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The Cradle one out of the many mining techniques the 49ers

used. It was popular for its middle class price. It was considered the
new panning tool. This is how it worked.

The cradle was rocked by a miner as another miner shoveled
and poured dirt inside the cradle. The gold would get stuck in the
cradle while a miner pours river water into the cradle and wash a way
all the dirt and the gold will be stuck in little rivets.

Another mining tool was the Long Tom which was like an extra
long Cradle except it didn’t need to rock. It was an expensive tool but
known to work the best. Machinery would carry up dirt and water and
pour it through a “very long Cradle.” The Long Tom was very useful
and made many miners rich.

A simple way of mining was panning. It was a one man
operation. One miner would scoop up dirt and water from a stream or
river then swing the pan from side to side. The water washed away
the dirt and if the miner was lucky, gold nuggets or gold sand will
remain in his pan. It was a cheap tool but worked for many miners in
the 1800s.

malaria. Many suffered from yellow fever. They would head off to California (without much supply.) The trail was a 2. Missouri to form a wagon train. The Oregon Trial was a dangerous trail that had wagon train corpses laid all along its path. dry skins. The disease can have such symptoms as diarrhea. nausea. abdominal cramps. Some people had to travel extra because all the wagons fuss had to meet in St.000 mile journey through Kansas. and cholera. Nebraska. Louis. and Oregon. Many eager miners got to California first by going on this route but some failed brutally.000 miles) and because of it. and leg cramps. tiredness. Many miners came through this path knowing they might die. The route was dangerous but still probably the safest route to the gold fields. rapid pulses. You would have to catch a ship to Panama then walk to the other side of Panama. . Idaho. a true ship’s graveyard. Another route to California was the Cape Horn Route. A deadly disease named cholera roamed the trail. Wyoming. The trail went around the tip of the South American continent. The 49ers had to wait till spring to start on the trail because they had to have fresh grass for the animals they were taking. nosebleeds. It was the quickest route but not the safest. The Panamanian Route was another possible choice to go to California. many sailors took a daring short cut through the Strait of Magellan. Then you would have to catch a ship heading north to California. vomiting. It was the longest route to California (15. It was a good route for holding cargo.

Of course. lived in a mining camp and how it was very unique for a woman in a camp. and the letters were published in a Californian literary magazine called Pioneers. Inside the letters. Here is part of a letter she wrote: I INTEND. Unique Dame Shirley was the writer of the “Shirley Letters. A well known writer in the gold rush. The letters told Clapp’s sister about life in the gold rush. to-day. But let me first describe the spot as it looked to my wondering and unaccustomed eyes. to be as disagreeably statistical and as praiseworthily matter-of-factish as the most dogged utilitarian could desire. Molly. a doctor.) apparently hemmed in by lofty hills. The letters were very well written. —and you have as good an idea as I can give you of the local of Barra Rica. and particular account of the discovery. Imagine a tiny valley about eight hundred yards in length. (it was measured for my especial information. as the Spaniards so prettily term it. In the letters. I shall give you a full. used the letters in his stories. She explains that she always wanted to be a writer but never was. and perhaps thirty in width.. her husband grew ill and she takes him to the mountain’s fresh air. the blue-bosomed Plumas (or Feather River. rise. .” Actually. draperied to their very summits with beautiful fir-trees. dear M. true. I had never seen a mining district before. and had just left San Francisco. and progress of this place. the coup d' il of Rich Bar was charmingly fresh and original. I suppose I must call it) undulating along their base. Bret Harte. to me. her real name was Amelia Knapp Smith Clapp. She wrote letters to her sister. almost perpendicular. amid whose flashy-looking shops and showy houses the most of my time had been spent since my arrival in the Golden State. with a religious adherence to dates which will rather astonish your unmathematical mind. Remember. Clapp described how she and her husband.

Phillip Armour supplied hungry miners with meat that he had supplied at his butcher shop. He made so much money that he eventually opened his own meat packing company in Chicago called Armour & Company. . With his new techniques. He soon founded the Armour Mission and Armour Institute of Technology which became the Illinois Institute of Technology. you could make lots of money in business. He made a very big point in the gold rush that you didn’t need to make gold to get lots of money in California. You could work in what ever job you do and with all the people in California. he made Chicago the meat packing capital of the world.

Additionally. but still they were a little slow. they cost about $40-$60. Oxen were very useful animals on the Overland Journey to California. They were often recommended because they were strong. but lots of them were strong and lasted through the whole journey. Indians would steal the horses during the night and the miners would be stranded without any animal to pull their wagons. they pulled wagons. A mule was a little worse than oxen because they needed a bit more grain then the oxen although not as much as the horses. For these reasons. oxen were considered the best animal for the Overland Trail. But some miners did take horses because the horses went faster than the oxen or the mule. Many of them died on the trail. . They were better than horses because a horse would go faster but would need extra grain to keep it on the ground which meant that the 49ers had to easy down on their supplies to make room for the grain. In the days of the Gold Rush. On the Oregon Trail. Oxen were also the cheapest animal because all the mules for a wagon train could add up to $600 and horses were even more costly. They traveled about 15 miles a day.

And in stage two. it was either not getting it while going through Panama. Yellow Fever was a common disease on the Panamanian Route and many people perished from this deadly disease. Yellow Fever was a harsh truth of the Panama route. died from it.” These days we have cures for it but in the 1800s. you were sure to die. They entered knowing they could die from “yellow jack. and many miners who chose this risky route. . it got worse. or being left to be eaten by the tigers. It was a virus that haunted the tropical land of Panama. The miners went through the Panama shortcut only because of how short and quick it was. If you got it. It could cause up to 15 symptoms only in stage one.

The Gold Rush ended but San Francisco was still rising in population. This was called a “boomtown”. . San Francisco has a population of 808. restaurants. Wells Fargo originated in San Francisco.976 people.000 people. ships could be docked and miners would hop on to the gold fields. San Francisco changed from an old tiny town no one had ever heard of and boom! Gold was in California and it was the perfect town for people to settle in after mining and with its huge bay. New buildings were being built constantly. Phillip Armour was practically rolling in money. In San Francisco. Then there came the Gold Rush. and mining shops were around every corner. and the population swept up to 150. there were about 500 people living in the small city. Hotels. before the gold rush. The boardwalks were made out of strips of wood from barrels and were packed with miners and people. To this day.

Some were cooks. Lotta struck it rich in her own way. Lola demonstrated her enthusiasm in her performances. A very well known women entertainer was Lotta Crabtree. Some sang and some danced. her neighbor was Lola Montez. She left to California in 1851 seeking money in the gold rush. . very well and preceded on to New York were she was even bigger. The ones who did were usually entertainers. In one of the places she lived in California. another well known entertainer.Few women initially came. The women were paid very well considering that they were very rare and useful. She did very.

. the all Canada route. The boats on the Pacific Ocean were jammed with miners hungry for gold. Lots of people didn’t get gold. The all water route went through the Pacific Ocean. It was like the Californian Gold Rush all over again. Once the word got around. There was the all water routes. It is uncertain exactly know who discovered gold in Alaska but it is said that it was George Carmack because he made the first claim. but others struck it rich. The Klondike gold rush was a life saver for lots of people. and the Skagway/Dyea route went by sea and by land. people went wild. The Klondike was a gold rush that took place in Alaska in 1896 after the Californian gold rush. the all Canada route went through Canada. There were three routes to Alaska. and the Skagway/Dyea route.

The Californian Gold Rush Book .

Written by Isa Milefchik .

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web.dickinson.wikipedia. References oregontrail.gov .ruralheritage.oregon.com en.com www.org housedivided.britannica.old-picture.com media-2.org plymouthcalifornia.com comspark.com www.edu www.