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How to write a presentation | Why? How? Prove It! | Home Page | http://www.whyhowproveit.co.uk/index.

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Introduction
This site outlines the unique presentation writing method known as 'Why? How? Prove It!'

This method of writing presentations and speeches was developed by Graham Jones, a leading British public
speaker and trainer in presentation skills. The method ensures you can:

Write a presentation quickly
Write a presentation that makes your material accessible to the audience
Write a presentation that is easy to remember

If you use Why? How? Prove It! in your work you will be amazed at how quickly you can put together great
presentations that will be easy to say and easy to remember.

► The first step is developing a KEY MESSAGE.

| © Graham Jones 2002

Stop Public Speaking Fear | Web Info Selling

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How to write a presentation | Key Message | http://www.whyhowproveit.co.uk/key.htm

Home | Key Message | Why? | How? | Prove it! | Using WHPI | Links

Key message
Your presentation MUST have a key message. Leave your audience in absolutely no doubt what you came to tell
them. Don't lead them up to your messages - they won't stay the course. Hit them between the eyes with your
message right up front. You should provide your key message within the first 15 seconds of starting your talk.
Research shows that if you don't do this you risk losing the attention of your audience.

Writing your key message should be the most time consuming and difficult part of preparing your talk. Indeed, if you
do not spend enough time on thinking through your key message you may well be wasting your time - and that of
your audience - when you come to give your presentation. Poorly prepared key messages are frequently the
problem that lies behind badly written talks and speeches.

Your key message should contain:

The main action or change in behaviour you want your audience to take as a result of listening to you
Reference to the audience
Reference to an example that you'll elaborate on

A good key message might be:

Since you are all marketing managers, I'm convinced that by the end of this morning's talk
you'll be absolutely determined to use our new marketing software that allows you to gain
access to research reports in a flash. In fact I'm sure you'll be so impressed you'll be wanting a
copy in the next 30 minutes.

As you can see this message says:

WHO it is for - marketing managers
WHAT they will do - use the new software
WHY they will do it - to gain access to research
WHEN they will do it - in the next 30 minutes

This message is also just 55 words long, which means you can say it in 18 seconds. Indeed, if no-one wishes to
listen to you after those opening 20 seconds they will still have understood what you have come to tell them. The
remainder of your talk would just be the detail - but your message will have hit home without it.

Having said that, a good key message with a 'call to action' like the example (you'll be wanting a copy in the next
30 minutes) means that your audience will be hungry for more, so they will carry on listening.

To make sure they have got the message, though, make sure you repeat it right at the end of your talk. This helps
ensure the late arrivals also know what your message was.

► The next step is answering the audience's inevitable question as to WHY? they should take up your call to
action.

| © Graham Jones 2002

1 of 1 7/29/2010 2:09 AM
How to write a presentation | Why? | http://www.whyhowproveit.co.uk/why.htm

Home | Key Message | Why? | How? | Prove it! | Using WHPI | Links

Why?
Having provided your audience with your key message they will inevitably be asking themselves:

'Why should I do that?' or 'Why should I think that?' or 'Why should that be the case?'

In any event, all the questions that follow from an action-oriented key message are of the 'why?' kind. That means if
the next stage of your presentation sets about answering these questions your talk is following what the audience
perceives as its route through the material. The result is that you have them on your side immediately.

Many presenters prepare material that is only logical if you already know the subject or the information that is being
presented. But few audiences will know. Hence they become quickly lost and have to work hard to pick their way
through the information. Research shows that audiences that have to commit the least mental effort are the
ones most likely to accept the material they are given. In other words, if you follow your own logic you are
making it much less likely that your material will be accepted or acted upon by the audience.

If your talk follows the audience logic by immediately answering the 'why' style questions you will be providing just
what the listeners want, mentally. As a result, you will make your material MUCH MORE LIKELY to be accepted
and acted upon.

Having constructed your key message you simply have to think of all the reasons why your audience should accept
what you are saying or act upon your material. These reasons and the detail behind them will form the first main
section of your presentation

In our example, the presentation may go on to consider:

That marketing managers can't do their job without market research

That software makes accessing research easier

That there is no suitable program that works quickly enough for marketing managers

► The next step is showing HOW your message can be acted upon.

| © Graham Jones 2002

1 of 1 7/29/2010 2:12 AM
How to write a presentation | Prove It! | http://www.whyhowproveit.co.uk/proveit.htm

Home | Key Message | Why? | How? | Prove it! | Using WHPI | Links

Prove It!
So, you've told your audience what you expect them to do, why they should do it and how they can get on with
things. But even though you may have got your message across, you haven't really underlined it as yet. You need to
provide evidence for your assertions - prove what you have said is beyond dispute. The 'prove it' section of your
talk is the most important part you need to write, after the key message. So spend lots of time in planning this.

You can prove your key message in several ways, but the main evidence will come from:

Personal examples
Case studies
Statistics

Individual, personal examples are immensely powerful - especially if you tell them as stories. Case studies are in
depth examples and can be useful, but they are more difficult to tell as stories. Statistics are useful to help prove a
point, but they do not carry as much weight as examples and case histories. That's because people know that you
can massage the statistics in your favour, so they put less trust in them.

In our example the 'prove it' section may go on to consider:

The story about the marketing manager you met at a conference who said the program had
enabled much greater control of marketing programmes

The case study of the company which used the software and achieved a much happier
marketing team as a result

The figures from several companies that showed marketing efforts were 30% more successful
when the software was used

► So now you know the three steps to a successful presentation, all you have to do is put them together in USING
WHPI.

| © Graham Jones 2002

1 of 1 7/29/2010 2:13 AM
How to write a presentation | Using WHPI | http://www.whyhowproveit.co.uk/using.htm

Home | Key Message | Why? | How? | Prove it! | Using WHPI | Links

Using WHPI
There are several advantages to the Why? How? Prove It! method:

1. Your talk starts and ends with a key message, leaving your audience in no doubt as to what you said -
you've grabbed their attention
2. Writing your talk is easy as you only have to provide a few details and then add some examples to prove
your point
3. Remembering your talk is easy as it is constructed logically -plus if you forget where you are just reflect on
what you have said and work out which is the next phase in the sequence.
4. Your talk follows the apparent logic of the audience making it much more influential and persuasive

If you want, you can download our pre-printed form (a Word document) that lets you fill in the blanks using the WHPI
method. You can use this form to provide the outline for your presentations.

More information
If you would like more information on the Why? How? Prove It! method you can contact us at:

Email

Or call: +44 870 751 3972

Or fax: +44 870 751 3979

Or write: Unit 38, 105 London Street, Reading, United Kingdom

| © Graham Jones 2002

1 of 1 7/29/2010 2:14 AM
Communication Skills - making oral presentations http://lorien.ncl.ac.uk/ming/dept/tips/present/comms.htm

School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials

Communication Skills - making oral presentations
CONTENTS

Preparation The material of your presentation should be concise, to the point and tell an
interesting story. In addition to the obvious things like content and visual aids,
Making the the following are just as important as the audience will be subconsciously taking
presentation them in:

Delivery Your voice - how you say it is as important as what you say

Visual Aids Body language - a subject in its own right and something about which
much has been written and said. In essence, your body movements
Finally ... express what your attitudes and thoughts really are. You might like to
check out this web page
One Minute Pause
Appearance - first impressions influence the audience's attitudes to you.
Get emailed
Dress appropriately for the occasion.
weekly
presentation tips As with most personal skills oral communication cannot be taught.
from Natural Instructors can only point the way. So as always, practice is essential, both to
Training improve your skills generally and also to make the best of each individual
presentation you make.

Back to top

Preparation

Prepare the structure of the talk carefully and logically, just as you
would for a written report. What are:

the objectives of the talk?
the main points you want to make?

Make a list of these two things as your starting point

Write out the presentation in rough, just like a first draft of a
written report. Review the draft. You will find things that are
irrelevant or superfluous - delete them. Check the story is
consistent and flows smoothly. If there are things you cannot easily
express, possibly because of doubt about your understanding, it is
better to leave them unsaid.

Never read from a script. It is also unwise to have the talk written
out in detail as a prompt sheet - the chances are you will not locate
the thing you want to say amongst all the other text. You should
know most of what you want to say - if you don't then you should
not be giving the talk! So prepare cue cards which have key words

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Communication Skills - making oral presentations http://lorien.ncl.ac.uk/ming/dept/tips/present/comms.htm

and phrases (and possibly sketches) on them. Postcards are ideal for
this. Don't forget to number the cards in case you drop them.

Remember to mark on your cards the visual aids that go with them
so that the right OHP or slide is shown at the right time

Rehearse your presentation - to yourself at first and then in front of
some colleagues. The initial rehearsal should consider how the
words and the sequence of visual aids go together. How will you
make effective use of your visual aids?

Back to top

Making the presentation

Greet the audience (for example, 'Good morning, ladies and
gentlemen'), and tell them who you are. Good presentations then
follow this formula:

tell the audience what you are going to tell them,
then tell them,
at the end tell them what you have told them.

Keep to the time allowed. If you can, keep it short. It's better to
under-run than over-run. As a rule of thumb, allow 2 minutes for
each general overhead transparency or Powerpoint slide you use,
but longer for any that you want to use for developing specific
points. 35mm slides are generally used more sparingly and stay on
the screen longer. However, the audience will get bored with
something on the screen for more than 5 minutes, especially if you
are not actively talking about it. So switch the display off, or replace
the slide with some form of 'wallpaper' such as a company logo.

Stick to the plan for the presentation, don't be tempted to digress -
you will eat up time and could end up in a dead-end with no escape!

Unless explicitly told not to, leave time for discussion - 5 minutes is
sufficient to allow clarification of points. The session chairman may
extend this if the questioning becomes interesting.

At the end of your presentation ask if there are any questions -
avoid being terse when you do this as the audience may find it
intimidating (ie it may come across as any questions? - if there are,
it shows you were not paying attention). If questions are slow in
coming, you can start things off by asking a question of the audience
- so have one prepared.

Back to top

2 of 5 7/29/2010 1:55 AM
Communication Skills - making oral presentations http://lorien.ncl.ac.uk/ming/dept/tips/present/comms.htm

Delivery

Speak clearly. Don't shout or whisper - judge the acoustics of the
room.

Don't rush, or talk deliberately slowly. Be natural - although not
conversational.

Deliberately pause at key points - this has the effect of emphasising
the importance of a particular point you are making.

Avoid jokes - always disastrous unless you are a natural expert

To make the presentation interesting, change your delivery, but not
too obviously, eg:

speed
pitch of voice

Use your hands to emphasise points but don't indulge in to much
hand waving. People can, over time, develop irritating habits. Ask
colleagues occasionally what they think of your style.

Look at the audience as much as possible, but don't fix on an
individual - it can be intimidating. Pitch your presentation towards
the back of the audience, especially in larger rooms.

Don't face the display screen behind you and talk to it. Other
annoying habits include:

Standing in a position where you obscure the screen. In fact,
positively check for anyone in the audience who may be
disadvantaged and try to accommodate them.
Muttering over a transparency on the OHP projector plate an
not realising that you are blocking the projection of the image.
It is preferable to point to the screen than the foil on the OHP
(apart from the fact that you will probably dazzle yourself with
the brightness of the projector)

Avoid moving about too much. Pacing up and down can unnerve the
audience, although some animation is desirable.

Keep an eye on the audience's body language. Know when to stop
and also when to cut out a piece of the presentation.

Back to top

Visual Aids

Visual aids significantly improve the interest of a presentation.

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Communication Skills - making oral presentations http://lorien.ncl.ac.uk/ming/dept/tips/present/comms.htm

However, they must be relevant to what you want to say. A careless
design or use of a slide can simply get in the way of the
presentation. What you use depends on the type of talk you are
giving. Here are some possibilities:

Overhead projection transparencies (OHPs)
35mm slides
Computer projection (Powerpoint, applications such as Excel,
etc)
Video, and film,
Real objects - either handled from the speaker's bench or
passed around
Flip~chart or blackboard - possibly used as a 'scratch-pad' to
expand on a point

Keep it simple though - a complex set of hardware can result in
confusion for speaker and audience. Make sure you know in advance
how to operate the equipment and also when you want particular
displays to appear. Sometimes a technician will operate the
equipment. Arrange beforehand, what is to happen and when and
what signals you will use. Edit your slides as carefully as your talk -
if a slide is superfluous then leave it out. If you need to use a slide
twice, duplicate it. And always check your slides - for typographical
errors, consistency of fonts and layout.

Slides and OHPs should contain the minimum information necessary.
To do otherwise risks making the slide unreadable or will divert your
audience's attention so that they spend time reading the slide rather
than listening to you.

Try to limit words per slide to a maximum of 10. Use a reasonable
size font and a typeface which will enlarge well. Typically use a
minimum 18pt Times Roman on OHPs, and preferably larger. A
guideline is: if you can read the OHP from a distance of 2 metres
(without projection) then it's probably OK

Avoid using a diagram prepared for a technical report in your talk. It
will be too detailed and difficult to read.

Use colour on your slides but avoid orange and yellow which do not
show up very well when projected. For text only, white or yellow on
blue is pleasant to look at and easy to read. Books on presentation
techniques often have quite detailed advice on the design of slides.
If possible consult an expert such as the Audio Visual Centre

Avoid adding to OHPs with a pen during the talk - it's messy and the
audience will be fascinated by your shaking hand! On this point, this
is another good reason for pointing to the screen when explaining a

4 of 5 7/29/2010 1:55 AM
Communication Skills - making oral presentations http://lorien.ncl.ac.uk/ming/dept/tips/present/comms.htm

slide rather than pointing to the OHP transparency.

Room lighting should be considered. Too much light near the screen
will make it difficult to see the detail. On the other hand, a
completely darkened room can send the audience to sleep. Try to
avoid having to keep switching lights on and off, but if you do have
to do this, know where the light switches are and how to use them.

Finally ...,

Enjoy yourself. The audience will be on your side and want to hear
what you have to say!

Back to top

Back to Presentation and Communications Skills Page

Copyright 1999 - 2009
School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials
Newcastle University
Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK
This page is maintained by Ming Tham

5 of 5 7/29/2010 1:55 AM
Designing Presentation Visuals -- Pacific Lutheran University http://www.plu.edu/libr/media/designing_visuals.html

Designing Presentation Visuals
Media Services, Robert A. L. Mortvedt Library
Pacific Lutheran University
The URL for this file is: http://www.plu.edu/~libr/media/designing_visuals.html

Think of Your Listeners
Design to Help People Listen
Visuals Should...
Good Visuals Are...
Ways of Adding Variety

Think of Your Listeners
Listening is much more difficult than reading
"Listeners" listen somewhere between 25% and 50% of the time
Information must be taken in "on the fly" with no backtracking
Short-term memory holds only 5 to 7 points
People remember only 10% of what they hear versus 50% of what they read
If your audience only listens only part of the time and remembers only 10% of what they hear, then
your "window"of communication is around 2.5% to 5.0% of your total presentation time!

Therefore:

Pity your poor listeners!
Do everything you can to help your listeners
to listen and remember.

Design to Help People Listen
1. Organize - provide structure and framework for the data you will present
provide a "jigsaw puzzle boxtop" for listeners to organize and reconstruct your verbal message
list points to be covered and provide a "road map" of how you will get there
2. Illustrate - help listeners to visualize - convert data to information
paint a picture
tell a story
make comparisons
3. Repeat - improve audience reception of data
remember that "listeners" listen only 25 to 50% of the time
repetition often suggests importance

1 of 3 7/29/2010 2:20 AM
Designing Presentation Visuals -- Pacific Lutheran University http://www.plu.edu/libr/media/designing_visuals.html

Visuals Should...
Support your communication objective
Enhance your verbal message, not detract from it
Set tone and emotional content of verbal message with the use of colors and images

Good Visuals Are...
Visible - You have to be able to see it to believe it
Visuals should be legible to most distant viewer
Minimum legibility standards: one inch letter height on screen per 30 feet viewing
distance
Data needed for legibility calculation
Screen width
Distance from projector to screen
Lens rating of projector (in inches)
Distance of most distant viewer from screen
Typewritten copy will not be visible!
Enlarge it on copy machine
Use 18 point type or larger when laying out transparencies on a computer
Limit number of words per line
3 to 4 per line optimal
6 to 7 maximum
Limit number of lines per visual
Less than 10 per transparency
Clear - Instantly recognizable in context to your verbal message
Focus on one idea per visual
Avoid too much primary information
Use color to focus on key information
Directly relate to communication objective
Complement verbal message
Add impact or tone to message
Provide overview or "whole picture"
Simple
Eliminate extraneous information and clutter
Visually simplify using design, color, or overlays

Ways of Adding Variety
Combine both left and right brain sensory channels
Left brain: words, sentences, symbols
Right brain: graphs, charts, symbols, pictures, etc.
Add color for emphasis, but beware of color connotations
Use movement with transparency pens, overlays, slide dissolves, etc.
Change backgrounds to change pace or introduce new topic
Change sequence of eye scanning (horizontal, vertical, diagonal) with design

2 of 3 7/29/2010 2:20 AM
Designing Presentation Visuals -- Pacific Lutheran University http://www.plu.edu/libr/media/designing_visuals.html

Media Services Telephone: (253) 535-7509 FAX:: (253) 535-7315
Media Services E-Mail: media@plu.edu Home Page: http://www.plu.edu/~media
Maintained by: Layne Nordgren (nordgrle@plu.edu). Send comments.
Last Update: 09/23/96

Home About PLU Academics Admissions Alumni Banner Web
Information Resources News & Events PLU People Student Life

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Public Speaking

How do you speak naturally while all those people are watching you?

This document covers hints and tips on public speaking and presentation skills, dealing with public
speaking nerves and anxiety, public speaking skills, public speaking techniques and public speaking
training.

Public Speaking Fear

Public Speaking Anxiety - Why Do We Get It?

Fear of Public Speaking

Building Confidence in Public Speaking

Public Speaking Training

Public Speaking Hints and Tips

Common Fears of Public Speaking

What happens when you have to speak in public?

Did you know that public speaking tops the list of phobias for most people? Not spiders or heights -
public speaking - speech in public!

Well, if you didn't know that, we bet your body does. It will do all kinds of unpleasant things to you
when you have to stand up and face a sea of faces with the hope of getting your message across in
a compelling and interesting way.

Your hands may sweat and your mouth goes dry. Your knees may shake and a quaver affects your
voice. Your heart may race and those well known butterflies invade your stomach.

When all that happens most people don't think of getting their message across in a compelling and
interesting way; they just think of getting off the 'stage' as quickly as possible!

Have we frightened you sufficiently yet?

It's normal

We don't really mean to frighten you, just remind you that your body reacts 'in extremis' when put
under pressure, and for most people, public speaking is just about the worst pressure they can be
put under.

It's normal to be nervous and have a lot of anxiety when speaking in public. In a way, it's less
normal not to have nerves or anxiety; in fact, to feel you have a phobia about public speaking.

Why do we get Public Speaking anxiety?

Fight or flight

Our bodies are geared to fight or flight from ancient time - fight that mastodon or get the hell out
of the way. We don't have too many mastodons around these days, but the body still reacts as
though we do. So, if we have to get up and speak in public, all that adrenalin and noradrenalin
goes coursing through our bodies - way more than we need.

We can't run away (well, we could, but we'd be out of job pretty quick if we did it too often), so our
only option is to fight. But in terms of speaking in public, it can be hard to define just what we're
fighting.

Why does public speaking do this to us?

Good question. You'd think that for most people, being given the opportunity to impress their

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Using Slide Projectors -- Pacific Lutheran University http://www.plu.edu/libr/media/using_slides.html

Using Slide Projectors
Media Services, Robert A. L. Mortvedt Library
Pacific Lutheran University
The URL for this file is: http://www.plu.edu/~libr/media/using_slides.html

Advantages of Slide Projectors
Disadvantages of Slide Projectors
Presentation Techniques for Slide Projectors
Slide Projection Survival Kit

Advantages of Slide Projectors
Continuous tone color images are reasonably-priced
$0.70 to $1.00 each
Many kinds of materials can be copied or captured
Copy stand
Photography
Flatbed color scanner
Slide scanner
Video frame capture
Audience perceives slides as "more professional" than overheads
Slides can be used to focus attention
Slide on screen to focus attention on visual
Blank or black slide to focus attention on speaker
Slides and projectors easy to store and transport
Overlays can be used to simplify complex information

Disadvantages of Slide Projectors
No face to face contact with audience since room usually darkened
Projector at back of room away from speaker
Not effective in a fully-lighted room
No ability to modify slides and sequence during presentations
Longer lead time (2 to 5 days) for preparation of slides

Presentation Techniques for Slide Projectors
Use of blank slides to focus attention
Focus attention on visual

1 of 2 7/29/2010 2:28 AM
Using Slide Projectors -- Pacific Lutheran University http://www.plu.edu/libr/media/using_slides.html

Blank to focus attention on speaker
Progressive disclosure
Reveal one point at a time
Add to lists on screen
Use of dissolve unit and two slide projectors to fade slides in and out
Link to audio track with cue tape

Slide Projection Survival Kit
Below are a few essential items that may make the difference between a successful and unsuccessful
presentation using slide projection. These are especially important if you will be presenting in a room without
access to audio-visual support services.

Extension Cord - Rooms sometimes have the power outlets located in the most inconvenient locations.
An extension cord may resolve such difficulties.
Ungrounded Plug Adapter - Some rooms do not have three-prong grounded outlets. A two-prong
adapter will allow you to use these older power outlets without damaging the overhead projector plug.
Spare Bulb - A spare bulb is always good insurance. Make sure you know how to change the bulb in
case it burns out during your presentation. Do not touch the glass surface of bulbs with your fingers,
but handle bulbs by their metal or porcelain bases.
Coin - Slides sometimes warp or get stuck in the projector. The only way to resolve this is to take the
tray off using a screw driver or a coin in the slot in the middle of the tray. Be sure however, that the
plastic lock ring is on your tray before you remove the tray to prevent dumping slides on the floor.
Spare Slide Tray - Sometimes a tray will become damaged on the projector. The solution is to move
the slides to an undamaged tray.
Numbered Slides - Numbering your slides in the upper right hand corner will provide assurance that
you can put the slides back in the tray in order if they spill out or get stuck.

Media Services Telephone: (253) 535-7509 FAX:: (253) 535-7315
Media Services E-Mail: media@plu.edu Home Page: http://www.plu.edu/~media
Maintained by: Layne Nordgren (nordgrle@plu.edu). Send comments.
Last Update: 09/23/96

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Using Overhead Projectors -- Pacific Lutheran University http://www.plu.edu/libr/media/using_overhead.html

Using Overhead Projectors
Media Services, Robert A. L. Mortvedt Library
Pacific Lutheran University
The URL for this file is: http://www.plu.edu/~libr/media/using_overhead.html

Advantages of Overhead Projectors
Disadvantages of Overhead Projectors
Presentation Techniques for Overhead Projectors
Overhead Projection Survival Kit

Advantages of Overhead Projectors
Face to face contact with audience
Eye contact possible
Can pick up verbal and nonverbal cues to understanding
Projector located in front of room and near speaker for easy access
Can be used to focus audience's attention
On to focus attention on visual material
Off to focus attention on speaker
Effective in a fully-lighted room; audience can follow handouts or take notes
Ability to modify transparencies during presentations
Highlighting important points with transparency pen
Writing on blank acetate film like a chalk board
Sequence of material can be modified during presentation
Accommodates audience questions or interest
Can abbreviate or extend sections of presentation
Unframed transparencies easy to store and transport; easily fit in file folder
Overlays can be used to simplify complex information into layers
Short lead time (minutes) for preparation of transparencies
Low cost of transparency material
$.30 per sheet for one color

Disadvantages of Overhead Projectors
Continuous tone color transparencies are costly
$1.50 per sheet for continuous tone color output from DeskWriter printer
Overhead projector is bulky and heavy to transport
Framed transparencies are bulky and difficult to store
Pages from books cannot be used effectively without modification since text will usually be too small
for audience to read.
Overhead projection is perceived as being "less professional" than slides in a formal setting.

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Using Overhead Projectors -- Pacific Lutheran University http://www.plu.edu/libr/media/using_overhead.html

Presentation Techniques for Overhead Projectors
Use ON - OFF switch to focus attention
ON to focus attention on visual
OFF to focus attention on speaker
Turn the projector off when you're not using it for extended periods of time to reduce distraction for
audience.
"Chalkboarding"
Use projector stage like a chalkboard
Acetate sheet or roll
Water soluble transparency pen
Notes for presentation can be:
Projected with presentation
Added in conjunction with presentation
Revealed one point at a time (see progressive disclosure)
Points in group discussions can be:
Listed to verify communication
Used to focus further discussion
Charts, grids, illustrations can be:
Prepared in skeleton form prior to presentation
Modified, filled in labeled, etc. during presentation
Pointing for emphasis
Concentrate attention on message being covered
Use opaque shapes like pens, coins, arrows, etc.
Highlighting
Use pen of different color from original. (Be sure to use water-soluble pen if you need to re-use
the original transparency.)
Use underline, circle, arrow, check, bullet, star, etc. as emphasis codes for your audience
Progressive disclosure with opaque cover
Reveal topics one point at a time
Direct attention to point being covered
Prevent distraction
Overlays
Simplify complex concepts
One part of complex whole can be presented at a time
Parts can be joined for discussion of whole

Overhead Projection Survival Kit
Below are a few essential items that may make the difference between a successful and unsuccessful
presentation using overhead projection. Some of these are especially important if you will be presenting in a
room without access to audio-visual support services.

Extension Cord - Rooms sometimes have the power outlets located in the most inconvenient locations.
An extension cord may resolve such difficulties.
Ungrounded Plug Adapter - Some buildings still do not have three-prong grounded outlets. A
two-prong adapter will allow you to use these older power outlets without damaging the overhead
projector plug.

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Using Overhead Projectors -- Pacific Lutheran University http://www.plu.edu/libr/media/using_overhead.html

Spare Bulb - Most of the PLU overhead projectors have spare lamp changers inside the projector. But
a spare bulb is always good insurance. Make sure you know how to change the bulb in case it burns out
during your presentation. Do not touch the glass surface of bulbs with your fingers, but handle bulbs
by their metal or porcelain bases or with a handkerchief.
Transparency Pen - You may want to write on a transparency to illustrate, clarify, or highlight a point.
If you plan to use a transparency over again, be sure to use a water-soluble transparency pen. You
may want to cover transparencies with clear sleeves to avoid damaging your original.
Acetate Film - Extra blank acetate film provides additional "chalkboard space" for responding to
audience questions and comments.

Media Services Telephone: (253) 535-7509 FAX:: (253) 535-7315
Media Services E-Mail: media@plu.edu Home Page: http://www.plu.edu/~media
Maintained by: Layne Nordgren (nordgrle@plu.edu). Send comments.
Last Update: 09/23/96

Home About PLU Academics Admissions Alumni Banner Web
Information Resources News & Events PLU People Student Life

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