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Proceedings of the 10th Mediterranean Conference

on Control and Automation - MED2002
Lisbon, Portugal, July 9-12, 2002.


Y.P. Yang*, C.H. Cheung, S.W. Wu, J .P Wang
*Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University
No. 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei, Taiwan 106, R.O.C

Keywor ds: electric vehicle, axial-flux wheel motor, converts chemical, electrical or mechanical energy
optimal design, optimal current waveform into different forms, thus consuming energy
through the dissipation components of windage and
friction. It is quite essential for engineers to look
Abstr act
an approach to improve the overall efficiency of
A multi-objective optimal design of a brushless dc electric vehicles, and hence to increase their
wheel motor is presented. This axial-flux driving range.
permanent magnet motor is designed to achieve a
Among various motor candidates, Chang [1]
high torque-to-weight ratio and motor efficiency,
provided an experts’ survey and concluded that
and is suitable for the direct-driven wheel
induction motor drives were preferred for EV
applications. The dedicated motor is modelled in
propulsion purpose. However, the permanent
magnetic circuits, and designed to meet the
magnet brushless dc motor featured compactness,
specifications of an optimisation scheme, subject to
low weight and high efficiency and therefore
constraints, such as limited space, current density,
provided an alternative for EV propulsion. These
flux saturation and driving voltage. Finite element
motors can be classified as indirect-driven [2] and
analyses are then carried out to obtain the
direct-driven motors [3-5]. The latter are also
electromagnetic, thermal and modal characteristics
called wheel motors or hub-in motors, which are
of the motor for modification and verification of
directly mounted inside wheels thus eliminating
the preliminary design. The prototypes are
transmission gears or mechanical differentials with
fabricated and controlled by the pulse-width-
their associated energy loss.
modulation drive with optimal current waveforms.
Experimental results show that the direct-driven The axial-flux motor among the direct-driven
power system installed on an electric motorcycle motors competes the radial-flux motor with a few
has good overall efficiency and long driving range. strengths, such as balanced motor-stator attractive
forces, better heat removal configuration, no rotor
back iron and adjustable air gap, etc [6]. Zhang et
1 Intr oduction
al. [7] compared among several axial-flux
A growing interest in electric vehicles (EVs) has permanent magnet (AFPM) wheel motors for
driven researchers and engineers to develop more electric cars, and concluded that the interior PM
efficient and reliable power systems under the ones seemed to be the best compromise in terms of
pressure of the protection of natural environment. power density, efficiency, compactness and
Traditional power systems for EVs are composed capability characteristics. Lovatt et al. addressed
of batteries, electric motors with drives, and for the solar-powered vehicle an axial-flux in-
transmission gears to wheels. Each subsystem wheel motor, which consisted a magnet array

to assumptions: (1)) the motor is operated in the linear form a three-phase motor. This paper proposes a systematic optimal design Rated values Rated torque > 3 kg-m at 430 rpm methodology on the permanent magnet axial-flux Max. such half for facilitating the magnetic circuit analysis. and are grouped into required phases. Third. flux shown in Figure 2. The rotor disc of the hub- describe the torque produced in the motor. thermal and dynamical Drivng slope > 8 ο at 10 km/hr characteristics. low speed motor. Finally. Fourth. with various constraints. the coils are independently wired on transformed to a straight line in the 2D linear motor stator poles. also reached. and the experiments show that the whole vehicle has good efficiency and long driving range. max. Acceleration 5 seconds for 20 m/sec the finite element analyses are performed on the electromagnetic. torque > 6 kg-m at 150 rpm brushless dc wheel motor and its drive for EVs. the preliminary motor shapes of three and four phases are optimised by the optimisation of the Environments Operation temperature range: cost functional subjected to the constraints on the 0 οC ~40 οC design parameters and physical properties. Therefore. Take the winding. The tire is installed on the outer across the air-gaps between the stator and rotor. Instead of being Y- mapped into rectangular ones as the arc is connected. Hredzak et al. For the same stator range of the B-H curve of magnetic material. The main magnetic flux flows through two is approximated by effective air-gap length with air-gaps between the stator and rotor along the Carter’s coefficient [10]. 3 Magnetic cir cuit model The torque of electric motors is produced by the 2 Motor layout and specifications rate of change of the magnetic energy stored in the air-gap. is installed on an electric motorcycle. the magnetic circuit of one . Therefore. current density of conductor. ignoring the fringing flux for simplified analysis. and is sandwiched also necessary to make three additional between two plates of stator. Other specifications are listed in Table 1. (2) structure. parameters. Based on the assumptions of material The explosive graph of the novel design of the linearity and the collinearlity of flux and field disc-type axial-flux permanent magnet wheel motor densities. in a section of each phase. and the torque pulsations were eliminated and high torque by a vector control scheme [9]. case rotating with the rotor. had their double-sided axial-flux direct wheel Objectives Direct driven actuator. the prototypes are Motor Weight Less than 15 kg fabricated and their optimal current waveforms are designed. The fan-shaped magnets are saturation. Voltage: 48 VDC First. 1000 rpm Second. the direct-driven power system Table1: Specifications of electric wheel motor. mode. It is in motor has 16 magnets. the magnetic circuit model is used to is illustrated in Figure 1. the electromagnetic properties are modelled in terms of motor geometries and electrical Speed: rated 430 rpm. each with 24 teeth. the total flux through the same Since there is no neutral point for independent area of magnet surfaces is unchanged. as as limited space. with sensitivity analyses carried out. and driving voltage.oriented along the direction of the flux flow and an force is induced and higher motor speed can be ironless air gap winding [8]. The final shape of this wheel motor is designed to The 3D motor structure can be simplified to a 2D meet requested specifications of a multifunctional configuration. 18 magnets in the rotor form a four-phase The air-gap reluctance of the slotted stator structure motor. larger back electromotive 360 electrical degrees. and its two-side topology is cut in optimisation scheme. (3) The flux flows straight axial direction. the driving voltage is directly applied to three-phase motor as an example.

the increasing inertia of the motor makes . and thereby the motor. s ) variables with sensitivities which are linear. Other variables are also investigated in represents the peripheral coordinate along the circle the sensitivity analysis. torque. the permeability of free space is µ 0 . performance of a motor can less efficiency. The magnetic circuit model electrical constants. (i) The designer may want to discard those design The Kirchhoff’s voltage law calculates the variables with the least sensitivities of the magnetic flux at each branch. of geometric dimensions and properties of Figures 4-9 illustrate the sensitivity curves of the magnetic materials of the wheel motor. as shown in 4 Design optimisation Figures 4 and 5. basic inner radius Ri of stator poles allows larger electromagnetic theories and industrial experience magnetic flux distribution in the air gap to produce are used for preliminary motor design. On the other hand. s ) = µ 0 (1) (ii) The designer may keep constant those design δ ( x. s ) In this way. torque density and efficiency of the in the air gap are the flux density motor. F ( x.flux loop is composed of three teeth on each side of by the above electromagnetic equations. However. and the torque.1 Sensitivity to design var iables magneto-motive forces. stator 4. the outer with respect to a certain motor parameter. surprising that the increasing number of stator poles N s and larger outer radius Ro produce larger torques and higher efficiencies. material parameters and embedded in the rotor. In the past. However. or and torque distribution monotonic functions. It is also reasonable that longer air gap modification and verification of the final shape of length δ yields larger gap reluctance. s denotes the rotor shift. s ) Bg ( x. as illustrated in Figure 7. and x geometry. such as number of stator of the average radius R = ( Ro + Ri ) / 2 . 2πR F 2 ( x. s ) of motors. the number of the design variables can W ' ( s ) = µ 0 ( Ro − Ri ) ∫ . the air gap length solutions according to the linearity of sensitivity is δ . frequency response and magneto-motive force and yields higher efficiency. number of winding layers. decision makers can the overall magneto-motive force from stator make a proper shift or modification of the final windings and rotor magnets is F . Figure 3 and inner radius of the stator are Ro and Ri . Figure 8 be enhanced by the optimal design in terms of shows that the thicker rotor ( d r ) produces more efficiency. On the contrary. number of turns noting that each of the above variables is a function per layer. and copper wire diameter. It is not performance objectives are fulfilled. for one electrical period of half-side of the motor is expressed in terms of the air gap reluctances. It is worth poles. weight. and this motor efficiency with respect to some design inspires an optimal motor design so that better variables for the three-phase motor. so on. a smaller of magnetic materials. and ∂W ' ( s ) T ( s ) = ( Ro + Ri ) (2) (iii) Only those design variables not included in ∂s I =const the above two cases are retained for the where the coenergy store is subsequent optimal design. and fluxes through the The purposes of the sensitivity analyses are magnetic circuit. and in turn obtained torque. illustrates some possible design variables in respectively. and hence the motor efficiency as depicted finite element analysis contributes to the detailed in Figure 6. functions the stator facing towards two permanent magnets of motor dimensions. these parameters are The electrical and mechanical performances of the assigned with upper limits due to constrained wheel wheel motor depend on its geometry and properties space for the motor. (3) be kept minimal to expedite the design optimisation dx 0 δ ( x. These characteristics have been described However.

listed in Table 3. magnets Pc > 4 . Air gap length δ Shoe depth fraction a sd (viii) The flux density in electrical steel is less than 1. The sensitivities of the motor torque and torque density. 4. compromise among the design variables under the Second. Rotor thickness dr Number of winding na (ix) The shoe fraction is confined between 0. Tω m max eff = • 100% Tω m + Pr + Pcl + Ps (6) 5 Finite element magnetic analysis in which W is the weight of the motor. can be produced by thicker back iron ( d sb ) for less (ii) The permeance coefficient of permanent magnetic density and core loss in the electric steel.8 T. yielding additional assumptions and performance indices to reach a satifactory simplifications in the magnetic circuit analysis. and the detailed geometrical features of the stator tooth and the rotor of the three-phase motor are illustrated in Figure 10. The design variables are thus (vi) The peak value of back emf per phase should determined by the above sensitivity analyses and be less than the component of the driving are listed in Table 2. Larger efficiency (i) The motor dimensions must be realized. the torque is not sensitive to the (v) The slot opening is 1. the friction. the nonlinear characteristics of magnetic prescribed constraints: materials produce saturation under overload . noise and other less dominant loss proposed motor has a fractional number of slots per components. composed of windage.8 times larger than the air thickness of the back iron. either. Although the geometric dimensions between the three-phase motor and the four-phase Motor torque: max T ( s ) (4) motor have no quite differences. with 9 × 10 (A/m ) . shoe depth fraction. and gap length. 6 2 respect to the motor parameters were investigated (iv) Conductor packing factor kcp < 0. No.42 . Different from the sensitivities on the motor efficiency. The optimizer weighs these pole per phase.its efficiency reach to a limit.5. as shown in Figure 9. conventional magnetic circit model. Slot fraction a0 Number of turns of nb The motor paramters of the three and four phases layer from the optimal design and the technial data are Table 2: Design parameters. of Stator Poles N s Magnet fraction am (vii)The slot opening is 0. Pcl represents the core loss. Pr denotes the ohmic loss. and Ps It is usually difficult to predict precisely the motor performance of the designed motor by the illustrates the stray loss. eight parallel coils are grouped into one multifunctional optimisation system tool (MOST) phase for each side of the stator of the three-phase [11] is applied to search for the optimal values of motor. defined by the (iii) The slot current density is less than produced torque per unit motor weight.2 Optimization Since the coils are independently wired on stator The compromise programming method in the poles.25 and layer 0. and six parallel coils are grouped into one the design variables that maximize the following phase for each side of the stator of the four-phase performance indices: motor. further Torque density: max T ( s ) / W (5) investigation on the motor performance by the finite element method becomes necessary for the Motor efficiency: final decision.35 times less than the slot Inner motor radius Ri Stator tooth fraction a tb pitch. voltage along the back emf vector. stator tooth fraction. First.

3 amperes for three and is accelerating or climbing upslope. 180 οC for the insulation Class H. stator and frame of the motor.072 0. steady-state temperature distribution four-phase motor generated by the reluctance and modal dynamics. current per phase (A) 72.05 Tooth width (mm) 8. For square-wave current excitations. 72.8 Torque constant (kg-m/A) 0. each with average torque of 5.495 0. the maximum phase currents are.8 38. Moreover.2 V Rated speed:430 rpm Inner diameter (mm) 55.9 Geometric dimensions 3-phase 4-phase Rotor thickness (mm) 15 15 Max. Air gap length (mm) 1 0. torque@ max. ANSOFT.7 Torque peak (kg-m) 6.9% of the three- Geometric dimensions 3-phase 4-phase phase motor.9 kg-m. respectively. Therefore.3~10.4 and 54. where the natural convection coefficient is calculates the magnetic field of the 3D motor set at 75 W / m2 οK and the ambient temperature is configuration. the four-phase motor has a Number of stator poles 24 24 larger torque constant per phase current than the Number of magnets 16 18 three-phase motor.currents in the condition when the electric vehicle respectively. the higher temperature holds near the coil at 123 οC . the temperature around 48 οC happens at the frame finite element tool.2 2. 25 οC .53 amperes of constant speed operation.0 Motor length (mm) 97.4 Torque density (kg-m/kg) 0. The finite four-phase motors.21 6. current 5. power:3 kW Outer diameter (mm) 89 89 Rated voltage: 15. which is much smaller than 18.8 6 Ther mal and modal analysis Permanent magnets The thermal conduction analysis provided by Magnet arc (deg) 12.7%.2 element analyses on the priliminary design and 5. the torque ripple of the distribution.05 kg-m. The maximum torques occur at 6.7 8.2 5.5 10. Better driving performance for the four-phase motor can be expected. Under a severe Remeance: 10.8 T Max.3 Shoe width (mm) 12.7 56. for the three and four- information on the magnetic flux and torque phase motors.590 Number of coils per tooth 148 148 Max.4 Avg. As summarized in motor to reach the steady-state temperature at the Table 4.5 13.4 COSMOS/M predicts the steady-state as well as the Energy product: 25~29 MGOe transient temperature distributions in the rotor. The lower As opposed to the magnetic circuit analysis. for the maximum current 4. cross-section.8 KG steady state driving operation at 1000 rpm with Magnets: NdFeB30SH high phase current of 20 amperes continuously.4 54.3 12.6 6.21 prototype become necessary to provide detailed and 6.8 0. the transient analysis predicts the torque patterns with respect to the rotor shift consevatively that it will take about 4 hours for the angle are shown in Figure 11. . components for the coils and magnets is 2.1 Coil diameter (mm) 0.5 Table 4: Motor performance by magnetic analysis Back iron width (mm) 7. therefore being the conductor due to the current density limit by its satisfatory for the motor design.9 Shoe depth (mm) 2. Coercivity: 9~10 Koe which is below the upper temperature limit of Table 3: Optimal design results.0 38.109 Tooth height (mm) 39. Also. numerically surface.4 Motor weight (kg) 10. flux density: 1.

b. and from the four-phase motor is the number of resonance may rarely happen below the maximum magnets on the rotor.b. In the modal analysis. The same stator brushless dc wheel motor consists of cogging. a The average torque is maximized under a constraint motor drive must be designed and implemented. is independent of driving between the design and the prototype.The natural frequencies of the motor are usually presented in Figures 12 and 13 for the 3 and 4- designed beyond the maximum speed 1700 rpm or phase motors. as shown in Table 3. The 1 dφ (θ ) efficiency versus speed curves for various current TA(θ ) = ∑ NIi (θ ) Pi . and phase subject to the constraint. current pulses through each motor winding. The zero at a motor speed without enduring any resulting optimal current waveforms are found to external loading. i = a . hence the only differnce The total torque produced by the direct-driven of the rotors is their pole pitch. and are 1 TMS320F240 is a product of Texas Instruments. The currents. A on the average ohmic loss. Each 7 Optimal cur r net wavefor ms [12] magnet has the same size. and the optimal design are similar between the three-phase second mode illustrates a tortional vibration along and four-phase motor. under allowable performance tolerance design of the motor. (8) generated and converted to pulse-width modulation (PWM) waveforms to the power circuit that sends where. current feedbacks. respectively. and is the magnet flux flowing through coil winding eventually just provide enough torque to overcome phase i. the performance digital signal processor TMS320F240 1 is selected index can be expressed as. to fabricate the prototypes of three and four-phase motors with the same stator. but different rotors with 16 and 18 magnets. Since themanufacturing process and reduces the cost of the cogging torque. The power supplied by the battery is the exciting current of coil winding phase i. The input TA. (9) 2 i =a . Therefore. The stator. 15 and 16. to process 1 2π signals. respectively. for the 3 and 4-pahse in which N is the number of turns per stator tooth. the natural frequencies are examined for the rotor combined with the outer 8 Pr ototype and contr ol str ategy cases on which the tire is mounted.35mm AISI M19 steel is to be neglected. the efficiency curves drop to relative angle between the rotor and the stator. c. the optimal current waveforms for selected for the stator teeth and yokes. which is inherent from the original prototype. and θ denotes the rotor shift. The optimal control signals are 2π 2 2π 2 ∫0 I i dθ ≤ ∫0 6 dθ . to store the optimal current pattern. The first mode The dimensions of the stator components from the repersents an axial vibration of the motor.c dθ inputs of root-mean-square values are shown in Figs. and the reluctance torque is small enough lamination material of 0. Figures 17 and 18 delineate the be proportional to the magnetic flux variations in the air gap between the stator and the rotor. The the axial direction. optimisation is described as follows: To realize the optimal driving current waveform. Each mode has a natural most apparent difference of the three-phase motor freuency of 261 and 293 Hz. avg = ∫0 TA(θ )dθ (7) signals to the processor include a motor 2π acceleration command. rotor the sense of average. φ Pi reaches its upper limit at some motor speed. rotor shift signal. 178 Hz to avoid undesirable motor resonance. and to create control outputs. The the 3 and 4-phase wheel motors are then magnets of NdFeB 30SH are embeded in the rotor determined by maximizing the alignment torque in of the aluminum alloy 6061-T6. The statement of and their assembly are provided in Figure 14. or the frictions. Hence. with commutable rotors facilitates the reluctance and alignment torques. . respectively. Ii wheel motors. That leads the final decision speed. respectively.

The for Wheel Direct Drive.C. Ramsden and B.883- verification constitutes a complete design of the 896.M. Mecrow. The Motors and Controllers for High-Performance experimental results show that the 4-phase wheel Electric Vehicle with Four in-Wheel Motors. dedicated motor under prescribed constraints. “Axial systematic procedure from magnetic circuit Flux Machine for Electric Vehicles. A [7] Z. 1. Crescimibini. 1994. 2. Vol. K. Taiwan.402-408. 1998. R. 43.” Power Components and Systems. Chang.F. N. W. Santini.” motor presents better performance than the 3-phase IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. Liao. 44.” IEEE Transactions sensitivity analysis with the magnetic circuit model on Industry Applications.” IEEE AES Systems University. parameters. [4] F. 1996. Vol. 6. efficiency and torque density of the Motor Design.28-37. and becomes a promising solution for Powered Electric Vehicle.Z. 003. K.P. Feb. New York. pp. [3] M. Natori. 1996. 5. Hredzak..” Electric analyses to the finite element modification and Machines and Power Systems. 145. pp. pp. Zhang. 1996. and T.5010-5012. [12] Y. Vol. Republic on Magnetics. V.331-338. 1994. pp. No. Prentice Hall.C. Version 1. F. Sept. Sept. F. 1996.30.” IEE Proceedings of the electric motorcycle of required specifications. Technical Report Electric Vehicles – A Report on Experts’ No. No. For optimal current excitations. “Comparison of AC Drives for User’s Manual. fabricated and implemented Santini. Tseng. Xia. Design of Optimal Current Waveform for an Zhu and R. Hanselman. Crescimibini. “A Novel [2] C. 1993. F. AODL-93-01. Computer-Aided Analysis of Electric Machines. W. output torque with smaller ripple than the three. 32.1. provides an effective way of selection of design pp. No. Vol. A. 1994.P. 7-10. Lee. “Design of an In-Wheel Motor for a Solar- phase motor. of China under Contract No.C. M. International Transactions on Industrial 2002. Chan. Ostovic. MOST [1] L. Y. Vol. 1997.32. Chau.882-886. 26. J.T. Zhang. wheel motor. Vol. O. motors of three and four phases have been [5] F. Profumo and A. “Novel Permanent Magnet Electric Vehicle Wheel Motor. 7. McGraw-Hill. motor. Ashikaga. Vol. Acknowledgement “Elimination of Torque Pulsations in a Direct The authors acknowledge the financial support of Drive EV Wheel Motor. No. 4.C.” Electric Motor Drives for Electric Vehicles. Caricchi. No. Magazine. Tang. Terashima. “Compact Wheel Direct 9 Summar y and conclusions Drive for EVs. Eastham. 1996. successfully designed. Brushless Permanent-Magnet output torque. Fujiwara and M. S. pp. pp. [10] V. Caricchi. Lovatt. Luh and C. 5.C. No. T. Refer ences [11] C.29-32. Vol.C. National Chiao-Tung Opinion Survey. T.corresponding torque versus speed curves. (to appear) Electronics. which are iteratively tuned through the multi-objective optimal design to maximize the [6] D.C. Electric Power Applications. Mizuno. F. Gair and J.S. Yada. Aug. Di Napoli and E.H.” IEEE Transactions the National Science Council of Taiwan.” IEEE Industry Applications Novel disc-type axial-flux brushless dc wheel Magazine. pp. 24. the four-phase motor presents better efficiency and [8] H. Mezzetti and E.O. Honorati. Yang. “Multi-stage Axial-Flux PM Machine with optimal driving current waveforms. No. Tenconi. [9] B. NSC88-2622-E002. New York. Jiang. “Novel .

Figure 1: explosive graph of the axial-flux disc- type wheel motor. Figure 9: Sensitivity of motor efficiency versus back iron thickness. Stator Stator Stator Rotor N NS S S Ri N N SN Ro Figure 6: Sensitivity of motor efficiency versus S S NS inner radius N Rotor N S N S dr/2 S N dr N S S N dr/2 S N δ δ Figure 7: Sensitivity of motor efficiency versus air gap length Figure 2: (a) Dual axial flux motor topology (b) 2D configuration. . Figure 4: Sensitivity of motor efficiency versus number of stator poles. Figure 5: Sensitivity of motor efficiency versus outer radius. wt wso Ro -Ri d1 stator stator δ Figure 8: Sensitivity of motor efficiency versus rotor N d3 ds dr S rotor thickness wrm wrs dsb wtb wss τr Figure 3: Parameters of the stator teeth and the rotor.

) (a) Figure 13: Optimal current waveform of 4-phase wheel motor. Figure 12: Optimal current waveform of 3-phase wheel motor. 10 (A ) 0 Ia -1 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 10 (A ) 0 Ib -1 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 10 (A ) (b) 0 Ic -1 0 Figure 10: Detailed geometrical features of stator 0 50 100 150 200 R o to r S h if t (e le c d e g ) 250 300 350 tooth and rotor for 3-phase motor. . (a) (b) Figure 11: 3-phase (a) and 4-pahse (b) torque patterns with respect to rotor shift. deg. 15 I a (A) 0 -15 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 15 I b (A) 0 -15 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 15 I c (A) 0 -15 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 15 I d (A) 0 -15 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 Rotor Shift (elec.

5 20A 1 0.5 25A (a) (b) 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 30A Motor Speed (rpm) Figure 17: Torque versus speed curves of 3-phase wheel motor.5A 20 25A 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 30A Motor Speed (rpm) Figure 16: Efficiency versus speed curves of 4- phase wheel motor. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Motor Speed (rpm) Efficiency-Speed 5A Figure 18: Torque versus speed curves of 4-phase 80 10A wheel motor 70 60 15A Efficiency (%) 50 40 20A 30 20 25A 10 0 30A 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Motor Speed (rpm) Figure 15: Efficiency versus speed curves of 3- phase wheel motor. rotor and motor assembly.5 10A 3 Torque (kg-m) 2. Efficiency-Speed 5A 100 10A 80 15A Efficiency (%) 60 40 22.5A 2 25A (c) 1 0 30A Figure 14: Stator. Torque-Speed 5A 7 10A 6 5 15A Torque (Kg-m) 4 3 22. Torque-Speed 5A 4 3. .5 15A 2 1.