Dec' •••1,,11(:'_._. EOWAROG HEIDIG
In This Issue I
ELIGIBLE LIST - JULY 1, 1993 114
Whal is happenll'lg here? see page 119. Photo by Max Flanery.
Cover Photo. Can you name Ofle 01 the most common and chemICally
stable rock-forming minerals at the ear1h's surtace? Piezoelectric
and pyroelectnc mineraI. May e)(hibitlelt· or right·handed crystals.
but usually not althe same site. Pnsms (faces parallel to ac• aXIs)
frequently slnated horizOfltally (perpendicular to ac• axis). Conchotdal
fracture common. See page 94.
Cleavage: poor basal cleavage
Luster: vrtreous In rnactOC1YStalhne forms.
waxy Of dull In cryptocrystalline forms
Mohs hardness: 7
Spearrc gravrty: 2.65
Crystal system: Ingonal
Color: frequently while. almost
any color. coIoriess
EliM MalbSOn _......
JUlYtAUGUST 1993 Volum8 481Number 4
CGEOA 46 (4) 85-120 (1993)
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Dale Stickney. Geologist
DiVISion of Mines and Geology
RhodochrOSite IS usually a gangue minerai associated with copper or lead deposits. Sometimes It is mined lor manganese.
The mineraI's name comes tram the Greek tor "rose colored." Photos by suthor.
This article demonstrates some of the basic concepts of mineral identlflcarion. Ir Is set
up as a learning exercise consisting offour parts: l} Introduction discusses a few simple
physIcal tesrs, 2) Observation provides c%r photos and clues. 3) Commentary identifies and
discusses the minerals. and 4) Annotated Bibliography. This exercise Is as much for fun as for
mineral is a naturally-occurring crys-
talline inorganic chemical compound
that has a fairly constant composition.
The physical properties of minerals such
as luster. Mohs hardness. specific gravity,
crystal system. fracture, cleavage. and
color can be identified by simple physical
tests or observations as explained below.
Luster refers to the appearance of
the mineral. A mineral has a metallic
luster (resembles a shiny metaij or non·
metallic luster (a luster not resembling a
shiny metaij. Some minerals such as
graphite and silicon nave a submetallic
(intermediate) luster.
There are many non-metallic lusters.
They are vitreous (a glass-like luster).
silky (sheen resembling silk. caused by
many fine, parallel needle-shaped crys-
tals), resinous (resembling resin, amber.
or some plastics). greasy (looks like
petroleum-base grease). adamantine
(brilliant). waxy or dull (diffuses rather
than reflects light), pearly. and earthy
Oooks like soil in clods).
Mohs hardness is a scale of relative
mineral hardness developed by German
mineralogist Friedrich Mohs in 1820. The
hardness of a mineral is determined by
whether it scratches or is scratched by
other minerals. The minerals. rated soft-
est to hardest. are: 1) talc. 2) gypsum.
3) calcite. 4) fluorite. 5) apatite, 6) 0rtho-
clase, 7) quartz, 8) topaz, 9) corundum,
and 10) diamond. For practical purposes.
a parallel scale of common items has been
developed. A fingernail is about 2-1/4. a
copper coin is 3. a knife blade or window
glass is 5-1/2. and a steel file is 6-112.
Specific gravity is the weight of
a specific volume of a mineral divided by
the weight of an equivalent volume of
Crystal systems are defined by the
unit lengths of the axes. angles between
the axes. and symmetry of crystal faces.
All minerals belong to one of the follow-
ing: lriclinic. monoclinic. orthorhombic.
tetragonal. .isomelric (cubic). and hexago-
nal (including the trigonallrllombicl sub-
system). Faces. cleavage. parting. and
twinning can be described by how they
intersect the axes.
Cleauage is the property of
a mineral to break along well-
defined planes controUed by
Parli"glooks like cleavage and
behaves much like cleavage. but differs
from cleavage in that it is rarely along flat
surfaces. The reflecllon of light from part-
ings in a crystal shOO/S the surfaces to
be slightly wavy or curved. Parting is fre-
quently due to deformation or stress twin-
ning of the mineral. Deformed gamets.
quam crystals. and olivines frequently
show well developed partings. Partings
are partially controlled by crystallographic
Calor is the physical property of a
mineral that can be the most misunder-
stocx! and misleading. lhe color of a min-
erai can vary greatly with the chemistry
and quantity of any trace elements. and
with exposure to stress. heat. radiaTion.
or even sunlight. Some minerals' colors
are comnlOl1!y zoned. For example. the
color of the core of a crystal may grade
to a different color in the shell (Mineral II.
Very few minerals can be identified solely
on the basis of color. As Charles Darwin
observed. -Nature will tell you a direct lie
if She
Fracture refers to an irregular break
in a crystal. which is not directly control·
led by crystallographic structure. Hackly
fracture is irregular. rough. and without
any wen defined direction. Pyroxenes and
amphiboles have haddy fracture in direc-
tions other than the prismatic cleavage.
Conchoidal (Greek for
fracture is a fracture along an
irregular curved surface.
Thick pieces of broken
glass or obsidian have
classic conchoidal
fracture. Minerals
with conchoidal
fracture include quam
and pyrite.
the molecular structure of the mineral.
Beciluse cleavages are made up of paral-
lel sets of planes. they can have a stepped
or blocky appearance. Cleavage planes
are perfectly flat so light reflected from
tbem distinguishes them from partings
(see below). There are several types of
cleavage categorized by the number and
orientation of cleavage planes.
_ .J..:
..... , ----
An octahedron show-
ing the onentatlOn of the
crystal axes (a. b. and c) for
the lsomelric crystal system.
MineralJ. This mineral fluo-
resces when exposed to uhravio-
let light.
Mohs hardness: 4
Luster: viTreous
Crystal system: isomeTric
Cleauage: oclahedral
Specific grauity: 3.18
Color: blue. yellow. violet. green.
rarely red. colorless. Crystals are
commonly color zoned.
Mineral 2. Shades of green or greenish-
blue are indicative of a variety of this min-
eral. named after a South American river.
When this mineral has crystallograp/"li·
cal/y-controlled inclusions of quartz. the
combination is called "graphic granite. M
It frequently has whitish streaks as in this
Luster: vitreous. sometimes pearly
Mohs hardness: 6-6.5
Specific grauitv; 2.56-2.63
Crystal system; lridinic
Color: white. gray. pink. yellow. green.
red. colorless
Mi,leral 3. This specimen has an obvi-
ous play of colors typical of this variety:
greenish yellow through green through
deep royal blue. It is named after a
Canadian region where it is found.
Repetitive twinning is usually indicated
by many fine. straight striations on cleav-
age faces and across fracture surfaces.
Luster; vitreous. sometimes pearly
Mohs hardness; 6.0·6.5
Sped/ic grauity: 2.68-2.72
Crystal system; triclinic
C%r; while through black. but
usually dark gray or bluish black
Mineral 4. Identify the greenish black
mineral. not the white. translucent calcite
with it. It occurs in some contact and
regionally metamorphosed rocks. in late-
stage. Iow-temperalure metasomatism
in some granitoid rocks. and in skams
with grossular gamet. Commonly loons
elongate. striated crystals. Perfect basal
Luster: vitreous
Mohs hardness: 6
SpecifiC grauitv; 3.38-3.49
Crystal system; monoclinic
Color: light to dark pistachio green. can
be greenish black
Mineral 5. This mineral is flexible in thin plates. but not elas-
lic. Commonly twinned on plane normal to ~ a ~ axis. A perlecl
cleavage on plane nonnal to ~ b ~ axis. distincl cleavages on
plane nonna!to ~ a ~ axis and on plane intersecting ~ b ~ and ~ c ­
axes at unit distances.
Luster: vitreous. silky. or pearly
Mohs hardness: 2
Specific grouity: 2.3
Crystal system: monoclinic
Color: white. gray, yellow. red. bl"O\AJl1. blue. colorless
Mineral 6. Specimen of mineral
shoum here grew in a sand deposit.
Sand grains are included in crystals of
the mineral. Staining on sand grains
causes the reddish appearance. Perlect
basal cleavage (normal to " c ~ axis).
Luster: vitreous. can be trans-
Mohs hardness: 3-3.5
Specific gravity: 4.5
Crystal system: orthorhombic
Color: white. yellow. gray. pale
green, pale blue. brown. red,
Mineral 7. Characteristic double
refraction makes visual identification easy
in transparent specimens of suHidenl
thickness. Immediate and vigorous effer-
vescence in contact with 3 percent hydro-
chloric acid solution. A common mineral
in many parts of North America. The
mineral is not as abundant in California
as it is in many midwestern and eastern
states. Perfect rhombohedral cleavage.
Luster: vitreous.
Mons hardness: 3
Specific grouHy: 2.71
Crystal system: trigonal
Color: white, gray. almost any pale color,
Mineral 8. Identify the pale pink min-
eraI. "ot the dark metallic mineral. This
mineral effervesces slowly with 3 percent
hydrochloric acid solution. Less common
than Mineral 7. Perfect rhombohedral
cleavage. Tendency for crystals to have
curved faces.
Luster: vitreous to pearly
Molls hardness: 3.5-4
Specific grauity: 2.84-2.86
Crystal system: trigonal
C%r: white. pink. yellow. colorless
Mineral 10. This mineral is a major
natural source for sulfuric add. It is com-
monly an ore for one or more base metals
and sometimes an ore lor several precious
minerals. Crystals are frequently striated.
Conchoidal fracture. brittle.
Luster: metallic
Mohs hardness: 6-6.5
Specific gravity: 4.82·5.02
Crystal system, isometric
Color: yellow
Mineral 9. This mineral is a good ther·
mal and electrical insulator. Prior to the
mid 19505 it was used as glitter in paints
and plastics. Perfect basal cleavage; thin
cleavage flakes are elastic.
Luster; submetallic to vitreous. may
be pearly or resinous
Mohs hardness: 2.5-4
Specific grauity: 2.77-2.88
Crystal system: monoclinic. but
Color: silvery gray in thin cleavage flakes.
greenish or yellOVJish in thicker crystals.
Mineral 11. A major source of lead
ThiS mineral can be a source for precious
and base metals. found as trace consritu-
ems in the mineral. Relalively easy to
refine. Perfect deavq. Subconcho;daJ
to slepped fracture. Bright UJhen freshly
cleaved. dull gray tarnish (oxidation
Luster: metallic
Mohs hardness: 2.&-3
Specific grauily: 7.57-7.59
Crystal system: isometric
Color: gray
Mineral 12. A variety of the mineral
pictured on the cover. Piezoelectric and
pyroelectric. May exhibit Ieh· or right-
handed crystals. Prisms (faces parallel to
M C" axis) frequently strialed horizontally
(perpendicular 10 "c" axis). Conchoidal
fracture common.
ClealXlge: poor basal cleavage
Luster: vitreous in macrocrystalline loons
Mohs hardness: 7
Specific grauily: 2.65
Crystal system: trigonal
Color: purple. lavender
Mineral 13. Hint: two minerals. one
already seen in this exercise.
1) colorless mineral:
Crystal system: trigonal
Lusler: vitreous
Fracture: conchoidal
Mohs hardness: 7
Specific grauity: 2.65
2) black acicular (needle-shaped) mineral:
Extremely piezoelectric and pyroelectric.
FOl.lnd in pegmatites and silicic/felsic igneous
rocks. Striated parallel to the long axis of
the c!)'StaL
Fracture: conchoidal
Mohs hardness: 7-7.5
Specific graulty: 3.03-3.25
Crystal system: trigonal
Color: black. brown. white. blue. green.
pink. red. yellow. colorless. Dependent on
highly variable chemical composition.
Mineral 14. Specimen consists of
microscopic fibrous c!)'Stals.
Fracture: conchokial
luster: waxy or duO
Mohs hardness: 7
Specific gravity: 2.65 or slightly less due
10 minor pores
CrYSlal syslem: trigonal
Color: white. black, pale shades of most
colors, colorless. Occurs frequently wtth
many colors together, usually in thin
alternating layers.
Cover photo.
Quartz, silica or
silicon dioxide - a
framework silicate
Quartz is one of
the most common
and chemically stable
rock-forming miner-
als at the surlace of the earth. The word
quartz comes from the Old German word
Quarz. for the crystalline variety of silica.
The piezoelectric effect occurs in
quartz crystals when pressure is applied in
specific crystallographic directions. The
resultant deformation generates a small
charge. Conversely. when a small charge
is applied to a piezoelectric crystal. the
position of some ions within the crystal
lattice will change slightly to compensate
for the charge and thus deform the laltice.
The pyroelectric effect occurs when oppo-
site electrical charges build up at opposite
ends of a heated quartz crystal. These
special electrical properties of quartz
make it extremely useful in the electronics
Fused silica laboratory equipment is
made primarily of quartz. Synthetic quartz
is now used extensively in the optical and
electronics industries. Sand and gravel.
which usually contains quartz sand. is the
largest mineral commodity in Califomia.
Quartzite and sandstone are used as build-
ing stone and aggregate in concrete. Sand
is used in mortar and cement. High-silica
sands are used in making glass. ceramic
glazes. refractory bricks. and abrasives. as
filler in wood and epoxy composites. and
for fluxes in metallurgy. Quartz and high-
silica sands are a source for submeta11ic
silicon for the electronic (computer and
solar cell) and chemical industry (silicones).
That quartz is so hard and found in so
many striking varieties makes it ideal for
semi-precious gemstones and omamental
Specimen-grade crystals of quartz
occur in many parts of Califomia. During
World War II. electronics-grade quartz
crystals VJere found in Calaveras County
south of Mokelumne Hill. Radio-grade
quartz crystals were found in auriferous
gravels and hydrothennal veins of the
westem foothills of the Sierra Nevada.
and in pegmatite dikes in the Peninsular
Ranges in Riverside and San Diego
Mineral 1. Fluorite,
calcium fluoride
Although the
external shape of
fluorite crystals is
usually a cube. the
cleavages form an
octahedron. Roorite specimens come in
many colors including blue. yellow. violet.
green. colorless. and rarely red. Com-
monly. fluorite crystals are zoned in color.
Ruorite. also known as fluorspar. got
its name from the Latin /luere: "to flow.
because it melts at a lower temperature
than the minerals that resemble it.
Ruorite is generally found in hydrother-
mal veins either as the chief mineral or as
a gangue mineral associated with metallic
ores. It also occurs as a minor accessory
mineral in siliceous igneous rocks and
pegmatites. Ruorite is thought to be asso-
ciated with areas of rifting (lateral spread-
ing of the earth·s crust).
Ruorite is used in the chemical industry
for making hydroflUOriC add. fluorocarbon
plastics and gases (including Freon 1. and
some insecticides. It is also used for the
manufacture of glass and fiberglass. pol-
tery, enamel. and glazes. It is used in the
open-hearth method of making steel to
reduce slag viscosity. It Is also used in the
manufacture of synthetic cryolite. which is
an intermediate step in the production of
aluminum. Colorless. flawless fluorite is
used as lenses and as spectrographic
prisms that transmit ultraviolet light.
Ruorite is found in lnyo County's
Bishop Tungsten District. Death Valley
Natk>nal Monument. Darwin District and
Cerro Gordo District It is also found in the
Felix Mine in Azusa in Los Angeles
County. There are three fluorite localities
in Hiverside County: the Orocopia Ruor-
spar Mine. the Ruorspar Group. and the
Red Bluff deposit.
Minerai 2.
Microcline, variety
amazonite or
potassium and
sodium aluminum
silicate, a potas-
sium feldspar - a framework silicate
The white streaks in the green mineral
are called perthitcs. formed by the sep-
aration of a solid solution into albite
(a sodium-rich plagioclase feklspar) and
microcline (a potassium-rich feklspar).
This separation. called exsolution. is
caused by cooling of the mixed. two-
feldspar crystal below the temperature at
which it originally crystallized. Slow cool-
ing allows a partial segregation of the
sodium- and potassium-feldspars. Micro-
cline may also contain irregular blebs
(intergrowths) of quartz. The shapes of
the blebs are partially controlled by the
crystallographic structure of the surround-
ing microcline. The semi-regular quam.
blebs look like ancient forms of writing.
Microcline is from two Greek UIOrdS
for and in reference to
the cleavage angle's small variation from
90 degrees. Feldspar is from two old
German UIOrds Feld for fiekl. with a con-
notation of commonplace. and Spath for
any of various nonmetallic. readily c1eav·
able minerals with a vitreous luster. Com-
mon mineral spar names include:
Kalkspar. Modem Gemlan for calcitc;
heavy spar. British English for baryrcs
(barite): Iceland spar. for optical-grade
calcite: and fluorspar. for fluorite. Green
or blue-green microcHne is called amazon-
Ite or amazonstone after the Amazon
Hiver in South America.
Microcline occurs primarily in felsic
igneous plutonic rocks and pegmatltcs_ It
can also be found in sediments. sedimen-
lary rocks. and some metamorphic rocks.
Microclinc. orthoclase. and other
potassium feldspars are used primarily in
the manufacture of glass. glazes on porce-
lain ware. ceramic insulators. and abra-
sives. Translucem. flawless amazonite is
used for jewelry.
Dolomite, a
ium carbonate
Dolomite is
named in honor of
Deodat de DoIomieu
Mineral 7. Calcite,
calcium carbonate
Calcite is taken from the Latin word
calx. meaning -bumtlime." a component
used in making cement. Calcite is used in
ponland cement. pharmaceuticals. control
of add pollution problems. specialized
optical equipment. dimension stone (both
limestone and marble). furnace fluxes. and
Calcite is one of the most common
non-silicate rock forming minerals. Cal-
dte is the majOr constituent oflimcstone
and marble. Blue calcite occurs in ther-
mally metamorphosed marbles from
many localities in California. Perhaps
the best known is the abandoned Crest-
more Mine in Riverside County.
Unlike gypsum. barite appears to be
primarily of hydrothermal origin. Near
the entrance to Yosemite National Park.
barite is found in a vein with witherile
(barium carbonate).
1lle crystals
shov.'Tl in this photo
are called dogtooth
spar. In transparent
crystals you can see
a split image. This phenomenon. known
as double refraclion. occurs when light
travels through the crystal at different
velocities and in different dircctions.
Another characteristic is the immediate
and vigorous effervescence with 3 percent
hydrochloric acid solution.
Barite is taken from the Greek word
baryos meaning ··heavy.- a reference
to its high specific gravity. This high
specific gravity lTlakes it most useful in
drilling muds. several typeS of paints.
filler in rubbergoods. plastics. floor cover-
ing. heavy-weight glazed paper (playing
cards and Bristol lxIard). x-ray-opaque
bricks and radiopaque -dyes- for x-ray
work. hydrogen peroxide preparation.
carriers for insecticides. and the electron-
ics industry.
MineralS. Gypsum,
a hydrous calcium
The largest commercial gypsum quarry
in California is in the Ash Creek Moun-
tains of WCSlem Imperial County. Gypsum
usually forms by evaporation of brines. It
is frequently found in arid or semi-arid
Mineral 6. Barite,
barium sulfate
The high specific
gravity of barite
makes it easy to iden-
tify. Crystal aggre-
gates like this speci-
men are generally called desert roses.
40 inches (I to 100 cm): many of these
crystals are fractured.
The name epidote comes from the
Greek word for "increase." a reference
to the unequal lengths of edges of parti-
cular faces. Epidote is sometimes used
for jewelry.
Epidote group minerals include epi-
dote. c1inozoisite. allanite. piemonlite.
roisite. and thulile. Epidote is one of
the common rock-forming minerals in
tectonically active areas in California and
The word gyp-
sum is taken from
the Greek. and later
the Latin. name lor
the mineral. especially as used for the
cakincd form - plaster of Paris. Gypsum
is used as a retarder in portland cement.
a pigment base in some paints. a filler lor
cloth. paper. and plastics. and walllxlard
for construction.
MInerai 4. Epidote,
a variable calcium-
silicate - a ring
Epidote occurs in
contact and region-
ally metamorphosed rocks. as late-stage
Iow-temperature metasomatism In some
granitic rocks. and with garnet in skarns
(tactites). Epidote can occur in sediments
and sedimentary rocks.
Mineral 3.
a plagioclase
feldspar- a
framework silicate
One of the best known mierocline
localities is in the Cathedral Peak Pluton
in the central Sierra Nevada. Crystals of
microcline up to 3 inches (7.5 cm) long
have been reponed in this granodiorite
Labradorite has
multiple. or polysyn-
thelie. twinning. With polysynthel1C twin-
ning. a single crystal is made of many
individual. parallcl plate·like elements
called lamellae. In hand specimens.
poIysynthetic twinning appears as fine.
straight striations on one cleavage face
and on lhe rough. fractured surface.
This looks like the sides of a deck of
cards that is slighlly askew.
Most of the plagioclase-series minerals
are in the tricJinic crystal system. Plagio-
clase is a general term for the various
compositions of anonhile-albite mixtures.
The name plagioclase is taken from the
Greek words meaning -oblique" and "to
break. H a reference to the oblique angles
between the cleavages.
Labradorile is named after labrador.
a region in eastern Canada. where it is
found. It occurs in basalts. gabbros. anor-
thosites. and high-temperature contact
metamorphic rocks. Labradorite is used
injevJelry and as an ornamental stone.
Plagioclase feldspars have been used
in the making of ceramics and abrasives.
Its use as scouring powder has declined
because it scratches many household
surfaces due to relatively high hardness
One of the most intriguing occur-
rences of plagioclase in California is the
Precambrian anonhosite-gabbro-syenite
complex in the San Gabriel Mountains
nonh of Los Angeles. Crystals of plagio-
clase commonly range Irom 0.4 to
The play of colors typical of labra-
dorite (called Iabradorescence) is caused
by an inlerference effect from light inter-
acting wnh the fine spacing of the twin
lamellae. Labradorescence is usually
greenish yellow to deep royal blue.
(1750-1801), a French geologist/miner-
alogist who first noticed that dolomite
differed from cabte (see page 99).
Mineral 12.
Amethyst quartz,
.. Mineral 13. Quartz
with tourmaline
Tounnaline crystals are semi-precious
gemstones used in jewelry and ornaments.
Electronics-grade tounnalines are used
in pressure gauges. specialized pressure
gauges for transient blast pressures. and
frequency control devices in radios.
The name tourmaline comes from
toramalli or turamali. an early Singhalese
name for Sri Lankan carnelian. and per-
haps other water-worn gems.
Amethyst quartz is found in fewer
places than regular quartz. It is commonly
found with vokanic rocks.
Amethyst is derived from the Greek
tenn for -not to be drunk
because of
the belief that amelhyst was a remedy
for drunkenness. Apparently the ancient
Greeks thought a VJine-<:olored mineral
should be the cure or preventive of the
effects of drinking too much wine. It is
unclear whether wearing amethyst jewelry
or ingesting crushed amethyst pc>I.VCier
was the actual Amethyst quartz is
used primarily as ornamental stones and
in jewelry.
1) The clear.
colorless mineral
is quartz (s<"'e couer
mineral. p. 94)
2) Tile block acicular mineral is tourma-
TIle striking
purple of amethyst
is thought to be
from trace contami-
nation by iron and exposure 10 natural
radiation. The color fades when crystals
are heated. Some heat-treated amethyst
turns deep reddish orange: other heat-
treated amethyst turns pale green.
Tourmaline is frequently found in
pegmatiles. It is also found in silicic/felsic
igneous rocks. modem sediments or seeli-
mentary rocks. and metamorphic rocks.
In most of these rocks it tends to be a
minor constituent.
Mineral 11.
Galena, lead
Galena is the Latin word for Mlead
ore. Crystals of galena can be cubes.
octahedrons. or any combination of the
two forms. Galena is the most important
ore of lead. Lead is used in storage batter-
ies. solder. ffiCtaltype. lead foil. lead
bricks for shielding radiation sources. lead
accessories for x-ray laboratories. weights.
bullets and shot. and low·temperature
alloys for molds. Galena is also a source
for trace contaminants zinc and silver.
Pyrite occurs throughout the foothills
of the Sierra Nevada. TIle Darwin District
in lnyo County has pyrite and goethite
pseudomorphs after pyrite. The Red
Cloud and Eagle Mountain mines in River-
side County and the Rand District in San
Bernardino County have prominent py-
rites as part of their ores. The Iron Moun·
tain Mine in Shasta County is a massive
pyrite orebody con-
taining lesser
amounts of copper.
lead. zinc. and gold.
Pyrite is used in the chemical industry
as a source for sulfuric acid and ferrous
sulfate. II yields impure iron when roasted.
but iron oxide ores are still the primary
ores for iron,
struck by iron or steel Pyrite is commonly
mistaken for gold. hence the nickname.
"fool's gold." Some pyrite deposits con-
tain enough trace contamination by gold.
silver. and copper to be economically
The major Iead'zinc-silver and zinc-
copper-lead mineralization zones are in
Shasta County and the Sierran Foothl1ls
Belt. and scaltered throughout the Basin
and Range province, The Cerro Gordo
District east of Lone Pine. Inyc County
was an important source of galena and
sphalerite (the sulfide ore of zinc).
Pyrite crystals are frequently striated.
Pyrite is briule and has a weU-developed
conchoidal fracture. whereas gold is easily
hammered into thin sheets. Pyrite has a
specific gravity of 482-5.02. whereas
gold has a specific gravity of 19.3
Mineral 9.
Muscovite, potas-
sium aluminum
hydroxyl silicate -
a sheet silicate
. .'
..' , .
, '
IJ!!1!t' •
Most of the limestone and dolomite
deposits in California are metamorphosed
marine deposits. Usually. these deposits
have been strongly deformed and recrys-
tallized. lhey are mostly Paleozoic and
Mineral 10. Pyrite,
iron sulfide
Pyrite is taken
from the Greek word
for an
allusion to the sparks
emitted when pyrite
is struck by a sufficiently hard material.
The Romans used the same word base
for flint. which also emits sparks when
Muscovite is
taken from the pop-
ular name for the mineral. Muscovy-glass.
Sheets of the mineral were substituted for
glass in Old Russia. (then called Muscovy).
Muscovite used as windows. stove win-
dOVJS. and electrical insulation was called
Dolomite is used for building stone.
in cements. as a source of magnesia for
refractory bricks and heat-resistant indus-
trial equipment. as a source along with
magnesite for metallic magnesium and
magnesium compounds. and in pharma-
Muscovite Is a common mineral in
some granitojcJ. metamorphic. and sedi-
mentary rocks. Pegmatite dikes and some
hydrothennal veins commonly contain
large muscovite crystals caned books
(because the cleavage flakes resemble
pages in a book).
Muscovite is used for high-temper-
ature electrical insulation. gliller lor
wallpaper. plastics. and some paInts.
furnace insulation, and as an additive for
Toumrnline is a fairly common min-
eral in California and some of the occur-
rences are spectacular. The best known
tOl.lnnaline localities are the Pala. Mesa
Grande. Rincon. and Ramona districts in
San Diego County. They are pegmatite
dikes in the Peninsular Ranges Batholith.
These localities have prodoced many
different gems and specimen-grade ex-
amples 01 minerals other than tounnaline.
Minerai 14
pronounced kal-SED-
nee. is fibrous. mi-
crocrystalline (tne crystals can be seen
with a regular microscope) silica and dif·
lers from microcrystalline granular silica
such as flint. jasper. and chen. Silica dis-
solved in ground water percolates through
rock and. as the water evaporates. crys·
tals grow in bands lining or filling cavities.
The comb-like layering is usually fiat
but also results in botryoidal. mammillary.
or renifonn shapes. Chalcedony is usually
morc resistant to weathering than the
host rock.
Chalcedony is commonly called agate.
Bolh \.VOrds come lrorn Latin and Greek.
Chalcedony is sometimes connected
with the ancient Greek town of Chalce-
don SOlItheaSl of the Bosporus in Asia
Minor. Pliny the EkIer mentioned routine
trading of Nonh African chalcedony for
use in ancient Rome. He also described
Chakedonian as a green stone. perhaps
dioptase from the copper mines near
Chalcedony is used as ornamental
stone and in jewelry and other ornamen-
tal ob;ccts. Hwas used for pivots in SOI1lC
scientific and mechanical equipment. in
extrusion dies for gold wire. and as spe-
cial monars and pestles for making very
fine powders. Chalcedony is found in
many localities in California.
Natural history museums, rock
or mInerai collections. and gem and
mIneraI shows are good places to
find specImens. They also provide
Information on how to find collect-
Ing areas. In addition. libraries are
excellent sources of Information
about minerals.
Bornite IS an imponant copper ore. Freshly broken surfaces 01 bornite are bronze in color. With wealhering. bornile changes to melalhc
orange, red. purple. royal blue. and pale blUish green. The coloration resembles that 01 a peacock. hence the nickname "peacock ore."
The milleral was named 10f Austrian mineraloglSI Ignaz von Born.
Chesterman, C,W., 1978, The Audubon
Society field gUide to North Amencan
rocks and minerals: Alfred A. Knopl.
New York. New York. 856 p. A well
organized field gUide. 11 is multi-mdexed
and compact lor convenient held use.
The color ptctures are spectacular.
Deer, W.A" Howie. R.A., and Zussman, J..
1966. An introductIOn to the rock·formlng
mmerals: Longman Group Ltd., London.
England. 528 p. A col1ege-!evellextbook.
The technical level is high. Bntlsh label-
ing convenllons are used.
Dletnch, R.V.. 1969, Mmeral Tables: Hand·
specimen properties 01 1500 mmerals:
McGraw-Hili Book Company, New York.
New York, 237 p. This is a handy refer-
ence lor those familiar with the funda-
mentals of mineralogy and physICal
properties. It covers chemieal properties
and modes of occurrence.
Fife. 0 A" and Minch, JA, editors. 1982.
Geology and rnmeral wealth of the Cali-
lornia Transverse Ranges: South Coasl
Geological Society, Santa Ana, Califor-
nia. 699 p. One m a senes of collecllons
of artICles hlQhlighling the geology and
Industrial minerals In southern California.
It IS aImed at profeSSionals.
Frye. Keith. editor. 1981. The encyclopedia
01 mmeralogy: Hutchmson Ross Publish-
m9 Company. Stroudsburg, Pennsylva-
nia. 794 p. Somewhat technical lor most
laypersons. but a helpful survey 01 min-
eralogy and related lields.
Gleason. Sterling. 1960. Ultraviolet guide to
mmerals: D. Van Nostrand Company.
Inc" Pnnceton, New Jersey, 244 p.
8th Symposium on Ocean
and Coastal Management
New Orleans, Louisiana
July 19-23. 1993
(707) 987-01 14
Society of Exploration
Washington, DC
September 26-30, 1993
(918) 493-3516
Sltghtly dated. but II covers Olle of the
more imerestmg aspecls of mmeralogy-
fluorescence - a clever technique for
locating and possibly Idenllfymg some
Huber. N.K . 1987. The geologic story of
Yosemite National Park: U.S Geologic
Survey. Washington. D,C.. Bulletm1595.
64 p An excellent explanalion 01 the
geologiC events lhat created thiS spec-
tacular pal1l The Illustrations. photo-
graphs. and geologiC maps are magnlli-
Klein. Comells and Hurlbut, Jr, CS., t985.
Manual 01 mmeralogy (aher James D.
Dana): John Wiley & Sons. New York.
New York. 596 p. An updated edition 01
thiS college mmeralogy textbook. It IS
interesting and readable With many iIIus·
Merrlam·Webster Inc.. 1986. Webster'S
third new international dlCllOnary 01 the
English language - unabridged: Spnng-
field. Massachuselts. 2663 p. Asource
for definitions and ooglns of mmeral
Oxford UniverSity Press. 197t. The compact
edition 01 the Oxford English diclionary:
London. England, 4116 p. An outstand-
109 source lor the ongms and history of
mmeral names.
Pembenon, H.E" 1983, Mmerals 01 Califor-
nia: Van Nostrand Remhold Co.. New
York, New York, 591 p An updated
verSIOn of DiVISion of Mines and Geology
Bulletin 189: MII'l9rals of California. It has
maps. illustrations, and photographs.
Victoria, Canada
October 18-21, 1993
Contact.' Mary O'Rourke
(604) 721-8470
Geological Society of America
Boston. Massachuselts
October 25-28, 1993
(303) 447-2021
1993 EEZ Symposium
Reston, Virginia
November 2-4.1993
JOMAR (703) 648-6525
Phillips. F.C.. 1971. An introduClIOl'l to crys·
tallography. 4th edition. John Wiley &
Sons. Inc, New York, New Yol1l. 351 p.
ThiS book is a thorough guide to lhe
lundamentals 01 crystallography, but not
too technical.
Pough. F.H.. 1976. A field guide to rocks and
minerals. 41h edition. Houghton MIHlin
Co., Boslon. MassachuseUes, 317 p.
A handy, wol1lable field gUide to minerals
and rocks.
Procter. P.O., Peterson. P.R., and
Kacll.staelter. U" 1991. Mlneral·rock
handbook: Rapld·easy mU'I9ral·rock
determmation: Macmillan Publishing
Company. New York. New York. 256 p.
ThIS handbook helps the serious amateur
Idenll!y mmerals and rocks.
Slnkankas. John, 1966. Mineralogy; A first
course: D. Van Nostrand Company. Inc..
Pnnceton. New Jersey. 587 p. Awell
wfillen textbook lor the beginner. It cov-
ers the lundamentals of mineralogy.
Tomkele!f. S.I.. 1942, On the origin of the
name 'quartz:: Mineralogical MagazIne.
v. 26, p. 172. An article explalnlng why
coarsely crystalline silica IS called quartz.
Vanders. Iris. and Kerr. P.F.. 1967. Minerai
recognilion; John Wiley & Sons. New
York, New Yorl<. 316 p. Introductory
mineralogy lexl.
Wright. L.A.. OOltor, 1957, Mineral commodi-
ties of Californta: GeologIC occurrence.
economiC development, and utllizallon ot
the Stale's mineral resources. California
DIViSion of Mines Bulletin 176, 736 p.
One 01 the besl books on California
24th Annual Underwater
Mining Institute
Estes Park, Colorado
November 7-9, 1993
Contact: Ms. Karynne Chong Morgan
(808) 522-5611
large Scale Coastal Behavior '93
SI. Petersburg, Florida
November 16-19. 1993
Contact: Dr. List
FAX (813) 893-3333
DEODATDEDOLOMJEU: The Man Behind the Mineral Dolomite
he nanuaJly occurring cak:ium·mag-
nesium carbonate. dolomite (d%mIe)
was named for him by devoted friends and
disctpIes He described the unknown min-
eraI as calcareous rock from the Tyrolthat
was attacked by add wilhoul efferves--
cence and which phosphoresced when
struck. The awe-inspiring syslem of moun-
tains in northeastern Italy. the Dolomites.
was named in his honor even though he
never set fool there. Dieudonne Sylvain
Guy Tancrede de Gratet de DoIomietl
(Deodat de DoIomIeu) was the man upon
whom these endUJing honors were
De 00J0mleu was an 18th century
naturallsr:. Knight of MalIa. and romantic
figure. He was bom in southern France
in 1750 into an old. noble family that
retained Its great influence but had little
money. At 14 years of age. he,ioined the
Knights and quickJy rose through military
and diplomatic ranks despite what was to
become a series of lifelong conflicts with
the hierarchy. His service aIk:N.oed him 10
travel VJk\eIy and he seldom lOS! an oppor-
tunity 10 study rocks, minerals. and the lay
of the land
During his sojournS. he met many
politically influential people and scientific
mentors He \earned chemistry and phys-
ics and eamestIy stldied minerals. He
collecled minerals from many localities.
and investigated mines, ll"OO\lJOrks. and
lhe origin of saltpeter Throughoot his
extensiw traveling. he I1\lIde voluminous
notes and sent scholarly pa))ef5 to the
Ata:Jemy of Sciences in Paris,
To the consternation of his family
and many aristocratic coUeagues.
De DoIomIeu at age 41 went to Paris as a
partisan of the: Revolution. HO\l.'e\IeI". the
excesses of the Reign of Terror, especially
the Imprisonments and deaths of his fam·
iIy and friends. moderated his opinions.
In 1794. he discovered a new ge0-
logie passion - mountains. He was
appointed professor at the Ecole des
Mmes. and eagerly began his inspection
of the mines and continued his geoIogi'
cal travels in the Alps. He was named
engineer of the Corps des Mines and
taught physical geography there_ He
abo became a teacher of natural histOTY
in Ecoles Cenlrales of Paris and was
made a member of the reactivated French
Academy of Sciences.
Napoleon asked De OoIomicu to
;oin his expedttion to Egypt as a military
geologist and diplomat in 1798, De
DoIomieu was glad to be in his setVk:e.
but was soon disillusioned when Napoleon
maneuvered him inlo becoming an unwill-
ing participant in the capture of Malta.
During his return to France. Dc Dolomieu
was seized and imprisoned al Messina as
a result of vindictrve politics of the Knighb
of Malta. He suffered a 21-monlh solitary
confinement While there, he made a
crude JX!n from a twig, and ink from
warer mixed with candle soot. and wrote
in the margins of the only "paper" left
to him - a Bible. These writings. in
part. became his treatise Sur 10 philo-
sophie mmeralogique. et sur respeee
mineralogique. He was finally released
after much pressure from influential
friends, His return to Paris marked the
end of whal had become a cause celebre
among French intellectuals; the uncon-
scionable detention of a scientist on the
pretext of reasons of war He [hen began
to teach atlhe Museum d"Histolre
Noturelle. but his health. greatly affected
bo.; hIs imprisonment. failed shortly after
his last tour of the Alps. He died in 1801
1be accepted wisdom of naturahsts
in De Dolomieu's day was that rocks.
including basalt. v.oere formed from water
or 5e3'.\.'ater, This concept was kIlO\AI1l
as Neptunism While in Portugal. De
DoIomieu investigated basalts and found
evidence Ihat they were. in some limited
inslances. volcanic in origin. Whik> gener-
ally adhering to Neptunism. he was one
of a small number of naturalists to realize
that basalt could be volcanic. After De
Dolomieu's death. this group of natural·
isIs. knou:n as proved lhal
basalt was indeed a volcanic rock
An early proposal of the Plutonists
was thaI subterranean coal fires could
generate enough heat to meh basalt.
De DoIomieu disagreed, He said
columnar basalt was formed by sudden
contraction due to the cooling effects of
water. Whik> the role of water in the for'
mation of columnar basalts is question-
able. the contraction by cooling concept
was perceptil.le and innovative. He also
suggested that basah was widespread and
not a casual or accidental creation. Never-
theless. he sliD maintained that Neptunlsm
was of rna;or importance in lUlderstand-
iog the earth·s history and denied that
volcanism played any major role. He
understood thai the age of the earth was
indeterminately old, De DoIomIeu devel-
oped a history of the earth. addressing
gooIogic history and lime relationships in
rocks. a concept unheard of in his day.
In Calabria. he was the first to observe
and COl'Tecdy analyze in writing the occur-
rence of earthquakes generated by voIca·
nic eruptions. He commWlicared with
the premier naturalists and corresponded
with scientists in other diSCiplines to
verily his hypotheses.
The life and accomplishments of
Deodat de DoIomieu are remarkable.
His contributions to geok:lgy are impres-
sive especially conskiering the social.
academic. and poiibca1 climates of the
CarOUI. AIbe11 V., and ZenQ8r. Donald H.,
1981 . Sur IJfI genre dB pleff&SCalcaJres
tres-peu flftervescemes avec IfIs aodes.
& phosphorBscenttJs ,.rIa coIfl5IOfI- On
a type of calcareous rock that reacts very
slightly WIth acid and tNlt phosphoresces
on betng struck: Journal of GeologlcaJ
EducatIOn, Y. 29. p, 4
DaVison, Charles, 1927. The lounclers of
setsmology. CaFf1)ndge UmverSlly Press.
London. England 240 p.
Engle, C, E.. 1963. Kmghts 01 Malta George
Allen & Unwin Ltd. London. England
G81ke. Arctubakt 1905. The founder'S 01
geology: Macn'llllan and Co. Ltd..
London. England 486 p_
PIcard, MD., 1990. Through the Dolonwles
and ApenOlf18$: Journal 01 GeologICal
Educ8bOn. v. 38. p. 348
Taylor, K.L. 1971, Dl&udonne (called
Deodat) de Grate! de DoIorrMeu In
Gillispie, C.G, edltor. Dictionary of
Scientrflc Btography: V. 4, p. 149- 153
Charles Scribner's Sons. New YOtk.
New YOtk. _ Dale Slickney
Anza Borrego Desert, California
ANTHONY ORR CLARKE, UniverSity of louIsville, Louisville, Kentucky
CARLl. HANSEN. University of California, Riverside. California
Photo 1. Trans....erse clast" dams in Coachwhlp Canyon. Note the longitudinal bar along the lett sIde of the channel.
Many arroyos draining the Santa
Rosa. Vallecito. and Ash Creek mountains
in the Anza Borrego Desert Stale Park
contain large boulders (Photo I), These
boulders are derived from relict gravel-
capped pediments and have come inlo
the channels by rocklall. slump, and
related processes during intense rain-
slonns. lbe boulders lend to accumulate
in lhe channels because the flow of water
is rarely sufficient to move them.
The Anza Borrego Desert is in eastern
San Diego County and western Imperial
County, California (Figure 1). Much of
it is in the Anza Borrego Desert State
Park. California's largest state park. which
encompasses more than 700 square
miles (1.900 km2).
'Terms in boldface type are In the glossary
on page log.
The region lies betwe€t1 fWO physi-
ographic provinces. the Peninsular
Ranges to the west and Salton Trough
to the east. EJevations range from more
than 6.560 fe€t (2.000 m) above sea
level in the v..>estern and northern moun-
tains to nearly 262 fe€1 (80 m) beJou.r sea
level along the shores of the Salton Sea.
Mountains in the region are ste€p. fault-
bounded blocks. The Salton Sea occupies
a deep, sediment-filled structural depres-
sion knO\.VTl as the Salton Trough.
Late Cenozoic lectonic activity pro-
duced the region's high relief. The upper
reaches of ste€P arroyos and washes
consist of defiles carved in bedrock
(Clarke and Hansen. 1988). They are
largely free 01 alluvium. exCepl lor scat-
tered large boulders and boulder clusters.
Downstream the channels widen inlO
broad arroyos with vertical walls and fial
floors with a shallow mantle of alluvium.
Channel divides consist of remnants
of south- and east-sloping pediments
thai .....ere cut across folded Tertiary
and early Quaternary. predominantly
continental. sedimentary rocks including
conglomerates. sandslones. and shales
(Photo 2) (Dibblee. 1954: Procter.
1968: Morton. 1977). A heavily var-
nished desert pavement covers the relict
Average daily high temperatures in
July and August in the Anza Borrego
Desert exceed lQ4°F (40
q in the lower
elevations, but are several degrees b.ver
in the higher. more shaded canyons.
Mean annual rainfall is 4 inches (10 cm)
or less in the lowlands and 13 inches
(35 cm) or more in the highlands. Winter
rains are deltvered by storms thaI move
eastward Irom the Pacific Ocean. concen-
trating precipitation on the higher western
slopes of the more westerly ranges.
Figure I. Location map of the study area.

EI Centro
10 20 MieI
10 20 Kilomelom
Samples consisted of the largest boulder
at each depositional site along the various
channels surveyed. Field measurements
included boulder dimensions. lithology
(for specific gravity and particle density
determination). bed roughness. and chan·
nel slope and width. We conducted sur-
veys along and across each channel.
_ . ~ ? . ! - . _ . - -
Large stream·washed boulders are
common in the active channels. where
they have been deposited as single enti·
ties or in clusters or other accumulations.
and 4) Fish Creek. These study sites
VJere in remote. ungauged. usually dry.
steep arroyos.
We studied arroyo boulders at 44
sites in nine reaches of four drainage
basins in the Anza Borrego Desert area.
From north to south. these basins are:
I) Palm Wash: 2) ArrCY'fO Salada: (indtKi·
ing Coochwhip Canyon): 3) VaJledto
Creek (only the Box Canyon section):
During summer. thunderstorms move into
the area from the southeast. Rainfall is
most intense during the summer. account·
ing for a little over a third of the annual
t01a1. ExcepUonalty heavy rains have
accompanied the occasional movement
of an errant hurricane. Streambeds are
usually dry but sometimes there are f1ash-
flood in the canyons and arroyos during
From north to south. the ma}or
ranges that run along the IAlCStem portion
of the region are the Santa Rosa.
Vallecito. Laguna. and Jucumba moun·
tains. Crystalline rocks in these areas
consist of Mesozoic granitic rocks of the
Southern Califomia Batholith (Larsen.
1951. Sharp. 1967) intruding an older.
PaJeozoic(?) igneous·metamorphic base-
ment complex. Quartz diorite (tonalite).
granodiorite. and quartz monzonite
(adamellite) are the most common batho-
lithic rocks in the area. These are cut
locally by pegmatite and aplite dikes.
Schist and gneiss are predominant in the
older metamorphic rocks. All of these
crystalline rocks are found as bouk:Iers
in washes of the Anza Borrego Desert.
Photo 2. View of the dlssecled relict pediments cut across folded Tertlary sedIments that flank the southeastern santa
Rosa MountainS.
TABLE. , LrhoIogK: Analy$lS Of L1tpe$l Boulders, by Oratnage Basm
Ct_ Palm A,,<>yO V'-o
sa_ C_ C,,..
Quartz DIonle 82 56 0 17 .3
Gran 19 0 31 0 83 23
Pegmatrte 0 0 73 0
GnetSS 9 13 9 0 19
Aplite 0 0
0 S
Otoole 9 0 0 0 2
'00 '00 '00 '00 '00
NlJnlOefS 1fJPf8S6nt percent oI1;M(}9S1 boulders 01 a l1JWItl .rhoIogy sampled II!
I/Itl cason
ComparatilR 00uIder blhcKogy reflects the general
Iilhclogic makeup of the Penindar RangesIScxi..Ioaem
California Batholith lmane Quartz diorite t5 the most
CU1UlIOO boulder rock. foiolNed by granite (incb:bng
a&meIite and g:ranodKxite), PegmatltC' aplite. diorih.>
and gneM also occur (Table 1) The medJum-gray.
coarse-grdined q-Jartl dlOl'lte I o;muidr to the
Mountain tonalite of l..Nsen (1948) The gram(6 are
light gray. medium-grained Quartz diorite and
gran,te make up 66 percent of all boulder.> sampled.
Pegmatite and aplite. the lighl1:oIored dike rocks found
only in the Box Canyon area of Creek. make
up nearly a quarter of aU the boulder!> sampled. Dionle
gneis.s is the most common metamorphic rock occurring
<h large boulders in the arl?c)
We measured the rn.l)Or. D'ltl"l'TnOOklte. and rmnor
axes of these and fOUld the nominal mameh?rs
(the cube TOOl of the product of the il!:ngths of the three
vnhogonaI. dXe5) 10 range from 7 672 feet to 0 886 fM
12.339 III to 0.270 m). The distribution of nominal <bam
e!t'r., )s shoIA.'O by the hisl:ogram in F'!JUI'e 2 and by the
frequency curve in FJ9Ure 3. The mean nomir\aI diameter
for aD boulders in !his ..rudy is 2.5QI r.'et (0.790 m) ""1th a
standard deviatkwl of I 364 feet (0 416 l'TIeters). Table 2 the distribution of boulder size by drainage basin
1he Jargest I;x>u.Iders occur on average in the Pahn
bchin. but the largest Single boulder was encountered in
FI'>h Creek. This boulder was gr.mite, and had a major axi.,
of 13 fe<>t (4 m). an intem'lediat(' axiS of 66 feet (2 mI.
and a minor axis of 525 feet 0.6 mI.
TABLE 2 Size of Largest 8ouk1ers'lfl meters) by DraIfla{Je
Palm Arroyo V-"o
sa_ C,,.. e_
, 69Il
090S 0801 2339 2.339
M,' 0307 0270
0338 0.270
Moan 1 119 0.593 0632
So. 0421 0196 0130 0 .... 0416
N 11 ,0 160 11.0 6.0 440
S Ov • standard l»YP-d/lOtl N. number III $airpIs
HIsIogramof Boulder Sue
" ,------'-=""":::.:=::::-==-------------,


F'lJUf& 2. HiStogram llustratll'lg the d1stnbubon 01 nominal dl3maters of the 44
boulders in the study
Frequency of Boulder Size

8? 70
cc 40
<3 20
o 05 10 1.5 20
Nommal DIameter. Meters
F'lQure 3. mulafive frequency curve ol nom.
nal diameters ot boulders If1 this study. Note
the nearty sogmeJldal Shape ol the CU1'V8 ,nus·
tratlflg a dtslnbu1101"1 that approaches the noon.
Shape analysis is based on axial ratios TABLE 3. Numbers of Largest Boulders of Vanous Shapes. by
(Hgure 4). Most equant (cubiC or spheroidal)
and prolate (egg-shaped or cylindri"
lithOlogy Equant Oblate Prolate
caO boul:lers are quartz diorite. Most oblate
(tomato-shaped or discoid) boulders arc
Ouartz Diorite 6 4 8 0
pegmatite, Overall. 34 percent of lhe boulders
Granite 5 3
, ,
0 10
are obIa e, 32 percent are equant. and 27
Pegmallle 2 5 0
0 8
percent 3re prolate. Only 7 percent .....ere Dionte Gneiss 0 2 2 0 0 4
triaxial (unequal in all three dimenSions) Aphle
, ,
0 0 0 2
boulders. and there is only one acicular
DlOtTfe 0 0
0 0
(needle-shaped) and no planar (flat) boulders
15 12 2
[fable 3).
Percent 32 34 27 5 2

33 Oblate
TABLE 4, AnalySIs of RouncJness of Largest Boulders. by Lithology
Subfound Subangular Angular TOlal
, Equ&rlt
Quartz DIOflte 5 8 6 0
, ,
Granite 0 0 10
, 6 4

Pegma1l18 0 3 5 0 8

Olonte Gneiss 0 2 2 0 4
Aphte 0 2 0 0 2
0 0 0
Tolal 6 21 17 0 44
Percen! 13 48
3' 0 '00
• TABLE 5. AnalySis of Roundness of Largest Boulders, by DraInage

4 Diagram oj partICle shape d!stnbullon In boulder
TIle degree of rOl.llldn6s Is controlled by
lithology and drtlinage basin, 1ne percerllages
of round. subround. and subangular boulders
ar€' shown by IithologK: type in Table 4 (there
are no angular boulders), Table 5 shows round·
ness of bouk:Iers. by drainage basin.
Roundness PaJmW Arroyo Salada VallecIto Cr. Fish Cr
3 (27) 3 (18) O. (0) O. (OJ
SUbround 5. (46) 7. (44) 5. (45) 4 (67)
Subanoular 3. (27) 6. (38) 6. (55) 2. (33)
Angular O. (OJ o (0) O. (0) O. (0)
TOlal 11 (100) 16 (100) 11. (100) 6. (100)
Number 01 bouldBf$ 01go...,., roundnfis In biJsm /Wlfhour parenttIfJses); {NH'CfH!f 01
bouId9" or (I'Wlfl tOOrJdrIess ,n baSIIl (1ft pafllfT/hese$)
TIle boulders originated by weathering
of coorse-grained crystalline basement
rocks that crop oot in the region's up-
lands. Boulders can be seen mantling the
slopes of the Peninsular Ranges to the
west (Photo 3). In these crystalline mas-
sifs. water moves down joints and weath-
ering takes place at depth. The granitic
rocks (granites. quartz diorites. granodior-
ile. and diorite gneisses) so common in
the region are particularly susceptible.
The ;cints afC widely spaced and intersect
10 produce roughly cubic blocks 1.5 feet
to more than 6 feet (0.5 11'1 10 more Ihan
2 ml on a side, Weathering processes
attack the blotites and. 10 a lesser extent,
lhe feldspars exposed on these blocks.
Su.oelling associated with the hydration of
secondary clay minerals accentuates this
Deterioration at joint intersections
results in in-situ rounding of comers at
depth. Granular disintegration and exfoli-
ation associated with this weathering
result in rounded core-stones with a loose
matrix of 9TUS consisting of residual
quartz and unaltered feldspars. TIle effects
of this action can readily be observed in
outcrops and roadcuts in these boulcler
host-areas (Photo 4), Similar processes
and features have been described in
Photo 3. Boulder mantled slopes developed on the igneous·metamorphic basement
Such slopes are lypical of the east-lacing slopes 01 the Peninsular Ranges west of ValleCito
Creek. The palm oasis in the background is Mountain Palm Springs near Sweeney Pass.
Joshua Tree National Monument (Trent.
1985). elsewhere in the Mo;ave Desert
(Oberlander. 1972). and in the Sierra
Nevada (Wahrhaftig. 1965).
toward aridity. the vegetative cover
degenerated and exposed the regolith
to erosion. Removal of lhe more mobile
grus resulted in the exposure and release
of the core-stones.
Gravity and intense slope wash
moved these boulders off the massif
and into the steep canyons. Farther
downstream. these same channels shifted
back and forth across the softer Tertiary
sediments. This action produced the
broad gravel-capped pediments that can
be seen sloping to the south and east
toward the basin floor of the Salton
Trough (Hansen and Clarke. 1987), The
bouldery gravels represent a laterally
extensive sequence of channel-floor lag
deposits associated with the shifting
meanders of these streams.
Uke the boulders on the crystalline
massi!. boulders exposed on the pedi-
ments are dark brown or black because
of heavy varnish. Boulders beneath the
surface of the gravels are not varnished.
Boulders within the active channels of
the incised washes also exhibit clean.
unvarnished surfaces. lhese bouklers
are derived from malerial under the
gravel caps or. if dertved from the var-
nished materials exposed on the upper
surfaces. subsequently cleaned by abra-
sion. The gravel cap is a ready reserve
for new boulders entering the modern
channels (Photo 6).
Weathering of this type requires a
wann humid climate and a weathering!
erosion regime that pennits the accumula-
tion of a relatively deep regolith. Under
such condilions a well developed cover
of vegetation VJould exist and pennit
weathering at a rate equal to or greater
than the rate of removal by erosion. Such
an environment is found today in the
western Peninsular Ranges between
Mount Palomar and Pala. where precip-
itation is between 13 and 27 inches
(35 and 70 Col) per year (Photo 5).
Crystalline rock source regions in the
Anza Borrego Desert rarely more
than 4 to 6 inches (10 to 15 Col) of rain
per year. The boulders mantling the crys-
talline massif in the desert are exhumed
relict features and frequently have a dark.
case-hardened layer of desert varnish.
The aridity of the region appears to be
related to the uplift of higher mountains
to the west. and the development of a
rainshadow. coupled with a general post-
Pleistocene dessication. With this trend
Photo 4. In-situ granular disintegration and joint block separation a! quartz diOrite at
the location in Photo 3.
Photo 6. Typical e ~ p o s u r e 01 the Pleistocene gravel cap that overlies the relict pediment
surtaces in the region. Note the heavily varnished ventifacts on the surtace and in the slope
debris, and the unvarnished stream cobbles in the matrix.
Photo 5. Buried rounded core·stones with only their upper portions exhumed. beneath a
lorest of California Live Oaks. The location is the top 01 Palomar Mountain at an elevallon
of 5.202 feet (1.586 m). The climate is humid rather than and.
Brayshaw. 1987). Transverse clast dams.
such as those discussed by Bluek (1987)
may be seen in many of the more boulder·
rich channels (Photo 1). Finer sediment
accumulates behind these obstructions.
while erosion can sometimes be obsenred
downstream of the boulders. This action
can result in a stepped profile along the
channel. Undennining. attrition. and
occasional entrainment will remove these
obstacles in time and smooth the chan·
nel's profile. Smoothing may also be
accomplished by more mobile sand
elements bypassing boulders.
Coachwhip Canyon. and Loop Wash
and North Fork of Fish Creek are bouJder-
rich. These channels are cut in weak.
friable sandstones and shales that contrib-
ute significant amounts of coarse sandy
alluvial fill. Many boulders are seen in
these channels where they accumulate
both in transverse dams and in altemate
bars along the sides of nearly straight
channel segments. In some cases the
channels are nearly choked with material.
In boulder-poor areas. such as upper
Palm Wash and Sandstone Canyon.
boulders tend to occur singly or in small
trailing clusters stranded on the floors of
channels cut in hard. massive sandstone
bedrock (Photo 8).
Because of the low frequency of com·
petent flow. many boulders tend to accu-
mulate in stable dusters. bars. and dams.
The principal component of the dusters is
an obstacle clast or group 01 clasts behind
which rocks accumulate (Naden and
With the possible exceptions of
Box Canyon and similar locales within
the crystalline massif. the large boulders
in Anza Borrego Desert washes are
reworked or in their second cycle. Derived
from the older gravel cap. they were
transferred into the active channels by a
variety of processes. Rockfalls and slumps
are initiated by bank undercutting. Trans·
fer is also facilitated by slope wash. creep.
and the sliding and rolling 01 individual
boulders down steep banks. Given the size
01 some of the larger boulders. significant
shear stresses must be brought to bear on
them ilthey are to be moved by stream
flow once they are in the channel. [n
many cases. boukJers are concentrated
where steep rills have developed in }Dints
and laults that cut the competent Tertiary
sandstones and shales. The rills act as
chutes to collect boulders and direct them
into the channels. Small debris fans and
cones made primarily of rounded boulders
can be seen building outward into the
active channels Irom these rills (Photo 7).
Boulders accumulate on the wash floors
to produce bars and riffles. Since many
01 the larger boulder-delivering rills occur
along bedrock fractures. there is a ten·
dency toward a structuraIly controlled
j'XlOl·riffle sequence similar to that ob-
served in the Grand Canyon of the Colo-
rado River (Dolan and Trimble. 1978).
Photo 7. A rill directed accumulation of boulders on the floor of the active channel In Fish
Creek Wash.
per square inch. or 23.000 Pascals) in
this study was calculated for the "Big
Rocks" area of Fish Creek near its
confluence with Loop Wash. This is
where the largest boulder (13.1 x 6.6 x
5.2 feel. or 4.0 x 2.0 x 1.601) was
Channel characteristics exert strong
influences on flow conditions in Am.3
Borrego Desert washes. Channel slope
and width are particularly important
factors. In generaL stream channels in
the study area exhibit high potential en-
ergy. which is largely a functkm of their
long. steep bed slopes. Slopes (ratios of
vertical to horizontal) of streambeds in the
study area (44 sites) range from 0.018
to 0.156 (1.03 to 8.87 degrees). with
a mean value of 0.048 (2.75 degrees).
and a standard deviation of 0.029
(1.66 degrees). Table 6 shOVJS the range
in channel conditions throughout each
reach studied.
The steep slopes of stream beds sig-
nificantly reduce the critical velocity. the
minimum fluid velocity required to initiate
movement of a particle resting on the
stream bed. Data from the glacial White
River. Washington (Fahnestock. 1963).
indicate that shallow turbulent streams
with coarse bedloads have critical veloci-
lies that are closer to their average veloci-
ties than their bottom velocities. Average
Large boulder .iams (complex jumbles
of many boulders in a loose. coarse. sandy
malrlx) occur in the upper reaches of
Coachwhip Canyon. Caked day covers
some of the boulders. Cross-channel bars
and lateral benns occur in proximity to
the jams. Coarse. friable Pliocene sand-
stones and conglomerates in the walls of
of the canyon have contributed much of
the sand and smaller boulders. but the
larger clasts seem to be derived primarily
from the Pleistocene covennass. These
features appear to have been proouced
by occasional mudflOVJS.
Critical shear stress is the minimum
force that must be applied (in the direction
of flow) to initiate motion of the boulder.
divided by the surface area of the face of
the boulder. Critical shear stress is there-
fore directly proportional to the nominal
diameter of the boulder. The highest value
for critical shear stress (about 3.3 pounds
TABLE 6. Channel CharacrerisrlCS
Palm Arroyo
West Salada
S.Dv • sTandard deY/arIOn. N. number If! sample
Some large boulders are significant
distances from their source and in areas
with no indication of mudflows. They can
only be accounted for by high-magnitude.
low-frequency flood events. A paleohy-.-
draulic mooel was constructed to deter-
mine the flow conditions associated with
boulder movement in the study area
(Clarke. 1989). The model conceptualizes
the boulder as a cube with one face at
right angles to the flow. Its mass is a func-
tion of its specific gravity as detennined
from its particular lithology. The model
uses melhods developed by Graf (1979a)
for the study of Colorado River boulders
in the Grand Canyon.
A) Slope
Max. 0.093 0.156
Min. 0.024 0.018
Mean 0.054 0.063
S.Dv. 0.023 0.035
B) Width in meters
Max. 20.0 63.0
Min. 3.2 t.O
Mean 9.5 9.6
S.Dv. 5.5 14.3
N 11.0 16.0
0.057 0.034 0.156
0.021 0.007 0.007
0.033 0.025 0.048
0.011 0.008 0.029
9.5 42.7 63.0
2.0 9.2 1.0
5.3 23.3 10.4
1.9 11.7 11.4
, '.0 6.0 44.0
( "
, ,
Photo 8. Asmgle large boulder perched on
a sandstone bedrock riffle in upper Palm
Wash. Nole the taifly !resh fracture on the
upper lelt corner of the boulder and the
matching chip in the left foregrOUnd.
FlQure 5. Graph 01 nominal diameter and average velOCity atlhe threshold 01 boulder motIon
Boulder Diameter, Meters
Boulder Motion and VelOCity
velocity is figured to be 1.2 limes the
critical velocity (Costa. t 983) for rela-
tively shallow streams. The relationship
of average critical velocity and diameter
for boulder.; in the slooy area is shown
by the graph in FIgure 5.
The depth of flow at the threshold
of motion of the boulder was calculated
Irom the average critical velocity and
the channel width at each site. In consid-
eration of hydraulic factors. a rectangu-
lar cross section was used. as in other
arroyo studies (Graf. 1979b. and 1983).
.."- 2


.. .. ....
" " "
" " "
Boulder Diameter. MeIers
Depth -- Maximum Mlnlmum""-
Olannel widths in the study area
vary from 3 to 207 feet (l to 63 mi.
with a mean value of 34.1 feet
(l0.4 m) and a standard deviation
of 37.4 feet (11.4 m) for the 44 sites
sampled. Figure 6 shovJs the relalion-
ship betwem boulder diameter and
flow deplh at the threshold of boul-
der motion. Table 7 summarizes
estlmaled conditions of flow al the
threshold of boulder molion.
.. " "
" "
20 '.5
.. " .. " .. "
1.0 0.5
Boulder Molion and Flow Depth

i 2

""" .. ""
0 1...........
Figure 6. Graph or nominal diameler and llow depth In a rectangular channel Flow depth is al
the moment of il"lCJPlent motion. Depth IndlCaled by the middle line IS lhal calculated by lhe
general equation. Mal(lmum and minimum lines represent the range of values possible when
all variables are conSidered.
TABLE 7. Summary of Calculaled Flows
Diameter Slope Width Velocity Depth
Palm Wash
Max. 1.698 0050 10.5
'5 0'
Min. 0.307 0,024 12.3 2.0 0.'
Arroyo Salada
Max. 0.905 0.156 5.6 3.0 0.2"
Min. 0.270 0.031 9.6
Vallecito Creek
Max. 0.801 0.023 30 3.2 1.6
Min. 0.402 0.034
'5 22
Fish Greek
Max. 2.339 0.026 18.4
Min. 0.338 0,007 15.5 2.1 1.1
ThiS table shows the maximum and minimum boulders sampled for
each basin. and the channel characteristiCs and computed flow condi·
tlons at their locations.
'Note thu vel)' steep s/opfJ of thu bed whu,e the bouldfN rests at thIS location ThIS
rr>plams the very /ow depth required to mmill6 motron hfI,e
D,amete,. Width. and depth In mete's. average velOCIty In melers
per second. slope IS dimenSionless.
Hydrologic studies show that boulder movement
in Anza Borrego Desert washes occurs only during
extreme flash floods. Ii would appear. therefore.
fhat the larger boulders in these washes rarely
move. The boulders in the interfluvial Pleistocene
gravel caps are relicts of Pleistocene conditions.
Once they enter the arroyos they are more or less
permanent features of the intemal geometry of the
channels in the present arid geomorphic environ·
Similar stabilify of large channel boulders in dry
climate strC<lms has been noted by Dolan and oth-
ers. (1978). Graf (1979a). O'Conner and others
(1986), and Baker and Pickup (1987). These studies
indicate recurrence intervals of large boulder move·
ment fa be 100 years or more. Thus while peren-
nial streams in humid mid-Iafitude regions may have
adjusted their channel conditions to flo\.VS of m<xler-
ate magnitude recurring on the average of every
1 to 2 years (Leopold and others. 1964). the
ephemeral streams of arid regions represent a situa-
tion where stream systems are shaped primarily by
rare cafastrophic evenfs (Abrahams and Cull. 1979),
Abrahams. A.D.. and Cull. R.F.. 1979, The lormatlon of alluvial land·
forms along New South Wales coastal streams: Search. v. 10.
p. 187·188.
Baker. V.R.. and Pickup. G.• 1987. Flood geomorphology 01 the
Kathenne Gorge. Northern Territory, Australia: Geologica) Society 01
AmerICa Bulletm. v. 98. p. 635·646,
Bluck. B.J.. 1987. Bed forms and clasl size changes on gravel·bed /Ivers.
In K. Richards. editor. River Channels, Ox'ord: Blackwell. p. 159,178.
Clarke. A.O., 1989. Modeling 'Iood conditIons aSSOCiated With large
boulders in high energy desert streams: Paper presenled at the 4th
Internallonal Con'erence on Fluvial Sedimentology, InlernaliOnal
Assoclallon 01 Sedlmentologists. Barcelona, Spain.
Clarke, A.O.. and Hansen, C.L., t 988, Geomorphology 01 upper Palm
Wash. Anza Borrego Desert, Calilornia: CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY,
v. 41, p, 111·116.
Cosla. J.E.. 1983. Paleohydraullc raconstruclion 01 flash·llood peaks
from boulder deposits in the Colorado Fronl Range: Geological
Society 01 Amenca Bullelln, v. 94, p. 986·1004.
Dibblee, T.W. Jr.. 1954. Geology of the Impenal RegIon; Caillornia
D i v l s ~ n 0' Mones and Geology Bulletin 170, p. 21·28.
Dolan. R., Howard. A., and Tnmble. D.. 1978, Slruclural control ot rapids
and pools 01 the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon: SCience,
v. 202, p. 629-631.
Fahnestock. RX, 1963, Morphology and hydrology of a glacial stream
- White River. Mount Rainier. Washongton: U.S. Geological Survey
ProfeSSional Paper 422·A. 70 p.
Gral. W.L.. 1979a. Rapids 10 canyon rivers: Journal 01 Geology, v. 87,
Glal. W.L.. 1979b. Milling and channel response: Association of
Amencan Geography Annals, v. 69, p. 262-275.
Graf. W.L.. 1983. Downstleam changes 10 slream power in the Henry
Mountains. Utah: ASSOCiation of American Geoglaphy Annals. v. 73.
Hansen, C.L. and Clarke. A,O., 1987, Origin of gravel·capped pediments
10 the Anza Borrego Desert, California: Paper presented at the Annual
Mee\lng of the Association of PaCific Coast Geographers. Davis.
Larsen, E.S. Jr.. 1948. Batholith and aSSOCiated locks of Corona,
ElSinore. and San LUIS Rey quadrangles, southern California:
Geological Society of America Memoir 29. 182 p.
Larsen, E.S.• Jr.. 1951. Crystalline rocks of southwestern Calilornla:
California Dlv'Slon of Mines and Geology BtJlletlO 159.
Leopold, L.B.. Wolman, M.G.. and Miller. J.P.. t964, Fluvial Processes
In Geomorphology: Freeman, San FranciSCO. California, 522 p.
MOrlon. P,K.. 1977, Geology and mineral resoulces 01 Imperial County,
California, Calilornia DiviSion 01 MlOes and Geology County Report
Naden, P.S.. and Brayshaw. A.C.• 1987. Small· and medium·scale
bedforms In gravel·bed rivers, in K. Richards, editor, River Channels:
Blackwell. Oxlofd, p. 249·271.
Oberlander, T.M., 1972, MorphogeneSIs 0' granilic boulder slopes In
the MOjave Desert. California: Journal 0' Geology. v. 80, p. t ·20,
O'Conner, J.E.. Webb, R.H.. and Baker, V.A., 1986. Paleohydrology of
pool·nme paltern development: Boulder Creek. Utah: Geological
SocIety of Amenca Bulletin, v. 97, p. 410·420.
Proctor, R.J., 1968. Geology 01 the DesaI! Hot Spnngs·Upper Coachella
Valley area. Callforma: California DiVISion of Mines and Geology
Special Report 64, 50 p.
Sharp. R_V., 1967. San Jacinto Fault Zone in the Peninsular Ranges of
southern Cali'ornla: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 78,
Trent, D.D" 1985, Geology of the Joshua Tree NatIOnal Monument:
CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY. v, 37. p. 75·85.
Wahrhafllg, Clyde, 1965, Stepped topography of the southern Sierra
Nevada. Calilornla: Geological Society 01 America Bulletin. v. 76.
bar-a linear accumulation of
alluvial debns deposited across
or along the slream channel
C18st- a sedimentary particle In
loose sediment or sedimentary
rock, prodUced by a rock's physical
grul- granular debris produced
by the decomposition and frag-
mentatIOn of granite and other
granitic rocks
mlIsslt- a mountainous or upland
mass consisting of a crystalline
(igneous and metamorphic) base-
ment complex, which breaks into
a series of peaks around a central
regoli1h- a layer or honzon of
unconsolidated to poorly con-
solidated rock debriS produced
in place through weathering
riffles--shallow areas extend·
ing across a stream channel
between pools. These may be
depositional features consisting
of accumulations of sediment
(such as those diSCussed in this
article) or erosional features
of exposed bedrock (many of
these also occur in Anza
Borrego Desert washes such
as upper Palm Wash).
Anthony Clarke. a p r o f ~ r
at the University of Louisville in Lou-
isville. Kentucky. specializes in ge0-
morphology. arid lands. and remote
sensing, He is currently conducting
research on catastrophic flooding and
tectonic geomorphology in the Trans-
verse Ranges and the Sillton Trough
of southern California His ongoing
field study concerns the relationship
of land use to soli erO!>ion in Portugal
Carl Hansen is a professor
emeritus at the University of Califor-
nia at Riverside. He specializes In
geomorphology and arid lands and
has conducted considerable field
\.\lOrk in Africa With Karl Butzer he
authored the bcx»<. Oeser! and River
In Nubia
DMG OFR 90·08. By DL Wagner and
G.J. Saucedo. 1990. $5.00.
DMG OFR 90-08 makes existing
geologic data for the Milford 15-minute
quadrangle available to the public. Prior
to its release. only unpublished geologic
mapping was available. The report was
produced by DMG"s Regional Geologic
Mapping Project as part of its basic
lunctkln - to gather. analyze. and dis-
seminate information about California·s
regional geologic setling. Field IAIOrk
was supported by the U.S. Geological
Survey Cooperative Geologic Mapping
The map includes part of the
Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range
geomorp/lic provinces of northeastern
California and covers approximately
230 square miles of southeastern l2Issen
County and northeastern Plumas
DMG OFR 90-08 also includes
the general geology and provides basic
geologic information on the age. distribu·
tkln. and description of the various rock
types. location of faults and other ge0-
logic structures. The area is underlain by
Pa!eogene/Neoge"e volcanic rocks and
Quaternary sedimentary deposits that
overlie an older basement consisting of
Cretaceous and pre-Cretaceous granitic
metamorphic rocks.
Granitic basement is exposed exten-
sively in the Diamond Mounlains and
is overlain by a sequence of Oligene to
Pliocene vokanic rocks of rhyolitic to
basaltic composition. These rocks occur
primarily as flows but include intrusives.
pyroclastic depoSits. and breccias.
TIw northeastern portkln is under-
lain by Quaternary eolian. alluviaL fluvial.
and lacustrine deposits derived from
Pleistocene Lake Lahontan and younger
Honey Lake. The Honey Lake Fault
Zone. a northwest-trending zone of en
echelon. right-Ialeral oblique slip faults.
traverses the area.
DMG OFR 9O-D8 consists of a geo-
logic map plale describing the geologic
units. map symbols. and references.
The geologic map is drafted on a topo-
graphic base at a scale of 1:62.500
(l inch equals about 1 mile). DMG
OFR 90-08 is available for reference
at allthrC€ DMG offices. It may be
purchased at the Sacramento and
San Francisco offices. In acklition. the
Sacramento office offers prepaid mail
order sales.
Geologic Information and
Publications Office
801 K Street, MS 14-33
Sacramento, CA 95814·3532
(916) 445-5716
Bav Area Regional Office
185 Berry Street Suite 3600. 3rd Floor
San Francisco. CA 94107
(415) 904-7723
Southern California Regional Office
107 South Broadway. Room 1065
Los Angeles, CA 90012-4402
(213) 620-3560
hese mineral experiments aTe
designed for children ages 8
through 12. Young children will be
able to successfully complete them
with adult supervision. Older children
can easily follow the step-by-step
instructions and complete the experi-
ments with little or no adult help.
lbese experiments are from Earth
Science for Every Kid.' 10/ Easy
Experimenrs that Really Work. by
Janice VanCle"ve. copyright 1991.
John Wiley & Sons. Inc Reprinted wilh
pennission from John Wiley & Sons. Inc..
60S Third Avenue. New York, NY
To order a copy of this book. call
\·SOO.cALL-WlLEY (800·225-5945).
Purpose: To demonstrate a mineral
slreak test.
Purpose: To demonstrate a positive
test for limestone.
• Unglazed porcelain tile
[The back of any porcelain
tile will work.)
• Metal spoon (stainless steel)
Rub the handle of the spoon
across the back of the porcelain
Write your name on the back of the tile
with the spoon handle.
The spoon makes a dark gray
mark on the white tile.
• 3 seashells
• vinegar
• glass
• Fill a glass one-.quarter
fun with vinegar
• Add the seashells
Bubbles start rising from the
Why? Vinegar is an acid and sea-
shells are made of limestone. a mineral.
lJmestone chemically changes into
new substances when in contact with
an acid. One of the new substances
fOnTIed is carbon dioxide gas. The
bubbles you see rising in the glass of
vinegar are the bubbles of this gas.
Acid can be used to test for the pres-
ence of limestone in rocks. [f limestone
is present in a rock bubbles fOnTI when
an acid touches it.
Why? A streak test is made by
rubbing a mineral sample across a
piece of unglazed porcelain. The
color of the streak made is the same
color of the ))OVJdered mineral.
Grinding the spoon into a pmvder
would produce the same dark gray
as seen on the porcelain streak
plate. The color of the streak made
by a mineral can be an important
clue in identifying the mineral.
teacher feature continued...
Why? Paper towels are made
on a wire screen. creating a
siraight line in one direction. Pull-
ing on the paper attacks the \veak-
est {X>int. The parallel lines on the
paper made by the wire screen are
thinner !han the rest of the paper
and 50 the p a ~ rips easily doY.n
one of It\e$e lines. Jagged and
irregular lears resuh u.nen the
paper is pUled in the opptJSIle
direction. This is similar to euttJng
minerals. such as diamonds. aJong
cleavage lines. The mineral spbb
smoothly and easily along the lines
where the molecules line up. but it
can smash into irregular pieces if
hit across the cleavage line.
The paper will tear easily
in one direction but nOI in
the other
TTY 10 rip a ~ sheet
of paper tQ.\.'e! from lop
to henOlll. Tum another
sheet of paper towel and
Iry to lear it from side
10 side.
Paper towels
Purpose: To demonstrale that
some minerals have a definite cleav-
age line.
Purpose: To demonstrate how placer
ore deposits fonn
• Glass)ar with lid, 1 quart
(I liter)
• 5 paper clips
• 1cup (250 ml) soil
• Fill the jar half fuD u.ith water
• Add the SOil and paper chps
• Close the Id and shake the
jar Vigorously
• AIJow the,ar to stand undis·
turbed fOf 5 minutes
The paper clips fan qt.rickly to
the bollom of the jar. and the
sIovJer·moving soil .settles on
top of lhe clips
Why? Most of the soil falls more
slowly !han the heavier paper clips. and
thus a layer of soil fom\S on top of the
paper clips, In nature. rain beats on lOP
of the soil. shaking and softening il The
heavier material:> in this WI?! mixture sink
lower and Ioo.ver as the years pass Heavy
grainS of rnetaI continue to sink until they
reach a hard rock layer PartICles of metal
that combule In this method are caDed
placer ore c\eposlb These deposits are
rich in metals
: .-r
COLOUR. By Maria A. Mange
and Heinz F.W. Maurer. 1992.
Chapman & Hall. 29 West 35th
Street, New York. NY 10001.
(212) 244-3336. $79.95. hard
This edition of Gemology substantially
up::lates the earlier version. It contains
new material on synthesis of gems. imita-
tion gems. and gemstone enhancement
(using chemical. heat. radiation. and other
treatments to change the appearance of
photos complement the text. and the color
plates are spectacular.
Hurlbut and Kammerling begin the
book with fundamental definitions then
proceed to the origins and occurrences
of gemstones. Next they cover the funda-
mental topics of crystal chemistry. crys-
tallography. physical properties
of gem materials. visual charac-
terislics of gems. and optical
tests. The techniques of cutting
gems into gemstones are dis-
cussed and most of the gems are
described. There is also a help-
ful determinative table indexed
by increasing refractive index.
with cross references to the lext.
It includes optical properties
and specific gravity infoonation
needed to identify gems correctly.
The book covers almost every
facet of gemology in a profes-
sionaL polished style that spar-
kles with experience. Review
by Dale Stickney.
Heavy minerals are usually
defined as detrital mineral grains
\.Vith specific gravities greater than 2.85
and found in clastic sediments and sedi-
mentary rocks. Generally. they are minor
constituents except in immature rocks
and sediments. The heavy minerals
include garnets. tounnalines. amphiboles.
pyroxenes. spinels. rutile. pyrite. magne·
tite. ilmenite. and gold.
In geology. the study of hea"Y minerals
is significant in 1) reconstructing the nature
and character of source areas for sedi-
ments. 2} tracing transport paths of sedi-
ments. 3) mapping dispersal patterns
of sediments. 4) delineating petrological
which are included in the bibliography.
Chapter subjects are: nomenclature. sym-
metry and morphological crystallography.
crystal structure. chemistry and alteration.
inclusions and "intergrowths." color and
optical properties. physical properties.
syntheses. uses and recovery. tounnaline
as a gemstone and in the decorative arts.
and occurrences and genesis. Appendices
include lists of additional crystal forms
and angles between faces. midpoint analy-
ses for tourmalines of the common solid
solution series. and an extensive list of
localities from which noteworthy speci-
mens and/or gem materials have been
If you are a serious collector of gems
or just VJant to know more about them.
the second edition of Gemology will be
of interest to you. The authors have com-
bined their expertise to write a compact.
yet infonnalive book about gems. cover-
ing technical and practical aspects. Well
chosen illustrations and black-and'white
GEMOLOGY. Second edition.
Cornelius S. Hurlbut. Jr. and Robert
C. KammerJing. 1991. John Wiley &
Sons. Inc.. I Wiley Drive. Somerset.
NJ 08875"1272. (800) 225·5945.
336 p. $64.95. hard cover.
Chrysotile (asbestos) intergrown with quartz. Magnitied look·
ing through cut slab. Photo by Dale Stickney.
This guide includes color photO'-
graphs and a map of California
along with brief descriptions of
collecting areas. It contains a min-
erai key and rock identification
charts for the most common
California rocks and minerals.
Larger California museums with
mineral collections. and mineral
and gem society addresses are
Richard V. Dietrich. 1985, Van Nostrand
Reinhold. 7625 Empire Drive. Rorence.
KY 41022. (606) 525-6600. 300 p.
$49.95. hard cover.
Besides being treasured for their natu-
ral beauty. tounnalines have caught the
interest of scientists because of their
unique strucnlre. physical properties. and
chemical compositions. The content of
this book was derived from more than
2.500 publications. almost 1.000 of
Rock.s. Gems, and Minerals
This 9- x 4-inch book is from
the California Traveler Series.
Other books in the series cover
earthquake country. birds. wildflow-
ers. missions. ghost towns. parks
and monuments. railroads. whale
watching and tidal pools. day trips.
historic sites and mUS€ums. and
the \.Vine country. Other American
Series guidebooks cover similar
subjects and include the Colorado.
Arizona. and Southwest Traveler
A Guide to Localities. By William
EstaviJlo. 1992. Renaissance HoUS€.
P.O. Box 177. Frederick. CO
80530. (800) 521·9221.
48 p, $4.95. soft cover.
.. $5.00
... $5.00
.... $8.00
..... $9.00
.. ...... $2.00
.... $14.00
............. $10.00
QUARTZ. By Michael ODonoghue.
1987. Bulterwonh-Heinemann Ltd..
BO Montvale Avenue. Stoneham. MA
02180. (800) 366-2665. 110 p.
$39.95. hard cover.
Ubiquitous quartz is found in many
fonns and has many uses. This book.
one in the Butterworths Gem Books
Series. focuses on ornamental quanz.
After introductory chapters on the
mineral's origin. chemistry. and physical
properties. there are descriptions of
some of the important quartz occur-
rences throughout the world. In addition
10 a bibliography and glossary. there is
an index of trade names and alternative
spellings including California moonstone
(chalcedony) and hedgehog stone (quartz
with goethite inclusions).
Geology and minerai resources of \he Corona South quadrangle. 1961 55.00
The mineral economics of the carbonate rocks, limestone and dolomite
resources of California. 1973 . .
8197 limestone. dolomite and shell reSOUlceS of the Coast Range
Province. t978. . $8.00
8200 Geology ot the San Diego metropolitan area. California. Del Mar, La Jolla.
POlntloma, La Mesa. Poway. and southwest quartef Escondido [7.5'1
quadrangles. San Diego County. California. (scale: 1:24.000). 1975
B208 Zeolites In California. 1988 _.. .. .
SR058 Geology of limestone and dolom'te depoSits in the south half Standard [7.5'1
quadrangle. Tuolumne County. California. (scale: 1:24.000). 1959 _ ,. $5.00
Sand and gravel resources 01 the Kern River near Bakersfietd. Kern
County. California. 1961 .
SA088 Geofogy of the Queen of Sheba iead mine, Oeath Valley. tnyo County.
Calitornia. 1965 .. .. .
SR095 Tatc dePOSits ot the southern Death VaHey-KIngSlon Range region. Inyo
and San Bernardino counties. California. 1968 ..
SA125 Mines and minerai depoSits In Death Valley National Monument
(Inyo and San Bernardmo counties]. California. 1976 $6,00
SR153 Mmelalland ClaSSification: aggregate materials In the western San
Diego County produchon·consumption region. California. 1982 $13.00
Enlarged view of spotted jasper slab. Photo
by Dale StIckney.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - -
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I AND GEOLOGY Send order 10. DtVtSION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY. P. a Bo. 2980. Sacfamento.
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provinces in sedimentary rocks. 5) outlin-
ing. and perhaps. correlating various sand
bodies. 6) indicating the actions or concen-
trating processes of panicular hydraulic
regimes. 7} locating potential economic
deposits in sedimentary rocks. 8) reveal-
ing diagenetic processes in sediments.
9) studying sedimentary rocks related to
tectonic uplift (for example. the evolution
and unroofing episodes of orogenic belts
as recorded in the sediments associated
with these developments). and 10) study-
ing the development of soils from parent
The first part of the book reviews
the uses and history of healJ)' minerals in
geological studies. Then the parameters
affecting distribution of healJ)' minerals
in a sediment. such as hydraulic effects.
grain size. and chemical stability of the
healJ)' minerals. are discussed. The authors
briefly consider sampling techniques.
preparation of samples, size reduction.
disaggregation and cleaning of samples.
sieving techniques. healJ)' mineral separa-
tion techniques. preparation for optical
analysis. and advanced optical techniques.
Advanced auxiliary techniques discussed
include X-ray diffraction. X-ray fluores-
cence spectrometry. electron-probe
microanalysis. scanning electron micros-
copy. and cathodoluminescence. The
authors comment on the limitations on
statistical analysis of data from healJ)' min-
erai samples and review applications of
healJ)' mineral analysis to geological v..rork.
Attention is given to often neglected.
but quite useful techniques used to deal
with complex geologic questions. The
authors have updated the topics involv-
ing studies of healJ)' minerals and have
included an extensive reference list. This
book is like geology itself; it is a wondrous
hand lens through which you can see
"a cosmos" in a handful of sand. Review
by Dale Stickney,
The second part of the book contains
descriptions of the major healJ)' minerals
including basic optical and crystallographic
infonnation. how the mineral is likely to
appear in the sediments. distinguishing
features. and occurrence. Usually. there
are color photomicrographs of the mineral
grains in unpolarized light. plane polarized
light. and with crossed polarizers. Others
are included to illustrate particular features.
AB 3098 Surface Mining and Reclamation Act (SMARA) Eligible List-July 1. 1993
Butte COlJnly
91-Q4-OOO1-Pentl PH (Baklw1n ContractIng Co)
91-Q4-lXlO4--Roo;nson Construetion--Oroville Wlldhfe
91-04-0005-Aobinson eonstruetion-RobInson PH
91-04-0007-Mathews ReaclyMix-Vance Avenua
9t-04-llOO8-Malhews Lands
91-04-0011-6'800 Rock Quarries (Roger Green) Counly
91-Q5.QOO1-Snyoor Clay PH (John J Snydef)
91-o5-0002--floyal Mountain King Mine
(Meridian Gold Co.)
91-oS-0003-Aed Hill Ouarry (Cyprus We-slem Source)
91-o5--OOO4--K R Mme (Cyprus Westem Source)
91-0S.Q006-Tek:hert-Robi Plant (Teichert Agg,egales)
91-0S.QOO7-Teichert-Reed (TeIChert Aggregales)
91-Q5-OOOS-Val1ey Spnngs Clay pn
(Calaveras Cemenl Company)
91-Q5-QOO9-Calaveras Ceroonl Company, 16 Oua,ry
(Calaveras Cement Company)
91-05-001Q-Calave,as Ceroont Comapny, Quarry 17
(Calaveras Cemenl Company)
91-o5-0011_AII Rock (C.E McLauoghhn)
91-Q5.Q012-Calaracl Umestone Ouarry (Calavofas
Cement Company)
91·0S-0013-Wohn & Sons Aggregale
(Wohn & Sons, Inc,)
91.oS-OOI4-Hogan Ouarry (Ford Construction Co)
91.oS-OOl&-MeCarty PitlFoothiti MaterialS
(Ford Construclion Co.)
91-Q5-0017-Allo MIne (Glamls Gold, Inc)
Colusa County
91-06-0001-TelChert-Thompson Quarry
(TelChert Aggf891ltes)
Contra Cosla County
91.o7-0001-Byron Plant (Unimln Cofp.)
91.o7-0003-Clayton Qua,ry (KaISllr Sand & Gravel)
91-o7-Q004-Clayton (RMC Lonestar)
91-07.QOO5-Pon Costa Matenals
(Port Costa Materials, Inc)
91-07-OOO6-Chevron Quarry (American Roell
and Asphalt. loc.)
91-o7-OOO7--Canal Ouarry (American Rock
& Asphalt, Inc.)
91-o7-<1OO9-Stooor Pil (F.T.G. ConSlruction
Malerlals, Inc,)
Del Norte County
91-oB-0001-$ultan Bar-North Coasl PavIng & Rock
(Redwood Empife Aggregates)
91-Qll-0002-Hu11man Bar-North Coasl Pa\llng & Rock
(Redwood Empi,e Awagales)
91-Qll·OOO3-Ranch Ba,lReSllrvation Ranch
91-Qll-Q004-Tedson Bar (T"ldBwaler Contractors, Inc)
91-Qll.QOO5-Crocken Bar [Ildawater Contractors, Inc)
91-Qll-OOOO-Hole pn (T"odBwaler Contractors, Inc.)
91-Qll-llOO8-Slary Quarry (T"rdewater Contractors. Inc)
El Dorado County
91-09-Q004-Chile Bar Slale Mine
(Placerville Induslnes)
91-Q9-OOO5-Co<Jj Cave Quarry (Spreckels Umestone
Fresno County
91-1D-0003-Acaoomy Oua,ry (Raymond
91-1Cl-0004--Al's Conc,ete (AI's Concrete)
91-10-OOO5-Coa1inga Pit.1 (Granite Construction Co.)
Rock (Acme Paving Co. Inc.)
91-10.QOO7-CoalmgB Pil'2
(Granite Construction Company)
91.10-llOO8-Pelry Sand Pit (Ed Petry)
91-tO-0009--R;"'er Rock (CaiMal of Central
91-10.QO1o-calMaV Sal1g<lr {CalMat of Central
91-10-Q011-CaIMati Rank Island (CalMat 01 Cenl,al
91-1O-0012--CaIMaV Friant Rd. (CaIMat 01 Central
91-1o-0013-ZapatolChino PIt (Artesra Ready·Mix
Concrele, Inc.)
91-10--0014-RockfiekllPlanl S'le (RMC Lone-slar)
3 yrs. $28,00
(18 issues) D
91.Q1.Q012-Mi5S/on Valley Rock Co SMP-8
91.Q1.Q013-Mlsslon Valley Roell Co SMp·24
91.Q1.QOI6--Sheridan Qua,ry (Redgwick Const Co.)
91.Q1-00\7-FaUon Pil (Redgwick Cons! CO.)
91.Ql-0018-Tassaiara (RedgWlCk ConSI Co.)
Alpine County
91.Q2-OOOt-Memll Barrow pn (Stual1 P Mernll)
Amador County
91.Q3.QOO1-00sch (Pacific Clay Products)
91.Q3.QOO2-North Ca'bondale Surtace Mine
(Jaspe, M'OIng)
91.Q3-0003-China Hill ClaIm (Owens-llHnois)
91..(J3-0004--0wens-lllionls Sand Pil
91.Q3-ooo6-lioooln MIne (SuMf Gold)
9Hl3-OOO7-MGM M,nlng, Inc.
91-o3-llOO8-Arroyo Seco Raneh (lone Mme)
(North Aroorican Ret'a<:lories)
91-o3.Q01D-Boena Visla Clay Pil
(C8lavems Cement Company)
91.Q3-OO11-Cai Wesl Rock Product$llon(l Quarry
(Weslem Rock ProduetS. Inc.)
91.o3-0013-Boring Shale pn (Krelh. Inc.)
91.o3-OO19-lnsh HIli pn (Krelh, Inc.)
91.Q3-002(hJackson Valley Ouarry
(G&O<1;I8 Reed, Inc.)
2 yrs. $19.00
(12 issues)
RENEWAL: To receive your magazine without interruption, send in renewal
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The following is the July I, 19931isl
of mining operalions subjecllo the Surface
Mining and Reclamation Acl (SMARAj, from
which California stale agencies may pur-
chase or use materials. /I has been pre-
pared by Ihe Department of ConsefValion
Office of Mine Reporting and Reclamation
Complianre. The lisl is required by Pubtic
Resources Code Section 2717.(b) to be
published in the California Regulatory Notice
Register. In addition. it is published !lere
as a courtesy. at no COSlto CALIFORNIA
GEOLOGY subscribers and with no reduc·
lion in content of this issue.
Alameda County
91.Q1-0001-Dumbarton Quarry
(Dumbarton Quarry Associale-s)
91.oHXI02-Radum (KaiSllr Sand & Gravel Co.)
91.Q1-Q003-Nile-s Canyon Ouarry (SRDC, Inc.)
91.o1-0007--$unol (RMC Loneslar)
91.o1-ooos-Leona Quarry (Gallagher & Burke)
91.ol-QOO9-Eliol (RMC Loneslar)
91.01-(10 1Q-CalMal Pleasanton (CaIMat)

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A P o. Box 2980. I
Sacramento, Calitornl<l 95812-2980, ...J
91-10-001S-Roc:kloelc1lBeck (RMe Lonesta,)
91-10-0016-MaIorino Farms (JlIll & Brian MaM:wino)
91-10-0017-cenrral Valley Ready Mi., Inc
91-10-001S-T"1YY Valey G,anrce (Cllarlet Leon RaP8")
G"flIl Counly
91-1 I -Q(l(l3-Stony CfMl< Plionl (Baldwtn Conlradong)
91-1 l«104-Slony CfMI< Prt (OfIlInd Sand & GI1lW!I)
9l-II.ooll5-Spoonef PIt (Valley Aoclc Pl'odud$)
9l-l I-ooo&-Stony 0 .... (Valley Rock Pfoduc1a)
91-1 l-0007..Qf1and P,l (Yuba FWef Sand & G'a....)
91-1 l.(l()(lB...&ooy CfMI<-WIlf1ney (Leal wtutney)
91-1 l-ooD9-Martln Sand &G<aveI ( Glas5bum)
91-1 l«'lllhJMpef Goavel PIt
91-1 l«'l12-V.-ey Aock Pl'oduct&, Inc
Humboldt County
91-12.0002-sandy "'_(Men:M, F_)
91-12.(l(l(13-A-21 Quarry (Uefwr. F.-)
91·12.(1()()4-TIWldad Ouefry (Men:ef, FfaSef)
(MeoQIr F.-)
viIIIey ("'-- F_)
91-12-OOO7-Willooo CfMI< ("'-- Fru«)
CfMk(Bwnum T"....)
91-12«'110-0-n.. e.. (E....... FINdyMol)
Quarry (Walan &Jchnson)
91 - I 2«'11 Rowr Send and GnNeI
RNdiMo:-&I O'Neil
91-12-OO14-fWnda1 Sand & Go.....
91-12«'117-()fake F-.wy (HumI:>okX Bay Gravel)
91 -12..0(I18-Thcmn e..
91-12-0029-AIllnPll (E.......

(Aeawood AggfeglIles)

(R«lwood E..- AggfeglIles)
91-12-oo32-81ue Laq e.,
(Aedwood EITOll" Aw.,..)
91-12«l33-Emmerton e..
(Rectwood EmpQ Aw.les)
91-12-oll35--8room &Sons 0Ja'fY (Aogef Brown)
91-12«l36-Walstl 0uaJ'f)' (Jad( & Mary Wallh)
9l-12«'137-Ammon 0JaJ'f)' (UtlnlOlh COn&truc:bon)
9l-12«'138-Mason'fY (Wayne Masan)
91-12«l39-Hoope Valley e.. (Roc:ha.d Rowland)
91-12.()()4o-McKroght Ba, (Mercer,«
91-l2.()()44-U' A-3701M2OO (Meroer, F.aHf)
91·12.()()46-Groomt Roc:k 0ua1'Y (Herman G.ooms)
Gravel Bar (Roge, Mille<)
91-12.()()48-Wallan & JohnllOfl Gravel Bar
(Willian & JohnlOf'l)
g'·'2.Q051_S,ngley Ba. (All;llla ReadyMLO)
Impe.ial Cotlnly
91-13-OOO1-P!cacho Mine (Chemgold, Inc.)
g'-'3-OOO3-Frink Pit (Dell" G,avel Company)
91·1 3.(l()04-Plaste. Shove'" Anne.
(U,S. Gypsum Company)
91 - I3-OOOS-Ptasler CIty Ouar'Y
(U S Gypsum ComPl\ny)
91-13-ooo&-Oco10ll0 Mine (Farmers Land Leveling,
Inc. dIHI Mas"rs ConstrucliDn)
91-13-OOO7-WhHle. M.... (Falmers Lane level<ng.
Inc" dba Ma$lers Construc1iDn)
g,-,3-<XlO9-S/lell Canyon (Val-RocIc, Inc,)
g'-'3.(1()l()-Won<\Ir$lOfll PIt (G.aMe Consrruction)
9l· I3.(1() I Pd (G.ande Conslruc:bon)
91- I3«l13-Flowlng Wei. Pi! (G'a""e Conslrucllon)
g'-'3.(1()'S-Nonish PfI (Gral'lite CoMlruc100n)
(Granlle ConSlructIon)
(Go....... COnslr\fo;IiDn)
g1 -13-001 9-Gllld F"1IIlds OpetabOn Co,-M8squI1e
(Gold F..,. M>nong Co )
gl-13-(l(I:2O-Qald FIIIlds QJJ&ralll'lg Co,-MMcp.oIeNCR
(Gold F Monong Co)

91-13-0047-frn c... (c.u-)
91-13-OO48--H82atd F"fSh Sprnge (CaI\f_1
91-13-0049-New Rwer F"_ (Callrans)
91 - I3-OO5O--NeW Rwer Gf.... (Callrans)

91-13-Oll53-Sen Fellipe Wash (ea...-)
91-13-0054--50. and One-HaN Mole
91-l3-00S5--Truckllaven (CaM.ans)
91-13-CJ056-lndoen RoM (Imperl!ll Gold Cor'poratoon)
91_13-Q057_WnghI Pll (Aggregale Produd$, Inc)
91-13-0062-Amencan GIrl Canyon Mine (Am&ncan
a.J I.Ww>g Joonl Venlurel
91- I 3-0066-Padre Madfe P'o,ed
(Amenc:an e>-t M"ng Joonl VenlUre)
9,-,:HlCl69-Rclt>era Pil (0eH<1 G<eveI Co)
g,-,4-(lOO1-NillIlIeus & NiIlolel.e
(NMl8us & NoI<cIaus. Inc )
91-14-ol102-Red HII 0ua'fY
(Tw-. Roell Co)

(Hoan Ready ..... Inc.l
91-14-0007-P'lne C<wk (U S TUfl9Ne" Cofpofa1fClfl)
""'" I
g1-14--(llJl2---ow.r. Lab".... (Lab Corp I
91-14--(llJ13--C11li11omo8 Hecton1e PO
(!NV DMsoon 01 Aondinl
91-14-0014-""""'" c.omp.ny (".",....,

91-14-.otl21----8Ae MIne ("'-" Boq,. Co)
91-14-0027__1168tocl<man Pil (CaitJ_)
S. a1 IHdeJ*.....
91-14-llOOll-Malena1 SfIe 11112--$h::1eonJ (Calb'_)
91-14.()()45-Ma&ene1 So1Ie a283-NeW ZI.n:h (CaIIf_)
91-14.()()47__288 New Coeo (ea..-)
91-14-ll()a8..4289 Ha_ (CaItnI"*)
91-14.()()49-4290 0kIInche (CaIr_)
SfkII r.!lll-Col\larwoood
91-14-l)055-Pana..... VIIiey l.imntone 0u8ny
(1n1ermolnaIn Mone s.v.-. Inc I
Kefn County
Sand. Inc (Weblilef Sand. Inc,)
91-15-OOO5-Shumake Opel'alion
(Caclus Gold M.-- Co )

(CaclusGold M.... CO)
91-15-OOQ7-s.en-a Pl&<\ra Co (A M Wltlb. J< I
91-15-OOOll-- lOll LlmesIone Ouany
(NallOnlll Cement Co)
91·15-<lCKl!J-Mcrowa.... Qu.II''Y-l-..c: PUlnl
(Nallo.,., CemenI Co.)
9H5«'110-0ua,'Y SIIe B-Lebec Ptanl
(NatIOnal Cemenl Co.)
91-15-001 l-Qld Dulch Cl<:lan$(l' M.... (Maleotl COrp)
91-1S-0012- Gi.iem & Sons M"'ing Ope'aliDn
(Gilltam & Sons, IrIC.)
91-15-0013-Sand Canyon (Cal-Ci·Co Rock Co, IrIC,)
g'-'S-0014-calc,le (CalMal Co.)
91-15-OO15-Bowman Pir
(Asphalt Consrruc:lion Co. Inc)
9l-IS-OOl6-Mojave Pd
ConsrrUCIiDn Co" Inc)
g'-'5-OO11-l.., Hills MII\$ (H M HoIloway.lrIC.)
9 I- I5-001 &-Standard Hi. (&llIlon MIfI(I.als USA)
91-15-OC1.21-Excel-Mlf"O&fal Company, Inc
9l-l5-0022-8oron Open P,l 1.4....
(U S Bora- & ChemieaI Co )
9 I- I5--0024-Arvm Pi! (Granile ConSlruC\lOn COrn!*'ly)
91-15-OO25--J<lmn Road & Mil (Kefn Rod< Co,)
91-15--0027-Canebrake Cf(I(Ik Pll (Ladd Ready M..)
9l· I s-<lCl28--Jarne$ Rood
(G'a.... Consrrucllon Company)
91-l5-0031-8ob MofIon ConstruebOn. Inc

(CaIikImoe Pllf1Iand Cement Co )
91-1 S-l1033-y..... ..-.- Monng Co.)
91-1s-0035-Oescaf9ll (Rancl Minng Co)
91-1 S«l36--C<>opM PII • I (S&8nley Coopef)
AfdlJe Pit & .... Col
91- I s-0036-Cooper Pit '2 (S&8nley Coopef)
91 -I 5-OO39-Gokien Cat Cotpofatoon
91 -15-OO4O-MonolilI ....-. Quarry
(Cala\oera$ Cemenl Co I
91 -1 1-ea1Ma11 San EfIlflIdoo
(CalMa! at CanIral e.womoel
91 -15-OtM2--Cailenle s.ntI & Ulf-.<1Il Co Inc:
(NUn e--.cyParcel)
91·1S.()()43-Calienle Send,\ Mlf"O&fa' Co. Inc
(Calien!e Sand & M",....II Co, rrIC)
Send Co. Inc
{Edison Sand Co.. Inc I
La lMlbre (Tejon Ranch '2)
(Suncfllle Matenals Co.)
91-15-OO48-Shumakef M.... (Jilmes ClarIIe)
PI! (&will ResouI'CM. 1nc,1
Pi! (Boral RIlIoun::ea. Inc.)

(W l-lun5aler-ER W,••• __, ... _,..,
91 -15-00S1-GQl Roc:ll$ (Homef "'- Har--.. J<.)
Pit (Eu! Kern Airport 00stncI)
9l_I5-0067-Detby Acres Booow Pit
(AACO Oil & Gas Co.)
Ready Milo: Mo.l
9l-15-OO69-SWEPI- PMl MIne
(Shell Western E & P. Inc.)
91-1S<1071--5«:l1on 28 Booow Sile
(San.. Fe e.-w
91-15-0073-RfO Rod< Ma!enaIs Inc:

Moln:l Mne (5-&r-5)
Creel< Mne
(HDSen v*ry s.o& Gta¥eI)
91·17«'11 l-lndian Creel< Quarry (Pa....... PawIlI, n;)
91 _17«'II2-ClaarI8ke Lava CIueny
L8kevIew Roell & Ael'-Ma
(8il Van f>eIl)
!.all.... County
91-I&-OOO1-Ray HamnglonI Standish PII (c:our-y)
91 -llHlOll2-Honey lM<e AggregaIeS
(Honey lake .t.ggregalea)
9 I.IS.()()(l3--Ooyle PIanI {BaIdw-. ConIractrog Co Inc.l
91-IS«'IIO-Slandish PII
(58zzi Concrete & Inc:,)
91.1S«'I12-l-1ayden Hill Mine
(UlU«! Gold MIrIng. Inc)
lO!8 Angeletl County
91·19-OOO1-5ulle Sand & G.aYlll Co
91 -19-Ol102-l.rttle Aggregate Co., dba Antelope
Vdey Aggreg;de Inc
91·11l-0007-AzufIa Pill AzufIa (Soothdown lnl:,. dba
Transil M,.ad Concrete Comp;tny)
91 ·ll1-oooe-Granile P\anI U!Ilefoc:Ic (G.anoll
Construction Company)
91-19«'112-UMad Rod< Pfoducl& Cofp Planl StIe
91-19«'113-llMad Rod< P.oduc:I$ Cofp. PI! II
91-19-OO14-U",'ed Rod< P.odUCIs Cofp. P'l'2
9\·19.oo IS-United RocIc ProdUCIs COrp. PIt '3
91 -1g.oo16-Reliance-lrwlndakl (CaiMal Co.)
91-19-OOI1-Sheldon (calMal Co,)
91-19-OO16-ReharICo-Azusa (calMat Co.)
91 ·l9-OO1g..Boulevard P.operty (CalMal Co.)
91 -19·0020-Palmdale (calMal Co.)
91-19·0021-Big Rod< C.eek (CeIMal Co.)
91-19-OO22-CaIMal--&ln Valley (CalMat Co.)
91-1g.oo23-0u,b<n (CaIMal Co.)
g,-1g-0025-lNingslon-G.aham, Irwindale
91 - Malerials-linle,ock
91-1g.oo34-Azusa (Owl Rock ProducIs)
g'-l9-0035-F"f!IIl Canyon Ouany (Azusa RocIc)
gl-19-003fi.-Sw....lWar., Aggregal..
(Lang Slaloon. Inc)
91-19-OO38-Soledad Canyon Mine
(P W Gillibrllnd Co.)
Made.a County
9'-2O-OOQ'--s-r.. WhIle Quarry
(Raymond Granote Company)
91 -20-0002-Doener (Calaw!fes Cement.
dbiI SIewa" & Nussl
91-2O-OOO3-Moen PII (Calawras Cement.
dbll s-arl & Nuss)
9, -2O-OOO4-Cobb Pit (San S8nd & GI1lW!I)
91-2O-OOll!HkIrend SII:lcqI
(Cemal V.., Concre", Inc:_)
91·2O-OOlJ6...f(ee diI Silva
(lee·a ConcJele MatetIaIs Co Inc I
Pit (Calilomoa ln4I:slnIl Mn8raIII)
91-20-0008-B<*IgIt Ash Slough S4e
(wm E. 8<ewef. Inc)
(Redwood landlilI, Inc_)
9\·ZI-oQ02-tawson's Landing (Carl W Voglef, Sr)
91·21-oooe-s.o Raillel Rock Quarry
(Oul,s Comparues)
Mariposa County
91-22..()()()2-A PHrlOn
91·22-0003-Lany 3. Sand'a BunnIng
(lllny & SlInd.. Burvm"'ll)
Mendocino Counly
91·23-OOO3-F0Id Gravel COmplIny
(FOld Grave! Co,. Inc.)
91·23·0004-Ausun-Crawford Gfsvel Bar
(FOld Grawtl Co" Inc,)
91·23-OOOS-Bradlord GnveI Bar
(FOld Gravel Co., Inc)
91·23.()()()6-ft!liz Creek Gfavel Bar
(Feliz Creek Graval &11)
91·23-oQ07-Feke<fJepSOll Gravel Bar
(Ford G'avel Co" Inc)
91-23«l()8..8edrock, Inc, (Wdllam & Karen Hay)
91-23.()()I()..Chase Aock Quarry!Fled Rock Quarry
(Pamum Paving. Inc.)
91·23-l1015-Hams Quarry (Northern Aggregales, Inc,)
91·23-l1016-M;1I CrMk Bar/Adobe Lane
91-23-l1017-5halllrOdt Quarry (Pam...m PavIng, lnc.)
91·23-llO.21-f>te1a (Norlhe>m Aggr"9l'tes, Inc.)
92-23-l1026--Tun'li.lnc (lllrry TunzI)
91·23-llO.27-l'1ow1and Gravel Be, (Aichard Rowland)
Mercltd County
91·24-(l001-Tur1ocl< Aock Co
91·24.()O()2-VICIOI Pil (Weslem SlOne Produels. Inc,)
91-24'()o()3-Roomsoo NorItI Pd
(Weslem Slone ProducIs. Inc,)
91·24..()l)()4-S,lva Pli (Western Slone ProducIs, Inc.)
91·24.()O()5-Snellng Pf1
(Wellem Stone Producla, Inc,)
9\-24-OD06-l.a Grange Pf1
(WlIlern S!QncI P,oducts, Inc,)
91·24.(J()()9-(.ot Banos Gravel Co.
(los Banos Gfavel Co.)
91·24-l1012-Canyon Rock Pil (F S Rod. Inc)
91·24-l1013-f>anoehe Pil (K8fV>81h Brued<oer)
91·24-llOI4-Winton Plant (M.J Ruddy 3. Son,lnc,)
91·24-l1017-Carson P'I II
(Western Stone Producte, Inc.)
Modoc Counly
91-2!)-(lQOI-MoI'gan Ranch Co, Inc.
(Morgan Ranch Co, Inc)
91-2S«I03-CaIdweI Cindef PIt M,ne (Rose Caldwel)
91·2S-Cll104-FfIdl Gravel
Mono County
91-26-0002-Hol Creek Kaolin MIne
(Slandard Industrial Mlnllfals, Inc,)
91·26-OQOoI-Frank SlIm 1.11118 (US. Putr'liCe Co,)
91-Z6--0029-Lee VinIng (Rush Creek) Bar
(Harvey E 3. PhyIis P Hunewill)
91·26-OO35-MafUlflO 3. Sons Sand 3. Gravel
(Marzano & Sons)
Monterey County
91·27.OQ01-5and City Pf1 (Monterey Sand Company)
9 t ·27..()()()2-Manni! Pit (Monlefey Sand COmpany)
91·27-ooo3-Oe1 Monte Forest Ouarry-Grarute
""""""'" 91·27.()()()4-MeWChalome Creek P,t-G,anite
91-2NlOO5-NaIMdad Quarry
(Nalional Fletrac10neS 3. Minerals)
91·27-0D06-1111)is (RMe loneslar)
91·27.OQ07-BLM Flock Pile-Wm J Clark
91·27-0008-ArroyoSeco-Wm J Clark
91·27-ooo9-Cla11< Pit-Wm J ClaI1<
91-27-l1011-P_ Canyon Prt-Granile Construction
91·27-()()12-51OMwll1 Canyon Quarry
($yar 1ndu$lri&$, Inc,)
91·Z7-llOI5-Porter Ranell E$lateJBradley Prt
(Madonna Construclion)
91-28'()o() I-Harold Smltll & Son Prt
91-28·0002-Qall--/;I Quarry (Ame<ocan Canyon
DrrvelQpmef'll Co.1
91-28·0003-Mc:lllughlfn (Homestake Mlrung
91·28.()()(M-Napa Quarry (Syar Ind"'$tll8t, Inc.)
91-28.(lQ05-Amtrlf;an canyon Quarry
(Syar lndustr;es, Inc)
Hendl COIlnly
91-29-0001-58n Jusn Aidge M.... Prospect
(Slskon Gold Corporauonl
91·29..()()()2-Nortll Slar Flock Products Quarry
91·29·0004-Ma"" Valley Plan! (T8fCIlef\
91-29-ooo5-Sha-Neva PIiont 12 (SIla·Neva, Inc,)
91·29.(l()()6..-Greenhom Gravel Plant
Rock Quarry (Douglu T Bonelli)
91-29.()()12-Joe Chevreau.-Nevada Coooty
91·29.()()I5-R.J Miles Co (A J 1.1.... Co)
Or.nge County
91-30-0005-IMne Laka (BkJe Doarnond Male<ials)
91-30-0006-Naw Slar (Owl Rock Procll.M;u)
91-3Q-0007-Qrange Planl (R.J. Noble Co.)
91-30·0008-M.non Clay (RIV8ISIde Cament Co )
M<ufon "18\0
(FIr4tsode Cement Co)
91-3O.()()11-MIIIIOtl Viejo Malenals, Inc
(Mission Voe/O Malerials, Inc.)
91-3O-Q012--Gypsum Canyon P"
(Pacrtic ProdUC:IS)
91-30-0014-£1 TOfO Malarlal., Parcell
91-30-0015-€1 To<o Malerials. Parcelll
Plllc:.r County
Cllevrelll_, MNdow V_
91-31·(l()(l9..PaIl8l'lOrl Sand aod Gra..
91-31-l101Cl-Co1el AockIin Aggfegalas
(A C Colet. In:: I
91-31-l1013-Bog Gun Grande Quafry
(60;1 Gun Co,)
Plumss County
91-3Z..()()()2-C1le$11lf Prt (BaldWIn ConlraetJng)
91-32-llOI6-Spanish Creek Aggregates. Inc
(Hale Cllattlon)
91-32-l1017-$ierra Agoreosl..
92-32-l1018-5lo8t Prt (Baklwln Contfaetmg)
Rlyeralde County
91·33·0001--Glen Ivy (Werner Corp)
91-33-000Z_AvaJon SI.ael PI!
(E. l. Yeager Con$trueuon Co I
91·33.()()()5..AI Amenean A$pIlall
9t ·33.()()()6-Paef1oc Clay P,IS (Pacific Clay Products)
91·33.()O()7-MobiIe Sand Co
91·33--CICl()9.,Ja Aabblt Canyon
(Mofeno Valley $lind &Gravel. Inc)
91.33-Q01o-Wamer Corp --Glen Ivy
91·33-00 !I-Chandler's SlInd 3. Gfawtl (cn.ndIt<'s
Palos VarlMs Sand 3. Gravel)
91-33-<1013-U S No So_ (Uniled Stales TIIa Co)
91·33-l1014-Maitri I'll*! P1anl (1'1 J. Noble Col
91'33-llOt5-Wyroc Lake Streec Quarry (Wyroc, Inc,)
91-33-0017-Co1on.a Indus!naJ Sand Project
Sand PfOjOCt)
91·33-O(l19-Hi Grade Matllflall Co Moreno Valley
(Hi Grade Malarlals Co)
91·3:WlO2O-Moonlaln Avenue P,t 12
(El5inore Ready Mi_)
91·33-Q021-MOUntaln Avenue P,l 11
(Elsinore Ready MIx)
91·33-llO.23-Corooa Clay (Riverwolle Cemenl Co.)
91-33-llO.24-Smo1tl Sand (FloversfCle Cement Co.)
91·33-llO.25-l.iston Quarry (Cahlomla Portland
91-3J«l27-Co1ona Quarry (CalMa1 Co.,
91-3;)-«l29-PhUdeIpIlia Recycling MIne
(A-one Dehvto' SefVlC8)
91·33-003G-lodio P,l (GraMe ConsIruc100nl
91-33-003I--Gamet P,I (GraMe ConsIrucbon)
91-33-0035-Eagle Valley Quarry
(Boral RMources, Inc I
91-33-l1036-Corona Prt {Borel Aesouroes, Inc.)
Canyon Pc (C L Pharris)
91'33-()()4(h1unope< Flats (C L f'IlIor...)
91-33.(X)42-Aguanga (C L f'IlIor",)
91-33.(X)43-f>rado (Owl Rock ProdUCIS)
91-33-0059-PaelI'o; Ridge Industnal Park
91·33--0065-0 Younger Co (Oennrs Youngef)
91·33--0069-ParkweSI IndIrslnal Center
Sacramenlo County
91·34.OQ01-Van Vleck Rand'lO $and'\ Gravel, Inc
91·34-C1OOS-McOoneIl Clay Pf1 (lnduslrial M,nerals)
91·34-ooo&--Teo;hen·Pel1<ons Planl
(T8IChert Aggregates)
91·30/0.OQ07-T8ICIleft-A$p8n 1A (Teo;hert All9rega\e$)
91·30/0-0008-TMchen-Asptn IV (Teicllert A9llr8{lll1eS1
91·30/0-0009--T..;;h8f\-Aspen V (Telctlert Aggrega18l)
91 ,30/0.()()12-Rancllo Cordova (AMe LOI'IOtSIar)
9 t ·30/0-llOt 3-lower Bradlord Clay Pf1 (S\'l)lor>-F\eId Co.)
91·30/0-l1014-Saeramento Aggregates, IncJ
9t·34-llOt7-Fallbaim South (Granlltt Conslrucllon Co.)
91·30/0-l1022-Hanlord Sand 3. Grawtl. Inc
(Preaton Hanlotd. Sri
91·34-llO.23-Amerocan Rtver Aggregates-Clark S,ls
91·34.oo26-SacramenlO Aggregales, IncJ
San BenIto County
9t·3S.OQ01-Joe Pil (KCAC, Inc.)
91·35-0002-T... p,not Creel\ P,l (Htillsdale Rock)
91·3S.()O()3--SlIn Juan Pd 16 (Hillsdale Rock)
91·3S.oo<I4-SCl P,1IBolN RC*f Quany
(Hllsdale Rock)
91·3!)·OOO5-AshursH.e.... (W.....r·E.. Company)
91 ,3!).()()()6..Pa' Ranell (san BenIIo Supply)
9 t · WAams Sand 3. G.avel

(GraMe Flock Company)
91·3S-llOID-Hams Quarry (Gmnite Rock
91·3S-Ol)11-5an Benito Sand Planl
(Gn'lnlts Flock Company)
91·3S-Ol)12-Arthur A Wilson Quarry
(Granits Flock Company)
91.3S-l1013-OoIomile <Narry (Oltw:! P GnmsIey)
91·35-00 14-SlIn Jultn Asphal (LO McCIa1Clley)
91'35-00 I 5-S1Ir Conaets
(Sandman, Inc BlattlScalena)
91·3S-Ol)1&-lomerias MU8ItaS (Hitl5da1e Rock)
San Bernafdino County
91-36-00(11-t.avic Quarry (TwIn MountaIn AocI< Co.)
91-36-0002-Mol>nlall1 Pass 1.11118 (MOIycorp, Inc I
91-3&OOO3-Campus Planl (Holliday Rock Co Inc.l
Planl (Holliday TIUClung Inc)
91-36-0006-Foolhill Ptant (Holiday Rock Co, Inc)
91·:l6-0008-Amencan Mine PfOj8d Joont Venlu,e
(Palms Moning Co.)
91-36·0012-$an Bema<dino (CalMat Co)
91·36-l1013-Upland P,l 16 (CalMat Co.l
91·36-Q014-tJpland P,t 4 &!) (CaIMat Co.)
91·36-llOI5-Ca1lle Mounta'n Venlure
(Viceroy Gold Corp)
91·36--0017--5oerra Co (Donald G Jelly)
91-J6.0019-8lac:k Mountain Quarry
(Soulhweslem Portland Cemenl Co.)
Ory Lake (National Chloride Co
or America)
91-36-OO22-Scheerer Quarry (1'1........ Cemenl
91·36·0023-0<0 GranOs Quarry (Roverside e-nl
Rock Plant
(Slue OIamoncl Malerials)
91·36-0027-eoro.cway Borrow PIt
(Nortll American Chemical Co)
91-36-002&-EaSl G.avel P,t
(North American CIlemfcal Col
91-36-0029-Tf811 Borrow
(North American CIlemocal Co )
91-36-003G-Oredg'ng Operallon (North Amencan
Cllenllcal Co I
91-36·0031-l.ake & Mlne<al Re$OuorOll
(North Amencan Chemical Co.)
91·36-l1032-PaI1Jn Lon>eslone Products, Inc
(Pa"", l.Jmeslone PrOducts. Inc,)
91·36.(1()33-HectOl Mine (Rl\eox Inc.)
91.36-OO34-8Irdsey Gmnlte (Brubaker·MaM, ,,"",.J
91-36--OO3S-CoIton Quarry (Cal"ornoe Por1Iancl
cemenl Co.)
91·36-l103&-8axter Quarry (Ca1i1orrlul Portland
Cement Co,)
au.rry CClIIot""",, Poo1WId
lOool Rock Pfoduetl)
c.- (Oool Rod< Ploductsl
91·3&-(llMI,....wbell) SIl<in9I o...ryl\olP·l Quarry
(W"*" Rod< Pfoduds, he.
ca. CfII Weal Rod< P!oclucIs}

91·::l6-(I()43-CMlo2 Of)' Chemo;aol. he
91-3&-0046--AgCon he: (AgCon Inc 1
91-36-0047-000 ar.oo. Rod< PW1l C........... AIphrIIJ
91·3&-0053- 0yMII Sarod &
Rod< Co 1

91·3&<IQ55-VlCIOI P-...
(TatlI1K c...or..
91·:JlI..OOS& .1.....' P'lI (TaI"IK Inc: I

91-36«lllI-8<yo'1wn P'lI Inc:)
P'lI CBe..' RnoI.-. Inc:}
P'lI f90r" AMourcft, Inc:I
91·3UI064 BaitlOW P'lII (8cnI RoMo:uon. Inc: I
91-36-0057-""'- I<nobo'WI* AIdgII!""-

91.3f.OOn-PlungiI Owk e.n

91·3lI-0073-Od W'*'-' Ol.-Iy

8llrtIow Ikll'!o- PIt ee.-l
Borrow PIt le.-r-I
111-35-0077...... =1)10' f Borrow PIt
NrWt MoM
Olganoc Co)

CBn.tlIiker·......" Inc:}
91.J6.OO9l)-W.... FIfil au.rry Inc 1
Brown, & LiIM: au.n-
(8r\IDllkef-Mann, Inc,)
91·3&-OlIll2-a_ MounUion au.rry
(8fuIH,ker·Mann, Inc 1

(8r\IDllker·Mann, Inc,)
91.3e-OClll8-Mud H,ls (Tenneco Mntrslt. Inc I
92·36.()I04-SINef Mine (I< 0 MIIWOIl Co)
91·36.()I05--AMc: &
(SOulhweslem PotIlIlnd Cemsrw)
91-J6.()I06-Whlt. Moun"," au.rry
CSOUth.......lIm Po<tIand Cement)
91.36.()107-(l1d Ouar'" Portland
91·36.()106-c.lidle ISOuth_1em Portland
""""" Co I
San OIegG County
91-3HIOO2-Norttl TWIll o.J<t V.ney Qua'1)
(SO Coast 1.1..,...... Co)
91·37.()004...UaMlon Valley Rod< Planl
(H G F..,on Mal_II
91·37.()l)OS-PeIs Rock ($end)
(H G F.-..on Ma......)
91-37.(1(l(l6-HarmonyG<o¥e Planl
(H G F.-..on ua......)
91.37.()OO7-Cs"oI c.nyon PWoI

91-37.()(1($-Wfroc SyQ_Ouany (Wyroc:, Inc 1
Sand PIt (C W McGralh, Inc,)
91·3HlCIiI.......... PlI (C W McGraltllnc 1

91·37.(lC1I .....TTT Quarry Cs.c-v .... L P 1
..... CO
(EaI! eo..w.y ua..... Co )
Howe can,on IAsclhilll, Inc)
91·37-Gll22-MeGre1ll Bcrrow P'Il (C W
o-v- P'Il
""", LP 1
.1·37«12& U_VeIey(e-.MCo )
.1-37-0027-9cWt Ca'ryon Sarod Co
91-37-oo2e-MI$$iQn Valey (Eo·FlltIlon) (c.lMM Co)
Canton IClIlMal Co)
91-37-oo:lO-Ca1Mi>1-Poway (caIMal Co 1
91·37.()(13<l-.B MonIs Pn Slc*'ll
91-37-oo3S-01ay' fIwdI P'lI (Nelson & Slooanl
91-37«l36--Nel1on & Slow! P'lI12 (Neiton I 510-.)
91·37-OOO7-8or_ HoghlllndII (NelIcn I 510-.1
91·3NXIS2-Na1lonil1 0Jiw...
(Molle Johnson, B.y Johnson}
91·37-0057-The p.....,. V1IItyCou'llry CUI
Sen Joaquin County
uuP'lI (Brown s.ncl, Inc)
.1.3lI-0002--V..... P'lI (&0-0 s.ncl. Inc 1
91-39-OCJllS-fUe (T""" .....1
91.3!H'lCI06-TrKt Aock PI.-. (TiMCI'IIIO'I AggregeIM)
91·39-OlXI7-P1oNn (TeocMrI ....)
91·39-OOO&-TfKy P'Il
.I-39-OlI09-RME PI!
91-»<lC1lo-t._ Trw Aock

91 -39-0012-uc.ed11e Ao.d PI!

91-»<lC113-EI RandIoAoc:l<" Sarod. Inc
(EI Rand>o Rod< I 5and Inc )
lAMe LonMlaIl

91.39-0016-Solwl P'lI (Q«w9t RNd Inc I
91·39-001$ F R.nd! (a.o.veRNd.Ine)
(Ionnerly Ri»Sa'l GnI..... Co. Inc I
91-3lI-0021-V..... au.nv (TeocMrI AggregalMl
fIwdIlBrown s.ncl. Inc)
san Luitl 0tI0afl0 CoIlnty

(so.-n P-*, Co I
RQCIc Oueny
(W W Har\aIII .. )

(Ooly I E..... o.rnon)
91-40-00 12-WiIco-He<mrKk·Branch
91·4().()()I3--Roe!<y Canyon
(M J Aseoc: )
9I-4O.()(114-N"""'" (Wileo Auoc.)
91-4O.()(11$-M,IIef Mine (M.J H'''llfecllJW,lIco A.-oc)
91-40-0016-T"* Canyon SiInd PlI
(Hearn Trucl<,ng Inc I
91.40-<XlI8-o\Iamo Rock (A J 00/1... CorWructlOfll
91.40.001 Q...Une Moon18,n au&lry
(LJrne Moo.ontaln ComplIny)
91-40-0025-AItMtI1I Rench Red Roell Quarry
(Mu(\QnNI Consln.I<;IlOfll
91...tO-OO26-81l1nchi (Winsor Constructionl
Rive< BonO"" Pn
(Cty (II Paso RobIMI
91.4O-<Xl32......41.W1llfi (Weyrck 5and I Gra.....)
91-40-0036-OoNr>o 5and CQmpany
(Oc:eano 5and
1I1..eo-<1039-3-S Rend! Pn 13-5 Reneli, Inc)
(Wlf'lIOr Cons\rul;lIOnI
San ....teo County

(""""'*' Rod< and .......1

(Weal 00ltIl ..., he )
s.t\.II e..rbeB CouoMy
(SoultMm PKlIic MoMg
.1-<42.()()(M-f'JIIb 5and Pl!IPMks Lend..-d c.-.
91-<42.()l)()6..-8ee Aock a....,
91-42-(IOO7-t.ompoc: PWll (Cells CoIpo:QbClnl
91-42.(lC11Cl-S1grora1i 2
......... Larnpoc.lncl
91-42.(lC112--6ogrAlGe (Cod Rock)
91-42.(lC113-Soecp;w; Ie- Rock)
91-42.()015-Goodchild (ca.1I Aock)
91-<42-<102O-E..- Ranch (San\a Barbara
sand I Topeofl
91 -<42«r22-&,.oe11con P'Il (Gr_ConswdtDn)
Sen'- et.ra CoIlnty
Inc 1
91-43-00Q2...$erps PII
91-43.(l(1(l3-Azwedo Querry CA.J pawog Co I
e--t "-""anIe Oueny
.I-43-OOOS-f'olek PI! Ol.-Iy (Grande Rod< Co I

(Wee! Inc)
91-43-0007___. Creek o-ry,
(StewN c.- o-ry, Inc)
s.m. Crw e-nry
91_-o0(11-ar.. SIl<in9I Quarry. Inc
91_.(IOO24'eIIon PlerC Sand I G<awII Co )
91_.(l(I(l3.4'tilIon au.ry ConeWucIo'l Co 1

.1_.(l(l(I5-.8oron Ooan L.....- & Sf"*aua....
....... -.

c..... Sarod..-d G<awII
.1-45-0004-'-'-'" CoaClnwood eono:n- P1ocluo;ts
(J F SMsCo..)
Inc .,
(SyMe Sdlr'nIll)
.,-4s-clC1118-NO'1h" As(lhIll. Inc .2 (CIea< Creekl
(SyMe Sdlr'nIll,
.1-4S-0012-Gny Rod<
(e...- e-Il Col CSAI
91-4S-0013-F.lkenbury (e--- Cement Co) CBA)
.,-4S-OOI4-ShN5enCI..-dGr..... (JF
91-4S-OOI7-f'........ Rod< Ouarry
(YUIll s.nos I Gravel)
.. Proo;tl,oetl(JF &.s.1ne)
91-45-Ol)21-Qysta1 c..... Aggregale
(Je<ry 0 Cornongl;lee<)
91-45-0024-&'.,;Ieri 5enG PJI (Hal c'"" Cons!ructIOn)
.. Aspha/I.3
Cn,.k Pn (Garrell B<own)
Bune Cinc:\eQ (WilIoIln C Haekler)
HalICo Inc
sten. County - Nons
Siskiyou County
91-47.()(102-&lv8 Ou.rry (Aoben F.
91-47.(lO(19-Vr1Ik. Tr.neiI 1.1",_ Inc
(Yrel<lI TranSlI 1.1"'_ Inc I
\I1.47.(lC11G-Rebl>ace" Deboy MII1ll
{BSB CndlK Compeny)
91-47-<XlII-GLa.. IdounlUl Pumoee Inc
(GlassMtn f>unI;ce, Inc)
.,-47.()Ol3-8Iock Puma 1-4
(Gless MIn f>unI;ce, Inc.)
91-47.(lC114-Moora·s Gr...... (RIChard S
91.4HlCI15-Spnn1Jhi11 Mine (SouN Aeoady ..... Inc)
1I1.47.(lC116-Ul*Jn MIne (Sousa RIedy Ma, Inc)
91-47-<Xl17-TI\I&ll OuJ,rry (KiewIt PacM: Co)
91-47.(lC11ll-f<odcllor Creel< Quarry
(TeehoPP E>x:.avaung)
91-47.()019-8anhart PlI (J F Inc 1
1I1-47.(1(12O-fon8ak.. St"-.Co Inc)
91-47.<J021-f1BR Ranch (J F $Me Co he 1

(F,.;l W IlurIon I George C/oaoeII
92-47.<J024-Cher!y c.-"'-
Ranch (oa.. 8oondI1
...... -.
.,-48-OOll2-4..ake Quarry

HilliIlMldfiI (St- tnct..- 1nI;)

Sonoma County
91-49·0003-Windso< III (Kaisel Sand /I. Grave<
91-49.QOO4-Canyon Rock Co., lroc (Wendel Trappe)
91·49·0005-lelmo"nl Ouarry
(North Bay Construction, lroc.)
91-49..()()()6- Siony Poinl Rock Quarry
(Stony Poinl Rock Quarry, lroc,)
91-49-QOO7-Ha!l"mann Raroch Quarry
(Stony POlnl Rock Quarry. lroc.)
91-49-OOOll--Sonoma Rock Company
(C R Fedrick, Inc)
91-4g..()()()9-Nuns Canyon Quarry. Inc.
91-49-OO12-Petaluma Quarry
(Amencan Rock /I. Aspha", lroc.)
91.49-Q013..Jerry De Will TruckJn9, Inc" dba De Win
Sand /I. Gravel (J6rry De Win)
91·49·0014-Vrmar1< PlOperty
/Cloverdale Inc)
91·49-QOl5-Log Pond Enlefj>lises, Inc, (ClDverdale
91 -49-QOl6-GerlMls Property
(Cloverdale Ready·Mix, Inc.)
91-49-Q017-Tat98 Property
(Cloverdale Ready·M.. , Inc.)
91·49-QOl8-Garibaldi Property
(Cloven:IlIle Inc,)
91-49-0019---Carano Property
(Cloverdale Inc.)
91·49-0020-King Pfoperty
(Cloverdale Inc.)
91·49-0021---Lakeville Quarry (Ghilotli Bros" Inc.)
91·49-Q022-Russian River-GeyservHIe Bars
(Syar InduSlries, lroc,)
91 '49-0023--TWIn B'idges Planl
(Guatala A99regates, Inc)
91.49-0027-Dry CMek Channel-WeSlSiOe Bridge
(Ves1ed) (Syar InduSlries, Inc,)
91·49-(l(l28--Russlan R,ver Channel-Vesled BaNI
(Syar Indus1rles, Inc,)
91·49-<1029-Healdst>urg Terrae_Doyle Pn (Vested)
(Syar Ind\l$lries, Inc.)
91-49-<103O-Healdsburg Terrace
(Grace RanchlSonoma Vineyards)
(Syar Industries, Inc.)
91·49-Q032--Mar1< Wesl Quarry (BoDean Co. lOCI
91-49-OC134-8ohan /I. CaMlis (Austrn Crook Ready
91·49-<1035-Bohan /I. Canalis
91-49·003&-Bianchlnl Quarry
(Etaine Branch",1 SChukler)
91-49-0039-5erms Sarod /I. Gravel (Serres Corp)
91·49-004Q-TWln Bridges Planl-Slation 2
(Gualala Aggregates)
91-49-0041-Geyservilla Sand /I. Gravel
(C.A. Rasmussen)
91-49-0C!42-zamaroni Quarry, 'roc.
91-49·0043-Blue Rock Co. (Don Wesner)
91-49-0C!44-Brook$ Qualry (Wesley A. Brooks)
91·49-0C!4$----Slage Gulch Ouarry, Inc.
(Slage Gulch Quarry, Inc.)
91-49·0046-Naeo-WeSl Property
(Cloven:IlIle Ready·M.. , Inc)
Stanislaus County
91·SO-OOOl-Landmark Pil
(Westem Stone Products. Inc.)
91·SO-oOCl2-$dlmldt Pil
(Westam Slone Ploducts. Inc,)
91·SO·0C!03-Ctlaoos 0 Wamer /I. Son, Inc
(Weslem Stone Products. lroc,)
91·SO-OOO5-0he Sand /I. Gravel
91·SO..()()()6-WalertOtd (M,J RlIddy)
91·SO-OOO7---La Grange (M.J Ruddy)
91-SO-OClO8-Frank B. Mar1<s and Son, Inc
91-50-0009-Cree Ranch Pil
(Western Stone Products, Inc.)
91-SO'0lI1o-La Grange (Geofge Reed, Inc.)
91-50-001 I-Hodge Ranch P,t (GOOfge Reed, lroc.)
91·5O-OO12-Ard,s (George Reed, Inc.)
91·50-001:J-Robert's Ferry (7/1 1 Mawials)
91·SO-OO14-WalerlOtd (7/11 Mate'ials)

91·SO·0016--Rood Waterlord (GOOfge Reed, Inc)
Suner County
91·51·0001-Bu"e /I. Gravel
Tehama County
91-52-Q002-Ca,mlCtlael Company
(Carl J WOOds)
91·52·0006-Thomes Creek Rock, lroc. (Joe Couner)
91-52·0016--Tflftny Rock and Sand
91·52-OO17-Lelninger (Ben's Truck & EqUIpment, Inc,)
91·52-OO23-Dye Crl!&lt Quarry (Nord'c Industries)
91·52-OO25-Hub Johnson (Kurt Sale)
91·52-0027-Hooke.- Creek (Northslata Asphan)
91-52-OO26--Ooor C'ook Rock
(Scott /I. Ellen Stephens)
Trinity Counly
(M&fCe<, Fraser Company)
91·53·0007-La Grange Mine (Eagle Rock, Inc,)
Tulare County
91·54-oOC11-PRM Sand Co
(Porterville Ready
91·54·0Q02-Lee Gill G,aMa BoffOW P,t
91-54·0005-Bnttflft Granote Pit (Bntten Conslruction)
91-54-0006-Kaweah RNer Rock Co.
(Kaweah River Rock Co.)
91-54-OOO7-1.emon Cove (RMC Lonestal)
91·54-OClO9-Ledbene, BoffOW P,t
(Edward B Hunsaker)
91-S4-<1012---fl'chmond Borrow Pit DIy C'eek
(Artesia Ready Concrete. lOCI
91-54·0013-Lemon Cove Granrte P,t
(Thomas M. /I. Mary T Carms)
91·54-OO15-Tescon (HalopoM /I. Sons, Inc.)
91-54·0016--Bluestone Aggregala (J,m Uny)
91·S4-OO17-PRM Rock Plant Co
(Porterville Inc.)
91-54-OO19-Deer CMek Ranch (Shan Kong)
92-54·002O-Sears-White River Clay
(Design·Bood Inlernalional)
91-54-OO21-Ooor Creel< Quarry
(Deer Creel< Rock Company)
Tuolumne Counly
91·55-OOO1..,Jamestown Mine (Sonora Mining Cofp)
91·SS-Q002--&ue Mounla,n M,nerals
(Gerald C Nielsen)
91·55.Q004-Pine Mountain Quarry (Wm G C,ook)
91·55-0005-Table Mounlain Qua"y
(George Reed, Inc.)
Venlura County
91·56·0001-Rldgellta (Pae,''c Ughweight Products)
91·56-OOO2-0f0 Norte (Southern PaciI'c Milling
91-56-OOO3-Palm Ave (Soutllem Pae,tlC Mill,ng
91·56-0Q04-Vflfttul3 River (Southern Pae,tic Milhng
91·56·0005-KnoII (Southern Paerl'c M,lhng Company)
91·56-0006-Briggs Road (SOuthern Pacific Milling
91·56·0007-EI RIO (Southern Pacd'c Mtlling
91-56-<lOO6--Satlcoy (Southam Paerl'c M,n,ng
91-56-OC11o-Gnmes Canyon Rock Quarry
(Be-st flock Products)
91-56-OO11-Mary Quarry (A.J Sande»;)
91·56-OO13-Saspe C,ook (Sespe Rock ProdOC1s)
91-56-OO14-Bloo Sial Quarry
(Blue Sial Ready Inc)
91-56-OO16--(;alaVllras Cuyama Gypsum
(H UmalCalaveras Cement)
91·56-OC117-CaIMat Co,-5aticoy (CaiMal Co.)
91·56-OO18-CaIMat Co-Feno SatlCOY (CaIMal Co,)
91·56-OO20-Hallock P'l (Granile Consl1UCIIOn)
91-56-0021-Tapo Canyon M,ne
(P W GiUibrand CoJCZS Corp.)
91·56-OO22-SandOval Quality Rock Co.
91·56-0025-The Olai Quarry (Schmid! ConstructIOn)
91·56-OO26-EI Rio P1anl (South&m Pae,tlC
91-56-(l(l27--Briggs Road Plant
(SOuthern Paclt'c M,lllng Company)
91-56-OO28-Ouahty Rock, Inc (Bratt Jones)
91-57-OOO2-T&lCher1-Woodland Planl
(TeIChert Aggregates)
91-57-0003-Teochert-Re<l1 Planl
(Teichen Aggregales)
91·57-0Q04-TeChert-Muller (Talchert Aggregates)
91·57-Q005-SChwa'Z9ruber & Sons, Inc.
(Schwarzgruber /I. Sons. Inc)
91-57-OOO6-Schwarzgruber & Sons. Inc
(Schwarzgruber & Sons. Inc.)
91·57·0007-Solano Concrele In-Channel
(Solano Concrele)
91·57·0008-Solaoo Concrete O1I-Chanool
(Solaoo Conc'ete)
91·5HI009-Cache Creel< P,t (Syar Industries, Inc)
91-57·00lG-Woodland Facility
{Granite Construction Co.)
Yuba County
91-56-OOOl-Weslern Aggregates. Inc,
91-56-OOO2-Hallwood Pit (Baldwin COnt'aelong)
91-56-0003-Yuba Placer Gold Co
(Yuba Wesl Gold. Inc.)
Qua'ry (Carl J Woods)
91·58-OOO5-Linda Sand & GraVlli Co
91-58-0006-Hallwood Plant (Te'che" Aggregate'.l)
91·58-oOC17-Whealland Clay PH (Gladd,ng, McBean)
91·58-QOll-Yuba RiVllr Sand /I. Gravel
91-58-Q012-Coughhn P,t (Yuba Rrvar Sand 8. Gravel)
TIle requirements of AS 3098 do not
apply to certain lands in the State. Thus,
materials from operations on those lands can
be purchased by State agencies without their
being included on the regular AB 3098 list.
As a courtesy to operators on lhose lands,
we have included operations of which we
are aware.
For federal lands. AB 3098's require-
ments apply only to lhose agencies with
which the Department of ConselVcltion has a
Memorandum of Understanding. 1hese are
the Bureau of Land Managemenl and U.S.
Forest Service. Operators on Olher federal
lands include:
Superior Reody Mix Concrete.
Miramar N.A.S., San Diego
Sim J. Harris Company,
Miramar N.A.S., San Diego
Teichert Aggregates.
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.
Mississippi Bar, Sacramento
Also exempted a,e operations on Depart-
ment of Water Resources lands for which a
reclamation plan has been approved by that
department. This includes;
ASTA Construction. Rio Vista:
S\<Ite Reclamation Board Lease 87-2
AB 723. an urgency bill now before the
legislature. states thaI Indian lands ....ill not be
subject to the requirements of AS 3098. Upon
passage. the following operations will be in this
CaIMat Co.. Pala Resetvation
CaIMat Co" MorongolBanning
Industrial Minerals Conference - 29th Fonun
- .
'. '
The approximately 200 participants
came mostly from the U.S. and Canada.
but Mexico. Sooth America. Europe, and
Africa lNere also represented.
The forum IL'O$ sponsored by the Dilli-
slon 01 Mines and Geology (DMGJ and
the U.S Bureau 01 Mines
-Max Aanery
. "
DMG display at conlerence Photo by Max Flanery
InsJde front COY« photo:
DMG's PrOl:b:l. Presenta-
tIOnS Group prepanng
displays lor 29th Forum.
searles lake Field tnp partICIpants wallong through halite. Photo by C.L
The Forum provided an opponunity
for auendees 10 discuss convnon topics
(talc deposlts. diatomite quames. redaJna·
lion plans. etc.)lrom dtverse viewpoints
and experiences,
Kramer Mme at US Borax FIElId rnp partlCIpaJlts c0l-
lecting samples of kefJlIte Pharo by C l, Pndmore
This year' s meeting emphaSIZed the
mdustnal TTUI'lel"a1 deposlts of southern
Cahlomia. h IOCb:Ied 2 days of technical
sessions and 3 days of field trip to nine
prodl.I:ers 01 ird.Istrial minerab anddtng
dialOffilII? Iimesl:one. imel'll!!? crushed
stone. sand and gravel. boron com·
po.nk. day. and saline mmerals
Of one week (AprtI 25-30). geologists
and business leaders from IndUStry.
academia. and government gathered
10 Long Beach. California to attend the
29th Forum on the Gcoklgy of Industrial
P.O BOX 2980
USPS 350 840
Malachlte.tenonte. and chrysocolia-cha!Cedony. The Slrlkmg green mmeralls malachite. The line-gramoo platy black mmeral is
tenonle. The Iranslucent and pale blulsh·green minerai is chrysocolla-ehalcedony. These mInerals are generally considered
gangue minerals. but can be mined 'or copper
a .. IS printed With soy Ink
"". fJi on recycled paper.

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