OAKLAND FIRESTORM _.. _ _ _ _ _ _ 159
OF ADDRESS FORM _ _._ _ _ _ 184
INDEX TO VOLUME 46 - 1993 _ _ _.. _.. 185
State 01 California PETE WILSON
The Resources Agency DOUGLAS P. WHEELER
Secretary for Resources
Department of Conservation EDWARD G. HEIDIG
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I I e
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NOVEMBER;DECEMBER 1993 Volume 46fNumber 6
CGEOA 46 (6) 157-188 (1993)
The e meeting are organized by the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy
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Cover Photo: Residential area after the Oakland Hills fire.
Photo by Harold Adler. Berkeley, California.
Figure 1. San Francisco Bay Area. Orange rectangle apprQ)umates area In Photo 1.
most expensive post-fire erosion control
project in California's history.
Urban growth and nre suppression
have led to a high potential for destruc-
tive fires at the urban/wildland inter-
face. With the continued expansion of
urban lands into the highly flammable
wildlands of California. the potential for
such nre is il1creasing. The Berkeley
Fire of 1923. which swept down toward
San Francisco Bay on a similar day of
hot dry winds from the Central Valley.
destroyed 584 homes and served as a
warning. More recently. the Santa
Barbara Paint Fire in 1990. which
burned 4.900 acres (1.980 hectares)
and destroyed 641 homes. and Santa
Barbara's 1977 Sycamore Fire. which
burned 804 acres (325 hectares) and
destroyed 234 homes. illustrate the
risk of living at this interface. While
much discussion and planning is under-
way to provide better fire response and
reduce the risk of catastrophic fire. little
has been done to assess the need and
effectiveness of costly post-bum tempo-
rary erosion-control measures. This
problem is not. of course. limited to the
urban/wildland interface. California has
extensive forest fires. such as the one
that burned 600.000 acres (242.915
hectares) in 1987
The issue of accelerated erosion
affecting downstream resources is
raised following each fire. There is a
growing trend toward intervention. of
implementing engineering solutions to
control natural processes. Although
state and federal laws require immediate
post-fire erosion control elfons to be
developed on public lands. there is a
growing debate about the need and
effectiveness of such commonly used
measures as grass seeding and tempo-
rary straw bale check dams like those
used after the Oakland fire. In fact.
some evidence suggests that grass seed-
ing can be counterproductive (Krammes
and Hill. 1963: Rice and others. 1969:
Rice and Foggin. 1971: Conrad. 1979:
Gautier, 1983; Nadkarni and Odion.
1986: Barro and Conard. 1987: Miles
and others. 1989: Taskey and others.
1989; Conard and others. 199 L Libby
and Rodrigues. 1992: Booker and oth-
ers. 1992),
We presenl an analysis 01 expecta-
tions. and observations of the runoff ..
and erosional response to the Oakland
firestorm as modified by erosion control
measures. Our goal is not to second-
guess the measures taken under emer·
gency conditions. but rather to offer
and recommendations that
could prove useful in deciding appropri-
ate responses to inevitable fires. Our
fundamental point is that erosional
response to fire varies greatly in a rec-
ognizable way based on lactors such as
geology. topography. climate. and land
use. Costly temporary erosion control
measures in some cases 01 wildland lire
appear unnecessary and may even be
The erosional response 01 burned
lands to winter storms in canyon lands
in southern California has been well
documented (Barro and Conard. 1991;
Rice. 1982: Wells. 1981. 1987). and
has commonly been referred to as the
sequence. Immediately after
a fire. and in son1e cases during the
fire. as organic debris dams are incin-
erated. debris and coarse sediments
llow downslope into channels. washes.
and gullies accentuating a process
called'dry raver (Anderson and others.
1959: Wells. 1981: Rice. 1982). The
process 01 dry rawl is most closely asso-
ciated with very steep slopes underlain
by granitic rocks or coarse-grained
sandstones in areas that are tectonic-
ally active and undergoing rapid uplift
resulting in background erosion rates
as high as 0.06 to 0.09 inches (14 to
2.3 mm) per year (Wells. 1986; ScOll
and Williams. 1978). [n parts 01 south-
ern California. the process of dry ravel.
independent of fire. accounlS lor half
of all hillside erosion (Anderson and
others. 1959: Krammes. 1965: Rice.
1974. Howard. 1982). Ongoing studies
in the Calilornia chaparral wildlands
demonstrate that dry ravel and. to a
lesser extent. the formation of extensive
rill networks account lor most of the
increased sediment production follOWing
a nre (Wells. 1986).
Fires can also vaporize organic com-
pounds within the burning vegetation.
The vapor moves through the soil to a
depth where il will condense. forming
Figure 2 Predicted hillSide response: hydrophobIc SOils
promoting excessive overland !low, the development of a
fill network. and a large increase in the sediment toad.
a water repellent layer. or hydrophobic
soH (DeBano. 1981. Savage. 1974).
This water repellency is strongest in
coarse soils (DeBano. 1981), and can
produce increased runoff and sediment
loading through the development of an
extensive rill network (Wells. 1986)
(Figure 2). The increased flow to chan-
nels during periods of intense rainfall
can mobilize sediment and debris
slored in the channel. as a debris now.
or what was originally thought of as
a debris flood. hence the term
flood" sequence. However. work done
by Florsheim and olhers (1991). follow-
ing the 1985 Wheeler Fire near
Santa Barbara. sug-
gests Ihat
of fire history and post-fire erosional
response in the East Bay Hills. how
could we assess the likelihood of pos·
sible catastrophic response to the
October 20.1991 Oakland fire?
We could start by looking lor similarities
in landscape between southern Califor-
nia and the Oakland Hills that suggest a
debris flow/"fire-llood" response could
be possible (Table 1).
The immediate evidence. especially
in the critical areas of slope. solis. back-
ground erosion rate. and most impor-
tantly rainfall intensity. suggests that
these two areas are very different. It
does not suggest that processes
thought to be common to land-
scapes in southern Califor-
nia should apply 10 a very
different landscape in
the Oakland Hills.
A reconnais-
sance of the
Hills burn
area on
normal fluvial transport 01 these sedi-
ments is more likely. According to
Rorshcim and olhers (1991). moderate
storm events Ihal CQuld mobilize sedi-
ments aTe far more likely to occur than
the large magnitude. high intensity
storm events that would generate large
destructive debris flows. More recently.
the 14.900 cubic yards (I 1.400 m 1
of sediments deposited in debris basins
following the 1990 Santa Barbara Paint
Fire were also a result of normal fluvial
transport of ravel derived sediments.
rather than debris flow (David Valentine.
U.c. Santa Barbara. oral communica-
tion. 1993),
Although at least 14 wildfires have
occurred In the East Bay Hills since
1923. no written record or field
evidence of catastrophic erosional
response to fire has been found. If we
approach Ihe problems of hazard and
risk assessment without any knowledge
Table' Warershed Parameters for Southern Callforma and rhe Hills
Max. Relief 9,184 feet (2.800 m) 1.100 feet (335 m)
Slope Ave: 65%; Max: >100% Ave: 35%: Max: 90%
(Wells, 1981)
Watershed 1 km
" 13 km
<1.2 square miles
area (0.6 - 7.8 square miles) 1(2 km
(Wells, 1981: Taylor, 1983)
Soils coarse (granitic, sandy) loams. shallow, moderate
soils. shallow, no SOil to well developed
profile development protiles (Welch, 1981)
(Wells, 1981)
Background 1.4 • 2.3 mm/year (0.06 - 0.0 0.08 mmJyear
erosion rate inch per year) (Wells. 1981; (0.003 inchfyear)
Scott and Williams, 1978) (Reneau, 1988)
Rainfall 25 mmlhr (1 inchlhr) 25 mmlhr (1 inchlhr)
inlenslty 2·10-year relum interval 100-year return interval
(Phil Holland. Santa Barbara (Rantz. 1971)
County Flood Control district,
oral commulllCa\lOn, 1993)
October 22. 1991. immediately after
the fire. and again on October 25.
1991. after the first storm of the season.
showed lillie evidence of natural rilling
except from road runoff. Significant
piles of ravel OIl the bases of slopes or
in the channels were not evident.
At a weather station 3 miles (5 km)
south of the fire area. rain for the
October 25 storm was reported as
75 mm (2.96 inches) during 13 hours
(a 10-year return interval [Rantz. 1971I)
wilh maximum intensities of 30 mm per
hour (1.2 inches/hour) for a 6-minute
interval. A stalion 1.2 miles (2 km) north
of the fire area reported 34 mm (1.34
inches) (a 2-year return intervallRantz.
19711) during 13 hours of rainfall and
maximum intensities of 7 mm (0.28
inches) per hour for a 7-minule interval.
Raveling and rill development are usually
initiated early on. and if they are not
evident after the first significant storm.
the likelihood that they will develop
decreases as the winter progresses
(Wells. 1986).
The 1985 Lexington Are burned
13.800 acres (5.585 hectares) about
6 miles (10 km) south of San Jose.
Although this fire is closer geographi-
cally to Oakland. geomorphology and
climate are still very different. Runoff
from early winter storms developed a
rill network in the poorly consolidated
highly fractured shales and interbeded
sandstones. Most of these rills developed
during storms between October and
December 1985. after about 12 inches
(300 mm) of cumulative rainfall. This is
about 30 percent of the mean annual
rainfall for Ihe area (30 to 48 inches
[760 to 1.220 mml depending on eleva-
tion) (Rantz. 1971). Few rills developed
after December. despite an additional
51 inches (1.300 mm) of rain in early
1986 (Keefer and others. 1986).
The total rainfall of 63 inches (1.600
mm) is about 300 percent of normal for
the Oakland Hills area (22 inches or
560 mm per year). Despite the large
amount of runoff. burned slopes yielded
lillie sediment. In fact. Ihe response was
contrary to the popular notion of how
a burned landscape should respond fol-
lowing a fire; there was no evidence of
a Mfire_flood
response. or of significant
landsliding (Keefer. and others).
Slope response similar to the south-
ern California "fire-flood" sequence
outlined In Figure 2 was predicted be-
cause of the identification of hydropho-
bic soils in the Oakland Hills lire area'
and the belief that rainlallintensities of
2 inches (50 mm) per hour for as long
as 3 hours (> 1OO-year storm) were pos-
sible for the Oakland fire area (U.S.
Department of Agriculture. Soil Conser·
vation Service video of post-fire condi-
tions. Octoher 24. 1991). Water repel-
lency was evaluated by lhe SCS using
Ihe standard water drop test. The lime
required for a large drop of water 10
soak into the soil detennlnes its class of
hydrophobicity." Of the six wildland sites
tested. five showed evidence of hydro--
phobicity. Hydrophobicity was most
pronounced in intensely burned eucalyp-
tus groves. with slight 10 strong hydro-
phobicity evident in burnt stands of
Monterey pine, Subsequent tests show
these two vegetation types to be rela-
tively equal in hydrophobic development
beneath healthy (unburned) stands.
As a result of an anticipated increase
In runoff and erosion. an estimate of
possible soil loss for the Oakland Hills
was 75 cubic yards per acre (142 m
hectare) (unpublished Interagency Task
Force soil erosion treatment meeting
notes. October 24.1991). Conversely.
geologists from the U.S. Geological
Survey (USGS) and the California
Department of Conservation's Division
of Mines and Geology (DMG) (Tom
Spittler. oral communication) felt water
repellent soils were discontinuous and
there was not a serious erosion hazard
in the fireslonn area (see Spittler. this
As a result of potential erosion esti-
mates. 1.800 acres (720 hectares) of
the bum area were Initially seeded by air
(29 pounds per acre or 32 kg!hectare)
on October 23 and 24. 1991. The seed
mixture consisted of six species. three of
which are not natives: California soft
chess (Bromus mollis). Hykon rose
"ow Howell. 5011 Consllrvat,on $efVll;e,
Wflnen communication. 1991,
clover (Trifolium hirfum). and Zorro
annual fescue (Festuca mega/ura).
The three native species are Berkeley
blue wildrye (Elymus glaucus). Califor-
nia poppy (Eschscholzia cali/ornico).
and native blue lupin (Lupinus ssp.)
(Libby and Rodrigues. 1992). The first
storm of the season was on October 25.
1991. The burn area was reseeded as
part of a hydromulch application dur-
ing November and December. 1991.
Hydromulch was applied 10 more
than 500 acres (200 hectares) of
burned wildlands." Each acre received
29 pounds (13 kg) of seed. 1.000
pounds (455 kg) of paper mulch. 500
pounds (227 kg) of wood fiber. and
110 gallons (4161) of acrylic copolymer
glue. at a cost of approximately $1. 750
per acre ($4.325/hectare) (Internationai
Erosion Control Association. 1992).
In addition. 1.700 straw bale check
dams were placed in gullies. channels.
hollows. and landslide features in an
allempt to moderate channel flow and
hillside overland flow. Roadside areas
were treated with seed. straw mulch
and the copolymer glue (lnlernational
Erosion Control Association. 1992).
Over 35 acres (14 hectares) of steep
hillsides overlooking buildings that sur-
vived the fire were treated with straw,
fiber. and monofilament erosion blan-
kets. and additional roadside areas were
treated with straw mulch (International
Erosion Control Association. 1992). It is
important to note that these Ireatments
have only one purpose: to prevent Ihe
surface loss of soil by overland flow. not
mitigate the larger effects of landslides.
Additional engineered features such
as concrete and steel debris racks and
silt fences were installed. but these fea-
tures were designed to mitigate erosion.
nOI prevent it. Two small drainage
basins of 12 acres (5 hectares) or fewer
were extensively engineered. Slopes
were laid back. all remaining vegetation
was removed. and the incised channels
were filled with soil and then resurfaced.
one with monofilament erosion mats.
"The nU"Tlber 01 acres l,eated w,th Ilydromulch 's
an a ~ t r a p o l a l l o n denVfld trom lOtal quantll,es ot
products (Woodward Clyde Col'lSUlUlnts Inc..
1992. YKleo about erosion control response).
and the reCIpe tor hydromulch used '1'1 the
Oakland fire response (International ErOSiOn
Conlrol ASSOCIation. 1992).

Photo 2. Old landslide and
debris flow scars shown by
arrows (some associated With
road runoll) are revealed fol·
lowing the loss of vegetative
cover in the Oakland Hills lire
These slopes have been
treated with a hydromulch
application of seed. mulched
paper. wood tiber. and acrylic
copolymer glue.
After the fire. the vegetation-free
landscape offered a dear view of the
numerous landslide scars that had
formed during previous years (Photo 2).
These landslides. mostly slides. slumps.
and flows. contrast with the
debris flows that are generated in steep
canyon bottoms in freshly deposited
ravel. Most are relatively shallow slope
failures that occur following increases in
ground saluration. Shallow soil slides can
develop into fast moving debris flows of
saturate<! soil. whereas slumps and earth
flows are typically slow moving. Debris
flows are initiated during intense rain-
storms under specific conditions of ante-
cedent ground saturation. rainfall inten-
sity. and storm duration (Cannon and
Ellen. 1988). The landslides related to
urbanization are commonly shallow
slides along road cuts and fills. along
gully walls that have been incised by
concentrated road runoff. or where the
gully incision has destabilized the slope
above it.
One cause of fire-related landsliding
is the reduction of vegetative root
strength. which would not occur until
several years alter a fire. Soil pits dug
after the fire typically showed roots
deeper than about 3 inches (8 cm) below
the surface to be strong and unburned.
During the winter many species of pre-
fire plants resprouted. The dominant
brush species. coyote brush {Bacharris
pHu/arisJ. was able to crown sprout
following the fire. Bluegum eucalyptus
trees. introduced to the Oakland Hills
in the early 19005. are being cut down
by homeowners and public agencies
because many think they are responsible
for the rapid spread of fire. The stumps
are starting to resprout so it is not
known how their root strength will be
affected. Monterey pines. which were
introduced at the same lime, did not
survive the fire, and their root deteriora-
tion will continue over several years.
In the event of a severe loss of root
strength in fire-damaged plants. reseed-
ing Oakland hillsides with grasses would
not prevent landsliding. The shallow
landslide features common to the Oak-
land Hills typically have failure planes
below the rooting zone of grasses. We
think that heavy densities of reseeded
grasses would only increase infiltration.
and therefore soil moisture.
Consultants contracted by the City
of Oakland counted 184 scarps or other
geomorphic features thought to be asso·
ciated with landslides within the burn
area. prompting city employees to map
existing and potential failure sites. The
consultants issued a draft report. in
which the probability and consequence
of a landslide failure were evaluated at
each identified feature. and a relative
measure of risk was calculated for each
affected area in terms of the probability
of significant damage to public or pri·
vate properties. This report was used
by the City of Oakland in the develop-
ment of a management plan to revise
build-ing permit policy in order to ad-
dress these landslide risks. Although the
mapping and assignment of hazard
probability can be debated. the City of
Oakland deserves credit lor developing
a planning 1001 of this kind. Even
though development of the plan was
facilitated by the exposure of the land-
scape by fire. this type 01 management
plan is beneficial at any time. because
of the chronic landslide hazard in the
Oakland Hills.
To evaluate the effectiveness of the
erosion control measures and to analyze
how wild/ires influence runoff and ero-
sion processes in the Oakland Hills. we
monitored winter runoff and erosion on
several small erosion plots established in
the upland areas of the bum. During lhe
summer of 1992. the number of ero-
sion plots was increased. and runoff and
erosion were measured during several
controlled artificial rainstorm experi-
ments, Sprinkler experiments allowed a
more detailed analysis of runoff and
erosion mechanisms and provided a
broader range of rainfall intensities than
occurred in a normal winter (Meyer and
McCune. 1958: Selby. 1970; Birk and
others. 1979: Dunne and others. 1980;
Imeson and others. 1992).
Given the emergency status and time
constraints of the project. it was not
posSible to install and monitor a large
network of observation points, Instead.
we focused on collecting field data and
understanding processes at representa-
tive sites. These observations were
supplemented by extensive inspection of
the burn area during storms.
Seven plots were established on
slopes of 30 to 40 degrees for winter
monitoring in four drainage basins in
wildland areas of the Oakland Hills,
Sleeper than average slopes were
selected because they are typical of
slopes found in southern California,
and because erosion will be greatest on
these steeper slopes. Five plots were in
the lire area. and two in an unburned
canyon adjacent to the burn. Plots were
established on soils Irom the two pre-
dominant parent materials. chert and
sandstone (gravelly loam and loam
soils), and on hydromulch-treated and
untreated slopes. The pre-fire vegetation
types for these plots were predominantly
eucalyptus and Monterey pine. which
are associated with the water repellent
soils found in the fire area. Plots were
approximately 15 feet (4.5 mllong by
5 feet (1.5 m) wide. with sheet metal
boundaries. A covered trough at the
downslope end trapped sediment and
directed overland flow to a storage con-
tainer (Photo 3), Seven additional plots
were constructed on sites with similar
conditions during the summer of 1992
for the simulated rainfall experiments.
Winter of 1991-92
Rainfall for each plot was monitored
using rain gauges at each site, Rain-
fall intensily was monitored through
the Alameda County Flood Control
District's ALERT network. and reported
in I-mm- (0.04-inch-) per-minute incre-
ments, Two stations were used. one 1.2
miles (2 km) north of the bum area. and
a new stalion established in the fire area.
There were 14 storms between January
and April. 1992. with none el<ceecling
0.5 inches (12 mm) of rain in an hour.
or 2.25 inches (57 mm) in 24 hours
(a storm event with approl<imately a
2-year return period). Total rainfall
lor the winter approl<imated the mean
annual precipitation of 22 inches
(559 mml.
As the winter progressed. it became
clear that although there was significant
evidence of hydrophobic soils through-
out the burn area. overland flow and
erosion on the natural undisturbed
slopes were limited. Interminent minor
rilling developed at the base of some
large bare eucalyptus trees as a result of
concentrated stem flow onto exposed
soils. This process did not continue
once new eucalyptus growth dispersed
the flow. Additional small rills devel-
oped downslope of game trails and
exposed bedrock. Rills were observed
in only two other areas: where concen-
trated road runoff was directed onto
the hillsides. and where runoff from
fire hoses had been concentrated.
Existing natural rills were subsequently
smoothed by rain splash. sheetwash.
and animal activity.
Photo 3 Arunoff and erOSion pial. Runofl
is tunneled from the trough to 5-gallon
plastiC containers connected In series to
store runoff and suspended sediment
The emergent vegetation IS Indian Soap
Plant (Chloragalum pomeo(j,anum) and is
not a result at the eltort
In the gravelly loam soils. near sur-
face flow was predominantly confined
to about a 0.8-inch- (2-cm-) thick wet-
table soil horizon above the hydrophobic
layer. Within this wettable soli there was
significant flow through the soil (through
flow). a process also documented by
DeBano (19681. Savage (1974). and
Wells (1981). This wettable soil layer was
a mixture of ash. gravel. and mineral soil.
Direct precipitation on saturated areas
of this wettable soil horizon produced
a thin saturated overland flow. In the
loam soils. through flow was observed
only within ash layers. not within any
soil horizon. When the mineral soil was
el<posed. the surface (0.2 inch or 5 mm)
became saturated while the underlying
soil remained drier. Rivulets of over-
land flow developed under conditions
of intense rainfall. Continuous overland
flow to channels did not occur. Instead,
the numerous deep cracks and holes in
Ihe soil formed by pedogenic (soil-form-
ing) and biologic processes diverted flow
to greater depths. Similar processes were
noted by Imeson and others (1992) while
studying fire effects on infiltration and
runoff on Mediterranean forest soils.
and by Santa Barbara County Flood
Control District engineers during two
separate sprinkler el<periments following
the 1977 Sycamore Fire and the 1990
Paint Fire (Phil Holland. oral communi-
cation. 1993).
Maximum surface runoff as a per-
centage of rainfall for the gravelly loam
soils was estimated to be no greater than
7 percent for the plot without hydro-
mulch and 5 percent lor the treated plot.
Control plots in an unburned eucalyptus
grove produced a maximum overland
flow of 5 percent. The surface runoff for
our two untreated plots on the loam soils
was higher than that on the gravelly
loam sites. Maximum runoll for the loam
soils was 23 percent of total precipita-
tion at the untreated sites but only 3 per-
cent at the treated site. This higher value
appears to be due to lower infiltration
rates of the loam soils and less crack and
hole diversion of runoff to deeper soil
horizons rrable 2).
On the untreated plots. sediment loss
as a result 01 overland flow was very low.
If we take the total sediment collected
from each untreated plot and divide it
by the plot area. we get an equivalent
Table 2 Runoff for Seven Sites Followmg the Fire January-April 1992
MJ Monterey pine loom 00 11.4% 23%
and brush
M2 Monterey pine loom ye, 1.4% 3%
and brush
VNI eucalyptus loom 00 13.8% 24%
GWI eucalyptus gravelly 100m ye, 2.9% 5%
GW2 eucalyptus gravelly loom 00 4.9% 7%
(VI eucalyptus gravelly loom control 1.8% 5%
(V2 hardwoods gravelly loom control 1.0% 3%
and eucalyptus unburnt
surface-lowering of about 0.004 inch
(0.1 mml during the winter. This
amount is much smaller than the equi-
valent soil loss of 0.6 inch (14 ntm)
predicted by the interagency task force
(l991) (Figure 3).
There was an overall decrease in
sediment loss on all plots (treated. un-
treated. and control) through the winter.
even though the largest Storm events
came later in the season. Similar results
were noted In Colorado by Morris and
Moses (1987). This observation suggests
that sediment loss in the Oakland Hills
is a function of sediment availability.
rather than solely of potential runoff.
Artilicial Rainlall Experiments
Because the winter immediately after
the fire did not provide an opportunity
to study the impact of a large storm on
the Oakland firestorm area, we decided
to simulate a lOO-year storm. Artificial
sprinkler experiments simulating I-hour
storms. of between 1 and 2 inches
per hour (25 and 51 mm/hour) of rain-
falL were conducted between July and
October, 1992. Twenty artificial storms
were applied to 11 plots: three control
plots and eight burn plots. four of which
had been monitored the previous win-
ter. It could be argued that site condi-
tions the following summer would be
very different from those immediately
after the Oakland fire However. water
repellent soils can be long lasting
(DeBano. 1981). and we were able to
find sites that still had ash layers and
water repellent soils. and lacked under-
story vegetation. These additional sites
included two plots in a eucalyptus grove
prescribe-burned during the 1992 sum-
mer, and had simllar soils and slopes to
those of the Oakland fire area.
Our sprinkler experiments were
conducted using two low-pressure
nozzles mounted on trolleys and sus-
pended from rails in a tubular aluminum
frame. The frame stood about 10 feet
high by 6 feet wide by 20 feet long
(3 m x 2 m x 6 m) and was centered
over the runoff and erosion plot (Photo
4). 1lle nozzles were moved back and
forth rapidly along the length of the
rails using a pulley system. so that as
one nozzle was pulled up the plol. the
second nozzle descended. Nozzles were
chosen that best simulated natural rain-
storm drop sizes and produced a pre-
cipitation intensity of between 1 and
2 inches (25 and 51 mm) per hour. and
had the ability to cover the plot with a
relatively even distribution of spray.
To estimate the average drop size for
storms here in the East Bay Hills. we
collected eight samples of natural rain-
drops using sifted white flour in a pan
during three separate storms. The pans
of flour were then baked. and the hard-
ened raindrops sifted for size.
Two artificial storms were applied
to most plots. and all vegetation was
removed prior to the second sprink-
ler experiment. Runoff as a result of
increased precipitation intensities never
exceeded the winter maximum value
for plots in the burn area. There was
in fact a decrease in runoff for all plots
In reseeded areas. This decrease in run-
off can be attributed to an increase in
gopher activity providing additional sub-
surface flow paths. and to increased
infiltration provided by the grass cover
(Photo 5).
Sediment loss as a result of increased
precipitation intensities was minimal
when compared to the SCS estimated
equivalent soil loss of 0.6 inch (14 mm).
The maximum sediment loss for a single
1OO-year storm was about 50 per cent
of the lotal soil loss for the winter of
1991. The cumulative net soil loss for
all winter storms monitored and a single
simulated 100-year event was only
0.006 inch (0.15 mm). two orders of
magnitude less than the equivalent maxi-
mum soil loss estimated by the SCS.
During the winter. a lattice of deer
trails developed across the slopes. Ani-
mal tracks and disruption of soil and
rock fragments occasionally appeared in
the plots. When cleaning out sediment
troughs after storms. it was obvious from
the large particle size of some of the
stored sediment. that some of the male·
rial was a result of this disturbance.
As vegetation increased from the
reseeding effort. gopher activity and
total sediment flux within the plots
increased. Previously undisturbed solis
were churned up. with mounds of loose
soil spilling downslope. and in some
cases filling sediment troughs that had
remained empty during the previous
winter. This disturbance was most obvi-
ous in those areas that had a cover of
reseeded grasses. The measured sedi-
ment loss as a result of this bioturbation
o. I
days from
SCS Ulhual"d mU:imUIll soil 1010' of 75 cubie yuds per ;;ere (14 rnm)

220 320 420
January 20, La Fcl.)I·wu'y 24, 1993)
TIME (in
O. I
... Gil'l
.......... GW2
l3333J VNI
"""""" M'

X)O';o<.o< CVI
X);)(10.)( Cv2
Figure 3. The graph depicts cumulative sediment loss and equivalent SOil loss at the seven runoff and erosion plots between January 20.
1992 (day 20). and Apnll0. 1992 (day 100). and the IOcreased sOil disturbance by gophers althe same sites, mOnllored between
September 27, 1992 (day 270) and February 24. 1993 (day 420). Both venical use a logarithmiC scale because It is an efhclent way
to plot data when there IS a large spread In values. as between 0.5 g m2 and 14.000 g m2 (SGS estImated maximum soil loss), The tefl-
hand aXIs represents the weIght 01 sediment cotlected 10 the troughs of the seven plots. whereas the flght·hand axiS represents the
equivalentloweflng ot the soil surface, assumlOg a denSIty of 1 gram per cubIC centimeter lor the eroded sediments.
during the spring. summer. and fall of
1992 was an order of magnitude
greater than sediment loss due to over-
land flow during the winter following the
fire. This process is very similar to that
reported by Taskey and others (1989)
following the Las Pilitas burn in 1985.
Hence. as odd as it may sound. the
largest natural slope response was cause
by gophers (Figure 3).
Soil Moisture
Soil moisture was measured six times
between January and late March. 1992.
Cores were taken to bedrock. which was
typically 2to 3 feet (0.6 to 0.9 m) at
most sites. Samples were then analyzed
for soil moisture content by drying at
221°F (105°C) for 24 hours. Soil mois-
ture averaged over the length of the
Photo 4. The simu-
lated greater-than-
lOa-year storm was
applied by rapidly
moving two nozzles
on trolleys suspended
from central faJls In
the tubular frame 10
feet (3 m) above the
plol. Runoff and sedl-
menl were collected
trom two troughs, an
upper trough 10 moni·
tor overland now. and
a lower trough 10
montlor flow through
the wetlable SOIl layer
Photo 6 Straw bale check dams or dikes are paced III rows on an old landslide feature
In the foreground the hillSide has been trealed With lhe seed and hydromulch applicatlOfl
which was eventually sprayed over the enllre area
Photo 5, Reseeded plOI alter two Simulated storms (4 Inches Of 10 em of applied ramlall),
The saturated surface hOrizon overlies a hydrophobic layer that IS mterrupted by vertical
lIow paths created by roots and gophers
The volume of sediment captured
behind each straw bale check dam was
measured at the end of the winter rains.
Throughout the winter. we observed
the condition of 438 straw bale check
dams throughout gullies in two drainage
basins: Claremont Canyon Regional
Park (CCRP). which drains into Clare·
mont Creek and then into San Fran·
cisco Bay; and the North Oakland
Sports Center (NOSC) watershed.
which drains into Lake Temescal (Photo
Il. The CCRP watershed is a relatively
nalurallandscape with a few hiking
trails and an urban boundary along its
upper perimeter with a continuous
gully network emanating from urban
stonn drains. The NOSC watershed
has a similar urban boundary and
stonn drain related gully network, but
the otherwise natural landscape is dis-
sected by approximately a mile (2 km)
of dirt roac:!.
bale dams on landslides and in hollows
were designed to trap sediment and
increase infiltration. thus furthering the
opportunity for saturation. During sev-
eral tours of the burn area. v.'e observed
very little sediment stored behind these
dams, supporting our estimates of mini-
mal sediment transport by overlancll1ow
on these slopes.
Straw Bale Check Dams
Seventeen hundred straw bale check
dams were placed in gullies and hol-
lows. and on landslide scars and depos-
its to moderate overland 1I0w and 10
store sediment temporarily. The straw
sample was used to compare sites.
Except for the first sampling period in
January. sites treated with hydromulch
and the grass seed mixture always had
a higher soil moisture content Ihan
untreated sites, By the end of March
1992. soil moisture contents at treated
siles (26 percent soil moisture) were.
on the average. 23 percent higher
than those at sites with similar soils
that received no treatment (t 9 percent
soil moisture), While the increased mois'
ture content in the treated sites points
to the success of the treatments in re-
taining water and thus reducing over-
land flow and potential surface
erosion. il raises another issue. Many
areas thaI had landslide scars. or were
steep enough to generate landslides.
received treatments of hydromu1ch.
erosion mats. or straw bales. and pre-
sumably would have had elevated soil
moisture conlents (Photo 6). Although
the moisture increase is relatively small.
increasing soil moisture in potential slide
areas decreases the amount of precipi-
tation needed to cause landsliding, It
has even been argued by some (Morton.
1989) that burned slopes may be less
susceplible to IandsIiding where signi·
fkant overland 110w due to shallow
water repellency reduces soil moisture
The results of the straw bale analysis
are shown in Figures 4a and 4b. If filled
and unfilled dams are combined as
Mfunctioning properly." then by late
February only 43 percent of the eCRP
dams and 46 percent of the NOse
dams were moderating sediment trans-
port. By the end of March only 43 per-
cent and 37 percent. respectively. were
functioning. At the eCRP site. labor
crews repaired most of the dams after
February storms. which most likely
accounts for the consistent number
of functioning bales at this site. In the
NOse watershed. no maintenance was
performed on check dams within the
upland gullies. However. several straw
bale dams were replaced or repaired on
an alluvial fan at the base of the upland
watershed. Because the broad flat fan
is a natural deposition zone. it was one
of the few sites where sediment could
be quantified in subsequent winters.
Failed co..
• FEB '92; N= 180 • MAR '92; N = 191
o "
a: "
"~ = = = = = : : : ; - - " " ' - - I
• FEB '92; N. 258 • MAR '92; N = 248
~ "
u. "
Following the end of the first rainy
season. sediment volume behind the
straw bale check dams in gullies of the
eCRP site was conservatively estimated
to be 73 cubic yards (56 m'" For the
NOSe site. the volume 01 stored sedi-
ments within the gullies was about 71
cubic yards (54 ml). and an additional
162 cubic yards (124 m') was stored in
the alluvial fan for a total volume of 233
cubic yards (178 m" The volume of
sediment deposited on the alluvial fan
during the second winter was estimated
to be 300 cubic yards (230 m'. an in·
crease over the preceding winter even
though slopes were fully vegetated with
reseeded grasses. This change repre-
sents a 30 percent increase in sediment
[fable 3) for the watershed and results
from increases in rainfall during the
second winter following the fire. gullying
Figures 4a and 4b. Percentage of functlomng and non-functionmg straw bale check
dams in two watersheds.
The dams were evaluated once during
February 1992 and again at the end of
March 1992. Their condition was rated
as: 1) sidecut (water flowed around the
dam thereby minimizing sediment stor-
age): 2) undercut (water flowed beneath
the dam thereby minimizing sediment
storage): 3) filled but cut (dam may have
partially or totally filled with sediment
but was subsequently undercut or
siclecut. so stored sediment is subse-
quently mobilized): 4) moved (dam is
usually blown out by flows exceeding
I cubic foot [0.03 mll per second. no
sediment storage): 5) filled (unable to
store any additional sediment but still
allowing water to flow over the dam);
6) unfilled (functioning properly).
Table 3. Volume of Stored Sed,ment In Two
Gully Ne'works.
Parameters CCAP Site NOSe SIte
Nllmber 01 dams
D'oolOooge a,ea 40 aa&s 77 aeles
(016 km'J (031 km')
Check dams 7J yd 71 yd'
1991·92 (56 m» (54 m])
AlluvIal Ian 162 yd]
1991·92 (124 m'l
AlluvIal Ian 301 y<I
1992·93 (230 m)
Photo 7. Construction Imllated rilling and gullying. There was no erosion control at thiS
site in the burn area.
Table 4. 5011 Loss for Natural Slopes and Urbanized Watersheds In the
Oakland Hills
Site Undisturbed Watersheds
Slopes Affected by
Background erosion rate 0.08 mmlyr
(Reneau. 1988) (0.003 irvyr)
Erosion plots 1991-92 O.t mmlyr
(0.004 inJyr)
ErOSion plots 199t-92. plus 0,15 mmlyr
Simulated 100 year storm (0,006 mtyr)
NOSC straw bale SIIe 1991-92 0.6 mfTlJyr (0.024 in yr)
NOSe straw bale site 1992-93 0.7 mmlyr (0.028 inlyr)
Lake Temesca11907·1979 0.7 mmlyr (0.028 Inlyr)
(Mahoney and others. 1979)
MaXimum construction site 46.0 mm (1.8 in) per site
soitless (East Bay Regional Parlr.
post-fire reconstruction. In the second
winter after the fire. construction and
grading operations were unabated
throughout the burn area. Rilling was
common. and many small failures
occurred on freshly cut slopes. During
rain storms. we observed streams of
sediment-laden water leaving construc-
tion sites and entering storm sewers
and drainage channels (photo 7). Based
on estimates reported by the EaSI Bay
Regional Park District (EBRPD) in
1981 for construction'induced erosion
within the Lake Temescal watershed.
sediment loading as a result of recon·
struction following the Oakland fire is
probably 10 to 100 times greater than
background erosion rates (Table 4).
Effectiveness of Erosion
Control Procedures
The identification of the soil erosion
hazard of hydrophobic soils follOWing
the fire served as the basis for a pre-
dicted hillside response-the -fire·
sequence. However. the practice
of using the water drop test to deter-
mine the hydrophobic nature 01 the
soil yields information about infiltration
and water repellency at test points only.
Several points at each site must be
tested to acquire useful information.
The test also does not reflect the true
flow paths or the runoff process
mechanisms for an area larger than
a water drop, Hydrophobicity in the
Oakland Hills was spatially discontinu-
In partially urbanized watersheds like
those in the Oakland Hills. accelerated
erosion due to fire may be dominated by
(61.560 m ') 01 sediment has been
removed from the lake. yet the volume
of the lake in 1979 was still only 20
percent 01 its 1907 volume (Mahoney
and others. 1979). Using the sedimen·
tation of Lake TemescaJ. we determined
erosion due to urbanization within the
2.4-square-mile (6.2-km2j watershed to
be at a rate of 0.028 inch (0.7 mm) per
year lor the last 72 years.
of the dirt road network. and sloughing
along the cut and fill embankments.
Interestingly. no erosion conlrol mea-
sures were applied to the road network
during either winter following the lire.
even though dirt roads are known to be
major contributors of sediment.
Using the total volume of stored
sediments and drainage area. we can
estimate an equivalent hillside surface
erosion rate for the NOse watershed
of between 0.024 and 0.028 inch
(0.6 mm to 0.7 mm) per year. values
that reflect the impacts of urbanization
(Table 4).
Elfects of Urbanlzallon
and Rebuilding
Although one of the concerns fol-
lowing the fire was protection 01 down-
stream water bodies. the pre-fire effects
of urbanization on sediment production
in the Oakland Hills has been great.
Concentrated road runoff has caused
significant gullying of hillsides and
scouring 01 the channel network. leav-
ing little sediment in storage. and deliv-
ering much sediment to downstream
water bodies such as Lake Temescal
and San Francisco Bay (Mahoney and
others. 1979). Lake Temescal. the
receiving water body for approximately
(T 50 percent of the bum area. was
r dredged three times between 1963 and
1979. A total of 80.520 cubic yards
Between October
1991 and July 1993.
building permits for
1.094 homes
were ap-
(39 per
cent of
the lost
homes) and
1.540 homeown-
ers contacted Ihe City
of Oakland about rebuilding (55 percent
of the lost homes). Unfortunately. none
of the erosion control measures applied
to the firestorm area were deSigned to
mitigate erosion caused by reconstruc-
tion activities. A year after the fire. Lake
Temescal is experiencing increased
sedimentation and a decrease in water
quality (Freestone. 1993) as a result 01
construction and the deteriorallon of
temporary straw bale sediment-monitor-
ing structures in channels and gullies
(which allowed the stored sediment to
be flushed into Lake Temescal and San
Francisco Bay).
reduce overall establishment of vegeta·
tion. The germination of seeds in these
hydromu1ched areas did not occur unlil
after heavy rains in March. 1992.
when the winter was essentially
over (Photo 8).

hydromulching was com-
pleted. indicates that slopes
treated with the hydromulch
had much lower vegetation
densities than untreated
slopes During the winter.
germination of seeds within
the hydromulch did not occur
in many cases unlilthe hydromulch was
disturbed by animals. leaving islands of
green in an otherwise gray landscape.
Burgess Kay (1976) at the University
of California Agricultural Experiment
Station at Davis has noted that acrylic
copolymers of the type used in the
hydromulch application follOwing the
Oakland lire often delay and reduce
total germination of seros. and may
Figure 5. Observed slope response. where
vertical now paths predominate.
ous. Areas that were typed as highly
water repellent did not generate the
predicted response because of the pre-
dominance of flow paths into the
deeper soil horizons (Figure 5).
There is no record of how the esti-
mated soil loss of 75 cubic yards per
acre (142 m'/hectare) (unpublished
Interagency Task Force soil erosion
treatment meeting notes. October 24.
1991) following the Oakland fire was
derived. but it is thought that the SCS
used the Universal Soil Loss Equation
(USLE). In the development of the
USLE. much of the work characterizing
storm erosion and raindrop impact on
soil detachment was performed on dis-
turbed soils. namely agriculture and
rangeland (Goldman and others. 1986).
Such soils have been affected by activi-
ties that weaken and break up soil struc-
ture and particle cohesion. In fact. it is
generally considered appropriate to
apply the USLE to construction sites to
estimate soil loss due to erosion How-
ever. the undisturbed urban wildland
soils of the types found in the Oakland
Hills should not be considered highly
erosive. especially when subjected only
to low intensity storms.
A comparison of aerial photographs
taken on March 12. 1992 with those
taken in De<:ember. 1991. shortly after
Photo 8. Contrashng grass germlnallon success is seen in thiS photo taken In early March
1992 Grasses are commg up mthe loreground. whICh has not been hydromutched In the
background. the predommant plants emergmg on these treated slopes are local bracken
ferns. not grass from the seeding effort.

Photo 9. In March 1992, after an average rainfall season, 63 percent of all straw bale
check dams In the North Oakland Sports Center watershed had failed.
Standard erosion control manuals
state explicitly that straw bale check
dams should not be placed in areas that
receive more than 1 cubic foot per sec-
ond (1.7 ml/minute) flow; that the dams
have a useful life of about 3 months:
and that if they fail there is frequently
more damage than if no barrier had
been installed (Goldman and others.
1986) These assenions were recon-
firmed in the Oakland fire area. The
straw bale check dam data suggests that
sediment storage is less than 50 percenf
effective for average winter rainfall con-
ditions. and much less effective for the
extreme rainfall event for which plan-
ners were preparing (Photo 9). Addi-
tionally. much of the sediment caught
behind the dams may have come from
keying or benching the bales into gully
walls. Because many gullies are at least
10 feet (3 m) deep. the sediment that
was excavated to install the bales was
not removed from the active channel.
Sediment was thereby provided to the
next downstream dam.
Our analysis suggests that. even if
heavy winter rains had arrived. there
would not have been a higher landslide
potential on burned lands. and erosion
by overland flow would have been mini·
mal. Contradictions between expecta-
tions and observations suggest the
1) Geology. topography. geomor·
phology. climate. and historical records
can be analyzed in advance to predict
whether the sequence
applies. Landscape response is site
specific: processes that occur in the
steep mountains of southern California
as a result of fire are not necessarily
the processes that will occur in other
2) The water drop test is useful in
testing for local hydrophobicity. hut it
may not be a reliable method for esti-
mating potential runoff or subsequent
erosion. Improved field testing. perhaps
involving a simple portable sprinkler.
is needed.
3) Sediment flux is largely a function
of availability and transport. The SCS
soil erosion index and the USLE appear
in this case to overestimate the erosion
potential for undiSlurbed wildland soils.
Application of these empirical proce-
dures for estimating soil erosion involves
considerable uncertainties when they
have not been calibrated with local
quantitative field measurements, Meth-
ods that do not rely on uncalibrated soil
erosion indexes for estimating soil ero-
sion for undisturbed wildland soils
should be considered.
4) Reseeding burn areas and the
heavy application of hydromulch
appear to be inappropriate responses
on burned slopes not having severe
ground disturbance. The most appropri-
ate response after a similar urban/wild-
land burn may be to do nothing. How-
ever. intense public pressure to -act-
may not permit this response. even
when it is correct.
5) On-site erosion and sediment
control measures that increase infiltra-
tion and subsequently soil moisture
should not be used on slopes thaI have
a high probability of landslide failure.
6) Ground disturbance by fire sup-
pression and post-fire reconstruction
activity may be the primary source of
accelerated erosion. Perhaps the ero-
sion control effon should be focused on
these specific areas rather than on the
wholesale effects of the bum.
7) The receiving water bodies in the
Oakland fire area (Lake Temescal and
San Francisco Bay) are sediment sinks:
all available sediment will find its way
into the sinks. and will remain there
until removed. Money spent on hun-
dreds of temporary straw bale structures
thaI decayed and then released their
stored sediments did not prevent sedi-
mentation In these water bodies. This
remedial measure was not cost-effec-
tive. A better solution would be long-
term sediment retention basins at road
crossings that can and should be easily
cleaned. or permanent measures that
Involve preventing gully erosion.
8) In many environments. panicu-
larly at the urban/wikiland interface.
shallow landsliding may constitute the
most significant hazard. and slope sta-
bility mayor may not be affected by
fire, Maps developed by the City of
Oakland even without hillside exposure
by fire. as pan of a land-use manage-
ment plan. should identify landslide
features and hazards. This information
in conjunction with the use of systems
such as the USGS real-time storm
Bill Dietrich is a professor in the Department of Geology and Geophysics
at the University of Califomia at Berkeley. He r ~ e i v e d his Master's and PhD.
degrees at the University of Washington. Bill is a geomorphologist who has
worked on hillside and fluvial processes around the world
laurel Collins received her undergraduate degree in geology
at the University of California at Berkeley where she is now a researcher in
the Department of Geology and Geophysics. At the time of the fire. Laurel
was the geologist for the East Bay Regional Parks. pans of which were in the
fire area.
Fred Booker received his undergraduate degree in geology at Humboldt
State University. He is currently a graduate student in geology at the Univer-
sity of California at Berkeley. His Master's thesis evolved follOWing the loss
of his home in the Oakland fire. Fred's thesis addresses the impacts of the
Oakland fire on hillside erosion and hydrology.

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tlonal. v. 17, P 135-149.
Blrk, R.D. Wagoner, Ora. and Green.
Pattlck. t979, Ralrttalt Simulators: U.S.
Department 01 the Intenor. Bureau ot
Land Management Techmcat Note 326.
51 p.
Booker. FA. Pess. George. and Dietrich,
W,E., 1992. Runort and erOSIOn in the
Oakland Hills. follOWing the hrestorm
ot OCtober 20. 1991!abstract): EOS.
Transactions of the American Geo-
phySIcal Union. v 73. no. 43, p. 202.
Special thanks to Peter
Wohlgemuth. Tom Spittler. Joan
This research was funded in part by
NSF Grant BCS-9207383. Our thanks
to Chris Johnston. George Pess. and
Bob Potter for all their help and ideas
during the last year and a half. Beth
Gier and Jordan Destabler for their lab
and winter field work. and to our full
time summer field crew of Stephanie
Hoeft and Nghia Le for their diligence
and above all their attention to detail.
Thanks also to Suzanne Anderson.
Nelson Fernandes. Darryl Granger. Ian
Prosser. Juan Somoano. and Raymond
Tones who braved the poison oak and
the long days to help set up and con-
duct the summer and fall rainfall simula-
warning system (Keefer and others.
1987). could be used to predict debris
flow occurrence and pathways.
9) Erosion control efforts should be
motivated by the value of downslope
resources. and evaluated in the context
of the predominant processes that are
potentially detrimental to that resource.
[n following this approach. agencies
need to reassess how money is allo-
cated for erosion control following fires.
Money spent on temporary and limited-
use erosion control efforts is not neces-
sarily cost-effective.

Howard. R.B.• 1982, Erosion and sedImen-
tation as part of the nalural system:
U.S. Department of Agnculture. Forest
servICe. Pacllic Southwest Forest and
Range Experiment Slallon, Berkeley.
California. Research NOle psw-sa.
Imason. A C.. VerSltalen, J M. van
Mulltgan. EJ. and Sevlnk. J" 1992.
The effects altire and water repellency
on In'lltrallon and runotl under MedIter-
ranean forest: Catena, v 19:3.4.
International ErOSIOn Control ASSOCIallon,
1992. An uphill battle to save the soil:
W,nter Bollelln. v 23'4. P 9-27.
Kay. Bl. 1976, Hydroseeding, straw,
and chemlCaJs'lor eroslOfI control:
UC California at DaVIS AgnculturaJ
Expenment SlaMn Agronomy Prog-
ress Report no 77. June 1976. 14 p.
Keeler. D.A.• Harp. E.l.. and latkm. RS..
1986. FormatIon 01 ntis by debns flows
on burned. chaparral-coyered slopes
In the San FranciSCO Bay regIon.
Cahlorma Geologteal Sooety of
AmerICa Abstracts with Programs.
November 10-13, 1986,
Keefer. D.A.. Wilson. AC.. Mark. AK..
Brabb. E.E" Brown III, W.M.. Ellen,
S.D.. Harp. E.l.. Wieczorek, G.F.. Alger,
CS" and Zatkln. AS" 1987. Real-tIme
landslide warning dUring heavy rainfall:
Science, v. 238, p. 921-925.
Krammes. J.S.. 1965, Seasonal debris
movement from steep mountainside
slopes in southern California. In Pro-
ceedings of the Federal Inter-Agency
Sedimentation Conference. Jackson,
MISSissippi. 1963: U,S. Department of
Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication.
v. 970, p. 85-88.
Krammes, J.S" and HIli. L.W.. 1963. "First
aid- for burned watersheds: U.S. Depart-
ment of Agnculture. Forest Service,
Pacllic Southwest Forest and Range
Experiment Station, Berkeley. Cahlorma.
Research Note PSW-29. 7 P
Libby, W.J., and Rodrigues, K.A., 1992.
Revegelatlng the 1991 Oakland-
Berkeley hillS burn; Fremontla. v. 20.
no. 1. p. 12-18
Mahoney. Don, Rada, EA. and Roby. K.B..
1979, Lake Temescal, pollutJon identifi-
cation and source control program-a
case study In urban runoH and erOSIon
controL East Bay RegIonal Park DlstrlCl.
Oakland, CaMornla, August 1979. P 23.
McPtJee. JA, 1989. The control 01 nature:
Fanar, Slraus and GlrOlJx. New yort<;
CIly, New York.
Meyer. L.D.. and McCune. D.L.. 1958, Rain-
fall Slmutator for runof! Agncultural
Engineering. v. 39:10. p 644-648
Mites. S.A. HaskinS. D.M., and Ranken,
D.W., 1989, Emergency burn rehabillta-
lion: cost. nsk. and eHecllveness: US
Department of Agricuhure, Forest
servICe. Pacific Southwest Forest and
Range Expenment StatlOrl. Berkeley,
Callforma. General TechnICal Report
PSW-109. p. 97-102
Morns. S.E.. and Moses. T A. 1987. Forest
fire and the natural sod eroSIon regime
In the Colorado Front Range Annals
of the Association of Amencan Geo-
grapher. v. 77. 00. 2, p. 245·254
Morton. D.M" 1989. D1stnbutJOO and fre-
quency of storm generated SOIl Slips
on burned and unburned slopes. San
TImoteo badlands. southern California
Publicallons of the Inland GeologICal
SoCIety. v. 2. p. 279·284
Nadkaml. N.M . and Oellon, DC.. 1986,
Effects of seeding an exotIC grass
Lolium mufMonum on natIVe seedling
regeneratIOn follOWing fire In a chapar-
ral commumty.mJohannes DeVnes.
editor. ProceedlOgs. Chaparral Eco·
systems Conlerence. Santa Barbara,
California. May 16-17. 1985; Water
Resources Center, Report 62, DaVIS.
Califorma. p.115·121
Rantz. S.E.. 1971. Precipitation depth-
duratlon·frequency relallons for the
San Francisco Bay region. California:
U.S. Geological Survey. San FranCISCO
Bay region environmenl and resource
planning study basic data contrlbUllon
25.23 p.
Reneau. S.L.. 1988, DeposillOnal and ero·
sional hislory of hollows: applicallon 10
landslide locallon and frequency, long·
lerm eroSion rates. and lhe ellects of
climallc Unpublished Ph.D.
dissertation. Umversity ot Caillornia at
Berkeley. 328 p.
Rice. AM.. 1974. The hydrology of chapar·
ral watersheds. m M Rosenlhal. edllor,
Symposium on IIvtng wIlh the chaparral,
proceedings: Sierra Club Special Publi·
cations. p. 27-34
Rice. R.M., 1982. Sedlmentallon In the
chaparral: How do you handle the
unusual events? In F.J Swanson.
R.J, Janda. T. Dunne. and ON
Swanston. editors. Sedlmenl budgets
and roultng tn natural system: U,S
Department of Agncuhure. PllClfic North-
west Forest and Range Expenment
Stallon. General TechnICal Report
PNW-141. p, 39·49
Rice. R.M.. Corbell. E.S.. and Bailey.
AG.. 1969, Soil slips related 10 vegeta-
tion. lopography. and soil tn southern
Cahfornia: Water Resources Research.
v. 5. p. 637·659.
Rice. R.M.. and Foggin. G.T.. m. 1971,
Effects 01 high tntenstty storms on sod
slIppage on moumalnous walersheds in
southern Califorl"lla: Water Resources
Research. v. 7, p. 1485-1490.
Savage. S.M.. 1974. Mechamsm 01 fire-
IndUCed water repellency In soil: Soil
Science Sooety of Amenca Proceed·
IngS 38, p. 652-657.
SCon. KM.• and Williams, R.P.. 1978.
ErOSIOn and sediment yields 10 the
Transverse Ranges, southem CatiforOla
U.S. GeologICal Survey ProfeSSIOnal
Paper 1030.38 p.
selby. M.J.. 1970. DeSIgn of a hand-portable
ralnfall-Slmulallng infihrometer. With tnal
results from Otu\lra catchment. Journal
01 Hydrology (New Zealandl. v. 92.
Taskey. AD.• Cunls. C.l.. and Stone. J..
1989. Wildfire. ryegrass seedmg. and
walershed rehablli1allon: U.S. Depan·
ment of Agriculture. Forest PaCIfIC
Southwest Forest and Range Expen-
ment Station. Berkeley. Call1Ofnia.
General Technical Report PSW-l09.
Taylor, A.M., 1983. Sediment yields in
coaslal southern Calitornia: Journal of
Hydraulic Engineenng. v. 109. No.1.
Welch. L.E.. 1981. Soil survey of Alameda
County. Caitfornla. western part:
U.S. Departmenl of Agriculture. Soil
Conservation Service, 103 p.
Wells. W.G., 1981. Some eHeets of brushfire
on erosion processes in coaslal southern
California. in Erosion and sediment
lransportln pacific steeplands: Interna-
llonal Assoclallon of Hydrological Sci·
ences Publica\lOn no. 132. ChfistchufCh.
New Zealand, p. 305-343.
Wells. W.G.. 1986. The influence of fire on
erosion rates in California chaparral, In
Johannes DeVnes, editor. Proceedings.
Chaparral Ecosystems Conference.
Santa Barbara. California. May 16-17.
1985: Water Resources Center Repon
62, DaVIS. Calilorma. p. 57·62.
Wells. W G.. 1987, The eHects of fire on the
generation of debns flows in southern
California. In J.E. Costa. and G.F.
Wieczorek, editors. Debns flows/ava-
lanches: processes. recogrutlOn. and
millgallon. ReVIews III Engmeenng
Geology. v. 7. p. 105-114.
4 _ ~ ~ Y LANDSLI D

Following the Tunnel Fire
October 19-23, 1991
Oakland and Berkeley, California
Photo 2. Hiller Highland area of Oakland. Calilornla.
Photo 3. Pallial burning 01 trees and shrubs indicates moderate fire intenSities.
Remoual of woody structural sup'
port from stream channels or ripar'
ian uegelatfon where sediment is
stored in or adjacenl to the channels.
Riparian vegetation was substantially
damaged in the watersheds immedi-
ately upstream from the site 01 the
Parkwood Apartments and above
Ruthland Road (map; Photo 5). Sedi-
ment stored in these channels could
have mobilized as stream channel
derived debris flows. also called debris
torrents. The volume of sediment in
the channel above the ParKwood
Apartment site was estimated to be
(Photo 4). These field tests suggested
that hydrophobiC development was " I
discontinuous. This discontinuity is
consistent with a low intensity burn.
Up to 2 inches (5 cm) of rain lell in the
area 5 days after the fire was declared
under control. Field work during and
after the rain revealed that only one of
the areas identified as having a high
burn intensity. the Claremont Creek
watershed. experienced rill erosion
associated with a continuous hydropho-
bic soil layer (see map). The rilling and
micro debris flows were caused by run-
off from fire suppression activitles and
occurred prior to Ihe storm (Fred
Booker. U.c. Berkeley. oral communi-
cation. 1993).
Development of a continuous
layer of waler·repellenl soil. Initial
field assessment during the first week
follOWing the fire included testing many
in-situ soil samples for hydrophobicity
these slopes and deposited in stream
channels were small.
Concentrations of dry ravel from
Sleep slopes In stream channels. Only
a few dry ravel sites were observed in
the Tunnel Fire area (see map). The
volumes of sediment transported from
Tunnel Fire area. The special studies
zone lor the active Hayward Fault
has been legally defined by the State
Geologist under the provisions 01
the Alquist-Priolo Special Studies
Zones Act (Division of Mines and
Geology. 1982).
DMG investigated the following
geomorphic and geologic factors that
contribute to channeJ-derived
debris flows. Observations made by
field mapping (see map) and aerial pho-
tograph interpretation of the Tunnel
Fire area are:
Long regular slopes inclined more
steeply than 65 percent that are
cleared of lIegelation. Although there
are several places in the Tunnel Fire
area where slopes exceed 65 percent.
these slopes are not long and continu-
ous, Steep slopes are broken by
benches along bedding planes and by
old landslide benches. roads. driveways.
and house pads.
Areas with apparent high temperalUfe
Dry ravel
Areas with observed hydfophoboc
soil and rill erosiOn
Stream chanrlel wth npanan
vegetation damage
Gully (lxs·exlstlllg)
r Figure 2. Map ollhe Oakland Tunnel Fire area showlIlg areas of high burn IntenSllles, dry ravel, hydrophobic 50115. nparian damage. and
pre-ellis\lng gullies. TopographIC map base by U.S. Geological Survey
Photo 4. Field testing for hydrophobic soils. Photo by Michael W. Manson.
Photo 5. Stored sediment along stream channel that could
mobilize. Rulhland Road watershed.
Recent Geologic History
of Alluvial Fans
less than the storage capacity of a basin
above the site. The sediment stored in
the Ruthland area was substantially
greater than the carrying capacity of
the culvert beneath Ruthland Road thaI
drains the area. Had sediment mobilized
there, it would have plugged the culvert
and flowed down Ruthland Road,
Because the houses that survived the
fire are well above the road. mobilized
sediment would have been more of a
nuisance than a hazard. The unsup-
ported stream channel sediments were
removed by the City of Oakland follow-
ing the fire.
Even though the immediate dangers of the Tunnel Fire
have passed. the ever-present hazard of debris flows must
not be forgotten. As woody vegetation is replaced by grasses
that were seeded-in during the emergency revegetation. the
strong. deep root systems may die. In addition. the grasses
will enhance the ability of rain to infiltrate. These processes
may increase the hazard of hillside-derived debriS flows.
Removal of eucalyptus and Monterey pine trees in the fire
area. as well as in other portions of the Oakland and Berkeley
hills may also increase landslide hazards unless suitable. deep-
rooted. woody vegetation is planted to hold the soil. Analysis
of the Tunnel fire burn area by Springer and others (1992)
suggests that 34 percent of 184 identified areas with geomor-
phology indicative of potential slope failure have a high risk.
The degree of development of soil
on the alluvial fans gives information on
the hazard of debris flow activity. South-
ern California fans are steeply inclined.
contain coarse boulders. and have
poorly developed soil. The undivided
Quaternary deposits below the Oakland
and Berkeley hills are f1aHying. and 95 to 100 percent of the
deep loam to clay loam soils pass through a No.4 sieve (less
than 3/16 of an inch 14.8 mml in diameter) (Welch. 1981).
These observations take into account the horizontal offset of
the fans along the Hayward Fault.
No areas were observed where the effects of the Tunnel
Fire posed an immediate hazard to life or property from post-
fire debris flows. The potential for mobilization of sediment in
the watershed above Ruthland Road was reduced by the re-
moval of the material following the fire. Other than in this one
area. emergency erosion control activities in the fire area may
not have been necessary. Because of the number of people
and structures affected by the Tunnel Fire. emergency reveg-
etation and mulching activities may have provided additional
protection (Libby and Rodrigues. 1992). However. not every-
one agrees that post-fire revegetation is appropriate (Gautier.
1983: Taskey and others. 1989).
Drafts of this paper were reviewed
by Bradley E. Valentine (CDF) and
Michael W. Manson (DMG). Robert H.
Sydnor (DMG) compiled the informa-
tion on the geology of the Tunnel fire
area. The author wishes to thank
Stephen D. Ellen of the U.S. Geological
Survey (U.S.G.S.) for providing a draft
of his work on hillside materials in the
fire area.
Discussions of the effects of the
Tunnel Fire with Frederick A. Booker
(U.c. Berkeley). William E. Deitrich
(U.c. Berkeley). Laurel M. Collins (East
Bay Regional Parks District). Stephen
D. Ellen (U.S.G.5.) and Raymond Wil-
son (U.5.G.5.) were helpful and infor-
Division of Mines and Geology. 1982.
Oakland East Quadrangle Special
Studies Zones: AlqUist-Priolo Fault
Evaluation Program. Revised Official
Map (scale 1:24,000).
Gautier, C.A., 1983. Sedimentation in
burned chaparral watersheds: Is emer-
gency revegetation justified?: Water
Resources Bulletin, v, 19. no. 5,
Libby, W.J.. and Rodrigues. K.A.. 1992,
Revegetating the 1991 Oakland·Berke·
ley hills burn: Fremontia. v. 20. no. 1.
Radbruch. D.H.. 1969. Aerial and engineer-
Ing geology of the Oakland East quad-
rangle. California: U.S. Geological
Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map of
the United States. Map GQ-769 (scale
Smith. T.C.. 1980. Hayward Fault, Oakland
segment: Division of Mines and Geol-
ogy Fault Evaluation Report FER·102.
30 p.. 5 plates.
Springer. James; Kulkarni, Ram; Hunts-
man. SCOll: and Fr€ltas. Mark. 1992,
Assessment of landslide risks after the
OCtober. 1991 firestorm. Oakland, Cali-
fornia: Proceedings of the 35th Annual
Meeting of the ASSOCiation of Engineer-
ing Geologists. p. 188·193.
Stelnbrugge, K.V., Bennen, J.H.. Lagono,
H.J.. DaVIS. J.F.. Borchardt. Glenn.
and Toppozada. T.A., 1987. Earth-
quake planning scenano for a magni-
tude 7.5 earthquake on the Hayward
Fault In the San Francisco Bay Area:
DIVIsion ot Mines and Geology Special
Publication 78. 243 p.
Taskey, A.D., Curtis. C.L.. and Stone, J..
1989, Wildfire, ryegrass seeding,
and watershed rehabilitation: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service. Pacihc Southwest Forest and
Range Experiment Station, Berkeley,
California, General Technical Report
PSW-109. p. 115-124.
Publication 113. Chief Editor. Glenn
Borchardt. 1992. $22.00.
The papers in this volume were
presented at the Second Conference
on Earthquake Hazards in the Eastern
San Francisco Bay Area on March
25-29. 1992. at California State
University. Hayward. More than 400
earth scientists, engineers. and plan-
ners attended.
The proceedings of the first con-
ference (DMG Special Publication
62. available at a reduced price of
$11.00) served as a focal point for
much of the earthquake hazard re-
search conducted in the last decade.
SP113 should serve a similar function
leading to the saving of lives and the
mitigation of hazards and structural
damage. As reOected in this volume.
two recent and significant events have
increased awareness and rejuvenated
research in earthquakes in the East
Bay: the 1988 earthquake forecasts
by the Working Group on California
Earthquake Probabilities and the 1989
Lorna Prieta earthquake.
SP113 contains 72 papers and 16
abstracts. most of which are summa-
ries of more detailed technical works
mentioned in the references. Many of
the questions asked at the first confer-
ence are answered in this volume;
many are not. Among the reviews and
updates at this conference are:
• Estimates of the Holocene slip rates
of the Hayward. Rodgers Creek.
and northern Calaveras faults (all
about 8±3 mm/yr). In 1982. these
data were nonexistent. Guesses
ranged from 3 to 20 mm/yr.
Welch. L.E.. 1981, Soil survey of Alameda
County. California. western part:
U.S. Department of Agriculture. Soil
Conservation Service. 103 p
Working Group on Califorma Earthquake
Probabilities, 1990. Probabilities 01
large earthquakes occurnng In the San
Francisco Bay region. Califorma: U,S,
Geological Survey Circular 1053. 51 p.
• Estimates of future probabilities for
major earthquakes on the northern
Hayward. southern Hayward. and
Rodgers Creek faults (all about 0.25.
or one chance in four. over the next
30 years). In 1982. probabilityesti-
mates were not possible. partly be-
cause the Holocene slip rate data were
not available.
• Vast improvement in the measure-
ment precision of creep rates. strain.
and geodesy along most East Bay
faults. In 1982. the Antioch Fault was
thought to be creeping. It is not
• BASIX (Bay Area Seismic Renec-tion
Imaging eXperiment), In 1982. fault
offsets of young sediments on the San
Francisco Bay floor were only sus-
pected. Preliminary results presented
at the conference clearly show offsets
in the sediments near Pillsburg and
between the Rodgers Creek and
Pinole faults
• Progressive state and local programs to
abate seismic hazards of unreinforced
masonry buildings and public buildings
on East Bay faults. In 1982 the public
identification of seismically hazardous
structures was nearly unheard of
Today. it is becoming commonplace.
SP113 and SP62 are available for
reference and purchase at all three DMG
offices. For mail order. see the Publica-
tions Request Form on page 183
Publlcallons and Information Office
801 K Street. MS 14-33
Sacramento. CA 95814·3532
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185 Berry Street, SUite 3600
San Francisco. CA 94107
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Southern California Regional Office
107 South Broadway, Room 1065
los Angeles. CA 90012-4402
(213) 620·3560
1. Eruption of Cerro Negro,
an active stratovolcano in
Nicaragua. A stratovolcano
or composite volcano is built
of alternating layers of lava
and pyroclastic deposits.
These deposits accumulate
around the central vent in a
cone-shaped pile. These
massive cones are fre-
quently cut by many
dikes and sills.
Lava may flow
from fissures
radiating from
the central vent.
whereas the multisized pyro-
clastic materials are ejected
from the main vent.
2. Steam and other vapors
rising from large volcanic
blocks erupted from the
main crater recently. Com-
pare with the older. cooler
volcanic blocks at the ends
of the tracks or furrows that
run down the slope of the
main cone. These tracks
or furrows were plowed by
the rolling blocks. Some
house-size blocks now lie
loosely at the bottom of the
3. The crater of a dormant
parasitic vent occurs on
the side of the larger cone
and is subsidiary to it. The
parasitic and main craters
may have a common source
of magma. The parasitic cra-
ter faces the viewer.
4. Erupting parasitic vent.
possibly a smaller
cano in an earlier stage of
development than the main
5. Contacts between lava
flows that emanated from
the parasitic vent (4). These
flows are small enough to be
easily distinguished. The
larger lava flows from Cerro
Negro (left and right fore-
ground) coalesce making it
difficult to distinguish
vidual flows.
6. Large cloud of pyroclastic
debris (ash or ejecta), steam,
and other vapors erupted
from Cerro Negro. The
larger, heavier fragments fall
back on the cone while the
smaller, lighter ash fragments
are carried great distances
before they settle.
7. A smaller cloud of
darker material indi-
cates that a local-
ized eruption has
just occurred.
8. Cloud of
vapors from the volcano
is mostly steam and ash. but
also contains chlorine, fluo-
rine. sulfur. and their acids.
9. Shadow cast by the ash
and vapor cloud from
the volcano (6) carried by
turbulent hot gasses and
winds. When the volcanic
ash settles. the pyroclastic
deposit that forms is called
an ash fall.
10. A dormant volcanic cone
is old enough to have devel-
oped a soil profile and luxuri-
ous vegetation on its slopes.
The crater rim has a visible
breach at (B) where lava
poured from the cone. The
lava flow turned at the base
of the cone and formed
levees (L) at the sides of the
Cerro Negro, December 4, 1968. Cerro Negro erupled again in early 1972. Photo by R.L. Williams, courtesy of Of, Ian Campbell.
California's Rocks, Minerals, and Decorative Stones
Agatized wood
Amphibolite schist
Basaltic rocks
Chlorite schist
Chrysolile asbestos
Feldspar. while
Feldspar. pink
Magnesian mica
Moss agate
Ouartz crystals
Quartz, rose
Quartz, smoky
Schist (micaceous)
lincblende (sphalerite)
Southern California
San Diego and Imperial County
San Francisco Bay region
Central California
Santa Barbara Channel region
Sacramento Valley region
Sacramento Della region
San Diego, Imperial County
Southern California
San Jose, New Almaden Mine. Death Valley
San Francisco Bay region
San Bernardino County
Sacramento Valley region
Southern San Joaquin Valley
Imperial County
Southern California
Santa Catalina Island, Owens Valley
Imperial County
Santa Barbara County
Southern California
Southern California desert
Southern and central California
Santa Barbara, Sacramento Valley regions
Pomo tribe of Lake County
Sacramento Valley region
Imperial and San Diego counties and Mono lake
San Francisco and Drakes Bay areas
Southern California
Southern California
Central and southern California
San Diego and Imperial counties
Southern California
San Francisco Bay region
Mesa Grande, San Diego County
San Bernardino, [nyo counties
Sacramento Valley region
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Charm stones
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Ceremonial, arrowpoints
Metates, mortars, abrasive
Arrow straighteners
Vessels, pipes, ornaments, arrow
Charm stones
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AND GEOLOGY Send order to: DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY, P. O. 2980. Sacramento,
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Eanhquake planning scenano for a ma\lnitude 8.3 eanhquake on the
San Andreas Fault in the San Francisco Bay Area. Caltfornla. t982.
Proceedrngs conference on earthquake hazards rn the eaStern San
FranCISCO Bay Area. California. t982 .. ..
Eanhquake planning scenano for a ma\lnitude 7.5 eanhquake on the
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The Native Americans' conservation
of natural resources is exemplilied
by the Maidu flint miner at Table
Mountain, Bulle County. He was
prohibited from removing more flint
Ihan he could delach with one blow
of a stone hammer.
Mines and quarries belonged not to
Individuals. but 10 the group that
lived in the area. VisItors usually
had 10 ask permissIon to use the
resources, but were nol necessarily
required to pay lor them. Many mine
sites were neutral ground, places
where warring tribes were expected
to be peaceful.
Most Native American mining was
of outcrops. although there were
some large open-pi! and under-
ground workings, Mined sub-
Slances were altered by evapora-
lion. leaching, and oxidization. For
instance. al Akwurawawa ("red
place") in Imperial County. the
Cocopa made a bright red pigment
by burning dull reddish hematite
ood ,oak;,. it ;, wateno ,ott" ". - ,1 ' .
and leach oUllhe salt. .....,."1:"" ,- .
,., . ,.-
".. , f .. '"
Native Amencans used asphalt . ,
for caulkmg plank canoes. water_"fir I -
'I: -/' !:l' proofing baskets, mending, and - .
joining 1001 components. Clays w &
used to make pottery and bake :'f
balls when rocks were unavaifabl
for Slone boiling (heating liquids
with hoI rocks). Acorn meal was
mixed with a red clay and baked.
The iron oxide In the clay converted
the tannic acid in the acorn meal to
an insoluble compound. Salt was
mIned for food, slate was made into
pendants, picks, and chisels, and
chalk was used as paint.
Information on these pages is from
Mines and Quarries of the Indians
of California by Robert F. Heizer
and Adam E. Treganza. published In
1944 by the Division of Mines in the
California Journal of Mines and Geol-
ogy. v. 40. no. L p. 291-359.
modified from &11. 5 H . 1941. The
Mining of Gems and Ornamenlal Sranes
by ArnerlCCln IndlClns, Bureau of American
Ethnology. Bulletin 128. Anthropological
Paper 13.
Used by Native Americans
Second Thematic Conference,
Remote Sensing for Marine
and Coastal Environments
New Orleans. Louisiana
January 31-February 2.1994
ERIM/Marine Environment Conference
1r (313) 994-1200. extension 3234
Osaka/Kobe. Japan
April 10-15. 1994
Professor Chung
1I' (303) 273·3673
Townsville. Australia
July 4-8. 1994
1I' 61 77 814817
FAX: 61 77 755429
Hannover. Gennany
September 19-23. 1994
1I' (703) 285·9235
SOSC - 94 IPACOM5-94)
Beijing. China
April 17-18. 1994
Professor Chung
1I' (303) 273-3673
Underwater Intervention 1994
San Diego. California
February 7·10.1994
UI '94 Committee
1I' (619)422·8918
FAX: (619) 426·4421
lOA Core Group and Oceanology
International 94 Exhibition
and Conference
Brighton. United Kingdom
March 8-11.1994
Bob Munlon
1I' 4481 5495831
FAX: 4481 541 5657
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JAN FEB _ 1 1-32
MAR APR _ 2 33-60
SEP,OCT -5 121-156
A 15th century mining lease, 5:150
AB 3098 Sul1ace Mining and Reclamation
Act (SMARA) eligible Iist-July 1, 1993.
AB 3098 Sul1ace Mining and Reclamation
Act (SMARA) eligible list-July 30,1993,
Arroyo boulders. Anza Borrego Desen.
Barrows. Allan G., 1:17.5:123.5:132
Booker, FA. 6:159
Bryant. William A.. 1:10
Burnen. John L, 3:63, 3:68, 3:74
Californla's landslide hazard Identification
prOject. 5:132
Californla's rocks, minerals. and decorative
stones used by Native Americans. 6:182
Clarke. Anthony Orr. 4:100
Collins. LM.. 6:159
Composite volcano in action. 6: 180
Damaging landslides related to the Intense
rainstorms of January-February 1993.
southern California, 5:123
Danielson. Joanne. 2:35
Deodat de Dolomieu: The man behind the
minerai dolomite. 4:99
DietriCh, W.E.. 6:159
DMG clearinghouse for the June 28. 1992
Landers and Big Bear eanhquakes. 1:27
DMG landslide publications (exclUSive of
DMG releases: see Open·File Reports:
Special Publicaflon
earthquakes (also see Open-File Reports):
DMG clearinghouse for the June 28, 1992
Landers and Big Bear earthquakes. 1:27
GeologiC hazards slide sets, 5:142
Landers·Big Bear earthquake sequence
and its felt effects. 1:3
New and revised official maps of special
studies zones of July 1, 1993, 5:146
Preliminary review maps of proposed
Special Studies Zones 01 January 1, 1993,
Rocklalls and surface effects other than
fauiling-Landers and Big Bear earth·
quakes. 1:17
SP113. Proceedings 01 the second confer'
ence on earthquake hazards in the eaSI-
ern San Francisco Bay Area. 6'179
Sul1ace faulting associated With lhe June
1992 Landers earthquake, California, 1:10
Sul1ace rupture along a portion ot the
Emerson Fault-Landers earthquake of
June 28, 1992, 1:23
Emergency landslide hazard evaluation,
Flanery. Max. 4:119
Geological Society of America Science
Awareness through Geoscience Education
(SAGE). 2:55
Gold-bearing quartz veins in the Klamath
Mountains in the Redding 1 x 2 degree
quadrangle. northern California, 2:35
Gold Bug Mine, 3:68
Hansen. Carl L. 4:100
Hallstrom. Claudia, L, 1:27
Hart, Earl W.. 1:10
Hill. Robert L" 1:23
Industrial minerals conference - 29th forum.
Irvine, Pamela J.. t :23, 5:123.
Jamestown leat gold. 3:63
landers-Big Bear earthquake sequence and
Its felt effecls, 1:3
Landslides and Landslide Hazards (also see
Open-File reports):
California's landslide hazard identification
project. 5:132
Damaging landslides related to the intense
rainstorms of January·February 1993, south·
ern Califorma. 5: 123
DMG landslide publications (exclusive of
Geologic hazards slide sets, 5:142
Mineral experiments, 4:110
Minerai industry ot California-1992. 3:74
Minerals. 4:87
Minerals (also see Open·File Reports):
California's rocks. minerals. and decorative
stones used by Native Americans. 6:182
Deodat de Dolomieu: The man behind the
minerai dolomite, 4:99
Industflal minerals conference-29th forum,
Jamestown leaf gold, 3:63
Minerai expeflments. 4:110
Mineral Industry of Cahlornia-1992. 3:74
Minerals. 4:87
Mining and mineral resources gUide. 3:60
A 15th century mining iease, 5:150
AB 3098 Sul1ace Mining and Reclamation Act
(SMARA) eligible list-July 1, 1993, 4 114
AB 3098 Sul1ace Mining and Reclamation Act
(SMARA) eligible list-July 30,1993,5:151
Gold Bug Mine. 3:68
Mining and minerai resources gUide, 3;80
Mining California calCite crystals for the optical
flng sight, 2:45
Mining and minerai resources gUide, 3:80
Mining California calcite crystals for the opllcal
ring sight, 2:45
National Association 01 Geology Teachers
gUidebook publicallons, 1:28
New and revised official maps of speCial studies
zones of July 1. 1993. 5:146
Open-File Reports:
DMG OFR 90-08. Reconnaissance geologiC
map of the Milford 15'minute quadrangle.
Lassen and Plumas counties, California,
DMG OFR 90·19. Landslide hazards in the
north half 01 the Black Star Canyon quad-
rangle, Orange and RiverSide counties.
California. 2:56
DMG OFR 91-03. Mineral land classification
of the South Tracy site. San Joaquin
County, California-lor portland cemenl
concrete aggregate. 2:57
DMG OFR 91-05. Landslides and other geo-
logiC features in the Santa Cruz Mountains,
California, resulting from the Loma Prieta
earthquake of October 17. 1989. 1:31: 2:57
DMG OFR 91-24. Reconnaissance
geologic map of the Shinn Mountain
15·mlnute quadrangle. Lassen
County. California, 1:31
DMG OFR 92-02. Minerai land classill'
cation of the Winchester aggregate
Site, Romoland and Winchester quad·
rangles. Riverside County. California
tor asphaltic·concrete·grade aggre-
gate and base·grade aggregate. 2:56
DMG OFR 92-05. landslide hazards In
the TassaJara and Byron Hot Springs
7 1/2' quadrangles, Alameda and
Conlra Costa counties. California, 2:56
DMG OFR 92-07. Recenlly active traces
of the Rodgers Creek Fault. Sonoma
County, California. 1:31: 2:56
DMG OFR 92·09. MlneraJ land classlfl·
cation of the Boulder Creek aggregate
site, Fillmore quadrangle, Ventura
County, California for portland cement
concrete. asphaltic concrete aggre·
gate, and base aggregate, 2:56
DMG OFR 92·14. Geologic map of the
Eagle Lake quadrangle. Lassen
County. California, 2:57
DMG OFR 93-01. Geology of the
Hollister and San Felipe quadrangles,
San Benito, Santa Clara, and Monterey
counlles, California, 5:148
Orrell, Lewis, 2:45
Preliminary review maps ot proposed
SpeCial Studies Zones of January 1,
Rockfalls and surface effects other than
faulting-Landers and Big Bear earth·
quakes, 1:17
Runol! and erosion after the Oakland
Firestorm-expectations and observa'
tlons. 6:159
Silberman. Miles L.. 2:35
Special Publication:
SP113. Proceedings of the second
conference on earthquake hazards in
the eastern San Francisco Bay Area,
Spittler, Thomas Eo, 6:174
Stickney, Dale. 4:87, 4:99
Surface faulting assoclaled With the
June 1992 Landers earthquake,
California, 1:10
Sul1ace rupture along a portion 01 the
Emerson Fault-Landers earthquake of
June 26. 1992. 1:23
Tan. Siang S., 5:123
Teacher Fealures:
Composite volcano in aClion. 6:180
GeologiC hazards slide sets. 5:142
Geologicai Society of America Science
Awareness lhrough Geoscience
Education (SAGE). 2:55
Minerai experiments. 4:110
Mining and mineral resources guide.
National ASSOCiation 01 Geology Teach·
ers gUidebook publications. 1:28
Toppozada. Tousson A., 1:3. 1:27
Trelman, Jerome A.. 1.10
Wilson. Rick I., 1:2.7
Edited by Peter U. Clark and Peter
D. Lea. 1992. Special Paper 270.
Geological Society of America. Inc.,
P.O. Box 9140. Boulder. CO 80301.
18001472-1988.317 p. $62.50.
soft cover.
An outgrowth of the 1988 sympo-
sium. Last Interglaciation/Glaciation
Transition (122-64 ka) in North
America. this volume focuses on the
response of North American ice sheets
and glaciers to climate change following
the last period between glaciations. To
evaluate and describe this response. 21
articles offer geographically significant
coverage providing a continental per-
spective of former North American ice
sheets and glaciers_
Geologic Hazards
Nuhfer. Richard J. Proctor. and Paul
H. Moser. 1993. The American Insti-
tute of Professional Geologists. 7828
Vance Drive. Suite 103. Arvada. CO
80003-2125. (303) 431-0831. 134 p.
$19.95. soft cover.
This book is for non-scientists who
would like to learn more about the geo-
logic hazards they hear about from day
to day. We know when there is a natu-
ral disaster. but what about exposure
to radon or asbestos? What is acid
drainage and how does it affect us?
This is a guide for planners. contrac-
tors. home-owners. officials. insurance
underwriters. lenders and financiers.
realtors. sdence teachers. and students.
Informed citizens are less likely to pur-
chase unsuitable land and less likely to
lose life or property to geologic hazards.
Hazards from reactive minerals.
asbestos. and gases are covered as well
as those from geological processes such
as earthquakes. volcanoes. landslides.
avalanches. subsidence. floods. tsuna-
mis. storm surge. and coastal erosion.
Sources of help from geologists and
insurance professionals are listed in
Edited by Gerald F. Webers. Campbell
Craddock. and John F. Splettstoesser.
1992. Geological Society of America,
Jnc., P.O. Box 9140, Boulder. CO
80301. (800) 472-1988. 459 p..
three plates. $97.50. hard cover.
The Ellsworth Mountains offer im-
portant clues to the Phanerozoic history
of West Antarctica. Discovered in 1935
by Lincoln Ellsworth. these rugged.
angular peaks spark special interest
because they are strategically located
between the East Antarctic craton and
the tectonically active zone of coastal
West Antarctica. Memoir 170 contains
23 articles. an appendix on mineral
resources. and a bibliography.
Field Safety
the American Geological Institute. AGI
Publications Center. P.O. Box 205.
Annapolis Junction. MD 20701. (301)
953-1744.197 p.. $14.95 plus $4.00
shipping and handling. soft cover.
This hook describes hazards and
pitfalls fieldworkers may encounter.
suggests ways to avoid them. and tells
what to do if they occur. The goal is to
make fieldworkers more conscious of
safety. Topics include pretrip planning,
equipment precautions. field safety.
transportation. weather. animals and
plants, regional hazards, and emergen-
cies. Precautions for group leaders and
shipping rock samples are also covered.
These guidelines for wilderness safety
were compiled initially for students of
geology; however. others including hik-
ers, backpackers. and fieldworkers in
any profession will lind this information
No. 17. Edited by Claudia Stone. 1992.
Geothermal Resources Council. P.O.
Box 1350. Davis. CA 95617-1350.
(916) 758-2360. 327 p.. two plates.
$28.50. hard cover.
Through 34 papers. 49 authors
present a broad sampling of the latest
theory and technology concerning
geothermal development in the United
States. They concentrate on The
Geysers. which is about 75 miles north
of San Francisco and the world's largest
developed geothermal field.
The Monograph papers are grouped
into two major categories: geothermal
resources and geothermal technology.
The resources section includes the his-
torical setting. the geology and geother-
mal phenomena. and a description of
the resetvoir. The technology section
describes drilling. steam production
and fluid handling. electric power gen-
eration. and environmental issues. Two
case studies are included.
CISCO SAY; The Portola Expedition
of 1769-1770. By Miguel Costans6.
1992. Great West Books. P.O. Box
1028. Lafayette, CA 94549.
(5101283·3184.215 p. $14.95
(California addresses add $1.23 sales
tax), plus $2.00 shipping, soft cover.
On July 14, 1769 an expedition
led by Don Gaspar de Portola. Gover·
nor of the Peninsula of California (Baja
California), started north from San
Diego in search of Vizcaino's Monterey
Bay. Portola's men were the first Euro·
peans to explore by land what is now
California. They marched up the coast
past Los Angeles. Santa Barbara, and
Monterey. to San Francisco and inland
to Hayward. This book is the diary of
Ensign Miguel Costans6. the expedi·
tion's engineer. Most of what Costans6
more prospects...
This book is
a comprehensive
look at the gemolo-
gical wealth of East
Africa. a unique
region encompass-
ing what may be the
world's richest gem
deposits. Kenya
and Tanzania are
described in their
lull mineralogical
splendor lor lapi·
daries. gemologists.
collectors. travelers.
and anyone with
an interest in the
world's gemstones.
Nearly all known
species of important
gems are found in
East Africa. The
gem fields are
described using
regional geologic
maps. detailed maps
of mine vicinities.
cross sections. and
photographs. Each
gem variety is pho-
tographed to show the striking color
and brilliance. The book's final chapter
covers over 20 less important gems
including amethyst. beryl. moonstone.
and peridot.
an extensive bibliography. There is
also an extensive map bibliography that
includes entries back to 1603. as well as
all U.S. Geological Survey quadrangles
in the county.
The entries themselves are interest·
ing and sometimes humorous. Many
are followed by quotations from news·
papers. magazines. or historical docu-
ments. All are highly readable capsules
of local history.
By Peter C. Keller. 1992, Geoscience
Press. 12629 N. Tatum Boulevard..
Suite 201. Phoenix. AZ 85032. (602)
953·2330. 144 p. $50.00. hard cover.
Each entry is explained in full.
followed by a reference list keyed to
Place Names
should be in the library of anyone inter-
ested in the development 01 this most
scenic and interesting part of California.
NAMES: A Geographical Dictionary.
By Donald Thomas Clark. 1991.
Kestrel Press. P.O. Box Q. Carmel Val-
ley. CA 93924·0135. (408) 659-2807.
737 p. $21.95. soft cover: $29.95.
hard cover.
This volume is an exhaustive refer-
ence on the origin and history of
Monterey County names and. as such.
glimpses of the gold rush are found in
descriptions of Rough and Ready, the
Pelton wheel, the long tom. Lola
Montez. J.M. Studebaker. Coyoteville.
Humbug City. the Clampers. the Big
Four. Hangtown. and many others.
RhodOnite (pink) and manganite (black). Rhodonite is lound in the Trinlty·Klamath
area and Sierra Nevada in California. Rhodonite with manganite is a semiprecious
gem used chiefly for cabochons or polished slabs.
saw has been transformed beyond belief
and imagination. but from the discovery
point in San Mateo County. you can
still see Point Reyes. the white cliffs of
Drakes Bay. and the magnificent sweep
of San Francisco Bay.
Editor Peler Browning has done a
fine thing in re-issuing this most impor-
tant historical account. It has a place
in the library of
any student of
early California.
The Spanish and English texts are
printed on facing pages. so they can
be easily compared. Information from
other historical manuscripts appears in
footnotes. After the diary there is a
modern account of how the route can
be [raced by car. This is followed by a
list of campsites used during the 116
days of the Portola expedition.
This is a book
for anyone inter-
ested in the history
of the Mother
Lode. Armchair
travelers as well
as those on wheels
will enjoy following
the highways and
backroads of
Placer. EI Dorado. Sacramento.
Nevada. Yuba. Sierra. and Plumas
counties. Illustrations. maps. historical
photos, diary excerpts. and descriptions
of points of interest are interspersed
among historical highlights. Colorful
Descriptive Guide
to the Mother Lode
Counties of the
Northern Mines.
By Allan Masri.
1983. Western
Tanager Press.
1111 Pacific
Avenue, Santa
Cruz. CA 95060.
1408) 425-1111.
131 p. $7.95. soft

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