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**Term paper of Dc machine & Transformers
**

ELE :- 202

TOPIC NAME:-Principles of Electro-

mechanical Energy Conversion

SUBMITED BY: - Harendra kumar

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c cc c c c Submited to: -Ashish sharma Department of electracal Enegnering (LIT) c c c c .

It of the elders and teachers which is hoped this both my teacher and will serve as the most effective classmates will find this term paper guidelines in affecting the complete in itself. I dedicate this term paper to my operation. in particular I would like teachers and my parents for their to thank c c c unstinted encouragement and .Dc ACKNOWLEDGEMENTc c While making this term paper I me know about it. I will be glad to have left no stone unturned to make know it because it is the suggestion this term paper a successful one. colleagues for the helpful co. improvements and making I express my thanks to all my alternations for better.

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and logical errors but still if you find any mistakes in it please let ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c . compactness and lucidity Although I have tried to make this meets the requirement of the term paper devoid of any mistakes teacher. co-operation have been of great My aim will be more than served if help in development of this term hopefully this approaches towards paper. brevity. who¶s wiling me in all my endeavours. Jalandhar.c Lovely Professional support which will always inspired University.

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subsystem (mechanically movable parts electromechanical such as a devices are developed. Examples are KCL and KVL. and field into electrical energy. transform and A device would be known as a conversion. such as governed by the Newton's laws. In general. and speakers. The field quantities such as generator if it convert mechanical energy magnetic flux. . Since the permeability of ferromagnetic An electro-mechanical energy materials are much larger than the conversion system coupled between an permittivity energy source and an energy load of dielectric materials. The state of the microphones. These type of devices produce forces and is mostly for linear motion drives. Voltages devices can be and divided into three categories: currents are used to describe the state of (1) Transducers (for measurement and the electrical subsystem and they are control) governed These devices transform the signals of by the basic circuital laws: Ohm's law. fits between (3) Continuous energy conversion the electrical and mechanical subsystems equipment and acting as a "ferry" in energy These devices operate in rotating mode. plunger in a linear actuator and a rotor in electromechanical energy conversion a rotating electrical machine). mechanical (2) Force producing devices (linear subsystem can be described in terms of motion devices) positions. or as a motor if it strength. flux density. solenoids (linear actuators). The relays. it is more comprising an energy converter device advantageous to use electromagnetic including a permanent magnet induction field as the machine coupled between the energy medium for electromechanical energy source and the energy load to convert the conversion. different forms. an electromechanical system energy load and an energy transfer consists of an electrical subsystem multiplexer to control the flow of power (electric or energy through the permanent circuits such as windings). does the other way around (from electrical to mechanical). a magnetic magnetic induction machine. subsystem (magnetic field in the magnetic cores For energy conversion between electrical and airgaps). and a mechanical and mechanical forms. As illustrated in the energy from the energy source and to following transfer the converted energy to the diagram. velocities. and accelerations. and magnetic subsystem or magnetic field electromagnets. pickups.

On the mechanical energy are inter-converted other hand. will could variation of the magnetic flux linking the electric circuit and induce an .are governed by the Maxwell's electromotive force () in the circuit. the mechanical power) equals the active magnetic flux interacting with the component of the product of the cand current in the circuit would produce a current. the electrical energy and the on a mechanically movable part. When coupled with an electric The product of the torque and speed (the circuit. the movement of the moving via the part magnetic field. force or torque Therefore. equations.

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The diagram below shows a conductor of length cplaced in a uniform magnetic field of flux density a. the induced ccan be calculated by e= -dȜ/dt c where Ȝcis the flux linkage of the coil and the minus sign indicates that the induced \ current opposes the variation of the field. It should be noted that the self . In a coil of %cturns. The above express can then be rewritten as e= dȜ/dt = Ldi/dt + idL/dx *dx/dt c if the system is magnetically linear. It makes no difference whether the variation of the flux linkage is a result of the field variation or coil movement. the self inductance is independent of the current. the induced cin the conductor can be determined by c] c ac The direction of the ccan be determined by the "right hand rule" for cross products. When the conductor moves at a speed . it would convenient if we treat the cas a voltage. In practice.e. i.

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ücsince there is a moving part in the system. c EXAMPAL cc&c c c'(cc'ccc )c cc(c c cc c'(*c .

c-.å*cc ccccc c ..c.cc (c .ccc cccccc& cc+u ccccc c'(cc'*cc cc c ccc cc cccccccccccc.

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c a The force acting on a current carrying conductor can be directly derived from the equation as c] c c ac ccccccccccccccccc c . The force on a moving particle of electric charge cin a magnetic field is given by the Lorentz's force law: c] c.

where cis the contour of the conductor. For a homogeneous conductor of length l.

the above expression can be reduced to c] c-l. carrying current cin a uniform magnetic field.

a In a rotating system. the torque about an axis can be calculated by c] c c where cis the radius vector from the axis towards the conductor. EXAMPAL ccc&c'cc )c c ccccc(cc c & c ccc c cc(c'(*c .

cccccccc& cc+ uÚÚ c'(cc'*cc cc'c cc c c c (cXc cc c c cXc *cc& cc c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c .

c c ci c c.

as shown in the diagram. the position of the movable plunger x. c ci c c c c c cü c cc Consider a singly excited linear actuator as as shown above. we record that the terminal voltage applied to the excitation winding is v . we notice that the plunger has moved for a distance ücunder the action of the force . and the force acting on force acting on the plunger cwith the reference direction chosen in the positive direction of the ücaxis. the excitation winding current i. The winding resistence is R. The mechanical done by the force acting on the plunger during this time interval is thus The amount of electrical energy that has been transferred into the magnetic field and converted into the mechanical work during this time interval can be calculated by subtracting the power loss dissipated in the winding resistance from the total power fed into the excitation winding as Because we can write . After a time interval . Ata certain time instant t.

the above expression becomes and the force acting on the plunger is then In the diagram below. if we define the area underneath the magnetization curve as the . Mathematically. it is shown that the magnetic energy is equivalent to the area above the magnetization or O! ccurve. Mathematically.From the above equation. we conclude From the knowledge of electromagnetics. the energy stored in a magnetic field can be expressed as For a magnetically linear (with a constant permeability or a straight line magnetization curve such that the inductance of the coil is independent of the excitation current) system. we can also write Therefore. by comparing the above two equations. we know that the energy stored in the magnetic field is a function of the flux linkage of the excitation winding and the position of the plunger.

c .(which does not exist physically).

c c c c .

c c £ Ml.

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Thus. To illustrate the general principle for modeling of an electromechanical system. whereas the interactions between the two subsystems via the magnetic field can be expressed in terms of the 's and the electromagnetic force or torque. for the doubly excited rotating actuator. we can write c . we still use the doubly excited rotating actuator discussed above as an example. For convenience. the mathematical model of an electromechanical system consists of circuit equations for the electrical subsystem and force or torque balance equations for the mechanical subsystem. we plot it here again. As discussed in the introduction.

c the above state equations can be used to simulate the dynamic performance of the . The above equations are nonlinear differential equations which can only be solved numerically. c c c is the angular speed of the rotor. cthe load torque. In the format of state equations. and /cthe inertia of the rotor and the mechanical load which is coupled to the rotor shaft. the above equations can be rewritten as. c Together with the specified initial conditions (the state of the system at time zero in terms of the state variables).

Following the same rule. A . we can derive the state equation model of any electromechanical Systems.doubly excited rotating actuator.

A rotor power/rotation rate curve for the electro-mechanical energy conversion system of the present invention controlling a doubly fed induction machine. Field of the Invention An electro-mechanical energy conversion system including a permanent magnet induction machine to selectively convert and transfer energy from an energy source and an energy load. A block diagram of the electro-mechanical energy conversion system of the present invention. A block diagram of an electrical to electrical energy conversion system of the present invention. A block diagram of the electro-mechanical energy conversion system of the present invention implemented with a doubly fed induction machine and mechanical energy source. A block diagram of the electro mechanical energy conversion system of the present invention implemented with a permanent magnet generator or machine and mechanical energy source. A mechanical input power/rotation rate curve for the electro-mechanical energy conversion system of the present invention controlling a doubly fed induction machine. 2. A topological schematic of the energy transfer multiplexer or energy transfer section of the electro-mechanical energy conversion system of the present invention implemented with IGBT switches. A rotor voltage/rotor frequency curve for the electro-mechanical energy conversion system for the present invention controlling a doubly fed induction machine. is a block diagram of the energy transfer multiplexer of the present invention. 1. Description of the Prior Art Seemingly limitless electro-mechanical systems and devices have been devised to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy or vice versa. .

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