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Solution of Homework 1

**1-3C) The claim cannot be true. It violates the second law of thermodynamics. Please
**

refer to page 2 in the textbook for additional discussions.

**1-19C) Extensive properties depend on system size – some examples are volume, mass,
**

and energy. Intensive properties are independent of system size –some examples are

temperature, pressure, density, and specific volume. Please refer to page 12 of the

textbook for additional discussions.

**1-22C) In a system in thermodynamic equilibrium, property values do not change with
**

time but observe that:

a) Temperature values should be equal everywhere in the system;

b) The mechanical equilibrium criterion is that forces should be balanced (resulting

force equal to zero) everywhere. In many cases, this leads to equal pressure values

at all points of the system, but there are cases in which the pressure values are not

equal. For example, the pressure may vary within an equilibrium system with

elevation as result of gravitational effects.

Please refer to page 14 in the textbook for additional discussions.

**1-29C) The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if a body A is in thermal
**

equilibrium with body C and if body B is in thermal equilibrium with body C, then

bodies A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other. A practical application of this

law is the use of thermometers for temperature measurement. Please refer to page 17 in

the textbook for additional discussions.

**1-59) Let us denote the pressure at the beginning and end of the hiking trip as PB (=930
**

mbar) and PE (=780 mbar). The pressure decreases as the altitude increases and,

therefore, the end of the hiking trip occurred at a higher altitude than the beginning of the

trip. We have that:

PB = PE + ρ gh

Thus:

h=

( PB − PE )

ρg

Replacing the numerical values and paying attention to unit conversion, we get:

we have: kg m Pduct = 100000 Pa + 13600 3 × 9.4 kPa. the pressure of air in the duct forces mercury to go down in the left hand side of the U-tube and. 100 Pa ( PB − PE ) ( 930 − 780 ) mbar × 1mbar h= = = 1274m ρg 1.81 2 3 m s 1-63) The pressure of the gas inside the cylinder results from the following three contributions: (1) the atmosphere. therefore.015m ≈ 102000 Pa = 102kPa m s . Using SI units during the intermediate steps. This indicates that the air pressure in the duct is above atmospheric pressure. where ρ is the mercury density and h is the difference in the mercury levels in both sides of the tube (15mm). Replacing the numerical values and paying attention to unit conversion.2 kg m × 9. we obtain that the pressure of the gas is123. Pgas = Patm + Ppiston + Pspring To obtain the piston and spring contributions. (2) the weight of the piston. and (3) the pressure exerted by the spring.81 1000 Pa s2 60 N Pgas = 95kPa × + 2 + = 123354 Pa 1kPa 1m 1m 2 35cm × 2 35cm × 2 10000cm 2 10000cm 2 Converting unit and rounding. b) The absolute pressure in the duct is given by Pduct = Patm + ρ gh . 1-68) a) Examining Figure P1-68 in page 44 of the textbook. we get: m 4kg × 9.81 2 × 0. we need to remember that P = F A and that the weight force is given by ( mg ) . to go up in the right hand side.

and 5 are at the same level in the same stationary fluid (fluid B) and therefore P3 = P4 = P5 . We begin our calculation in the end of the tube open to the atmosphere (right hand side) and use our three observations to write: P1 = Patm + γ b hB + γ AhA where hB and hA are equal to 15cm and 5cm. b) points 3. respectively (please refer to the figure). c) the unit ( kN m 3 ) of properties given for fluids A and B shows that they are the specific weights: γ = ρ g . 4. we get: 133.1-76) Observe that: a) points 1 and 2 are at the same level in the same stationary fluid (fluid A) and therefore P1 = P2 .3Pa kN 1000 N 1m P1 = 758mmHg × +8 3 × × 15cm × + 1mmHg m 1kN 100cm kN 1000 N 1m 10 3 × × 5cm × = 102741Pa ≈ 102.7kPa m 1kN 100cm . Replacing the numerical values and paying attention to unit conversion.

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