. The .wld file contains the spatial reference data of any associated raster data file. The .wld file structure is simple;
it is an ASCII text file containing six lines. You can open a .wld file using any ASCII text editor.

3.4.1 WLD File Description


The .wld file is a text file that describes how data are organised in the associated raster data file. The header file is made
of rows, each row having the following description:
Line Description
1 x dimension of a pixel in map units
2 amount of translation
3 amount of rotation
4 negative of the y dimension of a pixel in map units
5 x-axis map coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel
6 y-axis map coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel

3.4.2 Sample
3.4.2.1 Clutter Classes File
100.00

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Technical Reference Guide

0.00
0.00
-100.00
60000.00
2679900.00

3.5 DXF Format


Atoll is capable of importing and working with AutoCAD® drawings in the Drawing Interchange Format (DXF). .dxf files
can have ASCII or binary formats. But only the ASCII .dxf files can be used in Atoll.
.dxf files are composed of pairs of codes and associated values. The codes, known as group codes, indicate the type of
value that follows. .dxf files are organized into sections of records containing the group codes and their values. Each group
code and value is a separate line.
Each section starts with a group code 0 followed by the string, SECTION. This is followed by a group code 2 and a string
indicating the name of the section (for example, HEADER). Each section ends with a 0 followed by the string ENDSEC.

3.6 SHP Format


ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc.) ArcView® GIS Shapefiles have a simple, non-topological format
for storing geometric locations and attribute information of geographic features. A shapefile is one of the spatial data
formats that you can work with in ArcExplorer. .shp data files usually have associated .shx and .dbf files.
Among these three files:
• The .shp file stores the feature geometry
• The .shx file stores the index of the feature geometry.
• The .dbf (dBASE) file stores the attribute information of features. When a shapefile is added as a theme to a view,
this file is displayed as a feature table.
You can define mappings between the coordinate system used for the ESRI vector files, defined in the corresponding .prj
files, and Atoll. In this way, when you import a vector file, Atoll can detect the correct coordinate system automatically. For
more information about defining the mapping between coordinate systems, please refer to the Administrator Manual.

3.7 MIF Format


MapInfo Interchange Format (.mif) allows various types of data to be attached to a variety of graphical items. These ASCII
files are editable, easy to generate, and work on all platforms supported by MapInfo. Vector objects with a .mif extension
may be imported in Atoll.
Two files, a .mif and a .mid, contain MapInfo data. Graphics reside in the .mif file while the text contents are stored in the
.mid file. The text data is delimited with one row per record, and Carriage Return, Carriage Return plus Line Feed, or Line
Feed between lines. The .mif file has two sections, the file header and the data section. The .mid file is optional. When
there is no .mid file, all fields are blank.
You can find more information at http://www.mapinfo.com.
You can define mappings between the coordinate system used for the MapInfo vector files, defined in the corresponding
.mif files, and Atoll. In this way, when you import a vector file, Atoll can detect the correct coordinate system automatically.
For more information about defining the mapping between coordinate systems, please refer to the Administrator Manual.

3.8 TAB Format


TAB files (MapInfo Tables) are the native format of MapInfo. They actually consist of a number of files with extensions
such as .TAB, .DAT and .MAP. All of these files need to be present and kept together for the table to work. These are
defined as follows:
• .TAB: table structure in ASCII format
• .DAT: table data storage in binary format
• .MAP: storage of map objects in binary format
• .ID: index to the MapInfo graphical objects (.MAP) file
• .IND: index to the MapInfo tabular (DAT) file
You can find more information at http://www.mapinfo.com.
You can define mappings between the coordinate system used for the MapInfo vector files, defined in the corresponding
.mif files, and Atoll. In this way, when you import a vector file, Atoll can detect the correct coordinate system automatically.
For more information about defining the mapping between coordinate systems, please refer to the Administrator Manual.
TAB files are also supported as georeference information files for raster files (.bmp and .tif).

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Chapter 3: File Formats

3.9 ECW Format


The Enhanced Compressed Wavelet file format is supported in Atoll. .ecw files are geo-referenced image files, which can
be imported in Atoll. This is an Open Standard wavelet compression technology, developed by Earth Resource Mapping,
which can compress images with up to a 100-to-1 compression ratio. Each compressed image file contains a header carry-
ing the following information about the image:
• The image size expressed as the number of cells across and down
• The number of bands (RGB images have three bands)
• The image compression rate
• The cell measurement units (meters, degrees or feet)
• The size of each cell in measurement units
• Coordinate space information (Projection, Datum etc.)

3.10 Erdas Imagine Format


Atoll supports Erdas Imagine data files in order to import DTM (8 or 16 bit/pixel), clutter (8 bit/pixel), traffic (8 bit/pixel), and
image (1-24 bit/pixel) files with the .img format. These files use the Erdas Imagine Hierarchical File Format (HFA) structure.
For any type of file, if there are pyramids (storage of different resolution layers), they are used to enhance performance
when decreasing the resolution of the display. Some aspects of working with Erdas Imagine format in Atoll are:
• Atoll supports uncompressed as well as compressed (or partially compressed) DTM .img files.
• You can create a .mnu file to improve the clutter class map loading.
• The colour-to-code association (raster maps) may be automatically imported from the .img file.
• These files are automatically geo-referenced, i.e., they do not require any additional file for geo-reference.
For image files, the number of supported bands is either 1 (colour palette is defined separately) or 3 (no colour palette but
direct RGB information for each pixel). In case of 3 bands, only 8 bit per pixel format is supported. Therefore, 8-bit images,
containing RGB information (three bands are provided: the first band is for Blue, the second one is for Green and the third
for Red), can be considered as 24 bit per pixel files. 32 bit per pixel files are not supported.
Notes:
• Using compressed geo data formats (compressed .tif, Erdas Imagine, or .ecw) can cause
performance loss due to real-time decompression. However, you can recover this loss in
performance by:

- Either, hiding the status bar, which provides geographic data information in real time, by
unchecking the Status Bar item in the View menu.
- Or, not displaying some of the information, such as altitude, clutter class and clutter
height, in the status bar. This can be done through the Atoll.ini file, by adding the following
lines:

[StatusBar]
DisplayZ=0
DisplayClutterClass=0
DisplayClutterHeight=0
• You can also save the produced map in an uncompressed format.
• Please refer to the Administrator Manual for more details about the Atoll.ini file.

3.11 Planet EV/Vertical Mapper Geographic Data Format


Vertical Mapper offers two types of grids:
• Numerical continuous grids, which contain numerical information (such as DTM), and are stored in files with the
.grd extension.
• Classified grids, which contain alphanumeric (characters) information, and are stored in files with the .grc exten-
sion.
Atoll is capable of supporting the Vertical Mapper Classified Grid (GRC) and Vertical Mapper Continuous Grid (GRD) file
formats in order to import and export:
• GRD: DTM, image, population, traffic density, and other data types.
• GRC: DTM, clutter classes, clutter heights, environment traffic, image, population, and other data types.
It is also possible to export coverage prediction studies in GRD and GRC formats.
This is the geographic data format used by Planet EV. So, it is possible to directly import geographic data from Planet EV
to Atoll using this format.

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3.12 ArcView Grid Format


The ArcView Grid format (.txt) is an ASCII format dedicated to defining raster maps. It may be used to export any raster
map such as DTM, images, clutter classes and/or heights, population, other data maps, and even coverage predictions.
The contents of an ArcView Grid file are in ASCII and consist of a header, describing the content, followed by the content
in the form of cell values.

3.12.1 ArcView Grid File Description


The format of this file is as follows:

ncols XXX Number of columns of the grid (XXX columns).


nrows XXX Number of rows of the grid (XXX rows).
xllcenter XXX OR
xllcorner XXX Significant value relative to the bin centre or corner.
yllcenter OR
yllcorner XXX Significant value relative to the bin centre or corner.
cellsize XXX Grid resolution.
nodata_value XXX Optional value corresponding to no data (no information).
//Row 1 Top of the raster. Description of the first row. Syntax:
ncols number of values separated by spaces.
:
:
//Row N Bottom of the raster.

3.12.2 Sample
ncols 303
nrows 321
xllcorner 585300.000000
yllcorner 5615700.000000
cellsize 100.000000
nodata_value 0
...

3.13 Other Supported Geographic Data File Formats


Other than the .bil, .tif, Planet, .dxf, .shp, .mif, .img, and .ecw formats, Atoll supports 3 other formats.
The .ist and .dis formats are ASCII files used for Digital Terrain Model only. .ist images come from Istar, whereas .dis
images come from IGN (Institut Géographique National). The .ist format works in exactly the same way as the .bil format,
except for DTM images. For DTM images, the .ist format uses a decimetric coding for altitudes, whereas .bil images use
only a metric coding.

3.14 Planet Format


The Planet geographic data are described by a set of files grouped in a Planet directory. The directory structure depends
on the geographic data type.
Atoll supports the following objects in Planet format:
• Digital Terrain Model (8 and 16 bits)
• Clutter class maps (16 bits)
• Raster images (1, 4, 8 and 24 bits)
• Vector data
• Text data

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3.14.1 DTM File


3.14.1.1 Description
The DTM directory consists of three files; the height file and two other files detailed below:
• The index file structure is simple; it is an ASCII text file that holds position information about the file. It contains
five columns. You can open an index file using any ASCII text editor. The format of the index file is as follows:

Field Acceptable values Description


File name Text Name of file referenced by the index file
East min Float x-axis map coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel in meters
East max Float x-axis map coordinate of the centre of the upper-right pixel in meters
North min Float y-axis map coordinate of the centre of the lower-left pixel in meters
North max Float y-axis map coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel in meters
Square size Float Dimension of a pixel in meters

• The projection file provides information about the projection system used. This file is optional. It is an ASCII text
file with four lines maximum.

Line Description
Spheroid
Zone
Projection
Latitude and longitude of projection central meridian and equivalent x and y coordinates in meters
Central meridian
(optional)

Note:
• In the associated binary file, the value -9999 corresponds to ‘No data’ which is supported
by Atoll.

3.14.1.2 Sample
Index file associated with height file (DTM data):

sydney1 303900 343900 6227900 6267900 50

Projection file associated with height file (DTM data):

Australian-1965
56
UTM
0 153 500000 10000000

3.14.2 Clutter Class Files


3.14.2.1 Description
The Clutter directory consists of three files; the clutter file and two other files detailed below:
• The menu file, an ASCII text file, defines the feature codes for each type of clutter. It consists of as many lines
(with the following format) as there are clutter codes in the clutter data files. This file is optional.

Field Type Description


Clutter-code Integer (>1) Identification code for clutter class
Name associated with the clutter-code. (It may contain
Feature-name Text (up to 32 characters in length)
spaces)

• The index file gives clutter spatial references. The structure of clutter index file is the same as the structure of DTM
index file.

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Note:
• In the associated binary file, the value -9999 corresponds to ‘No data’ which is supported
by Atoll.

3.14.2.2 Sample
Menu file associated with the clutter file:

1 open
2 sea
3 inlandwater
4 residential
5 meanurban
6 denseurban
7 buildings
8 village
9 industrial
10 openinurban
11 forest
12 parks
13 denseurbanhigh
14 blockbuildings
15 denseblockbuild
16 rural
17 mixedsuburban

3.14.3 Vector Files


3.14.3.1 Description
Vector data comprises terrain features such as coastlines, roads, etc. Each of these features is stored in a separate vector
file. Four types of files are used, the vector file, where x and y coordinates of vector paths are stored, and three other files
detailed below:
• The menu file, an ASCII text file, lists the vector types stored in the database. The menu file is composed of one
or more records with the following structure:

Field Type Description


Vector type code Integer > 0 Identification code for the vector type
Vector type name Text (up to 32 characters in length) Name of the vector type

The fields are separated by space character.


• The index file, an ASCII text file, lists the vector files and associates each vector file with one vector type, and
optionally with one attribute file. The index file consists of one or more records with the following structure:

Field Type Description


Vector file name Text (up to 32 characters in length) Name of the vector file
Name of attribute file associated with the vector file
Attribute file name Text (up to 32 characters in length)
(optional)
vector file eastmin: minimum x-axis coordinate of all
vector path points in the vector file
vector file eastmax: maximum x-axis coordinate of all
vector path points in the vector file
Dimensions Real
vector file northmin: minimum y-axis coordinate of all
vector path points in the vector file
vector file northmax: maximum y-axis coordinate of all
vector path points
Name of the vector type with which the vector file is
Vector type name Text (up to 32 characters in length) associated. This one must match exactly a vector type
name field in the menu file.

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The fields are separated by spaces.


• The attribute file stores the height and description properties of vector paths. This file is optional.

3.14.3.2 Sample
Index file associated with the vector files

sydney1.airport 313440 333021 6239426 6244784 airport


sydney1.riverlake 303900 342704 6227900 6267900 riverlake
sydney1.coastline 322837 343900 6227900 6267900 coastline
sydney1.railways 303900 336113 6227900 6267900 railways
sydney1.highways 303900 325155 6240936 6267900 highways
sydney1.majstreets 303900 342770 6227900 6267900 majstreets
sydney1.majorroads 303900 342615 6227900 6267900 majorroads

3.14.4 Image Files


The image directory consists of two files, the image file with .tif extension and an index file with the same structure as the
DTM index file structure.

3.14.5 Text Data Files


The text data directory consists of:
• The text data files are ASCII text files with the following format:

Airport
637111.188 3094774.00
Airport
628642.688 3081806.25

Each file contains a line of text followed by easting and northing of that text, etc.
• The index file, an ASCII text file, stores the position of each text file. It consists of one or more records with the
following structure:

Field Type Description


File name Text (up to 32 characters in length) File name of the text data file
Minimum x-axis coordinate of all points listed in the text
East Min Real
data file
Maximum x-axis coordinate of all points listed in the text
East Max Real
data file
Minimum y-axis coordinate of all points listed in the text
North Min Real
data file
Maximum y-axis coordinate of all points listed in the text
North Max Real
data file
Text feature Text (up to 32 characters in length) This field is omitted in case no menu file is available.

The fields are separated by spaces.

railwayp.txt -260079 693937 2709348 3528665 Railway_Station


airport.txt -307727 771663 2547275 3554675 Airport
ferryport.txt 303922 493521 2667405 3241297 Ferryport

• The menu file, an ASCII text file, contains the text features. This file is optional.

1 Airport
2 Ferryport
3 Railway_Station

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3.15 MNU Format


3.15.1 Description
A .mnu file is useful when importing clutter classes or raster traffic files in .tif, .bil and .img formats. It gives the correspond-
ence between the clutter (or traffic) code and the class name. It is a text file with the same name as the clutter (or traffic)
file with .mnu extension. It must be stored at the same location as the clutter (or traffic) file. It has the same structure as
the menu file used in the Planet format.

Field Type Description


Class code Integer > 0 Identification code for the clutter (or traffic) class
Class name Text (up to 50 characters in length) Name of the clutter (or traffic) class. It may contain spaces.

Separator used can either be a space character or a tab.

3.15.2 Sample
A .mnu file associated to a clutter classes file:

0 none
1 open
2 sea
3 inland_water
4 residential
5 meanurban

3.16 XML Table Export/Import Format


All the data tables in an Atoll document can be exported to XML files.
Atoll creates the following files when exporting data tables to XML files:
• One index.xml file which contains the mapping between the data tables in Atoll and the corresponding XML file
created by the export.
• One XML file per data table which contains the data table format (schema) and the data.
The XML import does not modify the active document table and field definitions. Therefore, the Networks and Custom-
Fields tables, although exported, are not imported.
The following sections describe the structures of these two types of XML files created at export.

3.16.1 Index.xml File


The index.xml file stores the system (GSM, UMTS, etc.) and the technology (TDMA, CDMA, etc.) of the document, and
the version of Atoll used for exporting the data tables to XML files. It also contains the mapping between the data tables
in the Atoll document and the XML file corresponding to each data table.
The root tag <Atoll_XML_Config...> of the index.xml file contains the following attributes:

Attribute Description
Atoll_File_System Corresponds to the SYSTEM_ field of the Networks table of the exported document
Corresponds to the TECHNOLOGY field of the Networks table of the exported
Atoll_File_Technology
document
Atoll_File_Version Corresponds to the Atoll version

The index file also contains a list of mapping between the tables exported from Atoll and the XML files corresponding to
each table. This list is sorted in the order the Atoll tables are to be imported.
The list is composed of <XML_Table.../> tags with the following attributes:

Attribute Description
XML_File Corresponds to the exported XML file name (e.g., "Sites.xml")
Atoll_Table Corresponds to the exported Atoll table name (e.g., "Sites")

A sample extract of the index.xml is given below:

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<Atoll_XML_Config Atoll_File_System="UMTS" Atoll_File_Technology="CDMA"


Atoll_File_Version="2.7.0 build 2334">
<XML_Table XML_File="CustomFields.xml" Atoll_Table="CustomFields" />
<XML_Table XML_File="CoordSys.xml" Atoll_Table="CoordSys" />
...
</Atoll_XML_Config>

Note that no closing tag </XML_Table> is required.

3.16.2 XML File


Atoll creates an XML file per exported data table. This XML file has two sections, one for storing the description of the table
structure, and the second for the data itself. The XML file uses the standard XML rowset schema (schema included in the
XML file between <s:Schema id=’RowsetSchema’> and </s:Schema> tags).

Rowset Schema

The XML root tag for XML files using the rowset schema is the following:

<xml xmlns:s='uuid:BDC6E3F0-6DA3-11d1-A2A3-00AA00C14882'
xmlns:dt='uuid:C2F41010-65B3-11d1-A29F-00AA00C14882'
xmlns:rs='urn:schemas-microsoft-com:rowset'
xmlns:z='#RowsetSchema'>

The schema definition follows the root tag and is enclosed between the following tags:

<s:Schema id=’RowsetSchema’>
<!-Schema is defined here, using <s:ElementType> and <s:AttributeType> tags ->
</s:Schema>

In the rowset schema, after the schema description, the data are enclosed between <rs:data> and </rs:data>.
Between these tags, each record is handled by a <z:row … /> tag having its attributes set to the record field values since
in the rowset schema, values are handled by attributes. Note that no closing tag </z:row> is required.
A sample extract of a Sites.xml file containing the Sites table with only one site is given below:

<xml xmlns:s='uuid:BDC6E3F0-6DA3-11d1-A2A3-00AA00C14882'
xmlns:dt='uuid:C2F41010-65B3-11d1-A29F-00AA00C14882'
xmlns:rs='urn:schemas-microsoft-com:rowset'
xmlns:z='#RowsetSchema'>
<s:Schema id='RowsetSchema'>
<s:ElementType name='row' content='eltOnly' rs:updatable='true'>
<s:AttributeType name='NAME' rs:number='1' rs:maydefer='true' rs:writeun-
known='true' rs:basetable='Sites' rs:basecolumn='NAME' rs:keycolumn='true'>
<s:datatype dt:type='string' dt:maxLength='50'/>
</s:AttributeType>
<s:AttributeType name='LONGITUDE' rs:number='2' rs:maydefer='true' rs:wri-
teunknown='true' rs:basetable='Sites' rs:basecolumn='LONGITUDE'>
<s:datatype dt:type='float' dt:maxLength='8' rs:precision='15' rs:fix-
edlength='true'/>
</s:AttributeType>
<s:AttributeType name='LATITUDE' rs:number='3' rs:maydefer='true' rs:write-
unknown='true' rs:basetable='Sites' rs:basecolumn='LATITUDE'>
<s:datatype dt:type='float' dt:maxLength='8' rs:precision='15' rs:fix-
edlength='true'/>
</s:AttributeType>
<s:AttributeType name='ALTITUDE' rs:number='4' rs:nullable='true' rs:mayde-
fer='true' rs:writeunknown='true' rs:basetable='Sites' rs:basecolumn='ALTI-
TUDE'>

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<s:datatype dt:type='r4' dt:maxLength='4' rs:precision='7' rs:fix-


edlength='true'/>
</s:AttributeType>
<s:AttributeType name='COMMENT_' rs:number='5' rs:nullable='true' rs:mayde-
fer='true' rs:writeunknown='true' rs:basetable='Sites' rs:basecol-
umn='COMMENT_'>
<s:datatype dt:type='string' dt:maxLength='255'/>
</s:AttributeType>
<s:extends type='rs:rowbase'/>
</s:ElementType>
</s:Schema>
<rs:data>
<rs:insert>
<z:row NAME='Site0' LONGITUDE='8301' LATITUDE='-9756'/>
</rs:insert>
</rs:data>
</xml>

3.17 Externalised Propagation Results Format


Propagation results, i.e. the path loss matrices, may be stored in an external folder. This folder consists of a dBASE III
based file named ‘pathloss.dbf’ that contains calculation parameters of all the transmitters considered and one file (or two
when calculating main and extended path loss matrices) per transmitter taken into account. This is a binary file with .los
extension and contains the path loss values for a transmitter.
Note:
• Each transmitter path loss matrix is calculated on the area where calculation radius
intersects the computation zone (see: Computation zone).

3.17.1 DBF File


dBASE III file (pathloss.dbf) has a standard .dbf format described below. Its content can be checked by opening it in MS-
Access. The format is detailed hereafter.

3.17.1.1 DBF File Format


For general information, the format of .dbf files in any Xbase language is described.
Following notations are used in tables:

FS = FlagShip D3 = dBaseIII+
Fb = FoxBase D4 = dBaseIV
Fp = FoxPro D5 = dBaseV
CL = Clipper

3.17.1.1.1 DBF Structure


Byte Description
0...n .dbf header (see next part for size, byte 8)

1st record of fixed length (see next parts)


n+1 2nd record (see next part for size, byte10) … If .dbf is not empty
last record

last optional: 0x1a (eof byte)

3.17.1.1.2 DBF Header (Variable Size - Depends on Field Count)


Byte Size Contents Description Applies for (supported by)
00 1 0x03 plain .dbf FS, D3, D4, D5, Fb, Fp, CL
0x04 plain .dbf D4, D5 (FS)
0x05 plain .dbf D5, Fp (FS)

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0x43 with .dbv memo var size FS


0xB3 with .dbv and .dbt memo FS
0x83 with .dbt memo FS, D3, D4, D5, Fb, Fp, CL
0x8B with .dbt memo in D4 format D4, D5
0x8E with SQL table D4, D5
0xF5 with .fmp memo Fp
01 3 YYMMDD Last update digits All
04 4 ulong Number of records in file All
08 2 ushort Header size in bytes All
10 2 ushort Record size in bytes All
12 2 0,0 Reserved All
14 1 0x01 Begin transaction D4, D5
0x00 End Transaction D4, D5
0x00 ignored FS, D3, Fb, Fp, CL
15 1 0x01 Encrypted D4, D5
0x00 normal visible All
16 12 0 (1) multi-user environment use D4,D5
28 1 0x01 production index exists Fp, D4, D5
0x00 index upon demand All
29 1 n language driver ID D4, D5
0x01 codepage437 DOS USA Fp
0x02 codepage850 DOS Multi ling Fp
0x03 codepage1251 Windows ANSI Fp
0xC8 codepage1250 Windows EE Fp
0x00 ignored FS, D3, Fb, Fp, CL
30 2 0,0 reserved All
32 n*32 Field Descriptor, (see next paragraph) all
+1 1 0x0D Header Record Terminator all

• Field descriptor array in the .dbf header (32 bytes for each field)

Byte Size Contents Description Applies for (supported by)


0 11 ASCI field name, 0x00 termin all
11 1 ASCI field type (see next paragraph) all
12 4 n,n,n,n Fld address in memory D3
n,n,0,0 offset from record begin Fp
0,0,0,0 ignored FS, D4, D5, Fb, CL
16 1 byte Field length, bin (see next paragraph) all \ FS,CL: for C field type
17 1 byte decimal count, bin all / both used for fld lng
18 2 0,0 reserved all
20 1 byte Work area ID D4, D5
0x00 unused FS, D3, Fb, Fp, CL
21 2 n,n multi-user dBase D3, D4, D5
0,0 ignored FS, Fb, Fp, CL
23 1 0x01 Set Fields D3, D4, D5
0x00 ignored FS, Fb, Fp, CL
24 7 0...0 reserved all
31 1 0x01 Field is in .mdx index D4, D5
0x00 ignored FS, D3, Fb, Fp, CL

• Field type and size in the .dbf header, field descriptor (1 byte)

Size Type Description/Storage Applies for (supported by)


ASCII (OEM code page chars)
C 1...n Char all
rest= space, not \0 term.

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n = 1...64kb (using deci count) FS


n = 1...32kb (using deci count) Fp, CL
n = 1...254 all
D8 Date 8 ASCII digits (0...9) in the YYYYMMDD format all
ASCII digits (-.0123456789)
F 1...n Numeric variable pos. of float.point FS, D4, D5, Fp
n = 1...20
ASCII digits (-.0123456789)
N 1...n Numeric all
fix posit/no float.point
n = 1...20 FS, Fp, CL
n = 1...18 D3, D4, D5, Fb
L1 Logical ASCII chars (YyNnTtFf space) FS, D3, Fb, Fp, CL
ASCII chars (YyNnTtFf?) D4, D5 (FS)
10 digits repres. the start block posit. in .dbt file, or 10 spaces if
M 10 Memo all
no entry in memo
Variable, bin/asc data in .dbv
4bytes bin= start pos in memo
4bytes bin= block size
V 10 Variable FS
1byte = subtype
1byte = reserved (0x1a)
10 spaces if no entry in .dbv
binary data in .ftp
P 10 Picture Fp
structure like M
binary data in .dbt
B 10 Binary D5
structure like M
OLE objects
G 10 General D5, Fp
structure like M
22 short int binary int max +/- 32767 FS
44 long int binary int max +/- 2147483647 FS
88 double binary signed double IEEE FS

3.17.1.1.3 Each DBF Record (Fixed Length)


Byte Size Description Applies for (supported by)
0 1 deleted flag "*" or not deleted " " all
x-times contents of fields, fixed length, unterminated.
1…n 1… All
For n, see (2) byte 10…11

3.17.1.2 DBF File Content


The .dbf file provides information that is needed to check validity of each path loss matrix.

Field Type Description


TX_NAME Text Name of the transmitter
FILE_NAME Text Name (and optionally, path) of .los file
MODEL_NAME Text Name of propagation model used to calculate path loss
Signature (identity number) of model used in calculations. You may check it in the
propagation model properties (General tab).
The Model_SIG is used for the purpose of validity. A unique Model_SIG is
MODEL_SIG Text assigned to each propagation model. When model parameters are modified, the
associated model ID changes. This enables Atoll to detect path loss matrix
invalidity. In the same way, two identical propagation models in different projects
do not have the same model IDa.
ULXMAP Float X-coordinate of the top-left corner of the path loss matrix upper-left pixel
ULYMAP Float Y-coordinate of the top-left corner of the path loss matrix upper-left pixel
RESOLUTION Float Resolution of path loss matrix in metre
NROWS Float Number of rows in path loss matrix
NCOLS Float Number of columns in path loss matrix
FREQUENCY Float Frequency band
TILT Float Transmitter antenna mechanical tilt
AZIMUTH Float Transmitter antenna azimuth

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TX_HEIGHT Float Transmitter height in metre


TX_POSX Float X-coordinate of the transmitter
TX_POSY Float Y-coordinate of the transmitter
ALTITUDE Float Ground height above sea level at the transmitter in metre
RX_HEIGHT Float Receiver height in metre
Logical number referring to antenna pattern. Antennas with the same pattern will
ANTENNA_SI Float
have the same number.
Maximum path loss stated in 1/16 dB. This information is used, when no
MAX_LOS Float
calculation radius is set, to check the matrix validity.
CAREA_XMIN Float Lowest x-coordinate of centre pixel located on the calculation radiusb
CAREA_XMAX Float Highest x-coordinate of centre pixel located on the calculation radius
CAREA_YMIN Float Lowest y-coordinate of centre pixel located on the calculation radius
CAREA_YMAX Float Highest y-coordinate of centre pixel located on the calculation radius
WAREA_XMIN Float Lowest x-coordinate of centre pixel located in the computation zonec
WAREA_XMAX Float Highest x-coordinate of centre pixel located in the computation zone
WAREA_YMIN Float Lowest y-coordinate of centre pixel located in the computation zone
WAREA_YMAX Float Highest y-coordinate of centre pixel located in the computation zone
Locking status
LOCKED Boolean 0: path loss matrix is not locked
1: path loss matrix is locked.
Atoll indicates if losses due to the antenna pattern are taken into account in the
path loss matrix.
INC_ANT Boolean
0: antenna losses not taken into account
1: antenna losses included

a. In order to benefit from the calculation sharing feature, users must retrieve the propagation models from the same
central database. This can be done using the Open from database command for a new document or the Refresh
command for an existing one. Otherwise, Atoll generates different model_ID (even if same parameters are applied
on the same kind of model) and calculation sharing become unavailable due to inconsistency.
b. These coordinates enable Atoll to determine the area of calculation for each transmitter.
c. These coordinates enable Atoll to determine the rectangle including the computation zone.

3.17.2 LOS File


The data file is a 16 bits binary row file organized in a standard row-column structure. It contains an integer path loss value,
with a 1/16 dB unit. Data are stored starting from the southwest to the northeast corner of the area.

3.18 Externalised Tuning Files


Atoll can tune path loss matrices obtained from propagation results by the use of real measurements (CW Measurements
or Test Mobile Data). For each measured transmitter, Atoll tries to merge measurements and predictions on the same
points and to smooth the surrounding points of the path loss matrices for homogeneity reasons. A transmitter path loss
matrix can be tuned several times by the use of several measurement paths. All these tuning paths are stored in a cata-
logue. This catalogue is stored under a .tuning folder containing a .dbf file and one .pts file per corrected transmitter. Since
a tuning file can contain several measurement paths, all these measurements are added to the tuning file.
For more information on the path loss tuning algorithm, See "Path Loss Tuning" on page 108.

3.18.1 DBF File


dBASE III file (pathloss.dbf) has a standard .dbf format described below. Its content can be checked by opening it in MS-
Access. The format is detailed hereafter.

3.18.1.1 DBF File Format


For general information, the format of .dbf files in any Xbase language is described.
Following notations are used in tables:

FS = FlagShip D3 = dBaseIII+
Fb = FoxBase D4 = dBaseIV
Fp = FoxPro D5 = dBaseV
CL = Clipper

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3.18.1.1.1 DBF Structure


Byte Description
0...n .dbf header (see next part for size, byte 8)

1st record of fixed length (see next parts)


n+1 2nd record (see next part for size, byte10) … If .dbf is not empty
last record

last optional: 0x1a (eof byte)

3.18.1.1.2 DBF Header (Variable Size - Depends on Field Count)


Byte Size Contents Description Applies for (supported by)
00 1 0x03 plain .dbf FS, D3, D4, D5, Fb, Fp, CL
0x04 plain .dbf D4, D5 (FS)
0x05 plain .dbf D5, Fp (FS)
0x43 with .dbv memo var size FS
0xB3 with .dbv and .dbt memo FS
0x83 with .dbt memo FS, D3, D4, D5, Fb, Fp, CL
0x8B with .dbt memo in D4 format D4, D5
0x8E with SQL table D4, D5
0xF5 with .fmp memo Fp
01 3 YYMMDD Last update digits All
04 4 ulong Number of records in file All
08 2 ushort Header size in bytes All
10 2 ushort Record size in bytes All
12 2 0,0 Reserved All
14 1 0x01 Begin transaction D4, D5
0x00 End Transaction D4, D5
0x00 ignored FS, D3, Fb, Fp, CL
15 1 0x01 Encrypted D4, D5
0x00 normal visible All
16 12 0 (1) multi-user environment use D4,D5
28 1 0x01 production index exists Fp, D4, D5
0x00 index upon demand All
29 1 n language driver ID D4, D5
0x01 codepage437 DOS USA Fp
0x02 codepage850 DOS Multi ling Fp
0x03 codepage1251 Windows ANSI Fp
0xC8 codepage1250 Windows EE Fp
0x00 ignored FS, D3, Fb, Fp, CL
30 2 0,0 reserved All
32 n*32 Field Descriptor, (see next paragraph) all
+1 1 0x0D Header Record Terminator all

• Field descriptor array in the .dbf header (32 bytes for each field)

Byte Size Contents Description Applies for (supported by)


0 11 ASCI field name, 0x00 termin all
11 1 ASCI field type (see next paragraph) all
12 4 n,n,n,n Fld address in memory D3
n,n,0,0 offset from record begin Fp
0,0,0,0 ignored FS, D4, D5, Fb, CL
16 1 byte Field length, bin (see next paragraph) all \ FS,CL: for C field type
17 1 byte decimal count, bin all / both used for fld lng
18 2 0,0 reserved all
20 1 byte Work area ID D4, D5

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Chapter 3: File Formats

0x00 unused FS, D3, Fb, Fp, CL


21 2 n,n multi-user dBase D3, D4, D5
0,0 ignored FS, Fb, Fp, CL
23 1 0x01 Set Fields D3, D4, D5
0x00 ignored FS, Fb, Fp, CL
24 7 0...0 reserved all
31 1 0x01 Field is in .mdx index D4, D5
0x00 ignored FS, D3, Fb, Fp, CL

• Field type and size in the .dbf header, field descriptor (1 byte)

Size Type Description/Storage Applies for (supported by)


ASCII (OEM code page chars)
C 1...n Char all
rest= space, not \0 term.
n = 1...64kb (using deci count) FS
n = 1...32kb (using deci count) Fp, CL
n = 1...254 all
D8 Date 8 ASCII digits (0...9) in the YYYYMMDD format all
ASCII digits (-.0123456789)
F 1...n Numeric variable pos. of float.point FS, D4, D5, Fp
n = 1...20
ASCII digits (-.0123456789)
N 1...n Numeric all
fix posit/no float.point
n = 1...20 FS, Fp, CL
n = 1...18 D3, D4, D5, Fb
L1 Logical ASCII chars (YyNnTtFf space) FS, D3, Fb, Fp, CL
ASCII chars (YyNnTtFf?) D4, D5 (FS)
10 digits repres. the start block posit. in .dbt file, or 10 spaces if
M 10 Memo all
no entry in memo
Variable, bin/asc data in .dbv
4bytes bin= start pos in memo
4bytes bin= block size
V 10 Variable FS
1byte = subtype
1byte = reserved (0x1a)
10 spaces if no entry in .dbv
binary data in .ftp
P 10 Picture Fp
structure like M
binary data in .dbt
B 10 Binary D5
structure like M
OLE objects
G 10 General D5, Fp
structure like M
22 short int binary int max +/- 32767 FS
44 long int binary int max +/- 2147483647 FS
88 double binary signed double IEEE FS

3.18.1.1.3 Each DBF Record (Fixed Length)


Byte Size Description Applies for (supported by)
0 1 deleted flag "*" or not deleted " " all
x-times contents of fields, fixed length, unterminated.
1…n 1… All
For n, see (2) byte 10…11

3.18.1.2 DBF File Content


The .dbf file provides information about the measured transmitters participating in the tuning.

Field Type Description


TX_NAME Text Name of the transmitter
FILE_NAME Text Name (and optionally, path) of .pts file
AREA_XMIN Float Not used
AREA_XMAX Float Not used

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Technical Reference Guide

AREA_YMIN Float Not used


AREA_YMAX Float Not used

3.18.2 PTS File


The tuning file contains a header and the list of points.
The contents of the header is:
• 4 bytes : version
• 4 bytes : flag (can be used to manage flags like active flag)
• 50 bytes : GUID
• 4 bytes : Number of points
• 255 bytes : original measurements name (with prefix Num : for test mobile data and CW: for CW measurements)
• 256 bytes : comment
• 4 bytes : X_RADIUS
• 4 bytes : Y_RADIUS
• 4 bytes : Gain : measurement gain - losses
• 4 bytes : Global error
• 4 bytes : Rx height
• 4 bytes : Frequency
• 8 bytes : Tx Position
The list of points contains following 4-uplet for all points
• 4 bytes : X
• 4 bytes : Y
• 4 bytes : Measurement value
• 4 bytes : Incidence angle.

3.19 Interference Histograms File Formats


Interference histograms required by automatic frequency planning tools can be imported and exported.
Notes:
• No validity check is carried out when importing an interference histogram file.
• Atoll only imports interference histograms related to loaded transmitters.
• The lines starting with the symbol "#" are considered as comments.
• The interferer TRX type is not specified. In fact, the subcells of the interferer transmitter
differ by their power offsets. If the power offset of a subcell is X with respect to the BCCH,
then its interference C/I histogram will be shifted by X with respect to the BCCH
interference histogram. It contains no further information; therefore, the interferer TRX type
is always BCCH.
• For each interfered subcell-interferer subcell pair, Atoll saves probabilities for several C/I
values (between 6 to 24 values). Five of these values are fixed; probabilities are calculated
for C/I values equal to –9, 1, 8, 14, and 22 dB. Then, between each fixed C/I value, there
can be up to three additional values (this number depends on the probability variation
between the fixed values). The C/I values have 0.5 dB accuracy and probability values are
calculated and stored with an accuracy of 0.002 for probabilities between 1 and 0.05, and
with an accuracy of 0.0001 for probabilities lower than 0.05.
• If no power offset is defined on the Interfered TRX type, it is possible to use the "All" value.
• The values of probability should be absolute (between 0 and 1), and not in precentage
(between 0 and 100%).

3.19.1 One Histogram per Line (.im0) Format


This file contains one histogram per line for each interfered/interfering subcell pair. The histogram is a list of C/I values
with associated probabilities.
The .im0 file consists of two parts:
• The first part is a header used for format identification. It must start with and contain the following lines:

# Calculation Results Data File.


# Version 1.1, Tab separated format. Commented lines start with #.

• The second part details interference histogram of each interfered subcell-interferer subcell pair.
The lines after the header are considered as comments if they start with the symbol "#". If not, they must have the following
format:

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Chapter 3: File Formats

<Column1><tab><Column2><tab><Column3><tab><Column4><newline>

The 4 tab-separated columns are defined in the table below:

Column name Description


Column1 Interfered transmitter Name of the interfered transmitter.
Column2 Interfering transmitter Name of the interferer transmitter.
Interfered subcell. In order to save storage, all subcells with no power
Column3 Interfered TRX type
offset are not duplicated (e.g. BCCH, TCH).
C/I value and the probability associated to this value separated by a space
Column4 C/I Probability
character. This entry cannot be null.

3.19.1.1 Sample
# Calculation Results Data File.
# Version 1.1, Tab separated format. Commented lines start with #.
# Remark: C/I results do not incorporate power offset values.
# Fields are:
#------------------------------------------------------------------------
#Transmitter Interferer TRX type {C/I Probability} values
#------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
# Warning, The parameter settings of this header can be wrong if
# the "export" is performed following an "import". They
# are correct when the "export" follows a "calculate".
#
# Service Zone Type is "Best signal level of the highest priority HCS layer".
# Margin is 5.
# Cell edge coverage probability 75%.
# Traffic spreading was Uniform
##---------------------------------------------------------------------#
#
Site0_2 Site0_1 BCCH,TCH -10 1 -9 0.996 -6 0.976 -4 0.964 -1 0.936
0 0.932 1 0.924 4 0.896 7 0.864 8 0.848
9 0.832 10 0.824 11 0.804 14 0.712 17 0.66
Site0_2 Site0_3 BCCH,TCH -10 1 -9 0.996 -6 0.976 -4 0.972 -1 0.948
0 0.94 1 0.928 4 0.896 7 0.856 8 0.84
11 0.772 13 0.688 14 0.636 15 0.608 18 0.556
Site0_3 Site0_1 BCCH,TCH -10 1 -9 0.996 -6 0.98 -3 0.948 0 0.932
1 0.924 4 0.892 7 0.852 8 0.832 9 0.816
10 0.784 11 0.764 14 0.644 15 0.616 18 0.564
Site0_3 Site0_2 BCCH,TCH -9 1 -6 0.972 -3 0.964 -2 0.96 0 0.94
1 0.932 4 0.904 7 0.876 8 0.86 9 0.844
11 0.804 13 0.744 14 0.716 15 0.692 18 0.644

3.19.2 One Value per Line with Dictionary File (.clc) Format
Atoll creates two ASCII text files in a specified directory: xxx.dct and xxx.clc (xxx is the user-specified name).
Note:
• When importing interference histograms with standard format, you must specify the .clc file
to be imported. Atoll looks for the associated .dct file in the same directory and uses it to
decode transmitter identifiers. If this file is unavailable, Atoll assumes that the transmitter
identifiers are the transmitter names. In this case, the columns 1 and 2 of the .clc file must
contain the names of the interfered and interferer transmitters instead of their identification
numbers.

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 65


Technical Reference Guide

3.19.2.1 CLC File


3.19.2.1.1 Description
The .clc file consists of two parts:
• The first part is a header used for format identification. It must start with and contain the following lines:

# Calculation Results Data File.


# Version 1.1, Tab separated format. Commented lines start with #.

• The second part details interference histogram of each interfered subcell-interferer subcell pair.
The lines after the header are considered as comments if they start with the symbol "#". If not, they must have the following
format:

<Column1><tab><Column2><tab><Column3><tab><Column4><tab><Column5><newline>

The 5 tab-separated columns are defined in the table below:

Column name Description


Identification number of the interfered transmitter. If the column is empty,
Column1 Interfered transmitter
its value is identical to the one of the line above.
Identification number of the interferer transmitter. If the column is null, its
Column2 Interfering transmitter
value is identical to the one of the line above.
Interfered subcell. If the column is null, its value is identical to the one of
Column3 Interfered TRX type the line above. In order to save storage, all subcells with no power offset
are not duplicated (e.g. BCCH, TCH).
Column4 C/I threshold C/I value. This column cannot be null.
Probability to have C/I the value specified in column 4 (C/I threshold). This
Column5 Probability C/I > Threshold
field must not be empty.

Note:
• The columns 1, 2, and 3 must be defined only in the first line of each histogram.

3.19.2.1.2 Sample
# Calculation Results Data File.
# Version 1.1, Tab separated format. Commented lines start with #.
# Remark: C/I results do not incorporate power offset values.
# Fields are:
##------------#------------#------------#-----------#------------------#
#| Interfered | Interfering| Interfered | C/I | Probability |
#| Transmitter| Transmitter| Trx type | Threshold | C/I >= Threshold |
##------------#------------#------------#-----------#------------------#
#
# Warning, The parameter settings of this header can be wrong if
# the "export" is performed following an "import". They
# are correct when the "export" follows a "calculate".
#
# Service Zone Type is "Best signal level of the highest priority HCS layer".
# Margin is 5.
# Cell edge coverage probability 75%.
# Traffic spreading was Uniform
##---------------------------------------------------------------------#
1 2 TCH_INNER 8 1
9 0.944
10 0.904
11 0.892
14 0.844

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Chapter 3: File Formats

15 0.832
16 0.812
17 0.752
22 0.316
25 0.292
1 2 BCCH,TCH 8 1
9 0.944
10 .904
13 0.872
14 0.84
17 0.772

Note:
• A new interference matrix histograms format has been introduced in Atoll 2.3.1 to improve
the import and export features and the overall performance. In this format, if the TCH and
BCCH histograms are the same, they are no longer duplicated. Atoll keeps a single record
of these histograms indicating that they belong to TCH and BCCH both. For example,
- Old format histograms between victim 1 and interferer 2:
1 2 TCH -9.5 1 - 9 1 - 6 1
1 2 BCCH -9.5 1 - 9 1 - 6 1
- New format histograms between victim 1 and interferer 2:
1 2 TCH,BCCH -9.5 1 - 9 1 - 6 1

3.19.2.2 DCT File


3.19.2.2.1 Description
The .dct file is divided into two parts:
• The first part is a header used for format identification. It must start with and contain the following lines:
# Calculation Results Dictionary File.
# Version 1.1, Tab separated format. Commented lines start with #.

• The second part provides information about transmitters taken into account in AFP.
The lines after the header are considered as comments if they start with the symbol "#". If not, they must have the following
format:

<Column1><tab><Column2><newline>

Column name Type Description


Column1 Transmitter name Text Name of the transmitter
Column2 Transmitter Identifier Integer Identification number of the transmitter
Column3 BCCH during calculation Integer BCCH used in calculations
Column4 BSIC during calculation Integer BSIC used in calculations
Column5 % of vic’ coverage Float Percentage of overlap of the victim service area
Column6 % of int’ coverage Float Percentage of overlap of the interferer service area

The last four columns describe the interference matrix scope. One transmitter per line is described separated with a tab
character.

3.19.2.2.2 Sample
# Calculation Results Dictionary File.
# Version 2.1, Tab separated format. Commented lines start with #.
# Fields are:
##-----------#-----------#-----------#-----------#---------#---------#
#|Transmitter|Transmitter|BCCH during|BSIC during|% of vic'|% of int'|
#|Name |Identifier |calculation|calculation|coverage |coverage |
##-----------#-----------#-----------#-----------#---------#---------#

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Technical Reference Guide

#
# Warning, The parameter settings of this header can be wrong if
# the "export" is performed following an "import". They
# are correct when the "export" follows a "calculate".
#
# Service Zone Type is "Best signal level per HCS layer".
# Margin is 5.
# Cell edge coverage probability is 75%.
# Traffic spreading was Uniform (percentage of interfered area)
##---------------------------#
Site0_0 1 -1 -1 100 100
Site0_1 2 -1 -1 100 100
Site0_2 3 -1 -1 100 100
Site1_0 4 -1 -1 100 100
Site1_1 5 -1 -1 100 100
Site1_2 6 -1 -1 100 100
Site2_0 7 -1 -1 100 100
Site2_1 8 -1 -1 100 100

3.19.3 One Value per Line (Transmitter Name Repeated) (.im1)


Format
This file contains one C/I threshold and probability pair value per line for each interfered/interfering subcell pair. The histo-
gram is a list of C/I values with associated probabilities.
The .im1 file consists of two parts:
• The first part is a header used for format identification. It must start with and contain the following lines:

# Calculation Results Data File.


# Version 1.1, Tab separated format. Commented lines start with #.

• The second part details interference histogram of each interfered subcell-interferer subcell pair.
The lines after the header are considered as comments if they start with the symbol "#". If not, they must have the following
format:

<Column1><tab><Column2><tab><Column3><tab><Column4><tab><Column5><newline>

The 5 tab-separated columns are defined in the table below:

Column name Description


Column1 Interfered transmitter Name of the interfered transmitter.
Column2 Interfering transmitter Name of the interferer transmitter.
Interfered subcell. In order to save storage, all subcells with no power
Column3 Interfered TRX type
offset are not duplicated (e.g. BCCH, TCH).
Column4 C/I threshold C/I value. This column cannot be null.
Probability to have C/I the value specified in column 4 (C/I threshold). This
Column5 Probability C/I > Threshold
field must not be empty.

3.19.3.1 Sample
# Calculation Results Data File.
# Version 1.1, Tab separated format. Commented lines start with #.
# Remark: C/I results do not incorporate power offset values.
# Fields are:
#------------------------------------------------------------------------
#Transmitter Interferer TRX type C/I Probability

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Chapter 3: File Formats

#------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
# Warning, The parameter settings of this header can be wrong if
# the "export" is performed following an "import". They
# are correct when the "export" follows a "calculate".
#
# Service Zone Type is "Best signal level of the highest priority HCS layer".
# Margin is 5.
# Cell edge coverage probability 75%.
# Traffic spreading was Uniform
##---------------------------------------------------------------------#
Site0_2 Site0_1 BCCH,TCH -10 1
Site0_2 Site0_1 BCCH,TCH -9 0.996
Site0_2 Site0_1 BCCH,TCH -6 0.976
Site0_2 Site0_1 BCCH,TCH -4 0.964
Site0_2 Site0_1 BCCH,TCH -1 0.936
Site0_2 Site0_1 BCCH,TCH 0 0.932
Site0_2 Site0_1 BCCH,TCH 1 0.924
Site0_2 Site0_1 BCCH,TCH 4 0.896
Site0_2 Site0_1 BCCH,TCH 7 0.864
Site0_2 Site0_1 BCCH,TCH 8 0.848
Site0_2 Site0_1 BCCH,TCH 9 0.832
Site0_2 Site0_1 BCCH,TCH 10 0.824
...

3.19.4 Only Co-Channel and Adjacent Values (.im2) Format


In this case, there is only one .im2 file containing co-channel and adjacent channel interference probabilities specified for
each interfered transmitter – interferer transmitter pair. There is only one set of values for all the subcells of the interfered
transmitter.
Each line must have the following format:

<Column1><SEP><Column2><SEP><Column3><SEP><Column4><newline>

Where the separator (<SEP>) can either be a tab or a semicolon.


The four columns are defined in the table below:

Column name Description


Column1 Interfered transmitter Name of the interfered transmitter.
Column2 Interfering transmitter Name of the interferer transmitter.
Co-channel interference Probability of having C  I  Max  C  I req 
Column3
probability BCCH ,TCH

Adjacent channel Probability of having C  I  Max  C  I req  – F


Column4
interference probability BCCH ,TCH

C  I req corresponds to the required C/I threshold. This parameter is defined for each subcell.

F is the adjacent channel protection level.

3.19.4.1 Sample
# Calculation Results Data File.
# Version 1.1, Tab separated format. Commented lines start with #.
# Remark: C/I results do not incorporate power offset values.
# Fields are:
#------------------------------------------------------------------------

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 69


Technical Reference Guide

#Transmitter Interferer Co-channel Adjacent channel


#------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
# Warning, The parameter settings of this header can be wrong if
# the "export" is performed following an "import". They
# are correct when the "export" follows a "calculate".
#
# Service Zone Type is "Best signal level of the highest priority HCS layer".
# Margin is 5.
# Cell edge coverage probability 75%.
# Traffic spreading was Uniform
##---------------------------------------------------------------------#
Site0_2 Site0_1 0.226667 0.024
Site0_2 Site0_3 0.27 0.024
Site0_3 Site0_1 0.276 0.02
Site0_3 Site0_2 0.226 0.028

The columns in the sample above are separated with a tab. These columns can also be separated with a semilcolon:

Site0_2;Site0_1;0.226667;0.024
Site0_2;Site0_3;0.27;0.024
Site0_3;Site0_1;0.276;0.02
Site0_3;Site0_2;0.226;0.028

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Chapter 4
Calculations
This chapter describes in detail the calculation of path losses, the propagation models implemented in Atoll
by default, the calculation of antenna attenuation according to antenna patterns, and other calculation
algorithms in Atoll.

Atoll
Atoll
Microwave
RF PlanningLink
Microwave andPlanning
Optimisation Software
Software
Technical Reference Guide

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Chapter 4: Calculations

4 Calculations
4.1 Overview
Three kinds of predictions are available in Atoll:
• Point analysis enables you to visualise transmitter-receiver profile and to get predictions for a user-defined
receiver in real time anywhere on a geographic map (Point analysis window: Profile tab).
• Coverage studies consider each bin of calculation areas as a potential receiver you can define. Therefore, covered
bins correspond to areas where a criterion on the predicted received signal is fulfilled.
• Point analysis based on path loss matrices enables you to get parameters derived from predicted values in cov-
erage studies (field received, path loss, C/I, UMTS parameters) for a receiver anywhere inside a calculation area
(Point analysis window: Reception, Interference, AS analysis tabs).
An overview of different analysis methods is presented in the table below:

Point analysis based on path loss


Coverage studies Point analysis
matrices
Reception, Results,
Any study Profile
Interference, AS analysis
At the centre of each
Receiver Anywhere. Even beyond
calculation bin within Anywhere inside the calculation areas
position calculation areas
computation zone

Path loss matrix No calculation: result coming from path


Calculation Real time
calculation loss matrices
Profile Radial except when Method used for coverage studies: radial
Systematic
extractiona using SPM except when using SPM

One value inside a Different values inside a


Result One value inside a calculation bin
calculation bin calculation bin

a. When using SPM, you can choose either radial or systematic calculation option.

Notes:
• In coverage studies, Atoll calculates path loss for every bin within calculation areas.
However, only results on calculation bins inside the computation zone are displayed.
• Profile point analysis is calculated in real time. Therefore, prediction is always consistent
with the network. On the other hand, if you modify any parameter (radio or geo), which may
make matrices invalid, consider updating the matrices before using point analysis based on
path loss matrices.
• Due to different calculation methods, you can get different results at a same point when
performing a point analysis in profile or reception mode.

In any case, prediction is performed in three steps:

1st step: First of all, Atoll calculates the path loss ( L path ), using the selected propagation model.

L path = L model + L ant + L ant


Tx Rx

L model is the loss on the transmitter-receiver path calculated through the propagation model. L model value depends on
the selected propagation model.

L ant is the transmitter antenna attenuation (from antenna patterns).


Tx

L ant is the receiver antenna attenuation ( L ant = 0 ) (from antenna patterns).


Rx Rx

Notes:
• In any project, Atoll considers that the receiver antenna is in the transmitter antenna axis.
Therefore, the receiver antenna attenuation is supposed to be zero.
• Transmitter antenna attenuation may not be considered in this step. It depends on
propagation model provider, who may choose to include this parameter in L path
calculation. However, all the propagation models available in Atoll calculate L path by
considering transmitter antenna attenuation.

2nd step: When the option “Shadowing taken into account” is selected, Atoll evaluates a shadowing margin,
M Shadowing – model , from the user-defined model standard deviation at the receiver and the cell edge coverage probability.

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 73


Technical Reference Guide

Note:
• For a cell edge coverage probability of 50%, the shadowing margin is always zero. In this
case, Atoll still works as above.

3rd step: Then, Atoll determines the prediction criterion and displays coverage.
For a signal level study,

The signal level at the receiver ( P Rec ) is calculated. We have (in dBm):

P Rec = EIRP – L path – M Shadowing – model – L Indoor +  G ant – L Rx 


Rx

Where EIRP = P Tx + G ant – L Tx


Tx

EIRP is the effective isotropic radiated power of the transmitter.

P Tx is the transmitter power.

G ant is the transmitter antenna gain.


Tx

L Tx are transmitter losses.

M Shadowing – model is the shadowing margin.

L Indoor are the indoor losses.These losses are defined for each clutter class.They are taken into account when the option
“Indoor coverage” is selected,

L Rx are receiver losses.

G ant is the receiver antenna gain.


Rx

Notes:
• In UMTS, CDMA2000 and IS95-CDMA documents, P Tx = P Pilot and L Tx = L total – DL .

• In UMTS, CDMA2000 and IS95-CDMA documents, Atoll considers that G ant and L Rx
Rx

equal zero when calculating the received signal level (in point analysis, Profile and
Reception tabs, and in common coverage studies such as Coverage per transmitter,
Coverage by field level, Overlapping).
• In GSM_EGPRS documents, L Tx = L total – DL .

• In GSM_EGPRS documents, receiver is equipped with an antenna with zero gain.

The prediction is performed for a user-defined cell edge coverage probability (x%). This means that the measured criterion
exceeds the predicted criterion for x% of time. The prediction is reliable during x% of time.
Note:
• In case of interference studies, only signal from interfered transmitter (C) is downgraded by
the shadowing margin. We consider that interference value (I) is not altered by the
shadowing margin.

4.2 Path Loss Matrices


Atoll is able to calculate two path loss matrices per transmitter, a first matrix over a smaller radius computed with a high
resolution and a propagation model (main matrix), and a second matrix over a larger radius computed with a low resolution
and another propagation model (extended matrix).
To be considered for calculations, a transmitter must fulfil the following conditions:
• It must be active,
• It must satisfy filter criteria defined in the Transmitters folder, and
• It must have a calculation area.
In the rest of the document, a transmitter fulfilling the conditions detailed above will be called TBC transmitter.

The path loss matrix size of a TBC transmitter depends on its calculation area. Atoll determines a path loss value ( L path )
on each calculation bin (calculation bin is defined by the resolution) of the calculation area of the TBC transmitter. You may
have one or two path loss matrices per TBC transmitter.

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Chapter 4: Calculations

4.2.1 Calculation Area Determination


4.2.1.1 Computation Zone
Transmitter calculation area is made of a rectangle or a square depending on transmitter calculation radius and the compu-
tation zone.
Calculation radius enables Atoll to define a square around the transmitter. One side of the square equals twice the entered
calculation radius.
Since the computation zone can be made of one or several polygons, transmitter calculation area corresponds to the inter-
section area between its calculation square and the rectangle containing the computation zone area(s).

Figure 4.1: Example 1: Single Calculation Area

Figure 4.2: Example 2: Multiple Calculation Areas

Computation zone(s)
Rectangle containing the computation zone(s)
Calculation area defined (square)

Transmitter

Calculation area: real area for which Atoll calculates path losses

4.2.1.2 Use of Polygonal Zones in Coverage Prediction Reports


Prediction statistics are evaluated over the focus zone, if existing, then over the computation zone, if existing, or over the
whole covered area. The area of the focus and computation zones are calculated by decomposition in triangles.
The area of each prediction is calculated by counting its pixels inside the focus (resp. computation) zone. This number of
pixels multiplied by the area of one of its pixels gives the total area.
This area depends on the study resolution. At the border of the focus (resp. computation) zone, pixels are considered
either IN or OUT of the zone. A pixel is IN if its centre is inside the focus zone.
If a prediction covers the entire focus (resp. computation) zone, its area should be equal to the focus (resp. computation)
zone area, but as these 2 different methods differ, the results may be slightly different. If it happens that the value of the
prediction area is higher than the focus zone area, then the calculated percentage value is higher than 100%. In that case,
Atoll automatically replaces it by 100%.

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4.2.2 Calculate / Force Calculation Comparison


4.2.2.1 Calculate
The Calculate feature (F7) enables you:
1. To calculate prediction studies
The first time you click Calculate (no path loss matrices exist), Atoll computes path loss matrices for each TBC
transmitter. Then, it calculates created and unlocked coverage prediction studies inside the computation zone.
2. To check result validity and update calculations
If calculations have been performed once and you have changed some parameters such as radio data or calcu-
lation area, Atoll automatically detects path loss matrices to be recalculated. These are either one or several path
loss matrices that become invalid due to certain modifications. Then Atoll calculates the prediction study, or just
the prediction study if matrices were all still valid.

4.2.2.2 Force Calculation


With the Force calculation feature (Ctrl+F7), Atoll deletes all the path loss matrices even if they are valid, recalculates them
and then updates the results of prediction studies.
Note:
• Geographic data (DTM, clutter) modification makes path loss matrices invalid. However,
Atoll does not detect this invalidity just by using Calculate. Therefore, to update
calculations, you must click the Force calculation command.

4.2.3 Matrix Validity


Atoll manages path loss matrix validity transmitter by transmitter, even in case of transmitters with two path loss matrices
(main and extended matrices). Therefore, even if only one path loss matrix of the transmitter is invalid, Atoll will recalculate
both of them. All the geographic data modifications and some radio data changes can make matrices invalid. This table
lists these modifications and also changes that have an impact only on prediction studies.

Force
Modification Matrix validity Impact on Calculate
calculation
Frequency Invalid Path loss matrices Sufficient Not necessary
Antenna* coordinates (site coordinate:
Invalid Path loss matrices Sufficient Not necessary
X and Y, Dx and Dy)

Antennaa height Invalid Path loss matrices Sufficient Not necessary


a Invalid Path loss matrices Sufficient Not necessary
Antenna pattern
a Invalid Path loss matrices Sufficient Not necessary
Downtilt
a Invalid Path loss matrices Sufficient Not necessary
Azimuth
% Power (when there is other
Invalid Path loss matrices Sufficient Not necessary
antennas)
Site position/altitude Invalid Path loss matrices Sufficient Not necessary
Grid resolution (main or/and
Invalid Path loss matrices Sufficient Not necessary
extended)
Propagation model (main or/and
Invalid Path loss matrices Sufficient Not necessary
extended)
Propagation model parameters Invalid Path loss matrices Sufficient Not necessary
Calculation areas
Valid Prediction study Sufficient Not necessary
1. Calculation areas gets smaller
Calculation areas
Invalid Path loss matrices Sufficient Not necessary
2. Calculation areas gets larger
Receiver height Invalid Path loss matrices Sufficient Not necessary
Receiver losses Valid Prediction study Sufficient Not necessary
Receiver gain Valid Prediction study Sufficient Not necessary

Receiver antenna Valid because L ant = 0 Prediction study Sufficient Not necessary
Rx

Geographic layer order Invalid Path loss matrices Insufficientb Necessary

Geographic file resolution Invalid Path loss matrices Insufficientb Necessary

New DTM map Invalid Path loss matrices Insufficientb Necessary

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New clutter class edition Invalid Path loss matrices Insufficientb Necessary
Coverage study resolution Valid Prediction study Sufficient Not necessary
Cell edge coverage probability Valid Prediction study Sufficient Not necessary
Coverage study conditions Valid Prediction study Sufficient Not necessary
Coverage study display options Valid Prediction study Sufficient Not necessary

a.Modification of any parameter related to main or other antennas makes matrix invalid.
b.Except if this action has an impact on the site positions/altitudes.

Tip 1
Calculate or Force Calculation?

If you modify radio data or calculation areas, use the Calculate button. On the other hand, if you change geographic
data, it is necessary to use Force calculation.

Tip 2
Calculation area management

When performing prediction studies, it is recommended to follow this methodology to minimise recalculations:

1st step: Calculate without computation zone.

2nd step: Draw a computation zone and calculate.

3rd step: Decrease the calculation radius and calculate.

4.3 Path Loss Calculations


4.3.1 Ground Altitude Determination
Atoll determines reception and transmission site altitude from Digital Terrain Model map. The method used to evaluate site
altitude is based on a bilinear interpolation. It is described below.
Let us suppose a site S located inside a bin. Atoll knows the altitudes of four bin vertices, S’1, S’’1, S’2 and S’’2, from the
DTM file (Centre of each DTM pixel).

Figure 4.3: Ground Altitude Determination - 1

1st step: Atoll draws a vertical line through S. This line respectively intersects (S’1,S’’1) and (S’2, S’’2) lines at S1 and S2.

Figure 4.4: Ground Altitude Determination - 2

2nd step: Atoll determines the S1 and S2 altitudes using a linear interpolation method.

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 77


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Figure 4.5: Ground Altitude Determination - 3

3rd step: Atoll performs a second linear interpolation to evaluate the S altitude.

Figure 4.6: Ground Altitude Determination - 4

4.3.2 Clutter Determination


Some propagation models need clutter class and clutter height as information at receiver or along a transmitter-receiver
profile.

4.3.2.1 Clutter Class


Atoll uses clutter classes file to determine the clutter class.

4.3.2.2 Clutter Height


To evaluate the clutter height, Atoll uses clutter heights file if available in the .atl document; clutter height of a site is the
height of the nearest point in the file.
Example: Let us suppose a site S. In the clutter heights file, Atoll reads clutter heights of four points around the site, S’1,
S’’1, S’2 and S’’2. Here, the nearest point to S is S”2; therefore Atoll takes the S”2 clutter height as clutter height of S.

Figure 4.7: Clutter Height

If you do not have any clutter height file, Atoll takes clutter height information in clutter classes file. In this case, clutter
height is an average height related to a clutter class.

4.3.3 Geographic Profile Extraction


Geographic profile extraction is needed in order to calculate diffraction losses. Profiles can be based on DTM only or on
DTM and clutter both. In fact, it depends on the selected propagation model.

4.3.3.1 Extraction Methods


4.3.3.1.1 Radial Extraction
Atoll draws radials from the site (where transmitter is located) to each calculation bin located along the transmitter calcu-
lation area border. In other words, Atoll determines a geographic profile between site and each bin centre.

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Chapter 4: Calculations

Figure 4.8: Radial calculation method

Transmitter
Radial: Atoll will extract a geographic profile for each radial
Centre of a bin located on the calculation border
Receiver: it may be anywhere in point analysis or at the centre of each calculation bin in coverage studies

Figure 4.9: Site-bin centre profile

The receiver may be located either anywhere within a calculation bin (Point prediction) or at the centre of a calculation bin
(Coverage study). Therefore, according to the receiver position, Atoll chooses the nearest profile and uses it (receiver is
considered as located on the profile) to perform prediction study at the receiver.

4.3.3.1.2 Systematic Extraction


In this case, Atoll systematically extracts a geographic profile between the site (where transmitter resides) and the receiver.

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Figure 4.10: Radial calculation method

Transmitter
Geographic profiles
Receiver: it may be anywhere in point analysis or at the centre of each calculation bin in coverage studies

4.3.3.2 Profile Resolution: Multi-Resolution Management


Geographic profile resolution depends on resolution of geographic data used by the propagation model (DTM and/or clut-
ter).

1. 1st case: If the chosen propagation model considers both DTM and clutter heights along the profile, the profile
resolution will be the highest of the two.
Example 1: Standard Propagation Model is used to perform predictions. A DTM map with a 40 m resolution and
a clutter heights map with a 20 m resolution are available.

Both DTM and clutter maps are considered when using the Standard propagation model. Therefore, here, the
profile resolution will be 20 m. It means that Atoll will extract geographic information, ground altitude and clutter
height, every 20 m. To get ground altitude every 20m, Atoll uses the bilinear interpolation method described in
"Ground Altitude Determination" on page 77. Clutter heights are read from the clutter heights map. Atoll takes the
clutter height of the nearest point every 20m (see Path loss calculations: Clutter determination).

Example 2: Standard Propagation Model is used to perform predictions. A DTM map with a 40 m resolution and
a clutter classes map with a 20 m resolution are available. No clutter height file has been imported in .atl document.
Both DTM and clutter maps are considered when using the Standard propagation model. Therefore, here, the
profile resolution will be 20 m. It means that Atoll will extract geographic information, ground altitude and clutter
height, every 20 m. To get ground altitude every 20 m, Atoll uses the bilinear interpolation method described in
"Ground Altitude Determination" on page 77. Atoll uses the clutter classes map to determine clutter height. Every
20 m, it determines clutter class and takes associated average height.

2. 2nd case: If the chosen propagation model takes into account only DTM map along the profile, profile resolution
will be the highest resolution among the DTM files.
Example: Cost-Hata is used to perform predictions. Both DTM maps with 40 m and 25 m resolutions and a clutter
map with a 20 m resolution are available.

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Chapter 4: Calculations

Explorer window Work space

DTM
• DTM 1 (25m)
• DTM 2 (40m)

Clutter
• Clutter (20m)

Only DTM maps are considered along the whole profile when using Cost-Hata model. Therefore, here, the profile
resolution will be 25 m. It means that Atoll will extract geographic information, only the ground altitude, every 25 m.
DTM 1 is on the top of DTM 2. Thus, Atoll will consider ground elevation read from DTM 1 in the definition area of
DTM 1 and DTM 2 elsewhere. To get ground altitude every 25 m, Atoll uses the bilinear interpolation method
described in "Ground Altitude Determination" on page 77.

Notes:
• The selected profile resolution does not depend on the geographic layer order. In the last
example, whatever the DTM file order you choose, profile resolution will always be 25m.
On the other hand, the geographic layer order will influence the usage of data to establish
the profile.
• The calculation bin of path loss matrices defined by the grid resolution is independent of
geographic file resolution.

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82
4.4
Technical Reference Guide

Propagation ITU 370-7 Erceg-Greenstein COST-Hata


ITU 1546 ITU 526-5 WLL Standard Propagation Model ITU 529-3
model (Vienna 93) (SUI) Okumura-Hata

Frequency
100-400 MHz 30-3000 MHz 30-10000 MHz 30-10000 MHz 150-3500 MHz 300-1500 MHz 1900-6000 MHz 150-2000 MHz
band

Free space loss L(d, f, HRx) L(d, f, HTx, HRx) L(d, f, HRx)
Physical Corrected Free space loss + Free space loss Free space loss
L(d, HTxeff, HRxeff, Diff loss, clutter) (per environment) (per environment) (per environment)
phenomena standard Corrections Diffraction loss Diffraction loss
Diffraction loss Diffraction loss Diffraction loss
loss
Diffraction Deygout Deygout (3 obstacles)
(3 obstacles) Deygout Epstein-Peterson (3 obstacles) Deygout Deygout Deygout
calculation - -
Deygout corrected (3 obstacles) Deygout corrected (3 obstacles) (1 obstacle) (1 obstacle) (1 obstacle)
method (3 obstacles) Millington (1 obstacle)
Propagation Models

Profile DTM DTM


- - DTM DTM DTM DTM
based on Clutter Clutter

AT271_TRG_E6
Profile
Radial
extraction - - Radial Radial Radial Radial Radial
Systematic
mode

Macro cell Macro cell Macro cell Macro cell


Cell size Macro cell Macro cell Macro cell -
Mini cell Mini cell Mini cell Mini cell

Receiver Street Street


Rooftop Rooftop Street Street Street Street
location Rooftop Rooftop

Receiver Fixed Mobile Fixed Fixed Mobile and Fixed Mobile Fixed Mobile
Propagation models available in Atoll are listed in the table below along with their main characteristics.

GSM900
GSM1800 GSM900
Broadcast
WLL UMTS GSM900 WiMAX in Urban GSM1800
Use Broadcast Land and maritime WLL
WiMAX CDMA2000 CDMA2000 and Suburban UMTS
Mobile
WiMAX CDMA2000

© Forsk 2009
Chapter 4: Calculations

Notes:
• In formulas described above, L model is stated in dB.

• Under Physical phenomena, L(...) expressions refer to formulas customisable in Atoll.


• SUI stands for Stanford University Interim models.

4.4.1 Okumura-Hata and Cost-Hata Propagation Models


4.4.1.1 Hata Path Loss Formula
Hata formula empirically describes the path loss as a function of frequency, receiver-transmitter distance and antenna
heights for an urban environment. This formula is valid for flat, urban environments and 1.5 metre mobile antenna height.
Path loss (Lu) is calculated (in dB) as follows:

Lu = A 1 + A 2 log  f  + A 3 log  h Tx  +  B 1 + B 2 log  h Tx   log d

f is the frequency (MHz).


hTx is the transmitter antenna height above ground (m) (Hb notation is also used in Atoll).

d is the distance between the transmitter and the receiver (km).


The parameters A1, A2, A3, B1 and B2 can be user-defined. Default values are proposed in the table below:

Okumura-Hata Cost-Hata
Parameters
f 1500 MHz f > 1500 MHz
A1 69.55 46.30
A2 26.16 33.90
A3 -13.82 -13.82
B1 44.90 44.90
B2 -6.55 -6.55

Default Hata parameters

4.4.1.2 Corrections to the Hata Path Loss Formula


As described above, the Hata formula is valid for urban environment and a receiver antenna height of 1.5m. For other envi-
ronments and mobile antenna heights, corrective formulas must be applied.

L model1 = Lu – a  h Rx  for large city and urban environments

f 2
L model1 = Lu – a  h Rx  – 2  log  ------  – 5.4 for suburban area
  28 

2
L model1 = Lu – a  h Rx  – 4.78  log  f   + 18.33 log  f  – 40.94 for rural area

a(hRx) is a correction for a receiver antenna height different from 1.5m.

Environment a(Hr)

Rural/Small city  1.1 log  f  – 0.7 h Rx –  1.56 log  f  – 0.8 

2
Large city 3.2  log  11.75h Rx   – 4.97

Note:
• When receiver antenna height equals 1.5m, a(hRx) is close to 0 dB regardless of
frequency.

4.4.1.3 Calculations in Atoll


Hata models take into account topo map (DTM) between transmitter and receiver and morpho map (clutter) at the receiver.

1st step: For each calculation bin, Atoll determines the clutter bin on which the receiver is located. This clutter bin corre-
sponds to a clutter class. Then, it uses the Hata formula assigned to this clutter class to evaluate L model1 .

2nd step: This step depends on whether the ‘Add diffraction loss’ option is checked.
• If the ‘Add diffraction loss’ option is unchecked, Atoll stops calculations.
L model = L model1

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• If the ‘Add diffraction loss’ option is selected, Atoll proceeds as follows:


a. It extracts a geographic profile between the transmitter and the receiver based on the radial calculation mode.
b. It determines the largest obstacle along the profile in accordance with the Deygout method and evaluates loss-
es due to diffraction L model2 .

L model = L model1 + L model2

Note:
• Like for any Hata-based model, L model is, by default, limited to the computed free space
loss value. It is also possible to avoid this option (option in the related scrolling menu of
Configuration tab).

4.4.2 ITU 529-3 Propagation Model


4.4.2.1 ITU 529-3 Path Loss Formula
The ITU 529.3 model is a Hata-based model. For this reason, its formula empirically describes the path loss as a function
of frequency, receiver-transmitter distance and antenna heights for a urban environment. This formula is valid for flat,
urban environments and 1.5 metre mobile antenna height.
The standard ITU 529-3 formula, for a receiver located on a urban environment, is given by:
b
E = 69.82 – 6.16 log f + 13.82 log h Tx –  44.9 – 6.55 log h Tx   log d 

where:
E is the field strength for 1 kW ERP
f is the frequency (MHz).

h Tx is the transmitter antenna height above ground (m) (Hb notation is also used in Atoll)

h Rx is the receiver antenna height above ground (m)

d is the distance between the transmitter and the receiver (km)


b is the distance correction
The domain of validity of such is formula is:
• Frequency range: 300-1500 MHz
• Base Station height: 30-200 m
• Mobile height: 1-10 m
• Distance range: 1-100 km
Since Atoll needs the path loss (Lu) formula, a conversion has to be made. One can find the following conversion formula:

Lu = 139.37 + 20 log f – E
which gives the following path loss formula for the ITU 529-3 model:
b
Lu = 69.55 + 26.16 log f – 13.82 log h Tx +  44.9 – 6.55 log h Tx   log d 

4.4.2.2 Corrections to the ITU 529-3 Path Loss Formula


4.4.2.2.1 Environment Correction
As described above, the Hata formula is valid for urban environment. For other environments and mobile antenna heights,
corrective formulas must be applied.

L model1 = Lu – a  h Rx  for large city and urban environments

f 2
L model1 = Lu – a  h Rx  – 2  log  ------  – 5.4 for suburban area
  28 

2
L model1 = Lu – a  h Rx  – 4.78  log f  + 18.33 log f – 40.94 for rural area

4.4.2.2.2 Area Size Correction


In the formulas above, a  h Rx  is the environment correction and is defined according to the area size

Environment a(Hr)
Rural/Small city  1.1 log f – 0.7 h Rx –  1.56 log f – 0.8 

2
Large city 3.2  log  11.75h Rx   – 4.97

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Chapter 4: Calculations

4.4.2.2.3 Distance Correction


The distance correction refers to the term b above.

Distance b
d<20 km 1

d 0.8
b = 1 +  0.14 + 1.87  10 f + 1.07  10 h' Tx    log ------
–4 –3
 20
d>20 km
h Tx
where h' Tx = --------------------------------------------
–6 2
1 + 7  10 h Tx

4.4.2.3 Calculations in Atoll


Hata-based models take into account topo map (DTM) between transmitter and receiver and morpho map (clutter) at the
receiver.

1st step: For each calculation bin, Atoll determines the clutter bin on which the receiver is located. This clutter bin corre-
sponds to a clutter class. Then, it uses the ITU 529-3 formula assigned to this clutter class to evaluate L model1 .

2nd step: This step depends on whether the ‘Add diffraction loss’ option is checked.
• If the ‘Add diffraction loss’ option is unchecked, Atoll stops calculations.
L model = L model1

• If the ‘Add diffraction loss’ option is selected, Atoll proceeds as follows:


a. It extracts a geographic profile between the transmitter and the receiver based on the radial calculation mode.
b. It determines the largest obstacle along the profile in accordance with the Deygout method and evaluates loss-
es due to diffraction  L model2  .

L model = L model1 + L model2

Note:
• Like for any Hata-based model, L model is, by default, limited to the computed free space
loss value. It is also possible to avoid this option (option in the related scrolling menu of
Configuration tab)

4.4.3 Standard Propagation Model (SPM)


4.4.3.1 SPM Path Loss Formula
SPM is based on the following formula:

L model = K 1 + K 2 log  d  + K 3 log  H Txeff  + K 4  DiffractionLoss + K 5 log  d   log  H Txeff  +


K 6  H Rxeff  + K 7 log  H Rxeff  + K clutter f  clutter 

with,
K1: constant offset (dB).
K2: multiplying factor for log(d).
d: distance between the receiver and the transmitter (m).
K3: multiplying factor for log(HTxeff).

HTxeff: effective height of the transmitter antenna (m).


K4: multiplying factor for diffraction calculation. K4 has to be a positive number.

Diffraction loss: loss due to diffraction over an obstructed path (dB).

K5: multiplying factor for log  d   log  H Txeff 

K6: multiplying factor for H Rxeff .

K7: multiplying factor for log  H Rxeff  .

H Rxeff : effective mobile antenna height (m).

Kclutter: multiplying factor for f(clutter).


f(clutter): average of weighted losses due to clutter.

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4.4.3.2 Calculations in Atoll


4.4.3.2.1 Visibility and Distance Between Transmitter and Receiver
For each calculation bin, Atoll determines:
• The distance between the transmitter and the receiver.
If the distance Tx-Rx is less than the maximum user-defined distance (break distance), the receiver is considered to be
near the transmitter. Atoll will use the set of values marked “Near transmitter”.
If the distance Tx-Rx is greater than the maximum distance, receiver is considered far from transmitter. Atoll will use the
set of values “Far from transmitter”.
• Whether the receiver is in the transmitter line of sight or not.
If the receiver is in the transmitter line of sight, Atoll will take into account the set of values (K1,K2)LOS.
If the receiver is not in the transmitter line of sight, Atoll will use the set of values (K1,K2)NLOS.

4.4.3.2.2 Effective Transmitter Antenna Height


Effective transmitter antenna height (HTxeff) may be calculated with six different methods.

Height Above Ground

The transmitter antenna height is above the ground (HTx in m).

HTxeff = HTx

Height Above Average Profile

The transmitter antenna height is determined relative to an average ground height calculated along the profile between a
transmitter and a receiver. The profile length depends on distance min and distance max values and is limited by the trans-
mitter and receiver locations. Distance min and Distance max are minimum and maximum distances from the transmitter
respectively.

H Txeff = H Tx +  H 0Tx – H 0 

where,

H 0Tx is the ground height (ground elevation) above sea level at transmitter (m).

H 0 is the average ground height above sea level along the profile (m).

Note:
• If the profile is not located between the transmitter and the receiver, HTxeff equals HTx only.

Slope at Receiver Between 0 and Minimum Distance

The transmitter antenna height is calculated using the ground slope at receiver.

H Txeff =  H Tx + H 0Tx  – H 0Rx + K  d

where,

H 0Rx is the ground height (ground elevation) above sea level at receiver (m).

K is the ground slope calculated over a user-defined distance (Distance min). In this case, Distance min is a distance from
receiver.
Notes:
• If H Txeff  20m then, Atoll uses 20m in calculations.

• If H Txeff  200m then, Atoll takes 200m.

Spot Ht

If H 0Tx  H 0Rx then, H Txeff = H Tx +  H 0Tx – H 0Rx 

If H 0Tx  H 0Rx then, H Txeff = H Tx

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Absolute Spot Ht

H Txeff = H Tx + H 0Tx – H 0Rx

Note:
• Distance min and distance max are set to 3000 and 15000 m according to ITU
recommendations (low frequency broadcast f < 500 Mhz) and to 0 and 15000 m according
Okumura recommendations (high frequency mobile telephony).

These values are only used in the two last methods and have different meanings according to the method.

Enhanced Slope at Receiver

Atoll offers a new method called “Enhanced slope at receiver” to evaluate the effective transmitter antenna height.

Figure 4.11: Enhanced Slope at Receiver

Let x-axis and y-axis respectively represent positions and heights. We assume that x-axis is oriented from the transmitter
(origin) towards the receiver.
This calculation is achieved in several steps:

1st step: Atoll determines line of sight between transmitter and receiver.
The LOS line equation is:

  H 0Tx + H Tx  –  H 0Rx + H Rx  
Los  i  =  H 0Tx + H Tx  – ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Res  i 
d
where,

H Rx is the receiver antenna height above the ground (m).

i is the point index.


Res is the profile resolution (distance between two points).

2nd step: Atoll extracts the transmitter-receiver terrain profile.

3rd step: Hills and mountains are already taken into account in diffraction calculations. Therefore, in order for them not to
unfavourably influence the regression line calculation, Atoll filters the terrain profile.
Atoll calculates two filtered terrain profiles; one established from the transmitter and another from the receiver. It deter-
mines filtered height of every profile point. Profile points are evenly spaced on the basis of profile resolution. To determine
filtered terrain height at a point, Atoll evaluates ground slope between two points and compares it with a threshold set to
0.05; where three cases are possible.
Some notations defined hereafter are used in next part.

H filt is the filtered height.

H orig is the original height. Original terrain height is determined from extracted ground profile.

- Filter starting from transmitter

Let us assume that H filt – Tx  Tx  = H orig  Tx 

For each point, we have three different cases:

H orig  i  – H orig  i – 1 
1st case: If H orig  i   H orig  i – 1  and ------------------------------------------------------  0.05 ,
Res

Then, H filt – Tx  i  = H filt – Tx  i – 1  +  H orig  i  – H orig  i – 1  

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H orig  i  – H orig  i – 1 
2nd case: If H orig  i   H orig  i – 1  and ------------------------------------------------------  0.05
Res

Then, H filt – Tx  i  = H filt – Tx  i – 1 

3rd case: If H orig  i   H orig  i – 1 

Then, H filt – Tx  i  = H filt – Tx  i – 1 

If H filt  i   H orig  i  additionally

Then, H filt – Tx  i  = H orig  i 

- Filter starting from receiver

Let us assume that H filt  Rx  = H orig  Rx 

For each point, we have three different cases:

H orig  i  – H orig  i + 1 
1st case: If H orig  i   H orig  i + 1  and -------------------------------------------------------  0.05 ,
Res

Then, H filt – Rx  i  = H filt – Rx  i + 1  +  H orig  i  – H orig  i + 1  

H orig  i  – H orig  i + 1 
2nd case: If H orig  i   H orig  i + 1  and -------------------------------------------------------  0.05
Res

Then, H filt – Rx  i  = H filt – Rx  i + 1 

3rd case: If H orig  i   H orig  i + 1 

Then, H filt – Rx  i  = H filt – Rx  i + 1 

If H filt  i   H orig  i  additionally

Then, H filt – Rx  i  = H orig  i 

Then, for every point of profile, Atoll compares the two filtered heights and chooses the higher one.

H filt  i  = max  H filt – Tx  i  H filt – Rx  i  

4th step: Atoll determines the influence area, R. It corresponds to the distance from receiver at which the original terrain
profile plus 30 metres intersects the LOS line for the first time (when beginning from transmitter).
The influence area must satisfy additional conditions:

• R  3000m ,
• R  0.01  d ,
• R must contain at least three bins.

Notes:
• When several influence areas are possible, Atoll chooses the highest one.
• If d < 3000m, R = d.

5th step: Atoll performs a linear regression on the filtered profile within R in order to determine a regression line.
The regression line equation is:

y = ax + b

  d  i  – dm   Hfilt  i  – Hm 
i - and b = H m – ad m
a = -----------------------------------------------------------------------

2
 d  i  – dm 
i

where,

1
H m = ---
n  Hfilt  i 
i

i is the point index. Only points within R are taken into account.

R
d m = d – ----
2
d(i) is the distance between i and the transmitter (m).
Then, Atoll extends the regression line to the transmitter location. Therefore, its equation is:

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Chapter 4: Calculations

regr  i  = a   i  Res  + b

6th step: Then, Atoll calculates effective transmitter antenna height, H Txeff (m).

H 0Tx + H Tx – b
H Txeff = -------------------------------------
-
2
1+a
If HTxeff is less than 20m, Atoll recalculates it with a new influence area, which begins at transmitter.

Notes:
• In case H Txeff  1000m , 1000m will be used in calculations.

• If H Txeff is still less than 20m, an additional correction is taken into account (7th step).

7th step: If H Txeff is still less than 20m (even negative), Atoll evaluates path loss using H Txeff = 20m and applies a
correction factor.

Therefore, if H Txeff  20m ,

L model = L model   H Txeff = 20m  d f  + K lowant

d 20   1 –  H Txeff – 20  
where, K lowant = --------- –  0.3   H Txeff – 20   – ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5 d -   6.93 + ------------ d -
10  9.63 + ------------
 1000  1000

4.4.3.2.3 Effective Receiver Antenna Height


H Rxeff =  H Rx + H 0Rx  – H 0Tx

where,

H Rx is the receiver antenna height above the ground (m).

H 0Rx is the ground height (ground elevation) above sea level at the receiver (m).

H 0Tx is the ground height (ground elevation) above sea level at the transmitter (m).

Note:
• The calculation of effective antenna heights ( H Rxeff and H Txeff ) is based on extracted
DTM profiles. They are not properly performed if you have not imported heights (DTM file)
beforehand.

4.4.3.2.4 Correction for Hilly Regions in Case of LOS


An optional corrective term enables Atoll to correct path loss for hilly regions when the transmitter and the receiver are in
Line-of-sight.
Therefore, if the receiver is in the transmitter line of sight and the Hilly terrain correction option is active, we have:

L model = K 1 LOS + K 2 LOS log  d  + K 3 log  H Txeff  + K 5 log  H Txeff  log  d  + K 6  H Rx + K clutter f  clutter  + K hill LOS

When the transmitter and the receiver are not in line of sight, the path loss formula is:

L model =K 1 NLOS + K 2 NLOS log  d  + K 3 log  H Txeff  + K 4  Diffraction + K 5 log  H Txeff  log  d  + K 6  H Rx + K clutter f  clutter 

K hill LOS is determined in three steps. Influence area, R, and regression line are supposed available.

1st step: For every profile point within influence area, Atoll calculates height deviation between the original terrain profile
and regression line. Then, it sorts points according to the deviation and draws two lines (parallel to the regression line),
one which is exceeded by 10% of the profile points and the other one by 90%.

2nd step: Atoll evaluates the terrain roughness, h; it is the distance between the two lines.

3rd step: Atoll calculates K hill LOS .

We have K hill LOS = K h + K hf

If 0  h  20m , K h = 0

2
Else K h = 7.73  log  h   – 15.29 log  h  + 6.746

If 0  h  10m , K hf = – 2  0.1924   H 0Rx + H Rx – regr  i Rx  

2 H 0Rx + H Rx – regr  i Rx 
Else K hf = – 2   – 1.616  log  h   + 14.75 log  h  – 11.21   ------------------------------------------------------------
h

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iRx is the point index at receiver.

4.4.3.2.5 Diffraction
Four methods are available to calculate diffraction loss over the transmitter-receiver profile. They are detailed in the
Appendices.
Along the transmitter-receiver profile, you may consider:
• Either ground altitude and clutter height (Consider heights in diffraction option),
In this case, Atoll uses clutter height information from clutter heights file if available in the .atl document. Otherwise,
it considers average clutter height specified for each clutter class in the clutter classes file description.
• Or only ground altitude.

4.4.3.2.6 Losses due to Clutter


n

Atoll calculates f(clutter) over a maximum distance from receiver: f  clutter  =  Li wi


i=1

where,
L: loss due to clutter defined in the Clutter tab by the user (in dB).
w: weight determined through the weighting function.
n: number of points taken into account over the profile. Points are evenly spaced depending on the profile resolution.
Four weighting functions are available:

1
• Uniform weighting function: w i = ---
n
di
• Triangular weighting function: w i = -------------
n
-

 dj
j=1
• d i = D – d' i , where d’i is the distance between the receiver and the ith point and D is the maximum distance
defined.
d
log  ----i + 1
D 
• Logarithmic weighting function: w i = -------------------------------------
n
-
d
log  ----j + 1
 D 
j=1
di
----
D
e –1
• Exponential weighting function: w i = --------------------------
n dj
----

e
D
–1
j=1

The chart below shows the weight variation with the distance for each weighting function.

Figure 4.12: Losses due to Clutter

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4.4.3.2.7 Recommendations
Beware that the clutter influence may be taken into account in two terms, Diffraction loss and f(clutter) at the same time.
To avoid this, we advise:
1. Not to consider clutter heights to evaluate diffraction loss over the transmitter-receiver profile if you specify losses
per clutter class.
This approach is recommended if the clutter height information is statistical (clutter roughly defined, no alti-
tude).

Or
2. Not to define any loss per clutter class if you take clutter heights into account in the diffraction loss.
In this case, f(clutter)=0. Losses due to clutter are only taken into account in the computed Diffraction loss term.

This approach is recommended if the clutter height information is either semi-deterministic (clutter roughly
defined, altitude defined with an average height per clutter class) or deterministic (clutter sharply defined, altitude
defined with an average height per clutter class or - even better - via a clutter height file).

In case of semi-deterministic clutter information, specify receiver clearance (m) per clutter class. Both ground altitude and
clutter height are considered along the whole transmitter-receiver profile except over a specific distance around the
receiver (clearance), where Atoll proceeds as if there was only the DTM map. The clearance information is used to model
streets.

Figure 4.13: Tx-Rx profile

In the above figure, the ground altitude and clutter height (in this case, average height specified for each clutter class in
the clutter classes map description) are taken into account along the profile.
Clearance definition is not necessary in case of deterministic clutter height information. Clutter height information is accu-
rate enough to be used directly without additional information such as clearance. Two cases can be considered:
1. If the receiver is in the street (clutter height lower than receiver height), Atoll calculates the path loss by considering
potentially some diffraction loss at reception.
2. If the receiver is supposed to be inside a building (clutter height higher than receiver height), Atoll does not con-
sider any difraction (and clearance) from the building but takes into account the clutter class indoor loss as an addi-
tional penetration loss.

Notes:
• To consider indoor losses in building only when using a deterministic clutter map (clutter
height map), the 'Indoor Coverage' box must not be checked in predictions unless this loss
will be counted twice inside buildings (on the entire reception clutter class and not only
inside the building).
• Like for any Hata-based model, L model is, by default, limited to the computed free space
loss value. It is also possible to avoid this option (option in the related scrolling menu of
Configuration tab)
• Even with no clearance, the clutter height (extracted either from clutter class or clutter
height folders) is never considered at the last profile point.

4.4.3.3 Automatic SPM Calibration


The goal of this tool is to calibrate parameters and methods of the SPM formula in a simple and reproducible way. Cali-
bration is based on imported CW measurement data. It is the process of limiting the difference between predicted and
measured values. For a complete description of the calibration procedure (including the very important prerequisite filtering
work on the CW measurement points), please refer to the User Manual and the SPM Calibration Guide.
The following SPM formula parameters can be estimated:
• K1, K2, K3, K4, K5, K6 and K7

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• Losses per clutter class (Kclutter must be user-defined)


• Effective antenna height method
• Diffraction method
Automatic model calibration provides a mathematical solution. The relevance of this mathematical solution with a physical
and realistic solution must be determined before committing these results.
You must keep in mind that the model calibration and its result (standard deviation and root mean square) strongly depend
on the CW measurement samples you use. A calibrated model must restore the behaviour of CW measurements depend-
ing on their configuration on a large scale, and not just totally coincide with a few number of CW measurements. The cali-
brated model has to give correct results for every new CW measurement point in the same geographical zone, without
having been calibrated on these new CW measurements.

4.4.3.3.1 General Algorithm


Propagation model calibration is a special case of the more general Least-Square problems, i.e. given a real m x n matrix
A, and a real m-vector b, find a real n-vector x0 that minimises the Euclidean length of Ax - b.

Here,
m is the number of measurement points,
n is the number of parameters to calibrate,
A is the values of parameter associated variables (log(d), log(heff), etc.) at each measurement point, and
b is the vector of measurement values.
The vector x0 is the set of parameters found at the end of the calibration.

The theoretical mathematical solution of this problem was found by Gauss (around 1830). Further enhancements to the
original method were proposed in the 60's in order to solve the numerical instability problem.
In 1974, Lawson & Hanson [2] proposed a theoretical solution of the least-square problem with general linear inequality
constraints on the vector x0. Atoll implementation is based on this method, which is explained in detail in [1].

References:
[1] Björck A. “Numerical Methods for Least Square Problems”, SIAM, 1996.

[2] Lawson C.L., Hanson R.J. “Solving Least Squares Problems”, SIAM, 1974.

4.4.3.3.2 Sample Values for SPM Path Loss Formula Parameters


The following tables list some sample orders of magnitudes for the different parameters composing the Standard Propa-
gation Model formula.

Minimum Typical Maximum


K1 Variable Variable Variable

K2 20 44.9 70
K3 -20 5.83 20

K4 0 0.5 0.8

K5 -10 -6.55 0

K6 -1 0 0

K7 -10 0 0

K1 depends on the frequency and the technology. Here are some sample values:

Project type Frequency (MHz) K1


GSM 900 935 12.5
GSM 1800 1805 22
GSM 1900 1930 23
UMTS 2110 23.8
1xRTT 1900 23
2300 24.7
2500 25.4
WiMAX 2700 26.1
3300 27.8
3500 28.3

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Chapter 4: Calculations

The above K1 values for WiMAX are extrapolated estimates for different frequency ranges. It is highly recommended to
calibrate the SPM using measurement data collected on the field for WiMAX networks before using the SPM for predic-
tions.
All K paramaters can be defined by the automatic calibration wizard. Since Kclutter is a constant, its value is strongly
dependant on the values given to the losses per clutter classes. From experienced users, the typical losses (in dB) per
clutter class are:

Dense urban From 4 to 5


Woodland From 2 to 3
Urban 0
Suburban From -5 to -3
Industrial From -5 to -3
Open in urban From -6 to -4
Open From -12 to -10
Water From -14 to -12

These values have to be entered only when considering statistical clutter class maps only.
If you want to calibrate the losses per clutter class (Kclutter != 0) and press the Identify (Clutter row selected), a warning
message appears asking you to force the Max distance to 0 (in the Clutter tab), if it is not already set to 0. In fact, Atoll
uses the following process on these constants:
• 1st step: Atoll makes groups of measurement points according to the clutter class on which they are located.
• 2nd step: Atoll calculates the mean error for each of this group with Max distance = 0 (i.e. the clutter loss is applied
only on the reception bin).
• 3rd step: For each group, the mean error is then automatically shifted to 0 by manipulating the corresponding loss.
For example, if the mean error on a certain clutter class is 5 dB and if the initial loss for this clutter class is 2 dB,
then the calibrated loss becomes 7 dB.
Therefore, the global mean error on all the measurement points is null. In short, it is not possible to calibrate the clutter
losses if Max distance != 0. This parameter must be forced to 0.
Note:
• The Standard Propagation Model is deduced from the Hata formulae, valid in the case of
an urban environment. The above values are consistent since they are normalized with
respect to the urban clutter class (0 dB for urban clutter class). Positive values correspond
to denser clutter classes and negative values to less dense clutter classes.

4.4.3.4 Unmasked Path Loss Calculation


You can use the SPM to calculate unmasked path losses. Unmasked path losses are calculated by not taking into account
the transmitter antenna patterns, i.e., the attenuation due to the transmitter antenna pattern is not included. Such path
losses are useful when using path loss matrices calculated by Atoll with automatic optimisation tools.
The instance of the SPM available by default, under the Propagation Models folder in the Modules tab, has the following
characteristics:
• Signature: {D5701837-B081-11D4-931D-00C04FA05664}
• Type: Atoll.StdPropagModel.1
You can access these parameters in the Propagation Models table by double-clicking the Propagation Models folder in
the Modules tab.
To make the SPM calculate path losses excluding the antenna pattern attenuation, you have to change the type of the
SPM to:
• Type: Atoll.StdPropagModelUnmasked.1
However, changing the type only does not invalidate the already calculated path loss matrices, because the signature of
the propagation model is still the same. If you want Atoll to recognize that the SPM has changed, and to invalidate the path
loss matrices calculated with this model, you have to change the signature of the model as well. The default signature for
the SPM that calculates unmasked path loss matrices is:
• Signature: {EEE060E5-255C-4C1F-B36C-A80D3D972583}
The above signature is a default signature. Atoll automatically creates different signatures for different instances of the
same propagation model. Therefore, it is possible to create different instances of the SPM, with different parameter
settings, and create unmasked versions of these instances.
You can change the signature and type of the original instance of the SPM, but it is recommended to make a copy, i.e., a
new instance, of the SPM in order not to lose the original SPM parameters. So, you will be able to keep different versions
of the SPM, those that calculate path losses with antenna pattern attenuation, and others that calculate path losses without
it.

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The usual process flow of an ACP working on an Atoll document through the API would be to:
1. Backup the storage directory of path loss matrices.
2. Set a different storage directory for calculating and storing unmasked path loss matrices.
3. Select the SPM used, backup it’s signature, and change its signature and type as shown above.
4. Perform optimisation using the path loss matrices calculated by the unmasked version of the SPM.
5. Restore the type and the signature of the SPM.
6. Reset the path loss storage directory to the original one.
Notes:
• It is not possible to calibrate the unmasked version of the SPM using measurement data.
• You can also use Atoll.ini options, AngleCalculation = 2000 and AngleCalculation = 3000,
for calculating unmasked path losses and angles of incidence, respectively. These options
are only available for the propagation models available with Atoll by default. Please refer to
the Administrator Manual for details.
• Using the SPM, you can also calculate the angles of incidence by creating a new instance
of the SPM with the following characteristics:
Type: Atoll.StdPropagModelIncidence.1
Signature: {659F0B9E-2810-4e59-9F0D-DA9E78E1E64B}

Important:
• The "masked" version of the algorithm has not been changed. It still takes into account
Atoll.ini options. However, the "unmasked" version does not take Atoll.ini options into
account.
• It’s highly recommended to use one method (Atoll.ini options) or the other one (new
identifier & signature) but not to combine both.

4.4.4 WLL Propagation Model


4.4.4.1 WLL Path Loss Formula
L model = FreeSpaceLoss + DiffractionLoss

4.4.4.2 Calculations in Atoll


4.4.4.2.1 Free Space Loss
Please refer to the Appendices for further details about free space loss calculation.

4.4.4.2.2 Diffraction
Atoll calculates diffraction loss along the transmitter-receiver profile built from DTM and clutter maps. Therefore, losses
due to clutter are taken into account in diffraction losses. Atoll takes clutter height information from the clutter heights file
if available in the .atl document. Otherwise, it considers average clutter height specified for each clutter class in the clutter
classes file description.
The Deygout construction (considering 3 obstacles) is used. This method is detailed in the Appendices.

Receiver Clearance

Define receiver clearance (m) per clutter class when clutter height information is either statistical or semi-deter-
ministic. Both ground altitude and clutter height are considered along the whole profile except over a specific distance
around the receiver (clearance), where Atoll proceeds as if there was only the DTM map (see SPM part). Atoll uses the
clearance information to model streets.
If the clutter is deterministic, do not define any receiver clearance (m) per clutter class. In this case, clutter height
information is accurate enough to be used directly without additional information such as clearance (Atoll can locate
streets).

Receiver Height

Entering receiver height per clutter class enables Atoll to consider the fact that receivers are fixed and located on the roofs.

Visibility

If the option ‘Line of sight only’ is not selected, Atoll computes Lmodel on each calculation bin using the formula defined
above. When selecting the option ‘Line of sight only’, Atoll checks for each calculation bin if the Diffraction loss (as defined
in the Diffraction loss: Deygout part) calculated along profile equals 0.

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Chapter 4: Calculations

• In this case, receiver is considered in ‘line of sight’ and Atoll computes Lmodel on each calculation bin using the
formula defined above.
• Otherwise, Atoll considers that Lmodel tends to infinity.

4.4.5 ITU-R P.526-5 Propagation Model


4.4.5.1 ITU 526-5 Path Loss Formula
L model = FreeSpaceLoss + DiffractionLoss

4.4.5.2 Calculations in Atoll


4.4.5.2.1 Free Space Loss
Please refer to the Appendices for further details about free space loss calculation.

4.4.5.2.2 Diffraction
Atoll calculates diffraction loss along the transmitter-receiver profile is built from the DTM map. The Deygout construction
(considering 3 obstacles), with or without correction, is used. These methods are detailed in the Appendices.

4.4.6 ITU-R P.370-7 Propagation Model


4.4.6.1 ITU 370-7 Path Loss Formula
If d<1 km, L model = FreeSpaceLoss

If d>1000 km, L model = 1000

If 1<d<1000 km, L model = max  FreeSpaceLoss CorrectedS tan dardLoss 

d is the distance between the transmitter and the receiver (km).

4.4.6.2 Calculations in Atoll


4.4.6.2.1 Free Space Loss
Please refer to the Appendices for further details about free space loss calculation.

4.4.6.2.2 Corrected Standard Loss


This formula is given for a 60 dBm (1kW) transmitter power.

CorrectedS tan dardLoss = 60 – C n – A H – A cl – 108.75 + 31.54 – 20 log f


Rxeff

where,
Cn is the field strength received in dBV/m,

AH is a correction factor for effective receiver antenna height (dB),


Rxeff

Acl is the correction for terrain clearance angle (dB),


f is the frequency in MHz.

Cn Calculation

The Cn value is determined from charts Cn=f(d, HTxeff).


In the following part, let us assume that Cn=En(d,HTxeff) (where En(d,HTxeff) is the field received in dBV/m) is read from
charts for a distance, d (in km), and an effective transmitter antenna height, HTxeff (in m).

First of all, Atoll evaluates the effective transmitter antenna height, H Txeff , as follows:

If 0  d  3km , H Txeff = H 0Tx + H Tx – H 0Rx

If 3  d  15km , H Txeff = H 0Tx + H Tx – H 0  3 ;d 

If 15  d , H Txeff = H 0Tx + H Tx – H 0  3 ;15 

where,

H Tx is the transmitter antenna height above the ground (m).

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H 0Tx is the ground height (ground elevation) above sea level at the transmitter (m).

H 0  3 ;d  is the average ground height (m) above sea level for the profile between a point 3 km from transmitter and the
receiver (located at d km from transmitter).

H 0  3 ;15  is the average ground height (m) above sea level for the profile between a point 3 km and another 15 km from
transmitter.
Then, depending on d and HTxeff, Atoll determines Cn using bilinear interpolation as follows.

If 37.5 HTxeff 1200, Cn= En(d,HTxeff)

Otherwise, Atoll considers d horizon = 4.1  H Txeff (d is stated in km)

Therefore,
If HTxeff < 37.5

If d  d horizon , we have C n = E n  d + 25 – d horizon 37.5 

Else Cn=En(d, 37.5) – En(dhorizon, 37.5) + En(25, 37.5)


If HTxeff > 1200

If d  d horizon , we have C n = E n  d + 142 – d horizon 1200 

Else Cn=En(d, 1200) – En(dhorizon, 1200) + En(142, 1200)

AHRxeff Calculation

c H Rx
AH = ---  20  log  ----------
Rxeff 6  10 

where,
HRx is the user-defined receiver height,

c is the height gain factor.


Note:
• c values are provided in the recommendation 370-7; for example, c=4 in a rural case.

Acl Calculation

2
If f  300 MHz, A cl = 8.1 –  6.9 + 20 log     – 0.1  + 1  +   – 0.1   

2
Otherwise, A cl = 14.9 –  6.9 + 20 log     – 0.1  + 1  +   – 0.1   

f
With  = –   4000  ----------
300
where,

 is the clearance angle (in radians) determined according to the recommendation 370-7 (figure 19),
f is the frequency stated in MHz.

4.4.7 Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) Propagation Model


Erceg-Greenstein propagation model is a statistical path loss model derived from experimental data collected at 1.9 GHz
in 95 macrocells. The model is for suburban areas, and it distinguishes between different terrain categories called the Stan-
ford University Interim Terrain Models. This propagation model is well suited for distances and base station antenna
heights that are not well-covered by other models. The path loss model applies to base antenna heights from 10 to 80 m,
base-to-terminal distances from 0.1 to 8 km, and three distinct terrain categories.
The basic path loss equation of the Erceg-Greenstein propagation model is:

d
PL = A + 10  a  H BS   Log 10  ------
 d 0

4d 0
Where A = 20  Log 10  ------------- . This is a fixed quantity which depends upon the frequency of operation. d is the distance
  
between the base station antenna and the receiver terminal and d0 is a fixed reference distance (100 m). a(HBS) is the
correction factor for base station antenna heights, HBS:

c
a  HBS  = a – b  H BS + ----------
H BS

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Chapter 4: Calculations

Where 10 m  HBS  80 m , and a, b, and c are correction coefficients which depend on the SUI terrain type.

The Erceg-Greenstein propagation model is further developed through the correction factors introduced by the Stanford
University Interim model. The standards proposed by the IEEE working group 802.16 include channel models developed
by Stanford University. The basic path loss equation with correction factors is presented below:

d
PL = A + 10  a  H BS   Log 10  ------ + a  f  – a  H R 
 d 0

f
Where a(f) is the correction factor for the operating frequency, a  f  = 6  Log 10  ------------- , with f being the operating
 2000

HR
frequency in MHz. a(HR) is the correction factor for the receiver antenna height, a  H R  = X  Log 10  ------- , where d
 2
depends on the terrain type.
Note:
• a(HR) = 0 for HR = 2 m.

References:
[1] V. Erceg et. al, “An empirically based path loss model for wireless channels in suburban environments,” IEEE J.
Select Areas Commun., vol. 17, no. 7, July 1999, pp. 1205-1211.

[2] Abhayawardhana, V.S.; Wassell, I.J.; Crosby, D.; Sellars, M.P.; Brown, M.G.; "Comparison of empirical propagation
path loss models for fixed wireless access systems," Vehicular Technology Conference, 2005. IEEE 61st Volume 1, 30
May-1 June 2005 Page(s):73 - 77 Vol. 1

4.4.7.1 SUI Terrain Types


The SUI models are divided into three types of terrains1, namely A, B and C.
• Type A is associated with maximum path loss and is appropriate for hilly terrain with moderate to heavy tree
densities.
• Type B is characterised with either mostly flat terrains with moderate to heavy tree densities or hilly terrains
with light tree densities.
• Type C is associated with minimum path loss and applies to flat terrain with light tree densities.
The constants used for a, b, and c are given in the table below.

Model Parameter Terrain A Terrain B Terrain C


a 4.6 4.0 3.6

b (m-1) 0.0075 0.0065 0.005

c (m) 12.6 17.1 20


X 10.8 10.8 20

4.4.7.2 Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) Path Loss Formula


The Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model formula can be simplified from the following equation:

4d 0 d
PL = 20  Log 10  ------------- + 10  a  H BS   Log 10  ------ + a  f  – a  H R  (1)
    d 0

to the equation below:

PL = – 7.366 + 26  Log 10  f  + 10  a  H BS    1 + Log 10  d   – a  H R  (2)

Where,
• f is the operating frequency in MHz
• d is the distance from the transmitter to the received in m in equation (1) and in km in equation (2)
• HBS is the transmitter height in m
• HR is the receiver height in m
The above equation is divided into two parts in Atoll:

PL = Lu – a  H R 

Where,

Lu = – 7.366 + 26  Log 10  f  + 10  a  H BS    1 + Log 10  d  

1. The word ‘terrain’ is used in the original definition of the model rather than ‘environment’. Hence it is used
interchangeably with ‘environment’ in this subsection.

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Technical Reference Guide

The above path loss formulas are valid for d > d0, i.e. d > 100 m. For d < 100 m, the path loss has been restricted to the
free space path loss with correction factors for operating frequency and receiver height:

4d 4d
PL = 20  Log 10  ------------------ + a  f  – a  H R  instead of PL = 20  Log 10  ------------------
     

Where a(f) and a(Hr) have the same definition as given above. Simplifying the above equation, we get,

PL = 12.634 + 26  Log 10  f  + 20  Log 10  d  – a  H R  , or Lu = 12.634 + 26  Log 10  f  + 20  Log 10  d 

The above equation is not user-modifiable in Atoll except for the coefficient of Log 10  f  , i.e. 26. Atoll uses the same coef-
ficient as the one you enter for Log 10  f  in Atoll for the case d > d0.

Note:
• You can get the same equation, i.e., Lu = 12.634 + 26  Log 10  f  + 20  Log 10  d  , by
setting a(hBS) = 2.

4.4.7.3 Calculations in Atoll


The Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model takes DTM into account between the transmitter and the receiver, and it
can also take clutter into account at the receiver location.

1st step: For each pixel in the calculation radius, Atoll determines the clutter bin on which the receiver is located. This clutter
bin corresponds to a clutter class. Atoll uses the Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) path loss formula assigned to this clutter class to
evaluate path loss.

2nd step: This step depends on whether the ‘Add diffraction loss’ option is selected or not.

• If the ‘Add diffraction loss’ option is not selected, 1st step gives the final path loss result.
• If the ‘Add diffraction loss’ option is selected, Atoll proceeds as follows:
a. It extracts a geographic profile between the transmitter and the receiver based on the radial calculation meth-
od.
b. It determines the largest obstacle along the profile in accordance with the Deygout method and evaluates loss-
es due to diffraction L Diffraction . For more information on the Deygout method, see "3 Knife-Edge Deygout
Method" on page 105.

The final path loss is the sum of the path loss determined in 1st step and L Diffraction .

Shadow fading is computed in Atoll independent of the propagation model. For more information on the shadow fading
calculation, see "Shadowing Model" on page 113.

4.4.8 ITU-R P.1546-2 Propagation Model


This propagation model is based on the P.1546-2 recommendations of the ITU-R. These recommendations extend the
P.370-7 recommendations, and are suited for operating frequencies from 30 to 3000 MHz. The path loss is calculated by
this propagation model with the help of graphs available in the recommendations. The graphs provided in the recommen-
dations represent field (or signal) strength, given in db  V  m  , as a function of distance for:

• Nominal frequencies, f n : 100, 600, and 1000 MHz

The graphs provided for 100 MHz are applicable to frequencies from 30 to 300 MHz, those for 600 MHz are appli-
cable to frequencies from 300 to 1000 MHz, and the graphs for 1000 MHz are applicable to frequencies from 1000
to 3000 MHz. The method for interpolation is described in the recommendations (Annex 5, § 6).

• Transmitter antenna heights, h 1 : 10, 20, 37.5, 75, 150, 300, 600, and 1200 m

For any values of h 1 from 10 to 3000 m, an interpolation or extrapolation from the appropriate two curves is used,
as described in the recommendations (Annex 5, § 4.1). For h 1 below 10 m, the extrapolation to be applied is given
in Annex 5, § 4.2. It is possible for the value of h 1 to be negative, in which case the method is given in Annex 5,
§ 4.3.

• Time variability, t : 1, 10, and 50 %


The propagation curves represent the field strength values exceeded for 1, 10 and 50 % of time.

• Receiver antenna height, h 2 : 10 m

For land paths, the graphs represent field strength values for a receiver antenna height above ground, equal to
the representative height of the clutter around the receiver. The minimum value of the representative height of clut-
ter is 10 m. For sea paths, the graphs represent field strength values for a receiver antenna height of 10 m.

For other values of receiver antenna height, a correction is applied according to the environment of the receiver.
The method for calculating this correction is given in Annex 5, § 9.

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Chapter 4: Calculations

These recommendations are not valid for transmitter-receiver distances less than 1 km or greater than 1000 km. Therefore
in Atoll, the path loss between a transmitter and a receiver over less than 1 km is the same as the path loss over 1 km.
Similarly, the path loss between a transmitter and a receiver over more than 1000 km is the same as the path loss over
1000 km.
Moreover, these recommendations are not valid for transmitter antenna heights less than the average clutter height
surrounding the transmitter.
Notes:
• The cold sea graphs are used for calculations over warm and cold sea both.
• The mixture of land and sea paths is not supported by Atoll.

4.4.8.1 Calculations in Atoll


The input to the propagation model are the transmission frequency, transmitter and receiver heights, the distance between
the transmitter and the receiver, the precentage of time the field strength values are exceeded, the type of environment
(i.e., land or sea), and the clutter at the receiver location.

In the following calculations, f is the transmission frequency, d is the transmitter-receiver distance, and t is the percent-
age of time for which the path loss has to be calculated.
The following calculations are performed in Atoll to calculate the path loss using this propagation model.

4.4.8.1.1 Step 1: Determination of Graphs to be Used


First of all, the upper and lower nominal frequencies are determined for any given transmission frequency. The upper and
lower nominal frequencies are the nominal frequencies (100, 600, and 2000 MHz) between which the transmission
frequency is located, i.e., f n1  f  f n2 .

Once f n1 and f n1 are known, along with the information about the percentage of time t and the type of path (land or sea),
the sets of graphs which will be used for the calculation are also known.

4.4.8.1.2 Step 2: Calculation of Maximum Field Strength


A field strength must not exceed a maximum value, E Max , which is given by:

E Max = E FS = 106.9 – 20  Log  d  for land paths, and

E Max = E FS + E SE = 106.9 – 20  Log  d  + 2.38  1 – exp  – d  8.94    Log  50  t  for sea paths.

Where E FS is the free space field strength for 1 kW ERP, E SE is an enhancement for sea graphs.

4.4.8.1.3 Step 3: Determination of Transmitter Antenna Height


The transmitter antenna height to be used in the calculation depends on the type and length of the path.
• Land paths
h 1 = h eff

• Sea paths
h 1 = Max  1 h a 

Here, all antenna heights (i.e., h 1 , h eff , and h a ) are in expressed in m. h a is the antenna height above ground and h eff
is the effective height of the transmitter antenna, which is its height over the average level of the ground between distances
of 0.2  d and d km from the transmitter in the direction of the receiver.

4.4.8.1.4 Step 4: Interpolation/Extrapolation of Field Strength


The interpolations are performed in series in the same order as described below. The first interpolation/extrapolation is
performed over the field strength values, E , from the graphs for transmitter antenna height to determine E h1 . The second
interpolation/extrapolation is performed over the interpolated/extrapolated values of E h1 to determine E d . And, the thrid
and final interpolation/extrapolation is performed over the interpolated/extrapolated values of E d to determine E f .

Step 4.1: Interpolation/Extrapolation of Field Strength for Transmitter Antenna Height

If the value of h 1 coincides with one of the eight heights for which the field strength graphs are provided, namely 10, 20,
37.5, 75, 150, 300, 600, and 1200 m, the required field strength is obtained directly from the corresponding graph. Other-
wise:

• If 10 m  h 1  3000 m

The field strength is interpolated or extrapolated from field strengths obtained from two curves using the following
equation:

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 99


Technical Reference Guide

Log  h 1  h Low 
E h1 = E Low +  E Up – E Low   ------------------------------------------
Log  h Up  h Low 

Where h Low = 600 m if h 1  1200 m , otherwise h Low is the nearest nominal effective height below h 1 ,
h Up = 1200 m if h 1  1200 m , otherwise h Up is the nearest nominal effective height above h 1 , E Low is the field
strength value for h Low at the required distance, and E Up is the field strength value for h Up at the required
distance.

• If 0 m  h 1  10 m

- For land path if the transmitter-receiver distance is less than the smooth-Earth horizon distance
d H  h 1  = 4.1  h 1 , i.e., if d  4.1  h 1 ,

E h1 = E 10  d H  10   + E 10  d  – E 10  d H  h 1   , or

E h1 = E 10  12.9 km  + E 10  d  – E 10  d H  h 1   because d H  10  = 12.9 km

- For land path if the transmitter-receiver distance is greater than or equal to the smooth-Earth horizon distance
d H  h 1  = 4.1  h 1 , i.e., if d  4.1  h 1 ,

E h1 = E 10  d H  10  + d – d H  h 1   , or E h1 = E 10  12.9 km + d – d H  h 1   because d H  10  = 12.9 km

Where E x  y  is the field strength value read for the transmitter-receiver distance of y from the graph available
for the transmitter antenna height of x.

If in the above equation, d H  10  + d – d H  h 1   1000 km even though d  1000 km , the field strength is de-
termined from linear extrapolation for Log (distance) of the graph given by:

Log  d  D Low 
E h1 = E Low +  E Up – E Low   --------------------------------------------
Log  D Up  D Low 

Where D Low is penultimate tabulation distance (km), D Up is the final tabulation distance (km), E Low is the
field strength value for D Low , and E Up is the field strength value for D Up .

- For sea path, h 1 should not be less than 1 m. This calculation requires the distance at which the path has 0.6
of the first Fresnel zone just unobstructed by the sea surface. This distance is given by:
D h1 = D 0.6  f h 1  h 2 = 10 m   (km)

Df  Dh
Where D 0.6 = Max  0.001 ------------------- (km) with D f = 0.0000389  f  h 1  h 2 (frequency-dependent term),
 D f + D h

and D h = 4.1   h 1 + h 2  (asymptotic term defined by the horizon distance).

If d  D h1 the 0.6 Fresnel clearance distance for the sea path where the transmitter antenna height is 20 m is
also calculated as:

D 20 = D 0.6  f  h 1 = 20 m   h 2 = 10 m   (km)

Once D h1 and D 20 are known, the field strength for the required distance is given by:

 E Max for d  D h1

 Log  d  D h1 
E h1 =  E D +  E D – E D   --------------------------------------
- for D h1  d  D 20
 h1 20 h1 Log  D 20  D h1 

 E'   1 – F S  + E''  F S for d  D 20

Where E Max is the maximum field strength at the required distance as calculated in "Step 2: Calculation of
Maximum Field Strength" on page 99, E D is E Max for d = D h1 ,
h1

Log  h1  10  Log  h1  10 
ED = E 10  D 20  +  E 20  D 20  – E 10  D 20    ---------------------------------- , E' = E 10  d  +  E 20  d  – E 10  d    ---------------------------------- ,
20 Log  20  10  Log  20  10 
and E'' is the field strength calculated as described for land paths. E 10  y  and E 20  y  are field strengths
interpolated for distance y and h 1 = 10 m and 20 m , respectively, and F S =  d – D 20   d .

• If h 1  0 m

A correction is applied to the field strength, E h1 , calculated in the above description in order to take into account
the diffraction and tropospheric scattering. This correction is the maximum of the diffraction correction,, and trop-
ospheric scattering correction, .

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Chapter 4: Calculations

C h1 = Max  C h1d C h1t 

2
Where C h1d = 6.03 – J    with J    =  6.9 + 20  Log    – 0.1  + 1 +  – 0.1   and  = K    eff2 ,
–h1
 eff2 = arc tan  ------------- , and K  is 1.35 for 100 MHz, 3.31 for 600 MHz, 6.00 for 2000 MHz.
 9000

e 180  d
C h1t = 30  Log  ------------------------ with  e = ---------------------- , a = 6370 km (radius of the Earth), and k = 4  3 is the effec-
  e +  eff2 ak
tive Earth radius factor for mean refractivity conditions.

Step 4.2: Interpolation/Extrapolation of Field Strength for Transmitter-Receiver Distance

In the field strength graphs in the recommendations, the field strength is plotted against distance from 1 km to 1000 km.
The distance values for which field strengths are tabulated are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,
19, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200,
225, 250, 275, 300, 325, 350, 375, 400, 425, 450, 475, 500, 525, 550, 575, 600, 625, 650, 675, 700, 725, 750, 775, 800,
825, 850, 875, 900, 925, 950, 975, 1000. If the transmitter-receiver distance is a value from this list, then interpolation of
field strength is not required and the field strength can be directly read from the graphs.
If the transmitter-receiver distance does not coincide with the list of distances for which the field strengths are accurately
available from the graphs, the field strength are linearly interpolated or extrapolated for the logarithm of the distance using
the following equation:

Log  d  d Low 
E d = E Low +  E Up – E Low   ------------------------------------------
Log  d Up  d Low 

Where d Low is the lower value of the nearest tabulated distance to d , d Up is the higher value of the nearest tabulated
distance to d , E Low is the field strength value for d Low , and E Up is the field strength value for d Up .

Step 4.3: Interpolation/Extrapolation of Field Strength for Transmission Frequency

The field strength at the transmission frequency is interpolated from the graphs available for the upper and lower nominal
frequencies as follows:

Log  f  f Low 
E f = E Low +  E Up – E Low   ---------------------------------------
Log  f Up  f Low 

Where f Low is the lower nominal frequency (100 MHz if f < 600 MHz, 600 MHz otherwise), f Up is the higher nominal
frequency (600 MHz if f < 600 MHz, 2000 MHz otherwise), E Low is the field strength value for f Low , and E Up is the field
strength value for f Up .

In the case of transmission frequencies below 100 MHz or above 2000 MHz, the field strength values are extrapolated
from the two nearer nominal frequency values. The above equation is used for all land paths and sea paths.

4.4.8.1.5 Step 5: Calculation of Correction Factors


Step 5.1: Correction for Receiver Antenna Height

The receiver antenna height correction depends on the type of path and clutter in which the receiver is located. The field
strength values given by the graphs for land paths are for a reference receiver antenna at a height, R (m), representative
of the height of the clutter surrounding the receiver, subject to a minimum height value of 10 m. Examples of reference
heights are 20 m for an urban area, 30 m for a dense urban area, and 10 m for a suburban area. For sea paths the notional
value of R is 10 m.
For land paths, the elevation angle of the arriving ray is taken into account by calculating a modified representative clutter
 1000  d  R – 15  h 1 
height R' , given by R' = Max  1 --------------------------------------------------------------- .
 1000  d – 15 

Note that for h 1  6.5  d + R , R'  R .

The different correction factors are calculated as follows:


• For land path in urban and suburban zones

 6.03 – J    for h 2  R'



C Receiver =  h
  3.2 + 6.2  Log  f    Log  -----2- for h 2  R'
  R' 

R' – h 2
With J    =  6.9 + 20  Log    – 0.1  + 1 +  – 0.1   and  = 0.0108  f   R' – h 2   arc tan  ----------------- .
2
 27 

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Technical Reference Guide

10
If R'  10 m , C Receiver is reduced by  3.2 + 6.2  Log  f    Log  ------ .
 R' 

• For land path other zones

h2
C Receiver =  3.2 + 6.2  Log  f    Log  ------
 10

• For sea path


d 10 and d h2 are determined as distances at which at which the path has 0.6 of the first Fresnel zone just unob-
structed by the sea surface with h 2 = 10 m and variable h 2 , respectively. These distances are given by
Df  Dh
d 10 = D 0.6  f h 1  h 2 = 10 m   and d h2 = D 0.6  f h 1 h 2  (km), respectively. Here D 0.6 = Max  0.001 -------------------
 D f + D h
as explained earlier.

h2
- If h 2  10 m , C Receiver =  3.2 + 6.2  Log  f    Log  ------
 10
h2
- If h 2  10 m and d  d 10 , C Receiver =  3.2 + 6.2  Log  f    Log  ------
 10
- If h 2  10 m and d  d 10 and d  d h2 , C Receiver = 0
h2 Log  d  d h2 
- If h 2  10 m and d  d 10 and d  d h2 , C Receiver =  3.2 + 6.2  Log  f    Log  ------   -------------------------------------
 10  Log  d 10  d h2 

Step 5.2: Correction for Short Urban/Suburban Paths

This correction is only applied when the path loss is to be calculated over land paths, over a transmitter-receiver distance
less than 15 km, in urban and suburban zones. This correction takes into account the presence of buildings in these zones.
The buildings are assumed to be of uniform height.
The correction represents a reduction in the field strength due to building clutter. It is added to the field strength and is
given by:

C Building = – 3.3  Log  f    1 – 0.85  Log  d    1 – 0.46  Log  1 + h a – R  

Where h a is the antenna height above the ground, and R is the clutter height of the clutter class where the receiver is
located. This correction is only applied when d  15 km and h 1 – R  150 m .

Step 5.3: Correction for Receiver Clearance Angle

This correction is only applied when the path loss is to be calculated over land paths, and over a transmitter-receiver
distance less than 16 km. This correction gives more precise field strength prediction over small reception areas. The
correction is added to the field strength and is given by:

C Clearance = J  '  – J   

2
Where J    =  6.9 + 20  Log    – 0.1  + 1 +  – 0.1   , ' = 0.036  f , and  = 0.065   Clearance  f

 Clearance is the clearance angle in degrees determined from:

•  : The elevation angle of the line from the receiver which just clears all terrain obstructions in the direction of the
transmitter over a distance of up to 16 km but not going beyond the transmitter.
h 1S – h 2S
•  Ref : The reference angle,  Ref = arc tan  ------------------------ .
 1000  d 

Where h 1S and h 2S are the heights of the transmitter and the receiver above sea level, respectively.

4.4.8.1.6 Step 6: Calculation of Path Loss


First, the final field strength is calculated from the interpolated/extrapolated field strength, E f , by applying the corrections
calculated earlier. The calculated field strength is given by:

E Calc = E f + C Receiver + C Building + C Clearance

The resulting field strength is given by E = Min  E Calc E Max  , from which the path loss (basic transmission loss, L B ) is
calculated as follows:

L B = 139 – E + 20  Log  f 

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Chapter 4: Calculations

4.4.9 Sakagami Extended Propagation Model


The Sakagami extended propagation model is based on the simplification of the extended Sakagami-Kuboi propagation
model. The Sakagami extended propagation model is valid for frequencies above 3 GHz. Therefore, it is only available in
WiMAX 802.16d and WiMAX 802.16e documents by default.
The Sakagami-Kuboi propagation model requires detailed information about the environment, such as widths of the streets
where the receiver is located, the angles formed by the street axes and the directions of the incident waves, heights of the
buildings close to the receiver, etc. The path loss formula for the Sakagami-Kuboi propagation model is [1]:

H 2
L Model = 100 – 7.1  Log  W  + 0.023   + 1.4  Log  h s  + 6.1  Log  H 1  – 24.37 – 3.7   --------  Log  h b  +
 h b0
13   Log  f  – 3.23 
 43.2 – 3.1  Log  h b    Log  d  + 20  Log  f  + e

Where,
• W is the width (in meters) of the streets where the receiver is located
•  is the angle (in degrees) formed by the street axes and the direction of the incident wave
• hs is the height (in meters) of the buildings close to the receiver
• H1 is the average height (in meters) of the buildings close to the receiver
• hb is the height (in meters) of the transmitter antenna with respect to the observer
• hb0 is the height (in meters) of the transmitter antenna with respect to the ground level
• H is the average height (in meters) of the buildings close to the base station
• d is the separation (in kilometres) between the transmitter and the receiver
• f is the frequency (in MHz)
The Sakagami-Kuboi propagation model is valid for:
5m <W< 50 m
0° <  < 90°

5m < hs < 80 m
5m < H1 < 50 m
20 m < hb < 100 m
0.5 km <d< 10 km
450 MHz <f< 2200 MHz
h b0  H

Studies [2] have shown that the Sakagami-Kuboi propagation model can be extended to frequencies higher than 3 GHz,
which also allows a simplification in terms of the input required by the model.
The path loss formula for the extended Sakagami-Kuboi propagation model is:

L Model = 54 + 40  Log  d  – 30  Log  h b  + 21  Log  f  + a

Where a is a corrective factor with three components:

H0 W hm
a = a  H 0  + a  W  + a  h m  = 11  Log  ------- – 7.1  Log  ------ – 5  Log  --------
 20  20  1.5

• W is the width (in meters) of the streets where the receiver is located
• H0 (= hs = H1) is the height (in meters) of the buildings close to the receiver
• hb (= hb0) is the height (in meters) of the transmitter antenna with respect to the ground
• hm is the height (in meters) of the receiver antenna
• H is the average height (in meters) of the buildings close to the base station
• d is the separation (in metres) between the transmitter and the receiver
• f is the frequency (in GHz)
The extended Sakagami-Kuboi propagation model is valid for:
5m <W< 50 m
10 m < H0 < 30 m
10 m < hb < 100 m
0.1 km <d< 3 km
0.8 GHz <f< 8 GHz
1.5 m < hm < 5m

Studies also show that above 3 GHz, the path loss predicted by the extended model is almost independant of the input
parameters such as street widths and angles. Therefore, the extended Sakagami-Kuboi propagation model can be simpli-
fied to the extended Sakagami propagation model:

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L Model = 54 + 40  Log  d  – 30  Log  h b  + 21  Log  f  – 5  Log  h m 

The extended Sakagami propagation model is valid for:

10 m < hb < 100 m


0.1 km <d< 3 km
3 GHz <f< 8 GHz
1.5 m < hm < 5m

The path loss calculation formula of the Sakagami extended propagation model resembles the formula of the Standard
Propagation Model. In Atoll, this model is in fact a copy of the Standard Propagation Model with the following values
assigned to the K coefficients:

K1 65.4 (calculated for 3.5 GHz)


K2 40
K3 -30
K4 0
K5 0
K6 0
K7 -5

For more information on the Standard Propagation Model, see "Standard Propagation Model (SPM)" on page 85.

References:
[1] Manuel F. Catedra, Jesus Perez-Arriaga, "Cell Planning for Wireless Communications," Artech House Publishers,
1999.

[2] Koshiro Kitao, Shinichi Ichitsubo, "Path Loss Prediction Formula for Urban and Suburban Areas for 4G Systems,"
IEEE, 2006.

4.4.10 Appendices
4.4.10.1 Free Space Loss
The calculation of free space loss is based on ITU 525 recommendations.

FreeSpaceLoss = 32.4 + 20 log  f  + 20 log  d 


where,
f is the frequency in MHz,
d is the Tx-Rx distance in km,
Free space loss is stated in dB.

4.4.10.2 Diffraction Loss


The calculation of diffraction is based on ITU 526-5 recommendations. General method for one or more obstacles (knife-
edge diffraction) is used to evaluate diffraction losses (Diffraction loss in dB). Four construction modes are implemented
in Atoll. All of them are based on this same physical principle presented hereafter, but differ in the way they consider one
or several obstacles. Calculations take the earth curvature into account through the effective Earth radius concept (K
factor=1.333).

4.4.10.2.1 Knife-Edge Diffraction


The procedure checks whether a knife-edge obstructs the first Fresnel zone constructed between the transmitter and the
receiver. The diffraction loss, J(), depends on the obstruction parameter (), which corresponds to the ratio of the obstruc-
tion height (h) and the radius of the Fresnel zone (R).

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Figure 4.14: Knife-Edge Diffraction

c0  n  d1  d2
R = ---------------------------------
-
f   d1 + d2 

where,
n is the Fresnel zone index,

c0 is the speed of light (2.99792 x108 ms-1),


f is the frequency in Hz
d1 is the distance from the transmitter to obstacle in m,

d2 is the distance from obstacle to receiver in m.

We have:  = h
---
r
where,

R
r = -------
2
h is the obstruction height (height from the obstacle top to the Tx-Rx axis).
Hence,

2
For 1 knife-edge method, if   – 0.7 , J    = 6.9 + 20  log    – 0.1  + 1 +   – 0.1  

Else, J    = 0

Note:
• In case of multiple-knife edge method, the minimum  required to estimate diffraction loss
is -0.78.

4.4.10.2.2 3 Knife-Edge Deygout Method


The Deygout construction, limited to a maximum of three edges, is applied to the entire profile from transmitter to receiver.
This method is used to evaluate path loss incurred by multiple knife-edges. Deygout method is based on a hierarchical
knife-edge sorting used to distinguish the main edges, which induce the largest losses, and secondary edges, which have
a lesser effect. The edge hierarchy depends on the obstruction parameter () value.

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1 Obstacle

Figure 4.15: Deygout Construction – 1 Obstacle

A straight line between transmitter and receiver is drawn and the height of the obstacle above the Tx-Rx axis, hi, is calcu-
lated. The obstruction position, di, is also recorded. i are evaluated from these data. The point with the highest  value is
termed the principal edge, p, and the corresponding loss is J(p).
Therefore, we have

DiffractionLoss = J   P 

3 Obstacles

Then, the main edge (point p) is considered as a secondary transmitter or receiver. Therefore, the profile is divided in two
parts: one half profile, between the transmitter and the knife-edge section, another half, constituted by the knife-edge-
receiver section.

Figure 4.16: Deygout Construction – 3 Obstacles

The same procedure is repeated on each half profile to determine the edge with the higher . The two obstacles found,
(points t and r), are called ‘secondary edges’. Losses induced by the secondary edges, J(t) and J(r), are then calculated.

Once the edge hierarchy is determined, the total loss is evaluated by adding all the intermediary losses obtained.

Therefore, if  P  0

we have DiffractionLoss = J   P  + J   t  + J   r 

Otherwise, If  P  – 0.7 , DiffractionLoss = J   P 

Note:
• In case of ITU 526-5 and WLL propagation models, Diffraction loss term is determined as
follows:
- If  P  – 0.78 , we have DiffractionLoss = J   P  +  J   t  + J   r    t

J  P 
Where, t = min  -------------- 1
 6 

- Otherwise DiffractionLoss = 0

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4.4.10.2.3 Epstein-Peterson Method


The Epstein-Peterson construction is limited to a maximum of three edges. First, Deygout construction is applied to deter-
mine the three main edges over the whole profile as described above. Then, the main edge height, hp, is recalculated
according to the Epstein-Peterson construction. hp is the height above a straight line connecting t and r points. The main
edge position dp is recorded and p and J(p) are evaluated from these data.

Figure 4.17: Epstein-Peterson Construction

Therefore, we have

DiffractionLoss = J   P  + J   t  + J   r 

4.4.10.2.4 Deygout Method with Correction


The Deygout method with correction (ITU 526-5) is based on the Deygout construction (3 obstacles) plus an empirical
correction, C.

Therefore, If  P  0 ,

we have DiffractionLoss = J   P  + J   t  + J   r  + C

Otherwise DiffractionLoss = J   P  + C

Note:
• In case of ITU 526-5 propagation model, Diffraction loss term is determined as follows:
- If  P  – 0.78 , we have DiffractionLoss = J   P  + t   J   t  + J   r  + C 

J  P 
Where, t = min  -------------- 1
 6 

C = 8.0 + 0.04d (d: distance stated in km between the transmitter and the receiver).

- Otherwise DiffractionLoss = 0

4.4.10.2.5 Millington Method


The Millington construction, limited to a single edge, is applied over the entire profile. Two horizon lines are drawn at the
transmitter and at the receiver. A straight line between the transmitter and the receiver is defined and the height of the
intersection point between the two horizon lines above the Tx-Rx axis, hh, is calculated. The position dh is recorded and
then, from these values, h and J(h) are evaluated using the same previous formulas.

Therefore, we have

DiffractionLoss = J   h 

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Figure 4.18: Millington Construction

4.5 Path Loss Tuning


Atoll can tune path loss matrices obtained from propagation results by the use of real measurements (CW Measurements
or Test Mobile Data). For each measured transmitter, Atoll tries to merge measurements and predictions on the same
points and to smooth the surrounding points of the path loss matrices for homogeneity reasons. A transmitter path loss
matrix can be tuned several times by the use of several measurement paths. All these tuning paths are stored in a cata-
logue. This catalogue is stored under a .tuning folder containing a .dbf file and one .pts file per corrected transmitter. Since
a tuning file can contain several measurement paths, all these measurements are added to the tuning file.
For more information on the tuning files, See "Externalised Tuning Files" on page 61.
The same algorithm is used for CW Measurement and Test Mobile Data. It is also the same for main and extended matri-
ces.
Path Losses tuning will be done using two steps.
1. Global matrix correction
A mean error is calculated between each measured value and the corresponding bin in the pathloss matrix. Mean error is
calculated for each pathloss matrix (main and extended) of each transmitter. This mean error is then applied to all the
matrix bins. This correction is done to smooth the local corrections (step 2) of measured values and not the corrected bins.
2. Correction for each measured value
For each measured value, an ellipse is used to define the pathloss area which has to be tuned. The main axis of the ellipse
is oriented to the transmitter.The ellipse is user-defined by two parameters :
• The radius of the axis parallel to the Profile (A)
• The radius of the axis perpendicular to the Profile (B)

Let’s take M a measurement value and P i the path loss value at point i, before any correction.

The squared elliptic distance between i and M is given by:


2 2
 Xi – XM   Yi – YM 
D i = -------------------------- + --------------------------
2 2
A B
where:

X i and X M are the X-coordinates of i and M respectively

Y i and Y M are the Y-coordinates of i and M respectively

The mean error for the first correction is given by:

1
E =  ---   ei
 n
i

where:

e i is the error between measurement and prediction at point i

Then, the path loss value is corrected using E:

Pi = Pi +E
new old

Finally, a second correction ( R i ) is applied where:

Ri =  1 – Di    M – g – Pi  so R i =  1 – D i    M – g –  P i + E
new old

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Chapter 4: Calculations

where g is (measurement gain - losses).


So, the final corrected path loss is:

Pi = Pi + R i so P i = Pi + E + Ri
tuned new tuned old

When several ellipses overlap a pathloss bin, the final corrected path loss is given by:
 
  1 – d j P j
  tuned

j
Pi = ----------------------------------------------------
tuned  
n –
 
d j

j
Where:

n is the number of overlapping ellipses

4.6 Antenna Attenuation Calculation


The modelling method used to evaluate transmitter antenna attenuation, L antTx , is described below. Atoll calculates the
accurate azimuth and tilt angles and then, performs a 3-D interpolation of horizontal and vertical patterns to determine the
attenuation of antenna.
Furthermore, you will find explanations about the remote electrical downtilt modelling.

4.6.1 Calculation of Azimuth and Tilt Angles


From the direction of the transmitter antenna and the receiver position relative to the transmitter, Atoll determines the
receiver position relative to the direction of the transmitter antenna (i.e. the direction of the transmitter-receiver path in the
transmitter antenna coordinate system).

aTx and eTx are respectively the transmitter (Tx) antenna azimuth and tilt in the coordinate system S 0  x y z  .

aRx and eRx are respectively the azimuth and tilt of the receiver (Rx) in the coordinate system S 0  x y z  .

d is the distance between the transmitter (Tx) and the receiver (Rx).

Figure 4.19: Azimuth and Tilt Computation

In the coordinate system S 0  x y z  , the receiver coordinates are:

x Rx cos  e Rx   sin  a Rx   d
y Rx = cos  e Rx   cos  a Rx   d (1)
z Rx – sin  e Rx   d

Let az and el respectively be the azimuth and tilt of the receiver in the transmitter antenna coordinate system
S Tx  x'' y'' z''  . These angles describe the direction of the transmitter-receiver path in the transmitter antenna coordinate
system. Therefore, the receiver coordinates in S Tx  x'' y'' z''  are:

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x'' Rx cos  el   sin  az   d


y'' Rx = cos  el   cos  az   d (2)
z'' Rx – sin  el   d

According to the figure above, we have the following relations:

x' cos  a Tx  – sin  a Tx  0 x


y' = sin  a Tx  cos  a Tx  0  y (3)
z' 0 0 1 z

and

x'' 1 0 0 x'
y'' = 0 cos  e Tx  – sin  e Tx   y' (4)
z'' 0 sin  e Tx  cos  e Tx  z'

Therefore, the relation between the system S 0  x y z  and the transmitter antenna system S Tx  x'' y'' z''  is:

x'' 1 0 0 cos  a Tx  – sin  a Tx  0 x


y'' = 0 cos  e Tx  – sin  e Tx   sin  a Tx  cos  a Tx  0  y (5)
z'' 0 sin  e Tx  cos  e Tx  0 0 1 z

We get,

x'' cos  a Tx  – sin  a Tx  0 x


y'' = cos  e Tx   sin  a Tx  cos  e Tx   cos  a Tx  – sin  e Tx   y (6)
z'' sin  e Tx   sin  a Tx  sin  e Tx   cos  a Tx  cos  e Tx  z

Then, substituting the receiver coordinates in the system S0 from Eq. (1) and the receiver coordinates in the system STx
from Eq. (2) in Eq. (6) leads to a system where two solutions are possible:

1st solution: If a Rx = a Tx , then az = 0 and el = e Rx – e Tx

2nd solution: If a Rx  a Tx , then

1
az = atan ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
cos  e Tx  sin  e Tx   tan  e Rx 
-------------------------------------- + --------------------------------------------------
tan  a Rx – a Tx  sin  a Rx – a Tx 

and

 – sin  e Tx  cos  e Tx   tan  e Rx  


el = atan sin  az    -------------------------------------
- + ---------------------------------------------------
-
 tan  a Rx – a Tx  sin  a Rx – a Tx  

If sin  az   sin  a Rx – a Tx   0 , then az = az + 180

4.6.2 Antenna Pattern 3-D Interpolation


The direction of the transmitter-receiver path in the transmitter antenna coordinate system is given by angle values, az and
el. Atoll considers these values in order to determine transmitter antenna attenuations in the horizontal and vertical
patterns. It reads the attenuation H(az) in the horizontal pattern for the calculated azimuth angle az and the attenuation
V(el) in the vertical pattern for the calculated tilt angle el. Then, it calculates the antenna total attenuation, L antTx  az el  .

180 – az az
L antTx  az el  = H  az  – -------------------------   H  0  – V  el   + ----------   H  180  – V  180 – el  
180 180

Notes:
• We assume that the horizontal and vertical patterns are two cross-sections of the 3-D
pattern. In other words, the description of the antenna pattern must satisfy the following:
H(0)=V(0) and H()=V()
In case of an electrical tilt, , the horizontal pattern is a conical section with a  degrees
elevation off the horizontal plane. Here, horizontal and vertical patterns must satisfy the
following:
H(0)=V() and H()=V(-)
If the constraints listed above are satisfied, this implies that:

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1. Interpolated horizontal and vertical patterns respectively fit in with the entered horizontal
and vertical patterns, even in case of electrical tilt,
2. The contribution of both the vertical pattern back and front parts are taken into account.
Otherwise, only the second point is guaranteed.
• Atoll uses this modelling method from the Atoll 2.1 version (inclusive) and above. In Atoll’s
versions prior to the 2.1, another modelling method was available to evaluate angles and
losses due to antenna pattern. The user has the option to choose between these two
methods through Atoll.ini file (see Atoll administration files). For further information about
the old modelling method, please refer to the Technical Reference Guide 2.2.
• The above interpolation is performed in dBs.
• Angle values in formulas are stated in degrees.
• The above interpolation is not used in case the transmitter antenna is described by a 3-D
antenna pattern.

4.6.3 Additional Electrical Downtilt Modelling


The additional electrical downtilt, AEDT, also referred to as remote electrical downtilt or REDT, introduces a conical trans-
formation of the 3-D antenna pattern in the vertical axis. In order to take it into account, the vertical pattern is transformed
as follows:

V  x  = V  x – AEDT  when x  [– 90,90]

V  x  = V  x + AEDT  when x  [90,270]


Where, the angle values are in degrees.
The vertical pattern transformation is represented below. The left picture shows the initial vertical pattern when there is no
electrical downtilt and the right one shows the vertical pattern transformation due to an electrical downtilt of 10°.
Then, Atoll proceeds as explained in the previous section. It determines the antenna attenuation in the transformed vertical
pattern for the calculated tilt angle (V(el)) and applies the 3-D interpolation formula in order to calculate the antenna total
attenuation, L antTx  az el  .

Figure 4.20: Vertical Pattern Transformation due to Electrical Downtilt

4.6.4 Antenna Pattern Smoothing


Empirical propagation models, like the Standard Propagation Model (SPM), require antenna pattern smoothing in the verti-
cal plane to simulate the effects of reflections and diffractions. Signal level predictions can be improved by smoothing the
high-attenuation points of the vertical pattern. You can smooth vertical as well as horizontal antenna patterns in Atoll.
The antenna pattern smoothing algorithm in Atoll first determines the peaks and nulls in the pattern within the smoothing
angle (ASmoothing) defined by the user. Peaks (P) are the lowest attenuation angles and nulls (N) are the highest attenua-
tion angles in the pattern. Then, it determines the nulls to be smoothed (NSmoothing) and their corresponding angles accord-
ing to the defined Peak-to-Null Deviation (DPeak-to-Null). DPeak-to-Null is the minimum difference of attenuation in dBs
between two peaks and a null between them. Finally, Atoll smooths the pattern between 0 and the smoothing angle
(ASmoothing) by applying the smoothing to a certain smoothing factor (FSmoothing) defined by the user.

Let’s take an example of an antenna pattern to be smoothed, as shown in Figure 4.21: on page 112. Let DPeak-to-Null be
10 dB, ASmoothing = 90 degrees, and FSmoothing = 0.5.

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Figure 4.21: Vertical Antenna Pattern

Atoll first determines the peaks and nulls in the part of the pattern to be smoothed by verifying the slopes of the pattern
curve at each angle.

Figure 4.22: Peaks and Nulls in the Antenna Pattern

Peaks (P) and Nulls (N):

Angle (°) Attenuation (dB)


1 0.1
15 33.5
21 13.2
30 37.6
38 16.9
49 32.2
67 15.6

Then, Atoll verifies whether the difference of attenuation at a given angle is DPeak-to-Null less than the before and after it.
This comparison determines the nulls to be smoothed (NSmoothing).
Nulls to be smoothed (NSmoothing):

Angle (°) Attenuation (dB)


15 33.5
30 37.6
49 32.2

Once the nulls are known, Atoll applies the smoothing algorithm to all the attenuation values at all the angles between the
first peak, the null, and the last peak.

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Chapter 4: Calculations

4.6.4.1 Smoothing Algorithm


For all nulls n  N Smoothing surrounded by two peaks P1 and P2 at angles  1 and  2 ,

  A 2 – A 1 
-   i –  1  
A i Smoothed = A i – F Smoothing A i –  A  +  -----------------------
 1
 2 – 1  

Where,

i is the angle in degrees from  1 to  2 incremented by 1 degree,

AAngle is the attenuation at any given angle which can be i,  1 or  2 , and

FSmoothing is the smoothing factor defined by the user.

4.7 Shadowing Model


Propagation models predict the mean path loss as a function of transmission and reception parameters such as frequency,
antenna heights, and distance, etc. Therefore, the predicted path loss between a transmitter and a receiver is constant, in
a given environment and for a given distance. However, in reality different types of clutter may exist in the transmitter-
receiver path. Therefore, the path losses for the same distance could be different along paths that pass throught different
types of environments. The location of the receiver in different types of clutter causes variations with respect to the mean
path loss values given by the path loss models. Some paths undergo more loss while others are less obstructed and may
have higher received signal strength. The variation of path loss with respect to the mean path loss values predicted by the
propagation models, depending on the type of environment is called shadow fading (shadowing) or slow fading. "Slow"
fading implies that the variations in the path loss due to shadow fading occur comparatively slower than the fast fading
effect (Rayleigh fading), which is due to the mobile receiving multipath copies of a signal.
Different types of clutter (buildings, hills, etc.) make large shadows that cause variations in the path loss over long
distances. As a mobile passes under a shadow, the path loss to the mobile keeps varying from point to point. Shadow
fading varies as the mobile moves, while fast fading can vary even if the mobile remains at the same location or moves
over very small distances. It is crucial to account for the shadow fading in order to predict the reliability of coverage
provided by any mobile cellular system.
The shadowing effect is modelled by a log-normal (Gaussian) distribution, as shown in Figure 4.23: on page 113, whose
standard deviation  depends on the type of clutter.

Figure 4.23: Log-normal Probability Density Function

Different clutter types have different shadowing effects. Therefore, each clutter type in Atoll can have a different standard
deviation representing its shadowing characteristics. For different standard deviations, the shape of the Gaussian distri-
bution curve remains similar, as shown in Figure 4.23: on page 113.
The accuracy of this model depends upon:
• The suitability of the range of standard deviation used for each clutter class,
• The definition (bin size) of the digital map,
• How up-to-date the digital map is,
• The number of clutter classes,
• The accuracy of assignment of clutter classes.

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Shadowing is applied to the predicted path loss differently depending on the technology, and whether it is applied to predic-
tions or simulations. The following sections explain how shadowing margins are calculated and applied to different tech-
nology documents.
Shadowing margins are calculated for a given cell edge coverage probability. The cell edge coverage probability is the
probability of coverage at a pixel located at the cell edge, and corresponds to the reliability of coverage that you are plan-
ning to achieve at the cell edge. For example, a cell edge coverage probability of 75 % means that the users located at
the cell edge will receive adequate signal level during 75 % of the time. Therefore, a coverage prediction with a cell edge
coverage probability of x % means that the signal level predicted on each pixel is reliable x % of the time, and the overall
predicted coverage area is reliable at least x % of the time.

References:
[1] Saunders S. “Antennas and propagation for Wireless Communication Systems” pp. 180-198

[2] Holma H., Toskala A. “WCDMA for UMTS”

[3] Jhong S., Leonard M. “CDMA systems engineering handbook” pp. 309-315, 1051-1053”
[4] Remy J.G., Cueugnet J., Siben C. “Systèmes de radiocommunications avec les mobiles” pp. 309-310

[5] Laiho J., Wacker A., Novosad T. “Radio network planning and optimisation for UMTS” pp. 80-81

GSM GPRS EGPRS Documents

The shadowing margins are calculated as explained in "Shadowing Margin Calculation in Predictions" on page 116, and
applied to signal level or C/I as explained below.
• Signal Level-Based Predictions
Signal level-based predictions include coverage predictions (Coverage by Transmitter, Coverage by Signal Level,
and Overlapping Zones) and calculations in point analysis tabs (Profile and Reception) that require calculation of
the received signal level only, and do not depend on interference.

In these calculations (signal level calculations), a shadowing margin ( M Shadowing – model ) is added to the path loss
( L path ) calculated for each pixel. The shadowing margin is calculated for a given cell edge coverage probability,
and depends on the model standard deviation (  model in dB) associated to the clutter class where the receiver is
located.
• Interference-Based Predictions
Interference-based predictions include coverage predictions (Coverage by C/I Level, Interfered Zones, GPRS/
EGPRS Coding Schemes, RLC/MAC Throughout/Timeslot, Application Throughput/Timeslot, Circuit Quality Indi-
cators) and calculations in point analysis window’s Interference tab that require calculation of the received signal
level and interference received from other base stations.

In these calculations, ( C  I calculations), the shadowing margin ( M Shadowing – C  I ) is added to the ratio of the
carrier power (C) and the interfering signal levels (I) received from the interfering base stations. This shadowing
margin is calculated for a given cell edge coverage probability and depends on the C/I standard deviation (  C  I
in dB) associated to the clutter class where the receiver is located.

UMTS HSPA, IS-95 cdmaOne, and CDMA2000 1xRTT 1xEV-DO Documents

The shadowing margins are calculated as explained in "Shadowing Margin Calculation in Predictions" on page 116 and
"Shadowing Margin Calculation in Monte-Carlo Simulations" on page 117, and applied to signal level, Ec/I0, or Eb/Nt as
explained below.
• Signal Level-Based Predictions
Signal level-based predictions include coverage predictions (Coverage by Transmitter, Coverage by Signal Level,
and Overlapping Zones) and calculations in point analysis tabs (Profile and Reception) that require calculation of
the received signal level only, and do not depend on interference.

In these calculations (signal level calculations), a shadowing margin ( M Shadowing – model ) is added to the path loss
( L path ) calculated for each pixel. The shadowing margin is calculated for a given cell edge coverage probability,
and depends on the model standard deviation (  model in dB) associated to the clutter class where the receiver is
located.

• Interference+noise-Based Predictions
Interference+noise-based predictions include coverage predictions (Pilot Reception Analysis, Downlink Total
Noise, Service Area Analyses, Handoff Status, etc.) and point analysis (AS Analysis tab) that require calculation
of the received signal level and intra-cellular interference and noise received from other base stations.

In these calculations, the shadowing margins ( M Shadowing – Ec  Io and M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  ) , or


DL

M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  ) are added to Ec/I0 or Eb/Nt. This shadowing margin is calculated for a given cell edge
UL

114 AT271_TRG_E6 © Forsk 2009


Chapter 4: Calculations

coverage probability and depends on the Ec/I0 or Eb/Nt standard deviations (  Ec  Io ,   Eb  Nt  , or   Eb  Nt  ,


DL UL

in dB) associated to the clutter class where the receiver is located.

• Macro-Diversity Gains
UL DL
Atoll calculates the uplink and downlink macro-diversity gains ( G macro – diversity and G macro – diversity ) depending
on the receiver handover status. These gains are respectively taken into account to evaluate the uplink Eb/Nt in
case of soft handover and the downlink Ec/Io from best server. For detailed description of the calculation of macro-
diversity gains, please refer to "Macro-Diversity Gains Calculation" on page 118.

• Monte-Carlo Simulations
Random values for shadowing margins are calculated for each transmitter-receiver link and added to the predicted
path loss. A shadowing margin for each transmitter-receiver link in each simulation is obtained by taking a random
value from the probability density distribution for the appropriate clutter class. The probability distribution is a log-
normal distribution as explained above.

TD-SCDMA Documents

The shadowing margins are calculated as explained in "Shadowing Margin Calculation in Predictions" on page 116 and
"Shadowing Margin Calculation in Monte-Carlo Simulations" on page 117, and applied to signal level or interference+noise
predictions as explained below.
• Signal Level-Based Predictions
Signal level-based predictions include coverage predictions (Best Server and RSCP P-CCPCH Coverages, P-
CCPCG Pollution, Baton Handover Coverage, DwPCH and UpPCH Coverages, Cell to Cell Interference, and
Scrambling Code Interference) and calculations in point analysis tabs (Profile and Reception) that require calcu-
lation of the received signal level only, and do not depend on interference.

In these calculations (signal level calculations), a shadowing margin ( M Shadowing – model ) is added to the path loss
( L path ) calculated for each pixel. The shadowing margin is calculated for a given cell edge coverage probability,
and depends on the model standard deviation (  model in dB) associated to the clutter class where the receiver is
located.

• Interference+noise-Based Predictions
Interference+noise-based predictions include coverage predictions (P-CCPCH Eb/Nt and C/I Coverages, Service
Area Analsyses for downlink and uplink Eb/Nt and C/I, etc.) that require calculation of the received signal level and
interference received from other base stations.

In these calculations, the shadowing margins ( M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  , M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  , or


P – CCPCH DL

M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  ) are added to Eb/Nt. This shadowing margin is calculated for a given cell edge coverage
UL

probability and depends on the Eb/Nt standard deviations (   Eb  Nt  ,   Eb  Nt  , or   Eb  Nt  , in dB)


P – CCPCH DL UL

associated to the clutter class where the receiver is located.

• Monte-Carlo Simulations
Random values for shadowing margins are calculated for each transmitter-receiver link and added to the predicted
path loss. A shadowing margin for each transmitter-receiver link in each simulation is obtained by taking a random
value from the probability density distribution for the appropriate clutter class. The probability distribution is a log-
normal distribution as explained above.

WiMAX 802.16d and WiMAX 802.16e Documents

The shadowing margins are calculated as explained in "Shadowing Margin Calculation in Predictions" on page 116 and
"Shadowing Margin Calculation in Monte-Carlo Simulations" on page 117 , and applied to signal level or C/(I+N) as
explained below.
• Signal Level-Based Predictions
Signal level-based predictions include coverage predictions (Coverage by Transmitter, Coverage by Signal Level,
and Overlapping Zones) and calculations in point analysis tabs (Profile and Reception) that require calculation of
the received signal level only, and do not depend on interference.

In these calculations (signal level calculations), a shadowing margin ( M Shadowing – model ) is added to the path loss
( L path ) calculated for each pixel. The shadowing margin is calculated for a given cell edge coverage probability,
and depends on the model standard deviation (  model in dB) associated to the clutter class where the receiver is
located.

• Interference+noise-Based Predictions
Interference-based predictions include coverage predictions (Coverage by C/(I+N) Level, Coverage by Best
Bearer, Coverage by Channel Throughput) that require calculation of the received signal level and interference
received from other base stations.

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 115


Technical Reference Guide

In these calculations, (C/(I+N) calculations), the shadowing margin ( M Shadowing – C  I ) is added to the ratio of the
carrier power (C) and the interfering signal levels (I) and noise received from the interfering base stations. This
shadowing margin is calculated for a given cell edge coverage probability and depends on the C/I standard devi-
ation (  C  I in dB) associated to the clutter class where the receiver is located.

• Monte-Carlo Simulations
Random values for shadowing margins are calculated for each transmitter-receiver link and added to the predicted
path loss. A shadowing margin for each transmitter-receiver link in each simulation is obtained by taking a random
value from the probability density distribution for the appropriate clutter class. The probability distribution is a log-
normal distribution as explained above.

4.7.1 Shadowing Margin Calculation


The following sections describe the calculation method used for determining different shadowin margins.
The following shadowing margins are calculated using the method described below:

Standard
Network Type MShadowing Applied to
Deviation
 model M Shadowing – model C
GSM GPRS EGPRS
C  I M Shadowing – C  I C/I

 model M Shadowing – model C

 Ec  Io M Shadowing – Ec  Io Ec/I0
UMTS HSPA
  Eb  Nt  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  Eb/Nt (DL)
DL DL

  Eb  Nt  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  Eb/Nt (UL)


UL UL

 model M Shadowing – model C

IS-95 cdmaOne  Ec  Io M Shadowing – Ec  Io Ec/I0

CDMA2000 1xRTT 1xEV-DO   Eb  Nt  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  Eb/Nt (DL)


DL DL

  Eb  Nt  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  Eb/Nt (UL)


UL UL

 model M Shadowing – model C

  Eb  Nt  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  Eb/Nt P-CCPCH


P – CCPCH P – CCPCH
TD-SCDMA
  Eb  Nt  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  Eb/Nt (DL)
DL DL

  Eb  Nt  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  Eb/Nt (UL)


UL UL

 model M Shadowing – model C


WiMAX 802.16d
WiMAX 802.16e C  I M Shadowing – C  I C/(I+N)

4.7.1.1 Shadowing Margin Calculation in Predictions


Shadowing margins, MShadowing, are calculated from standard deviation values defined for the clutter class where the pixel
(probe mobile) is located, and required cell edge coverage probability, and added to the path loss, Lpath.

Shadowing Error PDF (1 Signal)

The measured path loss in dB can be expressed as a Gaussian random variable:

L = L path +  dB  G  0 1 

where,
• Lpath is the predicted path loss,
• dB is the user-defined standard deviation of the error,
• G(0,1) is a zero-mean unit-variance Gaussian random variable.
Therefore, the probability density function (pdf) for the random (shadowing) part of path loss is:
2
x -
– -------------
2
1 2 dB
p L  x  = ---------------------  e
 dB 2

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Chapter 4: Calculations

The probability that the shadowing error exceeds z dB is


2
 x -
 – -------------
2
1 2 dB
PL  x  z  =  p L  x  dx = 
---------------------  e
 dB 2
dx
z z

Normalising x by dividing it bydB:

 2
x
– ------
1 z
 dx = Q  ---------
2
P L  x  z  = -----------  e
2   dB
z-
---------
 dB

where Q is the complementary cumulative function.

To ensure a given cell edge coverage probability, R L , for the predicted value, a shadowing margin, M Shadowing , is added
to the link budget.
Confidence in the prediction can be expressed as:

C d = P' Tx – L  P rec  L  P' Tx – P rec  G  0 1    dB  M Shadowing

where,

• P rec is the signal level predicted at the receiver. P rec = P' Tx – L path – M Shadowing
• P' Tx = EIRP + G antRx – L Rx
• EIRP is the effective isotropic radiated power of the transmitter.
• L Rx are receiver losses.
• G antRx is the receiver antenna gain.

The shadowing margin is calculated such that:

M Shadowing
P  C d  P rec  = R L  M Shadowing  = 1 – P L  x – M Shadowing  0  = 1 – Q  ------------------------------
  dB 

A lookup table is used for mapping the values of Q vs. a set of cell edge coverage probabilities.

M Shadowing
Figure 4.24: Normalised Margin M arg in = -----------------------------
-
 dB

In interference-based predictions, where signal to noise ratio is calculated, the shadowing margin is only applied to the
signal from the interfered transmitter (C). We consider that the interference value is not altered by the shadowing margin.
Random variations also exist in the interfering signals, but taking only the average interference gives accurate results. [3]
explains how a certain level of interference is maintained by congestion control in CDMA-based networks.

4.7.1.2 Shadowing Margin Calculation in Monte-Carlo Simulations


Shadowing margins, MShadowing, are calculated from standard deviation values defined for the clutter class where the pixel
(probe mobile) is located, and required cell edge coverage probability, and added to the path loss, Lpath.
Random values are generated during Monte-Carlo simulation. Each user is assigned a service, a mobility type, an activity
status, a geographic position and a random shadowing value.

For each link, path loss (L) can be broken down to L = L path +  .

Here,  is a zero mean gaussian random variable G  0  dB  representing variation due to shadowing. It can be
expressed as the sum of two uncorrelated zero mean gaussian random variables,  L and  P .  L models the error related
to the receiver’s location (surrounding environment), and remains the same for all links between the receiver and the base
stations from which it is receiving signals.  P models the error related to the path between the transmitter and the receiver.

Therefore, in case of two links, we have:

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 117


Technical Reference Guide

1
 1 =  L +  P for link 1

2
 2 =  L +  P for link 2

i
Standard deviations of  L   L  and  P   P  can be calculated from  i , the model standard deviation   model  , and the
correlation coefficient    between  1 and  2 .

Assuming all  P have the same standard deviations, we have:

2 2 2
 model =  L +  P

2
L
 = ----------------
-
2
 model

Therefore,
2 2
 P =  model   1 –  

2 2
 L =  model  

 is set to 0.5 in Atoll, which gives:

 model  model
 L = ----------------
- and  P = ----------------
-
2 2
Receiver
Therefore, to model shadowing error common to all the signals received at a receiver ( E Shadowing – model ), values are
randomly generated for each receiver. These values have a zero-mean gaussian distribution with a standard deviation of
 model
- , where   model  is the model standard deviation associated with the receiver’s clutter class.
----------------
 2 
Next, Atoll generates another random value for each transmitter-receiver pair. This values represents the shadowing error
Path
not related to the location of the receiver ( E Shadowing – model ). These values also have a zero-mean gaussian distribution
 model
with a standard deviation  ----------------- .
 2 
So, we have:
Receiver Path
E Shadowing – model = E Shadowing – model + E Shadowing – model

Random shadowing error has its mean value at zero. Hence, this shadowing modelling method has no impact on the simu-
lated network load. On the other hand, as shadowing errors on the transmitter-receiver links are uncorrelated, the method
influences the calculated macro-diversity gain in case the mobile is in soft handover.

4.7.2 Macro-Diversity Gains Calculation


The following sections explain how uplink and downlink macro-diversity gains are calculated in UMTS HSPA, IS-95
cdmaOne, and CDMA2000 1xRTT 1xEV-DO documents for predictions and AS Analysis tab of the point analysis tool.

4.7.2.1 Uplink Macro-Diversity Gain Evaluation


In UMTS, CDMA2000 and IS95-CDMA, mobiles may be in soft handoff (mobile connected to cells located on different
sites). In this case, we can consider the shadowing error pdf described below.

4.7.2.1.1 Shadowing Error PDF (n Signals)


For each link, path loss (L) can be broken down as:

L = L path + 

 is a zero mean gaussian random variable G  0  dB  representing variation due to shadowing. It can be expressed as
the sum of two uncorrelated zero mean gaussian random variables,  L and  P .  L models error related to the receiver
local environment; it is the same whichever the link.  P models error related to the path between transmitter and receiver.

Therefore, in case of two links, we have:


1
 1 =  L +  P for the link 1

2
 2 =  L +  P for the link 2

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Chapter 4: Calculations

Knowing  i , the uplink Eb/Nt standard deviation    Eb  Nt   and the correlation coefficient  between  1 and  2 , we
UL

can calculate standard deviations of  L   L  and  P   P  (assuming all  P have the same standard deviations).

We have:
2 2 2
  Eb  Nt  = L + P
UL

2
L
 = -------------------------
-
2
  Eb  Nt 
UL

Therefore,
2 2
 P =   Eb  Nt   1 – 
UL

2 2
 L =   Eb  Nt  
UL

2 Signals Without Recombination

In technologies supporting soft handoff (UMTS, CDMA2000, IS95-CDMA), cell is interference limited. As for one link, to
ensure a required cell edge coverage probability R L for the prediction, we add to each link budget a shadowing margin,
2signals
M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  .
UL

Prediction reliability in order to have Eb/Nt higher or equal to Eb/Nt from the best server can be expressed as:

Cd 1 1
--------1- = P' Tx1 – L 1 – N 1  CI pred   1  P' Tx1 – L path – N 1 – CI pred
N1 1

or

Cd 1 1
--------2- = P' Tx2 – L 2 – N 2  CI pred   2  P' Tx2 – L path – N 2 – CI pred
N2 2

where
i
CI pred is the quality level (signal to noise ratio) predicted at the receiver for link i.

Ni is the noise level for link i.


We note:
2signals i
M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  = P' Txi – L path – N i – CI pred
UL i

and
2 1 2
 1 = CI pred – CI pred

2
 1 is the minimum needed margin on each link.

Therefore, the probability of having a quality at least equal to the best predicted one is:

noMRC 2signals  Cd 1
Cd 1 
RL  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt   = 1 – P L1 L2  --------1-  CI pred --------2-  CI pred
UL
 1N N 2 

noMRC 2signals 2signals 2signals 2


RL  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt   = 1 – P    1  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt    2  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  – 1 
UL 1  2 UL UL

1 2
We can express it using  L ,  P and  P

2signals 2signals 2
P   1 M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt    2  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  –  1  L =  L
1 2 UL UL
1 2signals 2 2signals 2
= P  L   P 1 2   P  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  –  L  P  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  – 1 – L 
L  P  P UL UL

2signals 2signals 2
P   1 M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt    2  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  –  1  L =  L
1 2 UL UL
1 2signals 2 2signals 2
= P    L   P    P  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  –  L  P    P  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  – 1 –  L 
L P UL P UL

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 119


Technical Reference Guide

noMRC 2signals
RL  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  
UL

 
=  1 – P    L   P    P  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  –  L   P    P  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  –  1 –  L  d L

1 2signals 2 2signals 2
 L P UL P UL 
 – 

i 2signals
P    P  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  – L 
P UL
2
  –x
---------- 2signals

 2 P
2
 M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  UL –  L 
1
=  ------------------  e dx = Q  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  2  P  
 P
  M 2signals –  L 
 Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  UL

Then, we have:

noMRC 2signals
RL  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  
UL
 2signals 2signals 2
  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt UL –  L  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  UL –  1 –  L 
=  1 – P    L   Q  ---------------------------------------------------------------------  Q  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 - d L
 L
  P    P  
 – 

If we introduce user defined standard deviation    Eb  Nt   and correlation coefficient    , and consider that P  is a
UL L

Gaussian pdf:

noMRC 2signals
RL  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  
UL
2
 – xL
 ---------  M 2signals
Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  UL – x L   Eb  Nt    M 2signals
Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  UL – x L   Eb  Nt  UL  –  1
2
 
1
=  1 – ----------- e   Q  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - dx L
-  Q  -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2 UL
 2    Eb  Nt  1–     Eb  Nt  1–  
 –  UL   UL  

n Signals Without Recombination

We can generalize the previous expression to n signals (n is the number of available signals - Atoll may consider up to 3
signals):

noMRC nsignals
RL  M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  
UL
2
 – xL
 ---------  M nsignals
Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  UL – x L   Eb  Nt    M nsignals
Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  UL – x L   Eb  Nt  UL  –  1
2
 
1
=  1 – ----------- e   Q  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - dx L
-  Q  -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2 UL
 2    Eb  Nt  1–     Eb  Nt  1–  
 –  UL   UL  

The case where softer handoff occurs (two signals from co-site cells) is equivalent to the one signal case. The Softer/soft
case is equivalent to the two signals case. For the path associated with the softer recombination, we will use combined
SNR to calculate the availability of the link.

Correlation Coefficient Determination

There is currently no agreed model for predicting correlation coefficient    between  1 and  2 . Two key variables influ-
ence correlation:
• The angle between the two signals. If this angle is small, correlation is high.
• The relative values of the two signal lengths. If angle is 0 and lengths are the same, correlation is zero. Correlation
is different from zero when path lengths differ.
A simple model has been found [1]:

 T  D1
 =  ------ -------- when  T    
   D2

 T is a function of the mean size of obstacles near the receiver and  is also linked to the receiver environment.

In a normal handover status, assuming a hexagonal design for sites,  is close to  (+/- /3) and D1/D2 is close to 1.


In [1,5],  = 0.5 when  = 0.3 and  T = ------ .
10

In Atoll,  is set to 0.5.

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Chapter 4: Calculations

4.7.2.1.2 Uplink Macro-Diversity Gain


UL
Atoll determines the uplink macro-diversity gain ( G macro – diversity ) from the shadowing margins calculated in case of one
signal and n signals.
Therefore, we have:
UL nsignals
G macro – diversity = M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt  – M Shadowing –  Eb  Nt 
UL UL

Where n is the number of cell-mobile signals.

4.7.2.2 Downlink Macro-Diversity Gain Evaluation


In UMTS, CDMA2000 and IS95-CDMA, in case of soft handoff, mobiles are able to switch from one cell to another if the
best pilot drastically fades. To model this function, we have to consider the probability of fading over the shadowing margin,
both for the best signal and for all the other available signals, in the shadowing margin calculation.
Let us consider the shadowing error pdf described below.

4.7.2.2.1 Shadowing Error PDF (n Signals)


For each link, path loss (L) can be broken down as:

L = L path + 

 is a zero mean gaussian random variable G  0  dB  representing variation due to shadowing. It can be expressed as
the sum of two uncorrelated zero mean gaussian random variables,  L and  P .  L models the error related to the receiver
local environment, which is the same for all links.  P models the error related to the path between the transmitter and the
receiver.
Therefore, in case of two links, we have:
1
 1 =  L +  P for the link 1

2
 2 =  L +  P for the link 2

Knowing  i , the Ec/Io standard deviation   Ec  I o  and the correlation coefficient  between  1 and  2 , we can calculate
standard deviations of  L   L  and  P   P  (assuming all  P have the same standard deviations).

We have:
2 2 2
 Ec  I o =  L +  P

2
L
 = ---------------
-
2
 Ec  I o

Therefore,
2 2
 P =  Ec  I o   1 –  

2 2
 L =  Ec  I o  

2 Available Signals

In technologies supporting soft handoff (UMTS, CDMA2000 and IS95-CDMA), cells are interference limited. As for one
link, to ensure a required cell edge coverage probability R L for the prediction, we add a shadowing margin,
2signals
M Shadowing – Ec  Io , to each link budget.

Ec Ec
Prediction reliability to have -------   ------- for the best server can be expressed as:
Io  Io  pred

Ec Ec 1 Ec 1
---------1- = P pilot – L 1 – Io   -------   1  P pilot – L m – Io –  -------
Io 1  Io  pred 1 1  Io  pred

Or

Ec Ec 1 Ec 1
---------2- = P pilot – L 2 – Io   -------   2  P pilot – L m – Io –  -------
Io 2  Io  pred 2 2  Io  pred

We note:

Ec 1
M Shadowing – Ec  Io = P pilot – L m – Io –  -------
2signals
i i  Io  pred

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Technical Reference Guide

Ec 1 Ec 2
 1 =  ------- –  -------
2
 Io  pred  Io  pred

2
 1 is the minimum needed margin on each link.

Therefore, probability of having a quality at least equal to the best predicted one is:

Ec 1 Ec 1 Ec 2 Ec 1 
 M Shadowing – Ec  Io  = 1 – P L1 L2  ----------   -------  ----------   -------
noMRC 2signals
RL
 Io  Io  pred Io  Io  pred

noMRC 2signals 2signals 2signals 2


RL  M Shadowing – Ec  Io  = 1 – P 1 2   1  M Shadowing – Ec  Io  2  M Shadowing – Ec  Io –  1 

1 2
We can express it by using  L ,  P and  P

2signals 2signals 2
P 1 2   1  M Shadowing – Ec  Io  2  M Shadowing – Ec  Io –  1  L =  L 
1 2signals 2 2signals 2
= P  L   P 1 2   P  M Shadowing – Ec  Io –  L  P  M Shadowing – Ec  Io –  1–  L 
L  P  P

2signals 2signals 2
P 1 2   1  M Shadowing – Ec  Io  2  M Shadowing – Ec  Io –  1  L =  L
1 2signals 2 2signals 2
= P    L  P    P  M Shadowing – Ec  Io – L  P    P  M Shadowing – Ec  Io – 1 –  L 
L P P

noMRC 2signals
RL  M Shadowing – Ec  Io 

 P  L   P  P  MShadowing – Ec  Io – L   P  P  MShadowing – Ec  Io – 1 – L  dL


1 2signals 2 2signals 2
= 1–
L P P
–

2
 –x
---------- 2signals
2
1 2 P  M Shadowing – Ec  Io –  L

i 2signals
P  P  M Shadowing – Ec  Io –  L  = ------------------ e dx = Q  -----------------------------------------------------------
P
 P 2  P 
 SHO –  L

Then, we have:
 2signals 2signals 2
 M Shadowing – Ec  Io –  L  M Shadowing – Ec  Io –  1 –  L

noMRC 2signals
RL  M Shadowing – Ec  Io  = 1 – P    L   Q  -----------------------------------------------------------  Q  ------------------------------------------------------------------------ d L
L
 P   P 
–

If we introduce a user defined Ec/Io standard deviation    and a correlation coefficient    and consider that P  is a
L

Gaussian pdf:

noMRC 2signals
RL  M Shadowing – Ec  Io 
2
 –xL 2signals 2signals 2
1
---------  M Shadowing – Ec  Io – x L  Ec  I o   M Shadowing – Ec  Io –  1 – x L  Ec  I o 

2
= 1 – ----------- e  Q  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  Q  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ dx L
2   Ec  I o 1 –     Ec  I o 1 –  
–

n Available Signals

We can generalize the previous expression for n signals (n is the number of available signals - Atoll may consider up to 3
signals):

noMRC nsignals
RL  M Shadowing – Ec  Io 
2
 –xL nsignals n nsignals i
1
---------  M Shadowing – Ec  Io – x L  Ec  I o   M Shadowing – Ec  Io –  1 – x L  Ec  I o 
 
2
= 1 – ----------- e  Q  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ x Q  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ dx L
2   Ec  I o 1 –     Ec  I o 1 –  
– i=2

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Chapter 4: Calculations

2
 1 =1 dB
2
 1 =5 dB
2
 1 =10 dB

Figure 4.25: Margin - Probability (Case of 2 Signals)

2 signals
3
 1 =5 dB
3
 1 =10 dB

Figure 4.26: Margin - Probability (Case of 3 Signals with sigma = 8dB, delta1 = 1dB)

2 signals
3
 1 =5 dB
3
 1 =10 dB

Figure 4.27: Margin - Probability (Case of 3 Signals with sigma = 8dB, delta1 = 2dB)

Correlation Coefficient Determination

For further information about determination of the correlation coefficient, please see "Correlation Coefficient Determina-
tion" on page 123.

4.7.2.2.2 Downlink Macro-Diversity Gain


DL
Atoll determines the downlink macro-diversity gain ( G macro – diversity ) from the shadowing margins calculated in case of
one signal and n signals.
Therefore, we have:
DL nsignals
G macro – diversity = M Shadowing – Ec  Io – M Shadowing – Ec  Io

Where n is the number of available signals.


Note:
• Atoll uses the DL macro-diversity gain to calculate Ec/Io. You can force Atoll not to take it
into account through the Atoll.ini file (see Atoll administration files). You must create this file
and place it in the Atoll installation directory.

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 123


Technical Reference Guide

4.8 Appendices
4.8.1 Transmitter Radio Equipment
Radio equipment such as TMA, feeder and BTS, are taken into account to evaluate:

• Total UL and DL losses of transmitter ( L total – UL L total – DL ) and transmitter noise figure  NF Tx  in UMTS HSPA,
CDMA2000 1xRTT 1xEV-DO, IS-95 cdmaOne, TD-SCDMA, WiMAX 802.16d, and WiMAX 802.16e documents,
• Transmitter total losses  L Total  in GSM GPRS EGPRS documents.

In Atoll, the transmitter-equipment pair is modelled a single entity. The entry to the BTS is considered the reference point
which is the location of the transmission/reception parameters.

Figure 4.28: Reference Point - Location of the Transmission/Reception parameters

4.8.1.1 UMTS HSPA, CDMA2000 1xRTT 1xEV-DO, IS-95 cdmaOne, and


TD-SCDMA Documents
As the reference point is the BTS entry, the transmitter noise figure corresponds to the BTS noise figure. Therefore, we
have:

NF TX = NF BTS

where NF BTS is the BTS noise figure.

Atoll calculates total UL losses as follows:


UL UL UL UL
L Total – UL = L Misc + L Feeder + L BTS – Conf + NR Repeaters – G Ant – div – G TMA (in dB)

where,
UL
L Misc are the miscellaneous reception losses (Transmitter property),

UL UL UL UL UL
L Feeder are the feeder reception losses ( L Feeder = L Feeder  I Feeder + L Connector , where L Feeder , I Feeder and
UL
L Connector are respectively the feeder loss per metre (Feeder property), the reception feeder length in metre (Transmitter
property) and the connector reception losses,
UL
L BTS – Conf are the losses due to BTS configuration (BTS property),

UL
G Ant – div is the antenna diversity gain (Transmitter property),

NR Repeaters is the noise rise at transmitter due to repeaters. This parameter is taken into account only if the transmitter
has active repeater(s),

G TMA is the gain due to TMA.

The noise rise at transmitter due to repeaters is calculated as follows:

For each active repeater ( k ), Atoll calculates a noise injection margin ( NIM Rp ). This is the difference between the donor
k

transmitter noise figure ( NF TX ) and the repeater noise figure received at the donor.

Rp k TX – Rp k
NIM Rp = NF TX –  NF Rp + G amp – L  (in dB)
r  k 

where,

NF Rp is the repeater noise figure,


k

Rp k
G amp is the repeater amplification gain (repeater property),

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Chapter 4: Calculations

TX – R p k
L are the losses between the donor transmitter and the repeater (repeater property).

For each active repeater ( k ), Atoll converts the noise injection margin ( NIM Rp ) to Watt. Then, it uses the values to calcu-
k

late the noise rise at the donor transmitter due to active repeaters ( NR Repeaters ).

 1 
NR Repeaters = 10  Log  1 +
  ------------------
NIM Rp 
r
- (in dB)
r

The gain due to TMA is calculated as follows:


WithoutTMA WithTMA
G TMA = NF Composite – NF Composite (in dB)

where,
WithTMA WithoutTMA
NF Composite and NF Composite are the composite noise figures with and without TMA respectively.

Friis' equation is used to calculate the composite noise figure when there is a TMA.

WithTMA  NF Feeder – 1   NF BTS – 1 


NF Composite = NF TMA + -------------------------------------- - (not in dB)
+ ---------------------------------------
UL UL UL
G TMA G TMA  G Feeder

And,
WithoutTMA
NF Composite = NF BTS + NF Feeder (in dB)

where,

NF Feeder is the feeder noise figure,

NF TMA is the TMA noise figure,

NF BTS is the BTS noise figure,

UL
G TMA is the TMA reception gain,

UL UL UL
G Feeder is the feeder UL gain; G Feeder = – L Feeder .

UL UL UL UL UL UL
L Feeder is the feeder reception loss ( L Feeder = L Feeder  I Feeder + L Connector , where L Feeder , I Feeder and L Connector
are respectively the feeder loss per metre, the reception feeder length in metre and the connector reception loss),
Notes:
• According to the book “Radio network planning and optimisation for UMTS” by Laiho J.,
Wacker A., Novosad T., the noise figure corresponds to the loss in case of passive
components. Therefore, feeder noise figure is equal to the cable uplink losses.
UL
NF Feeder = L Feeder (in dB)

• Loss and gain inputs specified in .atl documents must be positive values.

Atoll calculates total DL losses as follows.


DL DL DL DL
L Total – DL = L TMA + L Feeder + L Misc + L BTS – Conf (in dB)

where,
DL
L TMA is the TMA transmission loss,

DL DL DL DL DL
L Feeder is the feeder transmission loss ( L Feeder = L Feeder  I Feeder + L Connector , where L Feeder , I Feeder and
DL
L Connector are respectively the feeder loss per metre, the transmission feeder length in metre and the connector trans-
mission losses),
DL
L Misc are the miscellaneous transmission losses,

DL
L BTS – Conf are the losses due to BTS configuration (BTS property).

4.8.1.2 GSM GPRS EGPRS Documents


Atoll calculates DL total losses as follows:
DL DL DL DL
L Total – DL = L TMA + L Feeder + L Misc + L BTS – Conf (in dB)

where,

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 125


Technical Reference Guide

DL
L TMA is the TMA transmission loss,

DL DL DL DL DL
L Feeder is the feeder transmission loss ( L Feeder = L Feeder  I Feeder + L Connector , where L Feeder , I Feeder and
DL
L Connector are respectively the feeder loss per metre, the transmission feeder length in metre and the connector trans-
mission loss),
DL
L Misc are the miscellaneous transmission losses,

DL
L BTS – Conf are the losses due to BTS configuration (BTS property).

4.8.1.3 WiMAX 802.16d and WiMAX 802.16e Documents


As the reference point is the BTS entry, the transmitter noise figure corresponds to the BTS noise figure. Therefore, we
have:

NF TX = NF BTS

where NF BTS is the BTS noise figure.

Atoll calculates total UL losses as follows:


UL UL UL UL
L Total – UL = L Misc + L Feeder + L BTS – Conf – G Ant – div – G TMA (in dB)

where,
UL
L Misc are the miscellaneous reception losses (Transmitter property),

UL UL UL UL UL
L Feeder are the feeder reception losses ( L Feeder = L Feeder  I Feeder + L Connector , where L Feeder , I Feeder and
UL
L Connector are respectively the feeder loss per metre (Feeder property), the reception feeder length in metre (Transmitter
property) and the connector reception losses,
UL
L BTS – Conf are the losses due to BTS configuration (BTS property),

UL
G Ant – div is the antenna diversity gain (Transmitter property),

G TMA is the gain due to TMA, which is calculated as follows:

WithoutTMA WithTMA
G TMA = NF Composite – NF Composite (in dB)

where,
WithTMA WithoutTMA
NF Composite and NF Composite are the composite noise figures with and without TMA respectively.

Friis' equation is used to calculate the composite noise figure when there is a TMA.

WithTMA  NF Feeder – 1   NF BTS – 1 


NF Composite = NFTMA + -------------------------------------- - (not in dB)
+ ---------------------------------------
UL UL UL
G TMA G TMA  G Feeder

WithoutTMA
And NF Composite = NF BTS + NF Feeder (in dB)

where,

NF Feeder is the feeder noise figure,

NF TMA is the TMA noise figure,

NF BTS is the BTS noise figure,

UL
G TMA is the TMA reception gain,

UL UL UL
G Feeder is the feeder UL gain; G Feeder = – L Feeder .

UL UL UL UL UL UL
L Feeder is the feeder reception loss ( L Feeder = L Feeder  I Feeder + L Connector , where L Feeder , I Feeder and L Connector
are respectively the feeder loss per metre, the reception feeder length in metre and the connector reception loss),
Notes:
• According to the book “Radio network planning and optimisation for UMTS” by Laiho J.,
Wacker A., Novosad T., the noise figure corresponds to the loss in case of passive
components. Therefore, feeder noise figure is equal to the cable uplink losses.
UL
NF Feeder = L Feeder (in dB)

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Chapter 4: Calculations

• Loss and gain inputs specified in .atl documents must be positive values.

Atoll calculates total DL losses as follows.


DL DL DL DL
L total – DL = L TMA + L Feeder + L Misc + L BTS – Conf (in dB)

where,
DL
L TMA is the TMA transmission loss,

DL DL DL DL DL
L Feeder is the feeder transmission loss ( L Feeder = L Feeder  I Feeder + L Connector , where L Feeder , I Feeder and
DL
L Connector are respectively the feeder loss per metre, the transmission feeder length in metre and the connector trans-
mission losses),
DL
L Misc are the miscellaneous transmission losses,

DL
L BTS – Conf are the losses due to BTS configuration (BTS property).

4.8.2 Secondary Antennas


When secondary antennas are installed on a transmitter, the signal level received from it is calculated as follows:

 P  1 –  G ant – mTx G ant – i 


 Tx 
   X i  -----------------------
 L Tx
-
P Tx  X i  ---------------------
L Tx 
Tx


i
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- + ----------------------------------------------
 L ant – m  az m el m  L ant – i  az i el i  
Tx Tx
 i 
 
P rec = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (not in dB2)
L model

Where,
PTx is the transmitter power (Ppilot in UMTS, CDMA2000 and IS95-CDMA documents),

i is the secondary antenna index,


xi is the percentage of power dedicated to the secondary antenna, i,

G ant – m is the gain of the main antenna installed on the transmitter,


Tx

LTx are transmitter losses (LTx=Ltotal-DL),

G ant – i is the gain of the secondary antenna, i, installed on the transmitter,


Tx

Lmodel is the path loss calculated by the propagation model,

L ant – m  az m el m  is the attenuation due to main antenna pattern,


Tx

L ant – i  az i el i  is the attenuation due to pattern of the secondary antenna, i.


Tx

The definition of angles, az and el, depends on the used calculation method.
• Method 1 (must be indicated in an Atoll.ini file):
- azm is the difference between the receiver antenna azimuth and azimuth of the transmitter main antenna,
- elm is the difference between the receiver antenna tilt and tilt of the transmitter main antenna,
- azi is the difference between the receiver antenna azimuth and azimuth of the transmitter secondary antenna,
i,
- eli is the difference between the receiver antenna tilt and tilt of the transmitter secondary antenna, i,
• Method 2 (default):
- azm is the receiver azimuth in the coordinate system of the transmitter main antenna,
- elm is the receiver tilt in the coordinate system of the transmitter main antenna,
- azi is the receiver azimuth in the coordinate system of the transmitter secondary antenna, i,
- eli is the receiver tilt in the coordinate system of the transmitter secondary antenna, i,

2. Formula cannot be directly calculated from components stated in dB and must be converted in linear values.

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 127


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128 AT271_TRG_E6 © Forsk 2009


Chapter 5
GSM GPRS EGPRS Networks
This chapter provides descriptions of all the algorithms for calculations, analyses, automatic allocations and
prediction studies available in GSM GPRS EGPRS projects.

Atoll
RF Planning and Optimisation Software
Technical Reference Guide

130 AT271_TRG_E6 © Forsk 2009


Chapter 5: GSM GPRS EGPRS Networks

5 GSM GPRS EGPRS Networks


5.1 General Prediction Studies
5.1.1 Calculation Criteria
Three criteria can be studied in point analysis (Profile tab) and in general coverage studies. Study criteria are detailed in
the table below.

Study criteria Formulas


Signal level received from a transmitter on a TRX type
Txi
Signal level ( P rec ) Txi Txi
P rec  tt  = EIRP  tt  – P  tt  – L path – M Shadowing – model – L Indoor +  G ant – L Rx
Rx

Txi Txi
Path loss ( L path ) L path = L model + L ant
Tx

Txi Txi Txi


Total losses ( L total ) L total =  L path + M Shadowing – model + L Indoor + L Tx + L Rx  –  G ant + G ant 
Tx Rx

where,
EIRP is the effective isotropic radiated power of the transmitter,

L model is the loss on the transmitter-receiver path (path loss) calculated by the propagation model,

L ant is the transmitter antenna attenuation (from antenna patterns),


Tx

M Shadowing – model is the shadowing margin. This parameter is taken into account when the option “Shadowing taken into
account” is selected,

L Indoor are the indoor losses. These losses are defined for each clutter class. They are taken into account when the option
“Indoor coverage” is selected,

L Rx are the receiver losses,

G ant is the receiver antenna gain,


Rx

P is the power offset defined for the selected TRX type in the transmitter property dialog,
tt is the TRX type (in the GSM GPRS EGPRS.mdb document template, there are three possible TRX types, BCCH, TCH
and inner TCH).

5.1.2 Point Analysis


5.1.2.1 Profile Tab
Txi
Atoll displays the signal level received from the selected transmitter on a TRX type ( P rec  tt  ).

Notes:
• If power offsets of subcells are identical, field level received from a selected transmitter will
be the same for all the studied TRX types.
Txi
• For a selected transmitter, it is also possible to study the path loss, L path , or the total
Txi
losses, L total . Path loss and total losses are the same on any TRX type.

5.1.2.2 Reception Tab


Analysis provided in the Reception tab is based on path loss matrices. So, you can study reception from TBC transmitters
for which path loss matrices have been computed on their calculation areas.
Txi
For each transmitter, Atoll displays the signal level received on a TRX type, ( P rec  tt  ).

Reception bars are displayed in a decreasing signal level order. The maximum number of reception bars depends on the
signal level received from the best server. Only reception bars of transmitters whose signal level is within a 30 dB margin
from the best server can be displayed.

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 131


Technical Reference Guide

Notes:
• If power offsets of subcells are identical, field level received from a given transmitter will be
the same whichever the studied TRX type.
Txi Txi
• It is also possible to study the path loss, L path , or the total losses, L total of each
transmitter. Path loss and total losses are the same on any TRX type.
• You can use a value other than 30 dB for the margin from the best server signal level, for
example a smaller value for improving the calculation speed. For more information on
defining a different value for this margin, see the Administrator Manual.

5.1.3 Coverage Studies


For each TBC transmitter, Txi, Atoll determines the selected criterion on each bin inside the Txi calculation area. In fact,
each bin within the Txi calculation area is considered as a potential (fixed or mobile) receiver.
Coverage study parameters to be set are:
• The study conditions in order to determine the service area of each TBC transmitter,
• The display settings to select how to colour service areas.

5.1.3.1 Service Area Determination


Atoll uses parameters entered in the Condition tab of the coverage study property dialog to predetermine areas where it
will display coverage.
We can distinguish seven cases as below. Let us assume that:
• Each transmitter, Txi, belongs to a Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS) layer, k, with a defined priority and a defined
reception threshold.
• The maximum range option (available in the System tab of the Predictions property dialog) is inactive.

5.1.3.1.1 All Servers


For each HCS layer, k, the service area of Txi corresponds to the bins where:
Txi Txi Txi
MinimumThreshold  P rec  tt   or L tot orTotal – Losses   MaximumThreshold

Note:
• The minimum threshold is either globally defined or specifically for each subcell (subcell
reception threshold)

5.1.3.1.2 Best Signal Level and a Margin


The service area of Txi corresponds to the bins where:
Txi Txi Txi
MinimumThreshold  P rec  ic   or L total or L path   MaximumThreshold

And

P rec  ic   Best  P rec  ic   – M


Txi Txj

ji

M is the specified margin (dB).


Best function: considers the highest value.
Notes:
• If the margin equals 0 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi is
the highest.
• If the margin is set to 2 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi
is either the highest or 2dB lower than the highest.
• If the margin is set to -2 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi
is 2dB higher than the signal levels from transmitters, which are 2nd best servers.

5.1.3.1.3 Second Best Signal Level and a Margin


The service area of Txi corresponds to the bins where:
Txi Txi Txi
MinimumThreshold  P rec  ic   or L total or L path   MaximumThreshold

And

Txi nd
P rec  ic   2 Best  P Txj  ic   – M
rec
ji

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Chapter 5: GSM GPRS EGPRS Networks

M is the specified margin (dB).

2nd Best function: considers the second highest value.


Notes:
• If the margin equals 0 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi is
the second highest.
• If the margin is set to 2 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi
is either the second highest or 2dB lower than the second highest.
• If the margin is set to -2 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi
is 2dB higher than the signal levels from transmitters, which are 3rd best servers.

5.1.3.1.4 Best Signal Level per HCS Layer and a Margin


For each HCS layer, k, the service area of Txi corresponds to the bins where:
Txi Txi Txi
MinimumThreshold  P rec  tt   or L tot orTotal – Losses   MaximumThreshold

And

P rec  BCCH   Best  P rec  BCCH   – M


Txi Txj

ji

M is the specified margin (dB).


Best function: considers the highest value.
Notes:
• If the margin equals 0 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi is
the highest.
• If the margin is set to 2 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi
is either the highest or 2dB lower than the highest.
• If the margin is set to -2 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi
is 2dB higher than the signal levels from transmitters that are the 2nd best servers.

5.1.3.1.5 HCS Servers and a Margin


For each HCS layer, k, the service area of Txi corresponds to the bins where:
Txi Txi Txi
MinimumThreshold  P rec  tt   or L tot orTotal – Losses   MaximumThreshold

And

P rec  BCCH   Best  P rec  BCCH   – M


Txi Txj

ji

Txi
The received P rec  tt  exceeds the reception threshold defined per HCS layer

M is the specified margin (dB).


Best function: considers the highest value.
Notes:
• If the margin equals 0 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi is
the highest.
• If the margin is set to 2 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi
is either the highest or 2dB lower than the highest.
• If the margin is set to -2 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi
is 2dB higher than the signal levels from transmitters that are the 2nd best servers.

5.1.3.1.6 Highest Priority HCS Server and a Margin


In this case, the service area of Txi corresponds to the bins where:
Txi Txi Txi
MinimumThreshold  P rec  tt   or L tot orTotal – Losses   MaximumThreshold

And

P rec  BCCH   Best  P rec  BCCH   – M


Txi Txj

ji

And

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Txi belongs to the HCS layer with the highest priority. The highest priority is defined by the priority field (0: lowest) assum-
Txi
ing the received P rec  tt  exceeds the reception threshold defined per HCS layer.

M is the specified margin (dB).


Best function: considers the highest value.
Notes:
• If the margin equals 0 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi is
the highest.
• If the margin is set to 2 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi
is either the highest or 2dB lower than the highest.
• If the margin is set to -2 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi
is 2dB higher than the signal levels from transmitters that are the 2nd best servers.
• In the case two layers have the same priority, the traffic is served by the transmitter for
which the difference between the received signal strength and the HCS threshold is the
highest. The way the competition is managed between layers with the same priority can be
modified. For more information, see the Administrator Manual.

5.1.3.1.7 Second Best Signal Level per HCS Layer and a Margin
For each HCS layer, k, the service area of Txi corresponds to the bins where:
Txi Txi Txi
MinimumThreshold  P rec  tt   or L tot orTotal – Losses   MaximumThreshold

And

Txi nd
P rec  BCCH   2 Best  P Txj  BCCH   – M
rec
ji

M is the specified margin (dB).

2nd Best function: considers the second highest value.


Notes:
• If the margin equals 0 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi is
the second highest.
• If the margin is set to 2 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi
is either the second highest or 2dB lower than the second highest.
• If the margin is set to -2 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi
is 2dB higher than the signal levels from transmitters that are the 3rd best servers.

5.1.3.1.8 Best Idle Mode Reselection Criterion (C2)


Such type of coverage would is useful :
• To compare Idle and Dedicated mode best servers for Voice traffic
• Display the GPRS/EGPRS best server map (based on GSM idle mode)
The path loss criterion parameter C1 used for cell selection and reselection is defined by :
Txi
C1 = P rec  ic  – MinimumThreshold

The path loss criterion (GSM03.22) is satisfied if C1  0 .


The reselection criterion C2 is used for cell reselection only and is defined by :

C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET

where CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET is the reselection value (in dB) defined for at the transmitter level.
The service area of Txi corresponds to the bins where:
Txi Txi Txi
MinimumThreshold  P rec  ic   or L total or L path   MaximumThreshold

And

 BCCH  = Best  C2  BCCH  


Txi Txj
C2
j

Best function: considers the highest value.


On each bin, the best C2 value is kept. It corresponds to the best server in Idle Mode. Since the C2 value is an integer
value, so must be rounded.

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5.1.3.2 Coverage Display


5.1.3.2.1 Plot Resolution
Prediction plot resolution is independent of the matrix resolutions and can be defined on a per study basis. Prediction plots
are generated from multi-resolution path loss matrices using bilinear interpolation method (similar to the one used to eval-
uate site altitude).

5.1.3.2.2 Display Types


It is possible to display the transmitter service area with colours depending on any transmitter attribute or other criteria
such as:

Signal Level (in dBm, dBµV, dBµV/m)

Atoll calculates signal level received from the transmitter on each bin of each transmitter service area. A bin of a service
area is coloured if the signal level exceeds (  ) the defined minimum thresholds (bin colour depends on signal level).
Coverage consists of several independent layers whose visibility in the workspace can be managed. There are as many
layers as transmitter service areas. Each layer shows the different signal levels available in the transmitter service area.

Best Signal Level (in dBm, dBµV, dBµV/m)

Atoll calculates signal levels received from transmitters on each bin of each transmitter service area. When other service-
When other service areas overlap the studied one, Atoll chooses the highest value. A bin of a service area is coloured if
the signal level exceeds (  ) the defined thresholds (the bin colour depends on the signal level). Coverage consists of
several independent layers whose visibility in the workspace can be managed. There are as many layers as defined
thresholds. Each layer corresponds to an area where the signal level from the best server exceeds a defined minimum
threshold.

Path Loss (dB)

Atoll calculates path loss from the transmitter on each bin of each transmitter service area. A bin of a service area is
coloured if path loss exceeds (  ) the defined minimum thresholds (bin colour depends on path loss). Coverage consists
of several independent layers whose visibility in the workspace can be managed. There are as many layers as service
areas. Each layer shows the different path loss levels in the transmitter service area.

Total Losses (dB)

Atoll calculates total losses from the transmitter on each bin of each transmitter service area. A bin of a service area is
coloured if total losses exceed (  ) the defined minimum thresholds (bin colour depends on total losses). Coverage
consists of several independent layers whose visibility in the workspace can be managed. There are as many layers as
service areas. Each layer shows the different total losses levels in the transmitter service area.

Best Server Path Loss (dB)

Atoll calculates signal levels received from transmitters on each bin of each transmitter service area. When other service
areas overlap the studied one, Atoll determines the best transmitter and evaluates path loss from the best transmitter. A
bin of a service area is coloured if the path loss exceeds (  ) the defined thresholds (bin colour depends on path loss).
Coverage consists of several independent layers whose visibility in the workspace can be managed. There are as many
layers as defined thresholds. Each layer corresponds to an area where the path loss from the best server exceeds a
defined minimum threshold.

Best Server Total Losses (dB)

Atoll calculates signal levels received from transmitters on each bin of each transmitter service area. Where service areas
overlap the studied one, Atoll determines the best transmitter and evaluates total losses from the best transmitter. A bin
of a service area is coloured if the total losses exceed (  ) the defined thresholds (bin colour depends on total losses).
Coverage consists of several independent layers whose visibility in the workspace can be managed. There are as many
layers as defined thresholds. Each layer corresponds to an area where the total losses from the best server exceed a
defined minimum threshold.

Number of Servers

Atoll evaluates how many service areas cover a bin in order to determine the number of servers. The bin colour depends
on the number of servers. Coverage consists of several independent layers whose visibility in the workspace can be
managed. There are as many layers as defined thresholds. Each layer corresponds to an area where the number of serv-
ers exceeds (  ) a defined minimum threshold.

Cell Edge Coverage Probability (%)

On each bin of each transmitter service area, the coverage corresponds to the pixels where the signal level from this trans-
mitter fulfils signal conditions defined in Conditions tab with different cell edge coverage probabilities. There is one cover-
age area per transmitter in the explorer.

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Best Cell Edge Coverage Probability (%)

On each bin of each transmitter service area, the coverage corresponds to the pixels where the best signal level received
fulfils signal conditions defined in Conditions tab. There is one coverage area per cell edge coverage probability in the
explorer.

Best C2 (dBm)

Atoll calculates C2 values received from transmitters on each bin of each transmitter service area. When other service
areas overlap the studied one, Atoll chooses the highest value. A bin of a service area is coloured if the C2 value exceeds
(  ) the defined thresholds (the bin colour depends on the C2 value). Coverage consists of several independent layers
whose visibility in the workspace can be managed. There are as many layers as defined thresholds. Each layer corre-
sponds to an area where the best C2 value exceeds a defined minimum threshold.

5.2 Traffic Analysis


When starting a traffic analysis, Atoll distributes the traffic from maps to transmitters of each layer according to the compat-
ibility criteria defined in the transmitter, services, mobility type, terminal type properties. Transmitters considered in traffic
analysis are the active and filtered transmitters that belong to the focus zone.
Notes:
• If no focus zone exists in the .atl document, Atoll takes into account the computation zone.
• For details of the average timeslot capacity calculation, see the Network Dimensioning
section (calculation of minimum reduction factor).

5.2.1 Traffic Distribution


5.2.1.1 Normal Cells (Nonconcentric, No HCS Layer)
5.2.1.1.1 Circuit Switched Services
A user with a given circuit switched service, c, a terminal, t, and a mobility type, m, will be distributed to the BCCH and
TCH subcells of a transmitter if:
• The terminal, t, works on the frequency band used by the BCCH subcell,
• The terminal, t, works on the frequency band used by the TCH subcell.

5.2.1.1.2 Packet Switched Services


A user with a given packet switched service, p, a terminal, t, and a mobility type, m, will be distributed to the BCCH and
TCH subcells of a transmitter if:
• The transmitter is an GPRS/EGPRS station (option specified in the transmitter property dialog),
• The terminal, t, is technologically compatible with the transmitter,
• The terminal, t, works on the frequency band used by the BCCH subcell,
• The terminal, t, works on the frequency band used by the TCH subcell.

5.2.1.2 Concentric Cells


In case of concentric cells, TCH_INNER TRX type has the highest priority to carry traffic.

5.2.1.2.1 Circuit Switched Services


A user with a given circuit switched service, c, a terminal, t, and a mobility type, m, will be distributed to the TCH_INNER,
BCCH and TCH subcells of a transmitter if:
• The terminal, t, works on the frequency band used by the BCCH subcell,
• The terminal, t, works on the frequency band(s) used by the TCH_INNER and TCH subcells.

5.2.1.2.2 Packet Switched Services


A user with a given packet switched service, p, a terminal, t, and a mobility type, m, will be distributed to the TCH_INNER,
BCCH and TCH subcells of a transmitter if:
• The transmitter is an GPRS/EGPRS station (option specified in the transmitter property dialog),
• The terminal, t, is technologically compatible with the transmitter,
• The terminal, t, works on the frequency band used by the BCCH subcell,
• The terminal, t, works on the frequency band(s) used by the TCH_INNER and TCH subcells.

5.2.1.3 HCS Layers


For each HCS layer, k, you may specify the maximum mobile speed supported by the transmitters of the layer.

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Chapter 5: GSM GPRS EGPRS Networks

5.2.1.3.1 Circuit Switched Services


A user with a given circuit switched service, c, a terminal, t, and a mobility type, m, will be distributed to the BCCH and
TCH subcells (and TCH_INNER in case of concentric cells) of a transmitter if:
• The terminal, t, works on the frequency band used by the BCCH subcell,
• The terminal, t, works on the frequency band(s) used by the TCH_INNER and TCH subcells,
• The user’s mobility, m, is less than the maximum speed supported by the layer, k.

5.2.1.3.2 Packet Switched Services


A user with a given packet switched service, p, a terminal, t, and a mobility type, m, will be distributed to the BCCH and
TCH subcells (and TCH_INNER in case of concentric cells) of a transmitter if:
• The transmitter is an GPRS/EGPRS station (option specified in the transmitter property dialog),
• The terminal, t, is technologically compatible with the transmitter,
• The terminal, t, works on the frequency band used by the BCCH subcell,
• The terminal, t, works on the frequency band(s) used by the TCH_INNER and TCH subcells,
• The user mobility, m, is less than the maximum speed supported by the layer, k.

5.2.2 Calculation of the Traffic Demand per Subcell


Here we assume that:
• Users considered for evaluating the traffic demand fulfil the compatibility criteria defined in the transmitter, serv-
ices, mobility, terminal properties as explained above.
• Atoll distributes traffic on subcell service areas, which are determined using the option “Best signal level per HCS
layer” with a 0dB margin and the subcell reception threshold as lower threshold.
• Same traffic is distributed to the BCCH and TCH subcells.

5.2.2.1 Traffic Maps Based on Environments and User Profiles


5.2.2.1.1 Normal Cells (Nonconcentric, No HCS Layer)
Number of subscribers ( X up m ) for each TCH subcell (Txi, TCH), per user profile up with a given mobility m, is inferred as:

X up m  Txi TCH  = S up m  Txi TCH   D

Where Sup,m is the TCH service area containing the user profile up with the mobility m and D is the user profile density.

For each behaviour described in the user profile up, Atoll calculates the probability for the user to be connected with a
given service using a terminal t.

Circuit Switched Services

For a circuit switched service c, we have:

N call  d
p up  c t  = ---------------------
-
3600
Where Ncall is the number of calls per hour and d is the average call duration (in seconds).

Then, Atoll evaluates the traffic demand, D up  c t  m , in Erlangs for the subcell (Txi, TCH) service area.

D up  c t  m  Txi TCH  = X up m  Txi TCH   p up  c t 

Packet Switched Services

For a packet switched service p, we have:

N call  V  8
p up  p t  = -------------------------------
-
3600
Where Ncall is the number of calls per hour and V is the transmitted data volume per call (in Kbytes).

Then, Atoll evaluates the traffic demand, D up  p t  m , in kbits/s for the subcell (Txi, TCH) service area.

D up  p t  m  Txi TCH  = X up m  Txi TCH   p up  p t 

5.2.2.1.2 Concentric Cells


In case of concentric cells, Atoll distributes a part of traffic on the TCH_INNER service area (TCH_INNER is the highest
priority traffic carrier) and the remaining traffic on the outer ring served by the TCH subcell. The traffic spread over the
TCH_INNER subcell may overflow to the TCH subcell. In this case, the traffic demand is the same on the TCH_INNER
subcell but increases on the TCH subcell.

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Note:
• Traffic overflowing from the TCH_INNER to the TCH is not uniformly spread over the TCH
service area. It is still located on the TCH_INNER service area.

Number of subscribers ( X up m ) for each TCH_INNER (Txi, TCH_INNER) and TCH (Txi, TCH) subcell, per user profile up
with a given mobility m, is inferred as:

X up m  Txi,TCH_INNER  = S up m  Txi,TCH_INNER   D

X up m  Txi,TCH  =  S up m  Txi,TCH  – S up m  Txi,TCH_INNER    D

S up m  Txi,TCH_INNER  and S up m  Txi,TCH  respectively refer to the TCH_INNER and TCH subcell service areas
containing the user profile up with the mobility m. D is the user profile density.

Figure 5.1: Representation of a Concentric Cell TXi

Circuit Switched Services

For each user of the user profile up using a circuit switched service c with a terminal t, Atoll calculates the probability
( p up  c t  ) of the user being connected. Calculations are detailed in "Circuit Switched Services" on page 136.

Then, Atoll evaluates the traffic demand, D up  c t  m , in Erlangs in the (Txi, TCH_INNER) and (Txi, TCH) subcell service
areas.

D up  c t  m  Txi,TCH_INNER  = X up m  Txi,TCH_INNER   p up  c t 

D up  c t  m  Txi,TCH  = X up m  Txi,TCH   p up  c t  + D up  c t  m  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi,TCH_INNER 

Where O max  Txi,TCH_INNER  is the maximum rate of traffic overflow (in %) specified for the TCH_INNER subcell.

Packet Switched Services

For each user of the user profile up using a packet switched service p with a terminal t, probability of the user being
connected ( p up  p t  ) is calculated as explained in "Packet Switched Services" on page 136.

Atoll evaluates the traffic demand, D up  p t  m , in kbits/s in the (Txi, TCH_INNER) and (Txi, TCH) subcell service areas.

D up  p t  m  Txi,TCH_INNER  = X up m  Txi,TCH_INNER   p up  p t 

D up  p t  m  Txi,TCH  = X up m  Txi,TCH   p up  p t  + D up  p t  m  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi,TCH_INNER 

Where O max  Txi,TCH_INNER  is the maximum rate of traffic overflow (in %) specified for the TCH_INNER subcell.

5.2.2.1.3 HCS Layers


We assume two HCS layers: the micro layer has a higher priority than the macro layer. Txi belongs to the micro layer and
Txj to the macro.

Normal Cells

Atoll distributes traffic on the TCH service areas. The traffic capture is calculated with the option “Best signal level per HCS
macro
layer” meaning that there is an overlap between HCS layers service areas. Let S overlapping  Txj TCH  denote this area
(TCH service area of the macro layer overlapped by the TCH service area of the micro layer). Traffic on the overlapping
area is distributed to the TCH subcell of the micro layer because it has a higher priority. On this area, traffic of the micro
layer may overflow to the macro layer. In this case, the traffic demand is the same on the TCH subcell of the micro layer
but increases on the TCH subcell of the macro layer.
Note:
• Traffic overflowing to the macro layer is not uniformly spread over the TCH service area of
Txj. It is only located on the overlapping area.

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Chapter 5: GSM GPRS EGPRS Networks

Figure 5.2: Representation of Micro and Macro Layers

Atoll evaluates the traffic demand on the micro layer (higher priority) as explained above. For further details, please refer
to formulas for normal cells. Then, it proceeds with the macro layer (lower priority).
macro
Number of subscribers ( X up m ) for each TCH subcell (Txj, TCH) of the macro layer, per user profile up with the mobility
m, is inferred as:
macro macro macro
X up m  Txj TCH  =  S up m  Txj TCH  – S up m – overlapping  Txj TCH    D

macro
Where S up m  Txj TCH  is the TCH service area of Txj containing the user profile up with the mobility m and D is the
profile density.
For each user described in the user profile up with the circuit switched service c and the terminal t, the probability for the
user being connected ( p up  c t  ) is calculated as explained in "Circuit Switched Services" on page 136.

macro
Then, Atoll evaluates the traffic demand, D up  c t  m , in Erlangs in the subcell (Txj, TCH) service area.

macro
macro macro micro S upm – overlapping  Txj TCH 
D up  c t m  Txj TCH  = X up m Txj TCH   p up  c t  + D up  c t m Txi TCH   --------------------------------------------------------------------------
micro
-  Omax Txi TCH 
S up m  Txi TCH 

For each user described in the user profile up with the packet switched service p and the terminal t, probability for the user
to be connected ( p up  p t  ) is calculated as explained in "Packet Switched Services" on page 136.

macro
Then, Atoll evaluates the traffic demand, D up  p t  m , in kbits/s in the subcell (Txj, TCH) service area.

macro
macro macro micro S upm – overlapping  Txj TCH 
D up  p t m  Txj TCH  = X up m Txj TCH   p up  p t  + D up  p t m Txi TCH   --------------------------------------------------------------------------
micro
-  Omax Txi TCH 
S up m  Txi TCH 

Where O max  Txi TCH  is the maximum rate of traffic overflow (stated in %) specified for the TCH subcell of Txi (micro

micro
layer) and S up m  Txi TCH  is the TCH service area of Txi containing the user profile up with the mobility m.

Concentric Cells

Atoll evaluates the traffic demand on the micro layer (higher priority HCS layer) as explained above. For further details,
please refer to formulas given in case of concentric cells. Then, it proceeds with the macro layer (lower priority HCS layer).
The traffic capture is calculated with the option “Best signal level per HCS layer”. It means that there are overlapping areas
between HCS layers where traffic is spread according to the layer priority. On these areas, traffic of the higher priority layer
may overflow.

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Figure 5.3: Concentric Cells

The TCH_INNER service area of the macro layer is overlapped by the micro layer. This area consists of two parts: an area
macro
overlapped by the TCH service area of the micro layer S overlapping –  Txi TCH   Txj,TCH_INNER  and another overlapped
macro
by the TCH_INNER service area of the micro layer S overlapping –  Txi,TCH_INNER   Txj,TCH_INNER  .

Let us consider three areas, S1, S2 and S3.

macro macro
S 1 = S up m  Txj,TCH_INNER  – S up m – overlapping –  Txi TCH   Txj,TCH_INNER 

macro
S 2 = S up m – overlapping –  Txi,TCH_INNER   Txj,TCH_INNER 

macro
S 3 = S up m – overlapping –  Txi TCH   Txj,TCH_INNER  – S 2

macro
Where S up m  Txj,TCH_INNER  is the TCH_INNER subcell service area of Txj containing the user profile up with the
mobility m. We only consider the overlapping areas containing the user profile up with the mobility m.
macro
On S1, the number of subscribers per user profile up with a given mobility m ( X up m ) is inferred:

macro
X up m  Txj,TCH_INNER  = S 1  D

Where D is the user profile density.


The traffic spread over the TCH_INNER service area of the micro layer may overflow on the TCH subcell. The traffic over-
flowing to the TCH subcell is located on the TCH_INNER service area. On S2, the TCH subcell traffic coming from the
TCH_INNER subcell traffic overflow may overflow proportional to R2.

S2
R 2 = -----------------------------------------------------------------
micro
S up m  Txi,TCH_INNER 

The traffic spread over the ring served by the TCH subcell of the micro layer only may overflow on S3 proportional to R3.

S3
R 3 = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
micro micro
S up m  Txi,TCH  – S up m  Txi,TCH_INNER 

micro micro
Where S up m  Txi,TCH  and S up m  Txi,TCH_INNER  are the TCH and TCH_INNER service areas of Txi respectively
containing the user profile up with the mobility m.
For each user described in the user profile up with a circuit switched service c and a terminal t, the probability for the user
being connected ( p up  c t  ) is calculated as explained in "Circuit Switched Services" on page 136. Then, Atoll evaluates
macro
the traffic demand, D up  c t  m , in Erlangs in the subcell (Txj, TCH_INNER) service area.

macro
X up m  Txj,TCH_INNER   p up  c t  +
macro
D up  c t  m  Txj,TCH_INNER  = R  D micro
2 up  c t  m  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi,TCH  +
micro
R 3  X up m  Txi TCH   p up  c t   O max  Txi TCH 

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Chapter 5: GSM GPRS EGPRS Networks

For each user described in the user profile up with a packet switched service p and a terminal t, probability for the user to
be connected ( p up  p t  ) is calculated as explained in "Packet Switched Services" on page 136.

macro
Then, Atoll evaluates the traffic demand, D up  p t  m , stated in kbits/s in the subcell (Txj, TCH_INNER) service area.

macro
X up m  Txj,TCH_INNER   p up  p t  +
macro
D up  p t  m  Txj,TCH_INNER  = R  D micro
2 up  p t  m  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi,TCH  +
micro
R 3  X up m  Txi TCH   p up  p t   O max  Txi TCH 

Where O max  Txi TCH  and O max  Txi,TCH_INNER  are the maximum rates of traffic overflow (stated in %) specified
for the TCH and TCH_INNER subcells of Txi respectively.
The area of the TCH ring of the macro layer is overlapped by the micro layer. There are two parts: an area overlapped by
macro
the TCH service area of the micro layer S overlapping –  Txi TCH   Txj,TCH -- TCH_INNER  and another one by the
macro
TCH_INNER service area of the micro layer S overlapping –  Txi,TCH_INNER   Txj,TCH -- TCH_INNER  .

Let us consider three areas, S’1, S’2 and S’3.

macro macro macro


S' 1 = S up m  Txj,TCH  – S up m  Txj,TCH_INNER  – S up m – overlapping –  Txi TCH   Txj,TCH -- TCH_INNER 

macro
S' 2 = S up m – overlapping –  Txi,TCH_INNER   Txj,TCH -- TCH_INNER 

macro
S' 3 = S up m – overlapping –  Txi TCH   Txj,TCH -- TCH_INNER  – S' 2

macro macro
Where S up m  Txj,TCH  and S up m  Txj,TCH_INNER  are the TCH and TCH_INNER subcell service areas of Txj
respectively. We only consider the overlapping areas containing the user profile up with the mobility m.
macro
On S’1, the number of subscribers per user profile up with a given mobility m ( X up m ) is inferred:

macro
X up m  Txj,TCH  = S' 1  D

Where D is the user profile density.


The traffic spread over the TCH_INNER service area of the micro layer may overflow on the TCH subcell. The traffic over-
flowing on the TCH subcell is located on the TCH_INNER service area. On S’2, the TCH subcell traffic coming from the
TCH_INNER subcell traffic overflow may overflow proportionally to R’2.

S' 2
R' 2 = -----------------------------------------------------------------
micro
S up m  Txi,TCH_INNER 

The traffic spread over the ring served by the TCH subcell of the micro layer only may overflow on S’3 proportional to R’3.

S' 3
R' 3 = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
micro micro
S up m  Txi,TCH  – S up m  Txi,TCH_INNER 

micro micro
Where S up m  Txi,TCH  and S up m  Txi,TCH_INNER  are the TCH and TCH_INNER service areas of Txi respectively
containing the user profile up with the mobility m.
For each user described in the user profile up with a circuit switched service c and a terminal t, the probability for the user
being connected ( p up  c t  ) is calculated as explained in "Circuit Switched Services" on page 136.

macro
Then, Atoll evaluates the traffic demand, D up  c t  m , in Erlangs in the subcell (Txj, TCH) service area.

macro
X up m  Txj TCH   p up  c t  +
macro
macro D up  c t  m  Txj,TCH_INNER   O max  Txj,TCH_INNER  +
D up  c t  m  Txj TCH  =
micro
R' 2  D up  c t  m  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi,TCH  +
micro
R' 3  X up m  Txi TCH   p up  c t  m  O max  Txi TCH 

For each user described in the user profile up with a packet switched service p and a terminal t, the probability for the user
being connected ( p up  p t  ) is calculated as explained in "Packet Switched Services" on page 136.

macro
Then, Atoll evaluates the traffic demand, D up  p t  m , in kbits/s in the subcell (Txj, TCH) service area.

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 141


Technical Reference Guide

macro
X up m  Txj TCH   p up  p t  +
macro
macro D up  p t  m  Txj,TCH_INNER   O max  Txj,TCH_INNER  +
D up  p t  m  Txj TCH  =
micro
R' 2  D up  p t  m  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi,TCH  +
micro
R' 3  X up m  Txi TCH   p up  p t  m  O max  Txi TCH 

Where O max  Txi,TCH  is the maximum rate of traffic overflow (stated in %) specified for the TCH subcell of Txi (micro
layer), O max  Txi,TCH_INNER  the maximum rate of traffic overflow indicated for the TCH_INNER subcell of Txi (macro
layer), O max  Txj,TCH_INNER  the maximum rate of traffic overflow indicated for the TCH_INNER subcell of Txj (macro
micro
layer) and X up m  Txi TCH  the number of subscribers with the user profile up and mobility m on the TCH service area
of Txi (as explained in "Concentric Cells" on page 136).

5.2.2.2 Traffic Maps Based on Transmitters and Services


We assume that the traffic map is built from a coverage by transmitter prediction study calculated for the TCH subcells
with options:
• “HCS Servers” and no margin if the network only consists of normal cells and concentric cells,
• “Highest Priority HCS Server” and no margin in case of HCS layers.
When creating the traffic map, you have to specify the traffic demand per transmitter and per service (throughput for a
packet switched service and Erlangs for a circuit switched service) and the global distribution of terminals and mobility
types.

Let E c  Txi TCH  denote the Erlangs for the circuit switched service, c, on the TCH subcell of Txi.

Let T p  Txi TCH  denote the throughput of the packet switched service, p, on the TCH subcell of Txi.

We assume that 100% of users have the terminal, t, and the mobility type, m.

5.2.2.2.1 Normal Cells (Nonconcentric, No HCS Layer)


For each circuit switched service, c, Atoll evaluates the traffic demand, Dc,t,m, in Erlangs in the subcell (Txi, TCH) service
area.

D c t m  Txi TCH  = E c  Txi TCH 

For each packet switched service, p, Atoll evaluates the traffic demand, Dp,t,m, in kbits/s in the subcell (Txi, TCH) service
area.

D p t m  Txi TCH  = T p  Txi TCH 

5.2.2.2.2 Concentric Cells


In case of concentric cells, Atoll distributes a part of traffic on the TCH_INNER service area (TCH_INNER is the highest
priority traffic carrier) and the remaining traffic, on the ring served by the TCH subcell only. The traffic spread over the
TCH_INNER subcell may overflow to the TCH subcell. In this case, the traffic demand is the same on the TCH_INNER
subcell and rises on the TCH subcell.
Note:
• Traffic overflowing from the TCH_INNER to the TCH is not uniformly spread over the TCH
service area. It is only located on the TCH_INNER service area.

For each circuit switched service, c, Atoll evaluates the traffic demand, Dc,t,m, in Erlangs in the subcell, (Txi, TCH_INNER)
and (Txi, TCH), service areas.

S  Txi,TCH_INNER 
D c t m  Txi,TCH_INNER  = -----------------------------------------------------  E c  Txi TCH 
S  Txi TCH 
and

 S  Txi,TCH  – S  Txi,TCH_INNER  
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  E c  Txi TCH  +
D c t m  Txi,TCH  = S  Txi TCH 
D c t m  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi,TCH_INNER 

For each packet switched service, p, Atoll evaluates the traffic demand, Dp,t,m, in kbits/s in the subcell, (Txi, TCH_INNER)
and (Txi, TCH), service areas.

S  Txi,TCH_INNER 
D p t m  Txi,TCH_INNER  = -----------------------------------------------------  T p  Txi TCH 
S  Txi TCH 
and

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Chapter 5: GSM GPRS EGPRS Networks

 S  Txi,TCH  – S  Txi,TCH_INNER  
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  T p  Txi TCH  +
D p t m  Txi,TCH  = S  Txi TCH 
D p t m  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi,TCH_INNER 

Where O max  Txi,TCH_INNER  is the maximum rate of traffic overflow (stated in %) specified for the TCH_INNER subcell,
S  Txi,TCH  and S  Txi,TCH_INNER  are the TCH and TCH_INNER service areas of Txi respectively.

5.2.2.2.3 HCS Layers


We assume we have two HCS layers: the micro layer has a higher priority and the macro layer has a lower one. Txi belongs
to the micro layer and Txj to the macro one.

Normal Cells

Atoll distributes traffic on the TCH service areas. The traffic capture is calculated with the option “HCS Servers”. It means
macro
that there is an overlapping area between HCS layers. Let S overlapping  Txj TCH  denote the TCH service area of the
macro layer overlapped by the TCH service area of the micro layer. Traffic on the overlapping area is distributed to the
TCH subcell of the micro layer (higher priority layer). On this area, traffic of the micro layer may overflow to the macro layer.
In this case, the traffic demand is the same on the TCH subcell of the micro layer but rises on the TCH subcell of the macro
layer.
Note:
• Traffic overflowing on the macro layer is not uniformly spread over the TCH service area of
Txj. It is only located on the overlapping area.

Atoll starts evaluating the traffic demand on the micro layer (highest priority HCS layer).
micro
For each circuit switched service, c, Atoll calculates the traffic demand, D c t m , in Erlangs in the subcell (Txi, TCH) service
area.
micro
D c t m  Txi TCH  = E c  Txi TCH 

micro
For each packet switched service, p, Atoll calculates the traffic demand, D p t m , in kbits/s in the subcell (Txi, TCH) service
area.
micro
D p t m  Txi TCH  = T p  Txi TCH 

Then, Atoll proceeds with the macro layer (lower priority HCS layer). For each circuit switched service, c, Atoll calculates
macro
the traffic demand, D c t m , in Erlangs in the subcell (Txj, TCH) service area.

macro
macro micro S overlapping  Txj TCH 
D c t m  Txj TCH  = E c  Txj TCH  + D c t m  Txi TCH   ------------------------------------------------------------
micro
-  O max  Txi TCH 
S  Txi TCH 

macro
For each packet switched service, p, Atoll calculates the traffic demand, D p t m , in kbits/s in the subcell (Txj, TCH) service
area.
macro
macro micro S overlapping  Txj TCH 
D p t m  Txj TCH  = T p  Txj TCH  + D p t m  Txi TCH   ------------------------------------------------------------
micro
-  O max  Txi TCH 
S  Txi TCH 

Where O max  Txi TCH  is the maximum rate of traffic overflow (in %) specified for the TCH subcell of Txi (micro cell) and
micro
S  Txi TCH  the TCH service area of Txi.

Concentric Cells

Atoll evaluates the traffic demand on the micro layer as explained above in case of concentric cells and then proceeds with
the macro layer (lower priority layer).
The traffic capture is calculated with the option “HCS Servers”. It means that there is overlapping areas between HCS
layers where traffic is spread over according to the layer priority. On these areas, traffic of the higher priority layer may
overflow.

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 143


Technical Reference Guide

Figure 5.4: Concentric Cells

The TCH_INNER service area of the macro layer is overlapped by the micro layer. This area consists of two parts: an area
macro
overlapped by the TCH service area of the micro layer S overlapping –  Txi TCH   Txj,TCH_INNER  and another overlapped
macro
by the TCH_INNER service area of the micro layer S overlapping –  Txi,TCH_INNER   Txj,TCH_INNER  .

Let us consider three areas, S1, S2 and S3.

macro macro
S1 = S  Txj,TCH_INNER  – S overlapping –  Txi TCH   Txj,TCH_INNER 

macro
S 2 = S overlapping –  Txi,TCH_INNER   Txj,TCH_INNER 

macro
S 3 = S overlapping –  Txi TCH   Txj,TCH_INNER  – S 2

macro
Where S  Txj,TCH_INNER  is the TCH_INNER subcell service area of Txj.

The traffic specified for Txj in the map description ( E c  Txj TCH  ) is spread over S1 proportionally to R1.

S1
R 1 = -------------------------------------------
-
map
S  Txj TCH 
map
S  Txj TCH  is the TCH service area of Txj in the traffic map with the option “Best signal level of the highest priority
layer”.
The traffic spread over the TCH_INNER service area of the micro layer may overflow to the TCH subcell. The traffic over-
flowing to the TCH subcell is located on the TCH_INNER service area. On S2, the TCH subcell traffic coming from the
TCH_INNER subcell traffic overflow may overflow proportional to R2.

S2
R 2 = -----------------------------------------------------------------
micro
S  Txi,TCH_INNER 
The traffic spread over the ring only served by the TCH subcell of the micro layer may overflow on S3 proportional to R3.

S3
R 3 = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
micro micro
S  Txi,TCH  – S  Txi,TCH_INNER 
macro
For each circuit switched service, c, Atoll calculates the traffic demand, D c t m , in Erlangs in the subcell (Txj,
TCH_INNER) service area.

R 1  E c  Txj TCH  +
micro
macro R 2  D c t m  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi TCH  +
D c t m  Txj,TCH_INNER  =
micro micro
S  Txi TCH  – S  Txi,TCH_INNER  
R 3  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
micro
 E c  Txi TCH   O max  Txi TCH 
S  Txi TCH 

macro
For each packet switched service, p, Atoll calculates the traffic demand, D p t m , in kbits/s in the subcell (Txj,
TCH_INNER) service area.

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Chapter 5: GSM GPRS EGPRS Networks

R 1  T p  Txj TCH  +
micro
macro R 2  D p t m  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi TCH  +
D p t m  Txj,TCH_INNER  =
micro micro
S  Txi TCH  – S  Txi,TCH_INNER  
R 3  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
micro
 T p  Txi TCH   O max  Txi TCH 
S  Txi TCH 

Where O max  Txi TCH  is the maximum rate of traffic overflow (stated in %) specified for the TCH subcell of Txi,
O max  Txi,TCH_INNER  is the maximum rate of traffic overflow (stated in %) specified for the TCH_INNER subcell of Txi
micro
and S  Txi TCH  is the TCH subcell service area of Txi.
The area of the TCH ring of the macro layer is overlapped by the micro layer. There are two parts: an area overlapped by
macro
the TCH service area of the micro layer S overlapping –  Txi TCH   Txj,TCH -- TCH_INNER  and another overlapped by the
macro
TCH_INNER service area of the micro layer S overlapping –  Txi,TCH_INNER   Txj,TCH -- TCH_INNER  .

Let us consider three areas, S’1, S’2 and S’3.

macro macro macro


S' 1 = S  Txj TCH  – S  Txj,TCH_INNER  – S overlapping –  Txi TCH   Txj,TCH -- TCH_INNER 

macro
S' 2 = S overlapping –  Txi,TCH_INNER   Txj,TCH -- TCH_INNER 

macro
S' 3 = S overlapping –  Txi TCH   Txj,TCH -- TCH_INNER  – S' 2

macro macro
Where S  Txj TCH  and S  Txj,TCH_INNER  are the TCH and TCH_INNER subcell service areas of Txj
respectively.

The traffic specified for Txj in the map description ( E c  Txj TCH  ) is spread over S’1 proportional to R’1.

S' 1
R' 1 = -------------------------------------------
-
map
S  Txj TCH 
map
S  Txj TCH  is the TCH service area of Txj in the traffic map with the option “Best signal level of the highest priority
layer”.
The traffic spread over the TCH_INNER service area of the micro layer may overflow to the TCH subcell. The traffic over-
flowing to the TCH subcell is located on the TCH_INNER service area. On S’2, the TCH subcell traffic coming from the
TCH_INNER subcell traffic overflow may overflow proportional to R’2.

S' 2
R' 2 = -----------------------------------------------------------------
micro
S  Txi,TCH_INNER 
The traffic spread over the ring only served by the TCH subcell of the micro layer may overflow on S’3 proportional to R’3.

S' 3
R' 3 = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
micro micro
S  Txi,TCH  – S  Txi,TCH_INNER 
macro
For each circuit switched service, c, Atoll calculates the traffic demand, D c t m , in Erlangs in the subcell (Txj, TCH) service
area.

R' 1  E c  Txj TCH  +


macro
D c t m  Txj,TCH_INNER   O max  Txj,TCH_INNER  +
macro
D c t m  Txj TCH  = micro
R' 2  D c t m  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi TCH  +
micro micro
S  Txi,TCH  – S  Txi,TCH_INNER  
R' 3  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
micro
 E c  Txi TCH   O max  Txi TCH 
S  Txi,TCH 

macro
For each packet switched service, p, Atoll calculates the traffic demand, D p t m , in kbits/s in the subcell (Txj, TCH) service
area.

R' 1  T p  Txj TCH  +


macro
D c t m  Txj,TCH_INNER   O max  Txj,TCH_INNER  +
macro
D p t m  Txj TCH  = micro
R' 2  D p t m  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi,TCH_INNER   O max  Txi TCH  +
micro micro
S  Txi,TCH  – S  Txi,TCH_INNER  
R' 3  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
micro
 T p  Txi TCH   O max  Txi TCH 
S  Txi,TCH 

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Where O max  Txj,TCH_INNER  is the maximum rate of traffic overflow (stated in %) specified for the TCH_INNER subcell
of Txj, O max  Txi TCH  is the maximum rate of traffic overflow (stated in %) specified for the TCH subcell of Txi,
O max  Txi,TCH_INNER  is the maximum rate of traffic overflow (stated in %) specified for the TCH_INNER subcell of Txi,
micro micro
S  Txi,TCH  is the TCH subcell service area of Txi and S  Txi,TCH_INNER  is the TCH_INNER subcell service
area of Txi.

5.3 Network Dimensioning


Atoll is capable of dimensioning a GSM GPRS EDGE network with a mixture of circuit and package switched services.
This section describes the technical details of Atoll’s dimensioning engine.

5.3.1 Dimensioning Models and Quality Graphs


In Atoll, a dimensioning model is an entity utilized by the dimensioning engine along with other inputs (traffic, limitations,
criteria, etc.) in the process of dimensioning. A dimensioning model defines the QoS KPIs to be taken into account when
dimensioning a network for both circuit and packet switched traffic. The user can define either to use Erlang B or Erlang
C queuing model for circuit switched traffic and can define which KPIs to consider when dimensioning the network for
packet switched traffic. The dimensioning engine will only utilize the quality curves of the KPI selected. The KPIs not
selected are supposed to be either already satisfactory or not relatively important.

5.3.1.1 Circuit Switched Traffic


The network dimensioning for circuit switched traffic is performed using the universally accepted and adopted Erlang B
and Erlang C formulas. The dimensioning criterion in these formulas is the Grade of Service or the allowed blocking prob-
ability of the circuit switched traffic.
In the Erlang B approach, this Grade of Service is defined as the percentage of incoming circuit switched calls that are
blocked due to lack of resources or timeslots. This formula implies a loss system. The blocked calls are supposed to be
lost and the caller has to reinitiate it.
In the Erlang C approach, the Grade of Service is the percentage of incoming calls that are placed in a waiting queue when
there are no resources available, until some resources or timeslots are liberated. This queuing system has no lost calls.
As the load on the system increases, the average waiting time in the queue also increases.
These formulas and their details are available in many books. For example, Wireless Communications Principles and
Practice by Theodore S. Rappaport, Prentice Hall.
Following the common practice, network dimensioning in Atoll is based on the principle that a voice or GSM call has priority
over data transmission. Therefore, as explained later in the network dimensioning steps, Atoll first performs network
dimensioning according to the circuit switched traffic present in the subcell in order to ensure the higher priority service
availability before performing the same for the packet switched traffic.

5.3.1.2 Packet Switched Traffic


Since packet switched traffic does not occupy an entire timeslot the whole time, it is much more complicated to study than
circuit switched traffic. Packet traffic is intermittent and bursty. Whenever there is packet data to be transferred, a Tempo-
rary Block Flow (TBF) is initiated for transferring these packets. Multiple TBFs can be multiplexed on the same timeslot.
This implies that there can be many packet switched service users that have the same timeslots assigned for packet data
transfer but at different intervals of time.
This multiplexing of a number of packet switched service users over the same timeslots incurs a certain reduction in the
throughput (data transfer rate) for each multiplexed user. This reduction in the throughput is more perceivable when the
system traffic load is high. The following parts describe the three most important Key Performance Indicators in GPRS/
EDGE networks and how they are modelled in Atoll.

5.3.1.2.1 Throughput
Throughput is defined as the amount of data delivered to the Logical Link Control Layer in a given unit of time. Each tempo-
rary block flow (TBF), and hence each user, has an associated measured throughput sample in a given network. Each
network will have a different throughput probability distribution depending on the load and network configuration. Instead
of using the precise probability distributions, it is more practical to compute the average and percentile throughput values.
In GPRS, the resources are shared between the users being served, and consequently, the throughput is reduced as the
number of active users increases. This reduction in user perceived throughput is modelled through a reduction factor. The
throughput experienced by a user accessing a particular service can be calculated as:
User throughput = Number of allocated timeslots x Timeslot capacity x Reduction Factor
Or
User throughput per allocated timeslot = Timeslot capacity x Reduction Factor

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Timeslot Capacity

The timeslot capacity is the average throughput per fully utilized timeslot. It represents the average throughput from the
network point of view. It mainly depends on the network’s propagation conditions and criteria in the coverage area of a
transmitter (carrier power, carrier-to-interference distribution, etc.). It is a measure of how much data the network is able
to transfer with 1 data Erlang, or in other words, how efficiently the hardware resources are being utilized by the network.
It may also depend on the RLC protocol efficiency.
Atoll computes the average timeslot capacity during the traffic analysis and is used to determine the minimum throughput
reduction factor. But since this information is displayed in the network dimensioning results (only due to relevance), this
information has been considered as a part of the network dimensioning process in this document.

Timeslot Utilisation

Timeslot utilization takes into account the average number of timeslots that are available for packet switched traffic. It is a
measure of how much the network is loaded with data services. Networks with timeslot utilisation close to 100% are close
to saturation and the end-user performance is likely to be very poor.
In Atoll this parameter is termed as the Load (Traffic load for circuit switched traffic and packet switched traffic load for
packet switched traffic). It is described in more detail in the Network dimensioning steps section.

Reduction Factor

Reduction factor takes into account the user throughput reduction due to timeslot sharing among many users. The figure
below shows how the peak throughput available per timeslot is reduced by interference and sharing.Reduction factor is a
function of the number of timeslots assigned to a user (Nu), number of timeslots available in the system (Ns) and the aver-
age system packet switched traffic load (Lp) (utilization of resources in the system). Data Erlangs or data traffic is given by:

Data Erlangs = L P  N S

Figure 5.5: Reduction of Throughput per Timeslot

More precisely, the reduction factor is a function of the ratio Ns/Nu (Np). Np models the equivalent timeslots that are avail-
able for the packet switched traffic in the system. For example, a 24-timeslot system with each user assigned 3 timeslots
per connection can be modelled by a single timeslot connection system with 8 timeslots in total.
The formula for reduction factor can be derived following the same hypotheses followed by Erlang in the derivation of the
blocking probability formulas (Erlang B and Erlang C).
Let X be a random variable that measures the reduction factor in a certain system state:

0 if n = 0
1 if 0 < n  N P
X
N
------P- if n > N P
n

Where n is the instantaneous number of connections in the system. The throughput reduction factor is defined as:

PX= n
RF   X  ----------------------
PX= 0
-
n=0

Or,

PX= n
RF =  X  ------------------------------

-

 PX= i
n=0

i=0

Here, P(X=n) is the probability function of having n connections in the system. Under the same assumptions as those of
the Erlang formulas, the probability function can be written as:

© Forsk 2009 AT271_TRG_E6 147


Technical Reference Guide

n
 LP  NP 
-------------------------
-
n!
P  X = n  = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- if 0  n  N P
N P 
i i
 LP  NP   LP  NP 
 i!
-+
-----------------------  --------------------------------
N !  NP
 i – NP 
-
i=0 i = NP +1 P

n
 LP  NP 
--------------------------------
-
 i – NP 
N P!  N P
P  X = n  = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
N
- if n > N P
P 
i i
 LP  NP   LP  NP 
 i!
-+
-----------------------  --------------------------------
N !  NP
 i – NP 
-
i=0 i = NP +1 P

Hence the reduction factor can finally be written as:


NP 
i i
 LP  NP   LP  NP  NP
 -----------------------
-+  ---------------------------------   -------
i!  i – NP   i 
i=1 i = NP + 1 P
N !  NP
RF = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
N
-
P 
i i
 LP  NP   LP  NP 
 i!
-+
-----------------------  --------------------------------
N !  N
 i – NP 
-
i=1 i = NP +1 P P

This formula is not directly applicable in any software application due to the summations up to infinity. Atoll uses the follow-
ing version of this formula that is exactly the same formula without the summation overflow problem.
NP  NP + 1  NP
 LP  NP 
n
NP  L 
n

 - – ---------------------   ln  1 – L P  +
-------------------------  -----P-
n! N P !  n
 
RF = n----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
=1
N
n=1 -
P
n NP
 LP  NP   LP  NP  LP
 n!
- + -----------------------------  ---------------
-------------------------
N P! 1 – LP
n=1

The default quality curves for the Reduction Factor have been derived using the above formula. Each curve is for a fixed
number of timeslots available for packet switched traffic (Np) describing the reduction factor at different values of packet
switched traffic load (Lp). The figure below contains all the reduction factor quality curves in Atoll. The Maximum reduction
factor can be 1, implying a maximum throughput, and the minimum can be 0, implying a saturated system with no data
throughput.

Figure 5.6: Reduction Factor for Different Packet Switched Traffic Loads (Lp, X-axis)

Each curve in the above figure represents an equivalent number of packet switched timeslots, NP.

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Chapter 5: GSM GPRS EGPRS Networks

5.3.1.2.2 Delay
Delay is the time required for an LLC PDU to be completely transferred from the SGSN to the MS, or vice versa. Its model-
ling in an RF planning tool is a difficult task. Currently, study on this subject is underway at Forsk. Models for different traffic
types (HTTP, FTP, SMTP, SMS, etc.) are being studied to search for a possible analytical solution for this problem.
As the delay is a function of the delays and the losses incurred at the packet level, the network parameters, such as the
packet queue length, and different protocol properties, such as the size of the LLC PDU, become important. It is also quite
dependent upon the radio access round trip time (RA RTT) and has a considerable impact on the application level perform-
ance viewed by the user.
The delay parameter is a user level parameter rather than being a network level quantity, like throughput per cell, timeslot
capacity, TBF blocking and reduction factor, hence it is difficult to model and is currently under study. Hence, no default
curve is presently available for delay in Atoll.

5.3.1.2.3 Blocking Probability


In GPRS, there is no blocking as in circuit switched connections. If a new temporary block flow (TBF) establishment is
requested and there are already M users per timeslot, M being the maximum limit of multiplexing per timeslot (Multiplexing
factor), the request is queued in the system to be established later when resources become available.
Supposing that M number of users can be multiplexed over a single timeslot (PDCH), we can have a maximum of M * Np
users in the system. This implies that if a new TBF is requested when there are already M * Np users active, it will be
blocked and placed in a queue. So the blocking probability is the probability of having M * Np + 1 users in the system or
more, meaning,

PX= n for n =  M  N P  + 1

as in this case n is always greater than Np, we have,

n
 LP  NP 
---------------------------------
 i – NP 
N P!  N P
P  X = n  = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
N
-
P 
i i
 LP  NP   LP  NP 
 ------------------------ +
i!  --------------------------------
N !  N
 i – NP 
-
i=0 i = NP +1 P P

So, the Blocking Probability can be given as:



n
 LP  NP 
  ----------------------------------
N !  NP
 1 – NP 
-
n = M  NP + 1 P
BP =  P  X = n  = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
N P
i

i
n = MN+1  LP  NP   LP  NP 
 i!
-+
-----------------------  ----------------------------------
N !  N
 1 – NP 
-
i=0 i = NP +1 P P

Eliminating the summations to infinity, the blocking probability can be stated in a simpler form:
M  NP
 LP  NP  LP
-  ---------------
--------------------------------------------
 M  N P – NP  1 – L
N P!  N P P
BP = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
N
-
P
i NP
 LP  NP   LP  NP  LP
 ------------------------ + -----------------------------  ---------------
i! N P! 1 – LP
i=0

The above formula has been used to generate the default quality curves for blocking probability in Atoll.
These graphs are generated for a user multiplexing factor of 8 users per timeslot. Each curve represents an equivalent
number of packet switched timeslots, NP.

The curves depict the blocking probabilities for different number of available connections (Np) at different packet switched
traffic loads (Lp) for a fixed user multiplexing factor of 8. The figure below contains all the blocking probability curves for
packet switched traffic dimensioning in Atoll. The blocking probability increases with the packet switched traffic load, which
implies that as the packet switched traffic increases for a given number of timeslots, the system starts to get more and
more loaded, hence there is higher probability of having a temporary block flow placed in a waiting queue.

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Technical Reference Guide

Figure 5.7: Blocking Probability for Different Packet Switched Traffic Loads (Lp, X-axis)

Reference:
T. Halonen, J. Romero, J. Melero; GSM, GPRS and EDGE performance – Evolution towards 3G/UMTS, John Wiley
and Sons Ltd.

5.3.2 Network Dimensioning Process


The network dimensioning process is described below in detail. As the whole dimensioning process is in fact a chain of
small processes that have there respective inputs and outputs, with outputs of a preceding one being the inputs to the
next, the best method is to detail each process individually in form of steps of the global dimensioning process.

5.3.2.1 Network Dimensioning Engine


During the dimensioning process, Atoll first computes the number of timeslots required to accommodate the circuit
switched traffic. Then it calculates the number of timeslots to add in order to satisfy the demand of packet switched traffic.
This is performed using the quality curves entered in the dimensioning model used. If the dimensioning model has been
indicated to take all three KPIs in to account (throughput reduction factor, delay and blocking probability), the number of
timeslots to be added is calculated such that:
1. The throughput reduction factor is greater than the minimum throughput reduction factor,
2. Delay is less than the maximum permissible delay defined in the service properties, and
3. The blocking probability is less than the maximum allowable blocking probability defined in the service properties.
The figure below depicts a simplified flowchart of the dimensioning engine in Atoll.

Figure 5.8: Network Dimensioning Process

On the whole, following are the inputs and outputs of the network dimensioning process:

5.3.2.1.1 Inputs
• Circuit switched traffic demand
• Packet switched traffic demand

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Chapter 5: GSM GPRS EGPRS Networks

• Timeslot configurations defined for each subcell


• Target traffic overflow rate and Half-rate traffic ratio for each subcell
• Service availability criteria: minimum required throughput per user, maximum permissible delay, maximum allow-
able blocking probability etc.
• Dimensioning model parameters: Maximum number of TRXs per transmitter, dimensioning model for circuit
switched traffic, number of minimum dedicated packet switched timeslots per transmitter, maximum number of
TRXs added for packet switched services, KPIs to consider, and their quality curves.

5.3.2.1.2 Outputs
• Number of required TRXs per transmitter
• Number of required shared, circuit switched and packet switched timeslots
• Traffic load
• Served circuit switched traffic
• Served packet switched traffic
• Effective rate of traffic overflow
• Actual KPI values: throughput reduction factor, delay and blocking probability

5.3.2.2 Network Dimensioning Steps


This section describes the entire process step by step as it is actually performed in Atoll. Details of the calculations of the
parameters that are calculated during each step are described as well.

5.3.2.2.1 Step 1: Timeslots Required for CS Traffic


Atoll computes the number of timeslots required to accommodate the circuit switched traffic assigned to each subcell. Atoll
takes the circuit switched traffic demand (Erlangs), calculated in the traffic analysis and assigned to the current subcell,
and the maximum blocking probability defined for the circuit switched service, and computes the required number of times-
lots to satisfy this demand using the Erlang B or Erlang C formula (as defined by the user).
If the user-defined target rate of traffic overflow per subcell, OTarget, is greater than the maximum blocking rate defined in
the services properties, it is going to be taken as the Grade of Service required for that subcell instead of the maximum
blocking rate of the service.
For the blocking probability GoS and circuit switched traffic demand TDC, Atoll determines the required number of times-
lots TSreq. C for each subcell using formulas described below. In fact, Atoll searches for TSreq. C value until the defined
grade of service is reached.
For Erlang B, we have:
TS reqC
 TD C 
--------------------------------
 TS reqC !
GoS = ----------------------------------
TS
-
reqC
k
 TD C 
 ------------------
k!
-
k=0

For Erlang C, we have:


TS reqC
 TD C 
GoS = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TS –1
-
reqC
k
TS reqC TD C   TD C 
 TD C  +  TS reqC !   1 – ------------------
-   ------------------
-
 TS  k!
reqC
k=0

Atoll considers the effect of half-rate circuit switched traffic by taking into account a user-defined percentage of half-rate
traffic. Atoll computes the effective equivalent number of full-rate timeslots that will be required to carry the total traffic with
the defined percentage of half-rate traffic.
If the number of timeslots required to accommodate the full-rate circuit switched traffic is TSreq. FR, and the percentage of
half-rate traffic within the subcell is defined by HR, then the effective number of equivalent full-rate circuit switched times-
lots TSeff. that can carry this traffic mix is calculated by:

HR
TS eff = TS reqFR   1 – ---------
 2 

Atoll employs this simplified approach to integrating half-rate circuit switched traffic, which provides approximately the
same results as obtained by using the half-rate traffic charts.

5.3.2.2.2 Step 2: TRXs Required for CS Traffic and Dedicated PS Timeslots


This stage of the network dimensioning process computes the number of TRXs required to carry the circuit switched traffic
demand through the number of required timeslots calculated above and the timeslot configuration defined by the user in
the network settings. Atoll distributes the number of required circuit switched timeslots calculated in Step 1 taking into
account the presence of dedicated packet switched timeslots in each TRX according to the timeslot configurations.
If a timeslot configuration defines a certain number of dedicated packet switched timeslots pre-allocated in certain TRXs,
those timeslots will not be considered capable of carrying circuit switched traffic and hence will not be allocated. For exam-
ple, if 4 timeslots have been marked as packet switched timeslots in the first TRX and Atoll computes 8 timeslots for carry-

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Technical Reference Guide

ing a certain circuit switched traffic demand, then the number of TRXs to be allocated cannot be 1 even if there is no packet
switched traffic considered yet.
The total numbers of timeslots that carry circuit switched and packet switched traffic respectively are the sums of respec-
tive dedicated and shared timeslots:

TS P = TS S + TS P dedicated and TS C = TS S + TS C dedicated

5.3.2.2.3 Step 3: Effective CS Blocking, Effective CS Traffic Overflow and Served CS Traffic
In this step, the previously calculated number of required TRXs is used to compute the effective blocking rate for the circuit
switched traffic. This is performed by using the Erlang B or Erlang C formula with the circuit switched traffic demand and
the number of required TRXs as inputs and computing the Grade of Service (or blocking probability). It then calculates the
effective traffic overflow rate, Oeff..

In case of Erlang B formula, the effective rate of traffic overflow for the circuit switched traffic is the same as the circuit
switched blocking rate. While in case of the Erlang C model, the circuit switched traffic is supposed to be placed in an
infinite-length waiting queue. This implies that there is no overflow in this case.
From this data, it also computes the served circuit switched traffic. This is the difference of the circuit switched traffic
demand and the percentage of traffic that overflows from the subcell to other subcells calculated above. Hence, for an
effective traffic overflow rate of Oeff. and the circuit switched traffic demand of TDC, the served circuit switched traffic STC
is computed as:

ST C = TD C   1 – O eff 

5.3.2.2.4 Step 4: TRXs to Add for PS Traffic


This step is the core of the dimensioning process for packet switched services. First of all, Atoll computes the number of
TRXs to be added to carry the packet switched traffic demand. This is the number of TRXs that contain dedicated packet
switched and shared timeslots.
To determine this number of TRXs, Atoll calculates the equivalent average packet switched traffic demand in timeslots by
studying each pixel covered by the transmitter. This calculation is in fact performed in the traffic analysis process. Knowing
the traffic demand per pixel of the covered area in terms of kbps and the maximum attainable throughput per pixel (accord-
ing to the C and/or C/I conditions and the coding scheme curves in the GPRS/EDGE equipment), Atoll calculates the aver-
age traffic demand in packet switched timeslots by:

Traffic demand per pixel (kbps)


TD P
Timeslots
=  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Throughput per pixel (kbps)
pixel

The average timeslot capacity of a transmitter is calculated by dividing the packet switched traffic demand over the entire
coverage area (in kbps) by the packet switched traffic demand in timeslots calculated above.
With the number of timeslots required to serve the circuit switched traffic, the timeslots required for packet switched traffic
and their respective distributions according to the timeslot configurations being known, Atoll calculates the number of
timeslots available for carrying the packet switched traffic demand. These timeslots can be dedicated packet switched
timeslots and the shared ones. So, following the principle that shared timeslots are potential carriers of both traffic types,

TS P = TS S + TS P dedicated

TS C = TS S + TS C dedicated

The packet switched traffic load is calculated by the formula:

 ST C – TS C dedicated + TD P 
Timeslots
L P = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
TS P

The second important parameter for the calculation of Reduction Factor, Delay and Blocking Probability is the equivalent
number of available timeslots for packet switched traffic, i.e. NP. This is computed by dividing the total number of timeslots
available for carrying packet switched traffic by the number of downlink timeslots defined in the mobile terminal properties.
So, NP is calculated at this stage as:

TS P
N P = ---------------------------
-
TS Terminal

Where, TSTerminal is the number of timeslots that a terminal will use in packet switched calls. This is determined by taking
the lower of the maximum number of timeslots for packet switched service defined in the service properties and the maxi-
mum number of timeslots that a mobile terminal can use for packet switched services defined in the terminal type proper-
ties.

TS Terminal = min  TS Max Service TS Max TerminalType 

Here, the min(X,Y) function yields the lower value among X and Y as result.
Now, knowing the packet switched traffic load, LP, and the equivalent number of available timeslots, NP, Atoll finds out the
KPIs that have been selected before launching the dimensioning process using the quality curves stored in the dimension-
ing model.
This particular part of this step can be iterative if the KPIs to consider in dimensioning are not satisfied in the first try. If the
KPIs calculated above are within acceptable limits as defined by the user, it means that the dimensioning process has

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Chapter 5: GSM GPRS EGPRS Networks

acceptable results. If these KPIs are not satisfied, then Atoll increases the number of TRXs calculated for carrying packet
switched traffic by 1 (each increment adding 8 more timeslots for carrying packet switched traffic as the least unit that can
be physically added or removed is a TRX) and resumes the computations from Step 3. It then recalculates the packet
switched traffic load, LP, and the equivalent number of available timeslots, NP. Then it recomputes the KPIs with these
new values of LP and NP. If the KPIs are within satisfactory limits the results are considered to be acceptable. Otherwise,
Atoll performs another iteration to find the best possible results.
The calculated values of all the KPIs are compared with the ones defined in the service properties. The values for maxi-
mum Delay and Blocking probability are defined directly in the properties but the minimum throughput reduction factor is
calculated by Atoll using the user’s inputs: minimum throughput per user and required availability. This calculation is in fact
performed during the traffic analysis process, but since it is relevant to the dimensioning procedure, it is displayed in a
column in the dimensioning results so that the user can easily compare the minimum requirement on the reduction factor
KPI with the resulting one.

Minimum Throughput Reduction Factor Calculation

The minimum throughput reduction factor is computed using the input data: minimum required throughput per user defined
in the service properties, the average throughput per timeslot deduced from the throughput curves stored in the GPRS/
EDGE equipment properties for each coding scheme, the number of downlink timeslots defined in the properties of the
mobile terminal and the required availability defined in the service properties.
It is at the stage of calculating the average timeslot capacity per transmitter that Atoll studies each covered pixel for carrier
power or carrier-to-interference ratio. According to the measured carrier power or carrier-to-interference ratio, Atoll
deduces the maximum throughput available on that pixel through the throughput vs. C or throughput vs. C/I curves of the
GPRS/EDGE equipment.
The throughput per timeslot per pixel TPTS, Pixel can be either a function of carrier power C, or carrier power C and the
carrier-to-interference ratio C/I, depending on the user-defined traffic analysis RF conditions criteria. Therefore,

TP TS Pixel = f  C 

Or

C
TP TS Pixel = f  C  and TP TS Pixel = f  ----
 i

The required availability parameter defines the percentage of pixels within the coverage area of the transmitter that must
satisfy the minimum throughput condition. This parameter renders user-manageable flexibility to the throughput require-
ment constraint.
To calculate the minimum throughput reduction factor for the transmitter, Atoll computes the minimum throughput reduc-
tion factor for each pixel using the formula:

TP user min
RF min Pixel = -------------------------------------------------------------
-
TP TS Pixel  TS Terminal

Once the minimum reduction factor for each pixel is known, Atoll calculates the global minimum reduction factor that is
satisfied by the percentage of covered pixels defined in the required availability. The following example may help in under-
standing the concept and calculation method.
Example: Let the total number of pixels, covered by a subcell S, be 1050. The reliability level set to 90%. This implies that
the required minimum throughput for the given service will be available at 90% of the pixels covered. This, in turn, implies
that there will be a certain limit on the reduction factor, i.e. if the actual reduction factor in that subcell becomes less than
a minimum required, the service will not be satisfactory.
Atoll computes the minimum reduction factor at each pixel using the formula mentioned above, and outputs the following
results:

RFmin Number of pixels


0.3 189
0.36 57
0.5 20
0.6 200
0.72 473
0.9 23
0.98 87

So for a reliability level of 90%, the corresponding RFmin will be the one provided at least 90% of the pixels covered, i.e.
945 pixels. The corresponding value of the resulting RFmin in this example hence turns out to be 0.9, since this value
covers 962 pixels in total. Only 87 of the covered pixels imply an RFmin of 0.98. These will be the pixels that do not provide
satisfactory service.
This calculation is performed for each service type available in the subcell coverage area. The final minimum throughput
reduction factor is the highest one amongst all calculated for each service separately.
The minimum throughput reduction factor RFmin value is a minimum requirement that must be fulfilled by the network
dimensioning process when the Reduction Factor KPI is selected in the dimensioning model.

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Technical Reference Guide

Figure 5.9: Minimum Throughput Reduction Factor

5.3.2.2.5 Step 5: Served PS Traffic


Atoll calculates the served packet switched traffic using the number of timeslots available to carry the packet switched traf-
fic demand. As the result of the above iterative step, Atoll always finds the best possible answer in terms of number of
timeslots required to carry the packet switched traffic demand unless the requirement exceeds the maximum limit on the
number of the packet switched traffic timeslots defined in the dimensioning model properties. Hence, there is no packet
traffic overflow unless the packet switched traffic demand requires more TRXs than the maximum allowed

5.3.2.2.6 Step 6: Total Traffic Load


This step calculates the final result of the dimensioning process, i.e. the total traffic load. The total traffic load L is calculated
as:

ST C + ST P
L = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
TS C dedicated + TS P dedicated + TS S

Where,
• STC is the served circuit switched traffic
• STP is the served packet switched traffic
• TSC, dedicated is the number of dedicated circuit switched timeslots
• TSP, dedicated is the number of dedicated packet switched timeslots
• TSS is the number of shared timeslots

5.4 Key Performance Indicators Calculation


This feature calculates the current values for all circuit switched and packet switched Key Performance Indicators as a
measure of the current performance of the network. It can be used to evaluate an already dimensioned network in which
recent traffic changes have been made in limited regions to infer the possible problematic areas and then to improve the
network dimensioning with respect to these changes.
The concept of this computation is the inverse of that of the dimensioning process. In this case, Atoll has the results of the
dimensioning process already committed and known. Atoll then computes the current values for all the KPIs knowing the
number of required TRXs, the respective numbers of shared and dedicated timeslots and the circuit switched and packet
switched traffic demands.
The computation algorithm utilizes the parameters set in the dimensioning model properties and the quality curves for the
throughput reduction factor, delay and the blocking probability.
The following conventional relations apply:
If,
• TSC, dedicated is the number of timeslots dedicated to the circuit switched traffic,
• TSP, dedicated is the number of timeslots dedicated to the packet switched traffic,
• TSS is the number of shared timeslots for a transmitter,

Then, the number of timeslots available for the circuit switched traffic, TSC, is defined as:

TS C = TS S + TS C dedicated

And the number of timeslots available for the packet switched traffic, TSP, is given by:

TS P = TS S + TS P dedicated

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5.4.1 Circuit Switched Traffic


For each subcell, Atoll has already calculated the effective traffic overflow rate and the blocking rate during the dimension-
ing process. Also knowing the circuit switched traffic demand, TDC, and the number of timeslots available for circuit
switched traffic, TSC, the blocking probability can be easily computed using the Erlang formulas or tables.

5.4.1.1 Erlang B
Under the current conditions of circuit switched traffic demand, TDC, and the number of timeslots available for the circuit
switched traffic, TSC, the percentage of blocked circuit switched traffic can be computed through:

TS C
 TD C 
--------------------------
 TS C !
% of blocked traffic = -----------------------------
TS
-
C
k
 TD C 
 ------------------
k!
-
k=0

In a network dimensioning based on Erlang B model, the circuit switched traffic overflow rate, OC, is the same as the
percentage of traffic blocked by the subcell calculated above.

5.4.1.2 Erlang C
Similarly, under the current conditions of circuit switched traffic demand, TDC, and the number of timeslots available for
the circuit switched traffic, TSC, the percentage of delayed circuit switched traffic can be computed through:

TS C
 TD C 
% of traffic delayed = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TS – 1 C
k
TS C TD C  TD C 
 TD C  +  TS C !   1 – -----------   -------------------
 TS  k!
C
k=0

If the circuit switched traffic demand, TDC, is higher than the number of timeslots available to accommodate circuit
switched traffic, the column for this result will be empty signifying that there is a percentage of circuit switched traffic actu-
ally being rejected rather than just being delayed under the principle of Erlang C model.
The circuit switched traffic overflow rate, OC, will be 0 if the circuit switched traffic demand, TDC, is less than the number
of timeslots available for the circuit switched traffic, TSC.
If, on the other hand, the circuit switched traffic demand, TDC, is higher than the number of timeslots available to carry the
circuit switched traffic, TSC, then there will be a certain percentage of circuit switched traffic that will overflow from the
subcell. This circuit switched traffic overflow rate, OC, is calculated as:

TD C – TS C
O C = ----------------------------
-
TD C

5.4.1.3 Served Circuit Switched Traffic


The result of the above two processes will be a traffic overflow rate for the circuit switched traffic for each subcell, OC. The
served circuit switched traffic, STC, is calculated as:

ST C = TD C   1 – O C 

5.4.2 Packet Switched Traffic


Identifying the total traffic demand, TDT, (circuit switched traffic demand + packet switched traffic demand) as:

TD T = TD C + TD P

The following two cases can be considered.

5.4.2.1 Case 1: Total Traffic Demand > Dedicated + Shared Timeslots


In the case where the total number of timeslots available is less than the total traffic demand, there will be packet switched
data traffic that will be rejected by the subcell as it will not be able to accommodate it. The following results are expected
in this case:

5.4.2.1.1 Traffic Load


The traffic load will be 100%, as the subcell will have more traffic to carry than it can. This implies that the system will be
loaded to the maximum and even saturated. Hence the user level quality of service is bound to be very unsatisfactory.

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5.4.2.1.2 Packet Switched Traffic Overflow


In a 100% loaded, or even saturated subcell, the packet switched data calls will start being rejected because of shortage
of available resources. Hence there will be a perceptible packet switched traffic overflow in this subcell, OP. This overflow
rate is calculated as show below:

  TS C dedicated + TS P dedicated + TS S  – ST C 
-  100
O P = 1 – ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TD P

5.4.2.1.3 Throughput Reduction Factor


The resulting throughput reduction factor for a 100% loaded or saturated subcell will be 0. Hence, the throughput perceived
by the packet switched service user will be 0, implying a very bad quality of service.

5.4.2.1.4 Delay
Again for a 100% loaded or saturated subcell, the delay at the packet switched service user end will be infinite as there is
no data transfer (throughput = 0).

5.4.2.1.5 Blocking Probability


All the data packets will be rejected by the system since it is saturated and has no free resources to allocate to incoming
data packets. Hence, the blocking probability will be 100%.

5.4.2.1.6 Served Packet Switched Traffic


With the packet switched data traffic overflowing from the subcell, there will be a part of that traffic that is not served. The
served packet switched data traffic, STP, is calculated on the same principle as the served circuit switched traffic:

ST P = TD P   1 – O P 

5.4.2.2 Case 2: Total Traffic Demand < Dedicated + Shared Timeslots


In the case where the total traffic demand is less than the number of timeslots available to carry the traffic, the subcell will
not be saturated and there will be some deducible values for all the data KPIs. In a normally loaded subcell, the packet
switched data traffic will have no overflow percentage. This is due to the fact that the packet switched data traffic is rather
placed in a waiting queue than be rejected.
Therefore, there will be a within limits packet switched traffic load, LP, calculated as under:

 ST C – TS C dedicated + TD P 
Timeslots
L P = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
TS P

The second parameter for computing the KPIs from the quality curves of the dimensioning model is the number of equiv-
alent timeslots available for the packet switched data traffic, NP, which is calculated in the same manner as in the dimen-
sioning process as well:

TS P
N P = ---------------------------
-
TS Terminal

These parameters calculated, now Atoll can compute the required KPIs through their respective quality curves.

5.4.2.2.1 Traffic Load


The traffic load is computed knowing the total traffic demand and the total number of timeslots available to carry the entire
traffic demand:

TD T
Traffic Load = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
TS C dedicated + TS P dedicated + TS S

5.4.2.2.2 Packet Switched Traffic Overflow


In a normally loaded subcell, no packet switched data calls will be rejected. The packet switched traffic overflow will, there-
fore, be 0.

5.4.2.2.3 Throughput Reduction Factor


The resulting throughput reduction factor for a normally loaded subcell is calculated through the throughput reduction
factor quality curve for given packet switched traffic load, LP, and number of equivalent timeslots, NP.

5.4.2.2.4 Delay
The resulting delay the subcell is calculated through the delay quality curve for given packet switched traffic load, LP, and
number of equivalent timeslots, NP.

5.4.2.2.5 Blocking Probability


The resulting blocking probability for a normally loaded subcell is calculated through the blocking probability quality curve
for given packet switched traffic load, LP, and number of equivalent timeslots, NP.

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5.4.2.2.6 Served Packet Switched Traffic


As there is no overflow of the packet switched traffic demand from the subcell under consideration, the served packet
switched traffic will be the same as the packet switched traffic demand:

ST P = TD P

5.5 Neighbour Allocation


The intra-technology neighbour allocation algorithm takes into account all the TBC transmitters. It means that all the TBC
transmitters of the .atl document are potential neighbours.
The transmitters to be allocated will be called TBA transmitters. They must fulfil the following conditions:
• They are active,
• They satisfy the filter criteria applied to the Transmitters folder,
• They are located inside the focus zone,
• They belong to the folder on which allocation has been executed. This folder can be either the Transmitters folder
or a group of transmitters or a single transmitter.
Only TBA transmitters may be assigned neighbours.
Note:
• If no focus zone exists in the .atl document, Atoll takes into account the computation zone.

5.5.1 Global Allocation for All Transmitters


We assume a reference transmitter A and a candidate neighbour, transmitter B.
When automatic allocation starts, Atoll checks following conditions:
1. The distance between both transmitters must be less than the user-definable maximum inter-site distance. If the
distance between the reference transmitter and the candidate neighbour is greater than this value, then the
candidate neighbour is discarded.
2. The calculation options,
Force co-site transmitters as neighbours: This option enables you to force transmitters located on the reference transmitter
site in the candidate neighbour list. This constraints can be weighted among the others and ranks the neighbours through
the importance field (see after).
Force adjacent transmitters as neighbours: This option enables you to force transmitters geographically adjacent to the
reference transmitter in the candidate neighbour list. This constraints can be weighted among the others and ranks the
neighbours through the importance field (see after).
Notes:
• Adjacence criterion: Geographically adjacent transmitters are determined on the basis of
their Best Server coverages in 2G (GSM GPRS EGPRS) projects. More precisely, a
transmitter TXi is considered adjacent to another transmitter TXj if there exists at least one
pixel of TXi Best Server coverage area where TXj is the 2nd Best Server. The ranking of
the adjacent neighbour transmitter increases with the number of these pixels. The figure
below shows the above concept.

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• When this option is checked, adjacent cells are sorted and listed from the most adjacent to
the least, depending on the above criterion. Adjacence is relative to the number of pixels
satisfying the criterion.
• This criteria is only applicable to transmitters belonging to the same HCS layer. The
geographic adjacency criteria is not the same in 3G (UMTS HSPA, CDMA2000) projects.

Force neighbour symmetry: This option enables user to force the reciprocity of a neighbourhood link. Therefore, if the refer-
ence transmitter is a candidate neighbour of another transmitter, the later will be considered as candidate neighbour of the
reference transmitter.
Force exceptional pairs: This option enables you to force/forbid some neighbourhood relationships. Therefore, you may
force/forbid a transmitter to be candidate neighbour of the reference transmitter.
Delete existing neighbours: When selecting the Delete existing neighbours option, Atoll deletes all the current neighbours
and carries out a new neighbour allocation. If not selected, the existing neighbours are kept.

3. There must be an overlapping zone ( S A  S B ) with a given cell edge coverage probability where:
• SA is the area where the received signal level from the transmitter A is greater than a minimum signal level. SA is
the coverage area of reference transmitter A restricted between two boundaries; the first boundary represents the
start of the handover area (best server area of A plus the handover margin named “handover start”) and the
second boundary shows the end of the handover area (best server area of A plus the margin called “handover
end”)
• SB is the coverage area where the candidate transmitter B is the best server.

SA  SB
Atoll calculates either the percentage of covered area ( ----------------------  100 ) if the option “Take into account Covered Area” is
SA

selected, or the percentage of traffic covered on the overlapping area S A  S B for the option “Take into account Covered
Traffic”. Then, it compares this value to the % minimum covered area (minimum percentage of covered area for the option
“Take into account Covered Area” or minimum percentage of covered traffic for the option “Take into account Covered
Traffic”). If this percentage is not exceeded, the candidate neighbour B is discarded.

The coverage condition can be weighted among the others and ranks the neighbours through the importance field (see
number 4 below).

Figure 5.10: Overlapping Zones

4. The importance values are used by the allocation algorithm to rank the neighbours according to the allocation
reason, and to quantify the neighbour importance.
Atoll lists all neighbours and sorts them by importance value so as to eliminate some of them from the neighbour list if the
maximum number of neighbours to be allocated to each transmitter is exceeded. If we consider the case for which there
are 15 candidate neighbours and the maximum number of neighbours to be allocated to the reference transmitter is 8.

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Among these 15 candidate neighbours, only 8 (having the highest importances) will be allocated to the reference trans-
mitter.
As indicated in the table below, the neighbour importance depends on the neighbourhood cause; this value goes from 0
to 100%.

Importance
Neighbourhood cause When
value
Only if the Delete existing neighbours option is not selected Existing
Existing neighbour
and in case of a new allocation importance
Exceptional pair Only if the Force exceptional pairs option is selected 100 %
Only if the Force co-site transmitters as neighbours option is
Co-site transmitter (IF) function
selected
Only if the Force adjacent transmitters as neighbours option is
Adjacent transmitter (IF) function
selected
Neighbourhood relationship that fulfils
Only if the % minimum covered area is exceeded (IF) function
coverage conditions
Symmetric neighbourhood
Only if the Force neighbour symmetry option is selected (IF) function
relationship

Except forced neighbour case (importance = 100%), priority assigned to each neighbourhood cause is now linked to the
(IF) Importance Function evaluation. The importance is evaluated through a function (IF), taking into account the following
3 factors:
• Co-site factor (C) which is a Boolean factor,
• Adjacency factor (A) which deals with the percentage of adjacency,
• Overlapping factor (O) meaning the percentage of overlapping
The (IF) function is user-definable using the Min importance and Max importance fields.

Min Max
Factor Default value Default value
importance importance
Overlapping factor (O) Min(O) 1% Max(O) 30%
Adjacency factor (A) Min(A) 30% Max(A) 60%
Co-site factor (C) Min(C) 60% Max(C) 100%

The (IF) function is evaluated as follows:

Neighbourhood cause (IF) function with default Min


(IF) function
Co-site Adjacent and Max default values
no no Min(O) + Delta(O)(O) 1% + 29%(O)
Min(A)+Delta(A){Max(O)(O)+(100%-
no yes 30% + 30%{30%(O) + 70%(A)}
Max(O))(A)}
Min(C)+Delta(C){Max(O)(O)+(100%-
yes yes 60% + 40%{30%(O )+ 70%(A)}
Max(O))(A)}

Where Delta(x) = Max(x) - Min(x)


Notes:
• If there is no overlapping between the range of each factor, the neighbours will be ranked
by neighbourhood cause. Using the default values for minimum and maximum importance
fields, neighbours will be ranked in this order: first co-site neighbours, then adjacent
neighbours, and finally neighbours found on overlapping criterion.
• If ranges of (IF) factors overlap each other, the neighbours may not be ranked by
neighbourhood cause.
• The ranking between neighbours from the same category will depend on (A) and (O)
factors.
• The default value of Min(O)= 1%, ensures that neighbours selected for symmetry will have
an importance greater than 0%. With a value of Min(O)= 0%, neighbours selected for
symmetry, will have an importance field greater than 0% only if there is some overlapping.

In the Results part, Atoll provides the list of neighbours, the number of neighbours and the maximum number of neigh-
bours allowed for each cell. In addition, it indicates the importance (in %) of each neighbour and the allocation reason.
Therefore, a neighbour may be marked as exceptional pair, co-site, adjacent, coverage or symmetric. For neighbours
accepted for co-site, adjacency and coverage reasons, Atoll displays the percentage of area meeting the coverage condi-
tions (or the percentage of covered traffic on this area) and the corresponding surface area (km2) (or the traffic covered
on the area in Erlangs), the percentage of area meeting the adjacency conditions and the corresponding surface area
(km2). Finally, if cells have previous allocations in the list, neighbours are marked as existing.

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Notes:
• No prediction study is needed to perform an automatic neighbour allocation. When starting
an automatic neighbour allocation, Atoll automatically calculates the path loss matrices if
not found.
• Atoll uses traffic map(s) selected in the default traffic analysis in order to determine the
percentage of traffic covered in the overlapping area.
• The percentage of area (or the percentage of covered traffic) is calculated with the
resolution specified in the property dialog of the predictions folder (Default resolution
parameter).
• When the option “Force adjacent transmitters as neighbours” is used, the margin
“handover start” is not taken into account. Atoll considers a fixed value of 0 dB.
• A forbidden neighbour must not be listed as neighbour except if the neighbourhood
relationship already exists and the Delete existing neighbours option is unchecked when
you start the new allocation. In this case, Atoll displays a warning in the Event viewer
indicating that the constraint on the forbidden neighbour will be ignored by algorithm
because the neighbour already exists.
• The force neighbour symmetry option enables the users to consider the reciprocity of a
neighbourhood link. This reciprocity is allowed only if the neighbour list is not already full.
Thus, if transmitter B is a neighbour of the transmitter A while transmitter A is not a
neighbour of the transmitter B, two cases are possible:

1st case: There is space in the transmitter B neighbour list: the transmitter A will be added
to the list. It will be the last one.

2nd case: The transmitter B neighbour list is full: Atoll will not include transmitter A in the list
and will cancel the link by deleting transmitter B from the transmitter A neighbour list.
• When the options “Force exceptional pairs” and “Force symmetry” are selected, Atoll
considers the constraints between exceptional pairs in both directions so as to respect
symmetry condition. On the other hand, if neighbourhood relationship is forced in one
direction and forbidden in the other one, symmetry cannot be respected. In this case, Atoll
displays a warning in the Event viewer.
• In the Results, Atoll displays only the transmitters for which it finds new neighbours.
Therefore, if a transmitter has already reached its maximum number of neighbours before
starting the new allocation, it will not appear in the Results table.

5.5.2 Allocation for a Group of Transmitters or One Transmitter


In this case, Atoll allocates neighbours to:
• TBA transmitters,
• Neighbours of TBA transmitters marked as exceptional pair, adjacent and symmetric,
• Neighbours of TBA transmitters that satisfy coverage conditions.
Automatic neighbour allocation parameters are described in "Global Allocation for All Transmitters" on page 157.

5.6 Interference Prediction Studies


5.6.1 Coverage Studies
Two interference studies with predefined settings are available:
• The coverage by C/I level study: This study provides you a global analysis of the network quality.
• The interfered areas study: This study shows the areas where a transmitter is interfered by other ones.
In both cases, Atoll calculates C/I ratio on each calculation bin where conditions on signal level reception are satisfied.
Then, it either considers the bins where the calculated C/I exceeds a lower threshold in the coverage and colours these
bins depending on C/I value (coverage by C/I level study), or it considers the bins where the calculated C/I is lower than
a upper threshold in the coverage and colours them depending on colour of the interfered transmitter (interfered areas
study).
The user-defined thermal noise (N) value is used in the calculations if the corresponding calculation conditions are
selected in the conditions tab of an interference study. The thermal noise is considered to be a white guassian background
noise fixed at the user-defined value for the entire network or part of the network under consideration. This value is defined
in the document database at -121 dBm by default.
All the TBC transmitters are taken into account in these studies. Let us assume that each bin within each TBC transmitter
calculation area corresponds to a probe mobile receiver.
Coverage study parameters to be set are:
• The study conditions in order to determine the coverage area of each TBC transmitter
• The display settings to select how to colour coverage areas.

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Note:
• For information on the common prediction studies (like coverage by transmitter, profile
study, …), please, refer to Common prediction studies part.

5.6.1.1 Service Area Determination


The areas, where Atoll will calculate C/I, depend on signal level reception conditions. Atoll uses the parameters entered
in the Conditions tab in order to determine service area of each TBC transmitter. We can distinguish four cases:
Here we presume that:
• Each transmitter, Txi, belongs to a hierarchical cell structure (HCS) layer, k, with a defined priority.
• The maximum range option (available in the System tab of the Predictions property dialog) is inactive.

5.6.1.1.1 All Servers


For each HCS layer, k, the service area of Txi corresponds to the bins where:
Txi
Minimum threshold  P rec  tt   Maximum threshold

5.6.1.1.2 Best Signal Level per HCS Layer and a Margin


For each HCS layer, k, the service area of Txi corresponds to the bins where:
Txi
Minimum threshold  P rec  tt   Maximum threshold

and
Txi Txj
P rec  BCCH   Best  P rec  BCCH   – M
ji

where,
M is the specified margin (dB).
Best function: considers the highest value.

5.6.1.1.3 Best Signal Level of the Highest Priority HCS Layer and a Margin
In this case, the service area of Txi corresponds to the bins where:
Txi
Minimum threshold  P rec  tt   Maximum threshold

and
Txi Txj
P rec  BCCH   Best  P rec  BCCH   – M
ji

and
Txi belongs to the HCS layer with the highest priority
where,
M is the specified margin (dB).
Best function: considers the highest value.

5.6.1.1.4 Second Best Signal Level per HCS Layer and a Margin
For each HCS layer, k, the service area of Txi corresponds to the bins where:
Txi
Minimum threshold  P rec  tt   Maximum threshold

and
Txi nd Txj
P rec  BCCH   2 Best  P rec  BCCH   – M
ji

where,
M is the specified margin (dB).

2nd Best function: considers the second highest value.


Note:
• When the maximum range option is selected, Atoll searches for interference on the bins:
- Where the respective criteria described above are checked, and
- Located within a specified distance from the transmitter (maximum range).

5.6.1.2 Carrier to Interference Ratio Calculation


Atoll works out carrier to interference ratio on each bin of transmitter service areas.

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In order to understand the difference between each frequency hopping mode from the mobile point of view, it is interesting
to consider the Mobile Station Allocation (MSA). MSA is characterised by the pair (Channel list, MAIO). When a non
hopping (NH) mode is used, channel list is a channel while it corresponds to the mobile allocation list (MAL) in case of
base band hopping (BBH) or synthesised frequency hopping (SFH). For BBH, channels of MAL belong to a unique TRX
type.
Examples:
For each example given below, we assume that.
In case of NH, we have:

TRX index Channel list MAIO MSA


1 53 * (53,*)
2 54 * (54,*)

In case of BBH, assuming TRXs belong to the same TRX type, we have:

TRX index Channel list MAIO MSA


1 53 * ([53,54,55],0)
2 54 * ([53,54,55],1)
3 55 * ([53,54,55],2)

In case of SFH, we have:

TRX index Channel list MAIO MSA


1 53 54 55 56 2 ([53,54,55,56],2)
2 53 54 55 56 3 ([53,54,55,56],3)

Therefore, for a mobile station, BBH and SFH work in the same way.
Consider the following notations:
v is a victim transmitter (TBC transmitter with a service area),
MSAS(v) is the set of MSAs associated to v. The number of MSAS(v) depends on TRX type(s) to be analysed (option
available in study properties): you may study a given TRX type tt (There are as many MSA(v) as TRXs allocated to the
subcell (v,tt)) or all the TRX types (The number of MSA(v) corresponds to the number of TRXs allocated to v),
i is a potential interfering transmitter (TBC transmitters which calculation area intersects service area of v),
MSAS(i) is the set of MSAs related to potential interferers i,
INT(v) is the set of transmitters that interfere v.
Several MSAs, m, are related to a transmitter. Therefore, for each victim transmitter v with MSA m (m  MSAS(v)), Atoll
 C v  m 
calculates carrier to interference ratio  ----------------
- , received at the mobile; mobile is connected to a victim transmitter, v with
 Iv  m  
v v
a given m. C  m  is the carrier power level received from v on m and I  m  corresponds to the interference received from
interfering transmitters i on m.
Atoll studies the most interfered MSA. So, it considers:

C  C v  m 
---- = Min  ----------------
- except if analysis is detailed (Detailed result option).
 I v k  Iv  m  

If the interference conditions for the prediction study are defined using the option C/(I+N), Atoll takes the total noise N tot
into account as well. The total noise is computed by adding the thermal noise N thermal (defined in the document database
at -121 dBm by default) to the noise figure NF (either defined at the terminal type properties level, if a terminal type is
defined for the study, or defined directly in the prediction study conditions). So,

N tot = N thermal + NF

C  Cv  m  
Thus, for computations based on C/(I+N),  ------------------ = Min  ------------------------------
-
 I + N tot k  I v  m  + N tot
v

Note:
• The M Shadowing used in the computations of C/I is a function of C/I standard deviation and
not the Model standard deviation.

5.6.1.2.1 Carrier Power Level


v v
C  m  = P rec  m 

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5.6.1.2.2 Interference Calculation


Potential interferers can be transmitters i (iv), using co-channels and/or adjacent channels. Therefore, we can write:
v v v i
I  m  = I co  m  + I adj  m  + I IMPx3 – G PC

v v
Where I co  m  is the interference received at v on m due to co-channels, I adj  m  is the interference received at v on m
i
due to adjacent channels, I IMPx3 is the third order intermodulation interference, and G PC is the average power control
gain defined for the interfering transmitter i.
v
I co  m  is the interference received at v on m due to co-channels, given by:

 v i 
 
v i
I co  m  =  p m n  P rec  n   T i  n 
 
i  INT  v  n  MSAS  i  co

v
And, I adj  m  is the interference received at v on m due to adjacent channels,