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: 13

Impulse Voltage Test of Power Transformers

W. Schrader W. Schufft

HIGHVOLT Prüftechnik Chemnitz University of

Dresden GmbH Technology, Germany

Abstract SG Rs

During the Lightning Impulse (LI) test of trans-

former windings with a low impedance it is diffi-

cult to ensure a minimum time to half-value of 40 Ci Rp Ct vt(t)

µs in accordance with IEC 60076-3 and IEC

60060-1. This is caused by the oscillating dis-

charge determined by the impulse voltage test

generator capacitance and the transformer im-

pedance. In most cases using special adapted a) Ci Impulse capacitance

circuits can solve the problem. Ct Capacitance of the load

(including voltage divider)

1. Impulse voltage test generator with Rp Tail resistor

capacitive load Rs Front resistor

SG Switching spark gap

For the LI testing of basic arrangements but also

of different electrical components a purely ca-

pacitive load can be assumed. The impulse volt-

age shape generated by an impulse voltage test

generator based on the MARX multiplier circuit

can be described by two exponential functions

with different time constants. Whereas the LI

front time T1 according to IEC 60060-1 [1] is

essentially determined by the resistance of the

front resistor Rs located in the impulse voltage

test generator and the load capacitance Ct, see

fig. 1, the time to half-value T2 is determined by b)

the impulse capacitance of the impulse capacitor

Ci and the resistance of the tail resistor Rp being −τt −

t

**part of the impulse voltage test generator. Ac- c) vt (t ) = V × K × e − e
**

2 τ1

(1)

cording to IEC 600060-1 there are the following

time parameters and tolerances for the standard Fig. 1: LI test at a capacitive load

LI 1.2/50: a) Principal circuit

Front time T1 = 1.2 µs + 30 % b) Standard LI 1.2/50 (IEC 60060-1)

Time to half-value T2 = 50 µs + 20 % with time parameter T1 and T2

c) Equation for the voltage shape

© Copyright HV Technologies, Inc. - 2000 13-1

Impulse voltage test generator with Thereby the inductance Lt of the load becomes inductive load smaller with decreasing impedance voltage vimp%. This is permitted in princi- ple acc. For a three-phase nected with the earth. The principal circuit (fig. 1) must be 100 ∗ ω ∗ Ptot extended by the transformer inductance Lt that is connected in parallel to the test capacitance Ct ω=2πf (fig. 2: LI test at an inductive/capacitive load T2 min ∗ 100 ∗ ω ∗ Ptot a) Principal circuit Ci req ≥ 2 ∗ 2 (5) b) Voltage shape depending on the vimp % ∗ U P − P inductance factor Lt Though the requirement for a minimum impulse c) Equation for the voltage shape capacity Ci req of the impulse voltage test gen- erator is necessary but it is not sufficient to meet HV Technologies. which can be calculated closely as follow- ing: 2 T2 min Ci req ≥ 2 ∗ (4) b) Lt c) v (t ) ≈ V ∗ K ∗ e −δt ∗ cos(ωt − ϕ ) − K ∗ e −τ (2) t with T2 = 40 µs t 1 2 Hence it follows with equation (3): 2 Fig. the lower tolerance limit for the time to half-value of T2 min may not remain under 40 µs (= 50 µs .2. to IEC 60076-3 [2]. However. Therefore the testing. 2).20 %). . Lt Inductance (stray inductance) of the SG Rs winding to be tested vimp% Impedance voltage of the winding to be tested VP-P Rated phase-to-phase voltage of the Ci Rp Ct Lt vt(t) three-phase winding to be tested Ptot Rated total power of the three-phase winding to be tested f Rated frequency a) Ci Impulse capacitance With decreasing inductance Lt the impulse ca- Ct Capacitance of the load pacitance Ci of the impulse voltage test genera- (including voltage divider) tor is not only discharged via the tail resistor Rp. Virginia 13-2 . Inc. Usually the LI test voltage is applied to lowest values of the inductance Lt have to be one winding terminal of the transformer to be considered by testing the low-voltage side wind- tested. Hereby. with decreasing rated phase-to-phase In most of the cases power transformers cannot voltage VP-P and with increasing power Ptot of the be assumed as a purely capacitive load for the LI transformer winding to be tested. Thereby the time to half-value T2 of Rs Front resistor the LI is reduced and the aperiodic discharge of SG Switching spark gap the impulse capacitance turns to a damped os- cillating cosine shape. To fulfil these both requirements the impulse voltage impulse voltage test generator must have a minimum required impulse capacitance Ci req. 13 & 14 September. not only the input winding in a star connection the following equa- capacitance of the transformer winding acts as tion can be applied: the load for the impulse voltage test generator vimp % ∗ VP2− P but also its impedance to all other short-circuited Lt = (3) windings. ings for power transformers. Alexandria. Lt Inductance of the load but also via the low inductance Lt of the winding Rp Tail resistor to be tested. whereas all other terminals are con.Workshop 2000. At the other side the amplitude of opposite polarity of the LI voltage dmax should not exceed 50 %.

exceed 75 % of the rated LI withstand voltage of ment for the amplitude of opposite polarity d ≤ 50 these windings. becomes greater the more the impulse capacitance of the applied impulse voltage test generator Ci exceeds the minimum required impulse capacitance Ci req according to equation (5). less. Inc. 4: Impulse Voltage Test System IP 360/3600 G (360 kJ. For a higher damping the require. (b): Damping to low . Fig. the adjustment of the direct earthing.the amplitude of oppo- site polarity d of the LI is to high (d > 50%) (c): Optimal damping (T2 > 40µs. Alexandria. (e): Damping to high . for accepted. This to the test voltage.T2 is to short (T2 < 40µs) 3. a minimum remain under 500 Ohm. The margin for the adjustment. 3600 kV) with impulse If the requirements acc. LI test of power transformers up to 765 kV IEC 60076-3 allows for the following exceptions: HV Technologies. the impulse age test generator Ci is not greater than the voltage stress of the tested windings may con- minimum required impulse capacitance Ci req siderably deviate from the voltage stress for according to equation (5). it has to time to half-value T2min ≥ 40 µs can be reached. . the oscillating circuit formed by can be agreed between the manufacturer the impulse capacitance Ci of the impulse volt. be fulfilled for the LI test of a power transformers with a stage energy of 20 kJ being used for the with an existing impulse voltage test generator.the requirements T2 min ≥ 40 µs (IEC) and dmax ≤ a) A shorter time to half-value than T2 = 40 µs 50 %. If the damping is to low. d < 50%) (d). Furthermore. the sufficient circuit damping. Virginia 13-3 . nation resistors tors (Rs. to equation (5) can not voltage divider and chopping multiple spark gap. In the case voltage test generator considerably. but the time to half-value may sible to extend the operating range of an impulse remain smaller than 40 µs.Workshop 2000. Neverthe- that the impulse capacitance of the impulse volt. It has to be agreed between damping of the test circuit must be done very customer and manufacturer which exception is exactly. it must be noted that hereby. and the customer of the transformer age test generator and the winding inductance Lt b) Winding terminals being not directly exposed must have a certain characteristic damping. 3: LI test of power transformers with different damping of the test circuit (a). 13 & 14 September. 3. see fig. i.e. can be earthed via termi- is mainly determined by the front and tail resis. Rp) located in the impulse voltage test The resistance of the termination resistors has to generator. made sure that the voltage which will occur at but the amplitude of opposite polarity d is more the resistively earthed winding terminals will not than 50 %. With this method it is often pos- % can be fulfilled. Moreover. Resistive earthing of winding terminals Fig.

the higher values apply to transformers with higher power (fig. to equation (5). partial operation) and the above aspects regarding the total charging volt- age the stage charging energy can be calculated in principle for each possible test case. transformers b) Switching a certain number of generator stages respectively in parallel and connect The main technical data of the transformers to this parallel stages in series to reach the re- be tested. impulse voltage test generators for power transformer testing have an energy of 15 kJ per 200-kV-stage. Often.3. If the exception “earthing via termination resis- tors” is not considered. Normally a stage energy of 5 … 10 kJ per 100- kV-stage and a stage energy of 10 … 20 kJ per 200-kV-stage will be sufficient. for which the existing impulse Fig. 2000 kV) with impulse meant.e. A further increase of the resistance of the routine tests. a total charging voltage. the permitted lower limit T2 min = 40 µs.2.Workshop 2000. Increasing the effective impulse ca- 5. Increasing the parallel resistors frequency determine essentially the total charg- ing voltage and the stage energy of an impulse If the time to half-value remains only a few below voltage test generator for the LI test. of the windings. if the circuit taken: a) Running the impulse voltage test generator damping is to high. the required impulse capacitance Ci req can be calculated for each winding voltage level acc. it is pos- The total charging voltage of the impulse voltage sible to reach a value of T2 ≥ 40 µs by increasing test generator should lie for LI testing 30 % … 60 the tail resistors Rp. In such cases it is necessary to utilise all voltage divider and chopping multiple spark gap. 4). 5. a time to half-value of T2 ≥ 40 in partial operation. . Extension of the loading range of im- pulse voltage test generators Often it is required to test transformer with such a high power. Projection of an impulse voltage test number of stages. rated power. impedance voltage and not at least the rated 5. see fig. which lies 60 % the SI generation does not have any result. Whereas the lower values apply to transformers with lower power. In meant for switching impulse voltage can be ap- many cases the value of 30 % is sufficient for plied. Virginia 13-4 . 13 & 14 September. If development tests are to be car. with the minimum µs is not reached even with a sufficient impulse HV Technologies. is rec- ommended.1. tail resistors Rp above the resistance value for ried out. 5.4. i. Alexandria. above the highest rated LI test voltage. LI test of power transformers up to 245 kV 5. their rated voltage. being necessary to reach generator for the LI test of power the required test voltage level. reserves of the existing impulse voltage test with a stage energy of 15 kJ being used for the generator. Taking into consideration the different circuitry options of the impulse voltage test generator (parallel con- nection of stages. like the circuitry and the arrangement quired test voltage. 5: Impulse Voltage Test System voltage test generator has not been originally IP 150/2000 G (150 kJ. Inc. Decreasing the damping of the test pacitance circuit The following generally known measures can be As already mentioned in chapter 2. Usually the tail resistors % above the highest required LI test voltage.

T2 and d with the resistors Rp und Rt (fig. 100 … 200 µH. of the front resistor Rs has to be reduced. to form a true voltage divider further reduction of the damping the resistance consisting of Rs//Lg and Rt//Lt. 3. the Rt Resistor in parallel to the load time to half-value T2 and the amplitude of oppo- SG Switching spark gap site polarity d of the LI test voltage can be set almost independently. 8: LI test of power transformers by using Ci Impulse capacitance the Glaninger-circuit. T2 > Lt Inductance of the load 40 µs. and 8). For a load inductance Lt. Hereby the front resistor re- sponsible for the voltage front remains un- changed but it is bridged by an additional induc- tance formed by an air-coil (fig. adjustment of the voltage shape at the voltage crest by means of an addi- The disadvantage of oscillations on the voltage tional resistor Rt (optimal adjustment Rt = 300 front after a reduction of the front resistor Rs is Ohm for this example) completely avoided with a circuit invented by GLANINGER [3]. because a reduction of the resistance of the front resistor Rs will lead to oscillations on the front of the LI voltage soon. Consequently an additional be considerably eliminated by their increase.capacitance of the impulse voltage test genera. . the capaci- tance of the load has to be increased corre- sponding to the reduction of the resistance of the front resistor Rs. d < 50 %) Rp Tail resistor Rs Front resistor With a Glaninger-circuit the front time T1. This is easily realised by con- necting an additional capacitor in parallel to the transformer winding to be tested. To keep the front time T1 unchanged. 7 Rt) for LI testing of power transformers with ex. i.4. which may exceed the per- mitted limit for the overshoot of 5 % /1/. T1 with the tail resistor Fig. Virginia 13-5 . Unfortunately.Workshop 2000. Lg SG Rs Ci Rp Rt Ct Lt vt(t) Fig. 6). see fig. The Glaninger-coil must have an inductance tor (Ci ≥ Ci req). Application of the ”Glaninger-circuit” the Glaninger-circuit.e. 13 & 14 September. Alexandria. 6: Test circuit with Glaninger-circuit (Lg and Rs. front of the LI impulse remains unchanged and The damping caused by the tail resistors Rp can the tail is extended. So he damping. Inc. Fig. . 7: LI test of power transformers by using 5. value ca. to be ineffective for the The front and tail resistors in the impulse voltage fast impulse front and to bridge the front resistor test generator are mostly responsible for that Rs during the much longer impulse tail.2. as resistor Rt has to be switched in parallel to the already recommended in chapter 5. adjustment of the time to Ct Capacitance of the load half-value T2 and the amplitude of opposite po- (including voltage divider) larity d by means of the tail resistor Rp (optimal Lg Glaninger-coil adjustment Rp = 60 Ohm for this example. the effect of this method is limited. This would cause a shorter front time T1 of the LI. The Glaninger- circuit enables for LI testing the most effective HV Technologies. A variation of the Glaninger-coil induc- tremely low impedance tance is as a rule not necessary.

to the IEC standards presupposes techniques. Power transformers load. Part 1: General definitions and special knowledge of the interaction between the test requirements impulse voltage test generator and the inductive [2] IEC 60076-3 (2000-03). 13 & 14 September. P. Alexandria. dielectric tests and tion between the main data of the transformer to external clearances in air be tested and the required impulse capacitance [3] Glaninger. For example. An existing isting impulse voltage test generator optimally. 1975. . Part 3: Insulation levels. Inc.: Stoßspannungsprüfung of the impulse voltage test generator.Workshop 2000. there exists a close connec. ISH Zürich. impulse voltage test generator can be utilised Some basic aspects and circuitries were de- optimally. Virginia 13-6 . There are an elektrischen Betriebsmitteln kleiner In- also requirements related to the damping duktivität. High-voltage test voltage acc. Beitrag 2. Conclusion References The testing of power transformers with LI test [1] IEC 60060-1 (1989-11).1-05 HV Technologies.adaptation of the impulse voltage test generator characteristic of the test circuit to utilise an ex- and the transformer to be tested. scribed in this paper. 6.

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