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-NAGALAKSHMI.P.

G
Overview:- 
Introduction 

Why microcontroller? 

Block diagram of AAI 

Components involved 

Algorithm for Automatic Anesthesia Injector 

Advantages and Future improvements 

Conclusion
Introduction:-
Embedded system:-

nearly a computing system other than desktop
computer. Difficult to define since it covers broad range of
electronic devices.

e.g.: microwave oven, line follower, TV remote
controller etc…,

Anesthesia :-
given periodically in mL per hour ,to the patient
during surgery.
MICROCONTROLLER 

ASIP 

One chip solution 

Deals with bits
MICROCONTROLLER ARCHITECTURE
v Microcontroller manufacturers:-

Intel, Philips, Atmel, Siemens, Microchip

v Types of microcontrollers:- 

PIC MICROCONTROLLER 

INTEL8051 MICROCONTROLLER 

AT89C51 / AT89S51 MICROCONTROLLER
etc…,
Anesthesia Machine
BLOCK DIAGRAM of MICROCONTROLLER
BASED ANESTHESIA INJECTOR
Components:-

v Temperature Sensor:- 
Implemented using Thermistors for accurate measurement of
temperature.
v Respiration Sensor:- 

A Strain Gauge type Chest Transducer is a suitable
transducer to measure the respiratory activity.
v Heart Beat Sensor:-
A sensor is designed for monitoring the changes in the
heart beat of the human body.
There are 2 ways of monitoring heart beat rate information, 

ElectroCardioGram (ECG) 

Pulse signal
v ADC :- 

Successive Approximation technique for the conversion
process. 

accuracy and repeatability. 

It consumes minimal power.

v Stepper Motor:- 
A 4-phase stepper motor. 

The switch sequence can be used to rotate the motor half
steps of 0.9º clockwise or counter clockwise.
v Syringe infusion pump:- 

provides uniform flow of fluid by precisely driving the
plunger of a syringe towards its barrel. 

The pump will stop automatically. 

much lower flow rate can be obtained by using smaller
syringes.
Flow Chart:- Start

Clear timer , time count register ,
display and alarm LEDs
C

Set the counter for monitoring anesthesia level,
enable time interrupt and start timer
B
Read body temperature , respiration and
heartbeat rate

yes
Parameters>normal
no
yes Increase the
Parameters<normal
stepper motor
Decrease the no rotation speed
stepper motor No change in stepper motor
rotation speed rotation speed

A
A

Implement the changes in Syringe
infusion pump subroutine

Read counter value

no
B Is counter value =0?

yes

Clear counter initiate alarm subroutine

Repeat the routine until RESET or Turned off

C
Advantages:- 
Human errors can be eliminated, Because of accurate
timing. 

IR detector is also included in the system for monitoring
the total anesthesia level for the entire period of the
surgery time.

Future improvements:- 
Blood pressure, retinal size, age and weight need to
include. 

Specialized circuit need to be used, thereby reducing size,
cost and increasing efficiency.
Summary:- 
Microcontroller is made use to perform anesthesia injecting
operation, where the quantity to be inject and the timing is
provided. 

The stepper motor speed is varied according to the parameters
like temperature, respiration and heartbeat rate. 

Syringe infusion pump is mechanically connected to the motor. 

Making use of sensor it detects its destination where it need to
inject then by precisely drives the plunger. 

since the surgery time varies, externally it is reset or turned off.
QUESTIONS?
THANK YOU