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A predetermined motion time system (PMTS) is frequently used to set labor rates in industry by

quantifying the amount of time required to perform specific tasks. The first such system is known
as Methods-time measurement, released in 1948 and today existing in several variations, commonly
known as MTM-1, MTM-2, MTM-UAS, MTM-MEK and MTM-B. Obsolete MTM standards include MTM-3
and MMMM (4M). The MTM-2 standard has also largely been phased out by the organization, but is still
used in some commercial applications.

Another popular PMTS is the Maynard Operation Sequence Technique, which was first released in 1972.
That method also has several variations, with the most commonly used being BasicMOST, and others
being MiniMOST, MaxiMOST, and AdminMOST. The variations of both systems differ from each other
based on their level of focus. MTM-1 and MiniMOST are optimal for short processes with only small hand
motions. BasicMOST, MODAPTS and MTM-UAS are more suitable for processes that average around 1
to 5 minutes, while MTM-B and MaxiMOST are more properly used for longer processes that are less
repetitive.

Yet another popular PMTS used today in the automotive, sewing and healthcare industries is
the MODAPTS technique. This technique was introduced in 1966 by G. C. "Chris" Heydewho originally
learned the MTM-1 and MTM-2 methods in the 1950s and sought a simpler technique to use and apply.
Unlike the MTM and MOST standards, MODAPTS uses a MOD as its basic unit of measurement (1 MOD
= 0.129 seconds). However, like Basic-MOST, MODAPTS uses a coding technique that consists of a
letter and an integer number (all but 1 code), where the integer numbers each represent MODS that can
be easily added to determine a coded task's time.

Unlike time studies, in which an analyst uses a stopwatch and subjectively rates the operator's effort to
calculate a standard time, a PMTS requires that the analyst break apart the process into its component
actions, assign time values to each action, and sum the times to calculate the total standard time.

Most predetermined motion time systems (MTM and MOST) use time measurement units (TMU) instead
of seconds for measuring time. One TMU is defined to be 0.00001 hours, or 0.036 seconds. These
smaller units allow for more accurate calculations without the use of decimals. In the most in-depth PMT
systems, motions observed will be on the level of individual TMUs, like toss (3 TMUs in MiniMOST) and
simple pick-up (2 TMUs in MTM-1). More general systems simplify things by grouping individual
elements, and thus have larger time values – for example, a bend and arise (61 TMUs in MTM-2) and one
or two steps (30 TMUs in BasicMOST). Systems with even less detail work with TMU values in the
hundreds, like climbing 10 rungs on a ladder (300 TMUs in MaxiMOST) or passing through a door (100
TMUs in MaxiMOST).

The choice of which variation of a certain PMTS to use is dependent on the need for accuracy in contrast
to the need for quick analysis, as well as the length of the operation, the distances involved in the

Times for an operation or task are derived using precise conventions. It was devised by Quick. Glossary of Terms Used in Work Study is: 'Tables of time data at defined rates of working for classified human movements and mental activities. Conversely. In a series of ‘Myth Busters’. very short. less repetitive operations. Malcolm and Duncan under the title Work- Factor and appeared in 1938.operation. as his Therbligs. many myths and misconceptions also accompany the same. statistical analysis demonstrates that the accuracy of less detailed systems will generally approach the accuracy of more detailed systems. Longer operations often take place on a larger spatial scale. and tend to be less repetitive. repetitive processes are commonly analyzed with more exact methods like MTM-1 and MiniMOST because of the need for accuracy. The first commercial and internationally recognized system was devised in the 1930's to circumvent the banning by the government of the United States time study and the stop-watch as the means of measuring work performed on US government contracts. Thus. New Delhi demystifies preconceptions of PMTS technologies. Professor Prabir Jana from National Institute of Fashion Technology. some ten years later. Background The principle of analyzing work into into basic actions was first published by F. less detailed systems (like MTM-B and MaxiMOST) are usually used when possible. Gilbreth in 1920. in order to reduce the time required for analysis. the main one. The definition in BS 3138. Other methods followed. Predetermined motion time data have also been developed for common combinations of basic human movements and mental activities'. As technology advances and new solutions appear in the market. so these issues are often treated as one. being Methods-Time Measurement . and the repetitiveness of the operation. Definition: PMT Systems are methods of setting basic times for doing basic human activities necessary for carrying out a job or task. For longer. a link provided under references.

tmu). • grasp an object . in Work-Factor the time unit is one thousandth of a minute (the Work-Factor Time Unit) whereas in MTM the unit is one hundred- thousandth of an hour (time measurement unit. all of which increase the times to carry out the basic actions. weight of the object. For example. or inserting an object into. Other basic activities include: . The times for basic actions are adjusted for other factors which take into account such variables as: • distances moved. apply basic times for these from tables andsynthesize them into a basic time for the complete job. For each of these actions basic times are tabled. in inches or centimetres • difficulty in performing the actions. its intended location.(MTM). Outline description of PMTS The concept of PMTS is to analyse a job into its fundamental human activities. Both systems share basic similarities but are based on different standards of time. The above basic motions cover most of the actions performed by humans when carrying out work. such as avoiding obstacles during moves. touching it or closing the fingers around it. • regrasp an object in order to locate it in a particular way. other elements for assembling to. usually prior to: • release an object to relinquish control on it. The basic elements include the following: • reach for an object or a location. • move an object a specified distance to a specified place. closeness of fit during assembling.

Identify. such as: 1. Basic times produced by PMTS need to have relaxation allowances and other necessary allowances added to produce standard times. most detailed systems: MTM and Detailed Work-Factor 2. Levels of detail in systems In order to speed up measurement time the major systems all include different levels of detail. Inspect. mostly from Work-Factor. Third level systems: MTM-3 and Abbreviated Work-Factor (even more abridged) 4. Recall. React. "higher level" systems. substituting and/or eliminating certain basic motions. statistically averaging. One example of simplifying in the second level system MTM-2 is the combining of MTM elements reach. grasp and release to produce a new MTM-2 element of "Get". Eye travel times. . Nerve Conduct. Mental activities include times for: See. This is achieved by synthesizing the hundreds of small jobs measured using PMTS into a time for the complete project. • walking to a specified place • bending down and stooping • kneeling on one knee and kneeling on both knees • foot and leg motions • sitting down and standing. Eye focus. Compute (calculate) and others. PMTS is often used to generate synthetic data or (standard data banks) which are overall basic times for more complex tasks such as maintenance or overhauling of equipment. usually times for complete activities. Second level systems: MTM-2 and Ready Work-Factor (abridged versions) achieved usually by the four methods of combining. Memorize. 3.

An example of part of a typical analysis in MTM-2 is given in the Appendix.9 M14C Transformer to plate Notes on descriptions of some of the codes as examples. The Management Services Handbook. ditto 6 Grasp washer G4B 9. Method Study Related topics: Time study Work Measurement CWD Management Systems Further reading Ed. Institute of Management Services Dennis A Whitmore. Hold in box 4 Palm washer G2 5.Bentley." G2 is a grasp Case 2 which is a Regrasp to move the washer . R14B is translated as "Reach 14 in. to a single object in location which may vary slightly from cycle to cycle.1 --. ditto 5 To second washer R2C 5. MTM Analysis Job description: Analyst: E J H Assemble r. The codes in the LH and RH columns refer to those in the MTM time tables.6 --. --. Description LH tmu's RH Description 1 Move hand to washer R14C 15. to an object jumbled with other objects in a group. T.J.1 G1A Grasp transformer 3 Move hand clear of container M2B --.6 R14B Move hand to transformer 2 Grasp first washer G4B 9. so that search and select occur" (Class C reach).f.9 --. ditto 7 Move washers to area M10B 16. For example: R14C is translated as "Reach 14 in. Work Measurement. Institute of Management Services An extract from an MTM analysis showing the first seven elements. transformer to base-plate Date: 3 May El.

as well as determining the time required for its performance. was a pioneer in this field of PMTS. before the job reached the production floor. and its time be established.25 x 0. It was seen that this could provide a greater potential for judging the effectiveness of a motion pattern structure. MTM itself came into prominence in 1948 on the publication of the American book ‘Methods Time Measurement’ by Maynrd. By their definition: ‘Methods time measurement is a procedure which analyses any manual operations or method into the basic motions required to perform it and assign to each .25 x 0." One tmu is one hundred-thousandth of an hour Top of Form Bottom of Form PRE-DETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEMS (PMTS) EW. American research in this field came to fruition after 1940. Stegmerton. A work measurement technique whereby times established for basic human motions (classified according to the nature of the motion and the conditions under which it is made) are used to build up the time for a job at a defined level of performance. Objects within the range 0. PMT systems are an important development within the field of time and motion study F B Gilbreth’s therblig and filming techniques opened up another avenue with the possibility of identifying and timing the types of motions that are the fundamental ingredients of any manual element.125 in. to 1 x 1 x 1 inch. His idea was to establish a library of predetermined element times so that the correct job method could be planned. Basic Motion Time Study. and Schwab.into the palm G4B is a Grasp Case 4B which is for grasping *object jumbled with other objects so search and select occur. for his approach was to establish element times by time study. Work Factor and MTM are the best known. He managed to go only part of the way in this. Now there are a number of systems in existence such as Motion Time Analysis. Taylor.

the analyst may either establish the sequence of motions for the job by observation. . it is the classification of detail and the units recommend it in its simplicity and in the units of time used. 12 inches. To enable him to pursue either course and to explore alternative sequences quickly.motion a predetermined time standard which is determined by the nature of the motion and the conditions under which it is made’ The motion classification and times for this system were derived from the analysis of many micro-motion films taken at 16 frames a second on a cine camera actuated by a constant speed motor. Reach 2. e. Position 6. Grasp 5.g. R12ACD would mean ‘Reach. From this research the essential data was set out in ten small tables with the captions: 1.00001 hour. Eye travel and eye focus 9. Both Work Factor and simplified PMT operate in much the same way as MTM. Given this the MTM tables can then be referred to and the relevant times calculated and assigned to their sequence on the chart. 10. When using this system. These times are expressed in ‘Time Measurement Units’.00001 minutes. Simultaneous motions. Body. Although simplified PMT system recognizes the BS rating scale and expresses its standards in milli-minutes that is 0. or he may visualize what should take place and plan the best sequence or motions according to the data that gives simplest and economical movements. Turn and apply pressure 4. Each table classifies the sub-divisions of its topic. Disengage 8. and tabulates the time to be assigned according to the category of motion and the factor that causes the time to vary. Mainly. each category of movement possesses a letter code to give it a distinct identity. Case A with Change Direction. Move 3. Release 7. where one TMU is equal to 0. leg and foot motions.

2. These examples can be regarded as minor problems on some jobs because careful approximation is often a satisfactory expedient. There are occasions where it is difficult to decide the sequence of finger movements that will act on a job. There are instances where certain categories of movement are subject to a restraint not catered for in the data. then PMT can produce a standard for the job. otherwise it can contribute to different objectives only. 4. There are. If the manual activities control and dictate the time of a job cycle. then there is additional difficulty of making an accurate recording of fast and intricate motions. find the necessary RA. If the job detail is established by observation. . of course. The main disadvantages are the time it takes to analyze a job into its very small constituents. or a controlled movement may be necessary to obtain a desired quality of finish. Setting targets and motion pattern in operator training. 3. and so on. Evaluating time standards before the job is running. This. too. may increase recording time. An article may have to be moved with caution. These systems can deal only with manual content of a job. Comparing method alternatives with the minimum need for experimentation. limitations.The advantages of such system are numerous 1. calculate the times that apply. Aiding tool and product design. and add al the data to reach a standard.