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WHY D I D THE PALESTINIANS REJECT THE 'PEACE
A. Since the collapse of the 'peace' talks at Camp David, Israel has successfully waged a propaganda war t o persuade the world that the Palestinians are t o be blamed for the collapse of the talks. Despite the claims by the Israelis that 96% of the Occupied Territories were turned down by the Palestinians, Robert Malley - President Clinton's special advisor on Palestinian-Israeli affairs - says that Clinton and Barak were equally responsible for the failure of the Camp David initiative (The Price of Camp David, Edward Said).
Firstly, Barak failed t o honour previous Israeli agreements, assurances which Clinton had guaranteed t o Arafat personally. Barak had failed to fulfil the promise t o withdraw from three villages around Jerusalem and t o release Palestinian prisoners: instead, he allowed the rapid construction of new illegal settlements on Palestinian land. Further, the media reported that the Palestinians demanded the return of 100% of the Occupied land and, failing this, opted for the Al-Aqsa Intifida. I n reality, the 96% figure refers to the portion of land over which the Israelis were prepared t o negotiate, and not the entire Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip. Left out of the equation were East Jerusalem - illegally occupied by Israel since 1967 - the huge belt of Jewish settlements around the city and a 10 mile wide military buffer around the Palestinian territories, along with the obligation t o lease back settlements built illegally under international law on Palestinian land. The total Palestinian land on offer was actually 46% of the Occupied Territories (The Independent, 23rd July 2001). The Israelis only offered 'control' over some Palestinian streets in Jerusalem and Al-Aqsa Mosque, the territory above and below Al-Aqsa being under Israeli sovereignty. Because Al-Aqsa is of great significance t o Muslims, this agreement could not have been accepted even on the sole basis of what was being offered in terms of Jerusalem. This 'Peace Process' was simply a repackaging of the military occupation. The Occupied West Bank and Gaza are 22% of pre-1948
The Federation of Student Islamic Societies in the UK and Ireland
This booklet has been designed t o counter some of 11t11tits that have been raised on campus during t h e past year with recj~ilrl.~ Palestine, Israel and Zionism. British campuses have seen a grtBcll 1 1 ~ ~ i l 1 of misinformation and forceful propaganda; the balanccl I11t't ~ ' I ~t ' I must be I redressed by providing arguments and facts. This booklt.l I.., I~owever, only skeletal and more research is required by the i n d ~ v l t lIII ~ ~ ~ l to ~ order be more fully equipped on the issues.
t t i c b
Palestine. When the Palestinians signed the Oslo Agreement, they accepted only 22% and recognised Israel within the green line borders, conceding 78% of historic Palestine. This is the great compromise that the Palestinians made; in return, Israel has not recognised Palestine as a nation, only the Palestinian Authority and Arafat. To demand 100% of only 22% of Palestinian land is not unreasonable. For a just and lasting peace, the Palestinians must be given their basic human rights, Israelis must withdraw from Occupied Palestine and the question of the millions of Palestinian refugees must be addressed.
came from higher up, from the Chief of Staff". He added that "the army had orders t o harass the West Bank population in general, not just those involved in anti-Israel demonstrations" (Jerusalem Post, 24th December 1982). Today, increasing numbers of combat soldiers and officers of the IDF are refusing to serve in the Occupied Territories as they refuse to "dominate, expel, starve and humilate an entire people" (Courage t o Refuse, www.seruv.org.il/defaulteng.asp). On December 24th 2002, the death toll of Palestinians since the outbreak of the current Intifida was 2103, with more than 4 1 000 injured (HDIP, based on information available at the time) by the IDF who routinely use F-16 fighter jets, helicopter gun ships and tanks t o bomb and shell densely-populated Palestinian residential areas. Since the beginning of the Intifida, the IDF attacks on residential areas, a form of collective punishment, has affected 7 3 000 people and damaged large areas of agricultural land and other public and private properties as well as water and electricity infrastructure (Palestinian Humanitarian Disaster, U.S. Agency for International Development, July 10th 2002). The IDF retook control earlier in 2002 of most areas under the jurisdiction of the PA. I t has imposed prolonged closure and curfews on an unprecedented scale throughout the Occupied Territories. These sweeping measures of collective punishment affect millions of Palestinians whose access to work, education and medical care has continued to be denied or severely restricted. Furthermore, i t is estimated that since 29th March 2002, 1 5 0 0 0 Palestinians have been detained. Of these 1 7 0 0 have not had a trial and are imprisoned without charges being brought against them (LAW Society, 17th July 2002). Until this excessive use of force against the Palestinians is ceased, there can be no talk of peace. W A S THE CREATION OF ISRAEL THE CAUSE OF THE REFUGEE PROBLEM? A. Zionists claim that the Palestinians left their homes in 1948 of their own accord and that the Arab leaders stimulated the departure with
Q. DOES ISRAEL USE EXCESSIVE ffQRCE?
A. I t is claimed by Zionists that Israeli police and soldiers often have no choice but t o defend themselves by firing bullets and, in lifethreatening situations, live ammunition. They claim this is in selfdefence and not excessive. However, in the past two years there have been.fifteen U.N. resolutions/reports condemning Israel for disproportionate and excessive use of force against Palestinian civilians and failure to adhere t o international laws. Other organisations to condemn Israel include Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, International Red Cross and many others. The Israelis have one of the worst human rights records in the world. Under the pretext of security, the Israeli Defence Forces [IDF] terrorise, torture and violate elementary legal and human rights obligations which are well documented. Amnesty has noted that Israel is the only state in the world in having "effectively legalised the use of torture". One of the worst methods of punishment are curfews and whenever an atrocity occurs, Palestinians are placed under curfew. A striking illustration was the massacre of 29 Palestinians praying in a mosque by an illegal settler in 1994: this was followed by a severe curfew of Palestinians and the killing of more Palestinians (The Fateful Triangle, Noam Chomsky). t The occasional trials of military officers do at timcrf, c,hcd l ~ g hon practices in the Occupied Territories. For example, Ma]ot I ) a v ~ d Mofaz testified "Israeli soldiers were given orders t o harar," c t l ~ l c lheat up Palestinian residents" and that they "viciously stttlc I( r l I \ ( l kicked l defenceless young Arab prisoners". He further 5 t i ~ ( "C11' wcls personally ordered t o beat up Arabs by the West Bank cortltl1~111tl6~1 orders the
radio broadcasts because they wanted the Arab world t o declare a holy war against the Jews. Further, they claim that the Palestinians were asked t o stay and live as citizens in the Jewish state.
It was only in 1961 that the truth became clear, after months spent by an Irish journalist retracing the evidence supplied by the Zionists in order t o verify and establish the true story. He found that not a single order, appeal, or even suggestion about evacuation from any Arab radio station existed. Evidence was found, however, of Zionist stations broadcasting in Arabic in 1948 urging the Palestinians t o leave their homes (The Spectator, 12th May 1961). The expulsion of Palestinians was a result of Plan Dalet, the aim of which was t o clear the Palestinian population from the areas of the U.N. proposed partition plan. I n the words of Zionist historians, the fate of Palestinian villages that resisted was for them to be "destroyed and their inhabitants expelled beyond the borders of the Jewish State". (Sefer Toldot Ha-Hagnah, Benzion Dinur) Furthermore, in a report dated 30th June 1948, written by the IDF Intelligence Branch for the Israeli Prime Minister, i t is stated that the Palestinian exodus was a result of three things primarily:
I n the words of Moshe Dayan: "There is not one place built in this country that did not have a former Arab population" (Ha'aretz, April 4, 1969).
Qm DQ THE BALESUIZNEAMS WAVE A REGHU To RETURN 80 THEIR LAND?
A. The Palestinian refugee population is the largest and one of the longest-standing cases of forced dispersal in world history. There is not just one, but four sets of Palestinian refugees in existence: 1. Those that fled prior t o Israel's Declaration of Independence on 15th May, 1948. 2. Those made refugees by the Zionists after that date until the end of the year. By 1949, there were 726 000 refugees according t o the U.N. 3. Those forced out by the illegal occupation of the West Bank and Gaza in 1967. Many of these were made refugees twice over. 4. Those being expelled every day in the West Bank and Gaza as the Israelis continue t o confiscate Palestinian land t o build illegal settlements and cancel Palestinians' residency rights. Three quarters of the Palestinian population of today is externally or internally displaced. The U.N. General Assembly set forth the basic framework for a durable solution in Resolution 194 (111), December 1948. The resolution affirms the right of each refugee t o choose to return t o his or her home and receive compensation for losses and damages. The principles of R 194 have been reaffirmed annually now 135 times by t U.S.A. and U.K. (Al-Awda, Palestine Right of Return). The rights of the Palestinian refugees are considered inali international law, which means that they are not invalidat political negotiations and agreements between Israel, the and America.
I t is claimed by Zionists that Israel is a very small country
1. Direct, hostile Jewish operations against Arab settlements. 2. The effects of hostile operations on nearby Arab settlements. 3. Operations of Zionist terrorist groups such as the Irgun. The report goes on t o say that "without a doubt, hostile operations were the main cause of the movement of population" (Facts & Fables: The Arab-Israeli Conflict, Clifford A. Wright). The description of former Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin of the conquest of Lydda, after the completion of Plan Dalet, was so damaging that portions of his memoirs were cut out by the official Israeli censors. I n the version leaked t o the New York Times and published in 1979, Rabin wrote: "We walked outside, BenGurion accompanying us. Allon repeated his question, 'What is t o be done with the [Palestinian] population?' Ben Gurion waved 'his hand in a gesture which said 'Drive them out!"'.
Plan Dalet went into effect the first week of April 1948; by 1949, 700 000 Palestinian refuges and 513 Palestinian villages had been completely destroyed. Many atrocities and massacres occurred which are now forgotten, the most infamous of them being the massacre of 254 Palestinians at Dier Yassin village (Al-Awda, Palestine Wight of Return).
could not possibly absorb all the Palestinians back t o their I However, 78% of Israeli Jews are concentrated in 14% of territory, while 78% of the land - including those areas fro the majority of the refugees originated - has remained sparsely populated. I n occupied Gaza, population density is 4400 persons per square mile, compared with 82 per square mile in 86% of Timet (BADIL Resource Centre).
Furthermore, between 1989 and 1997, Israel absorbed some 800 000 Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia, while claiming - at the same time - that Palestinian refugee repatriation was impossible due t o the lack of available space in the country. Those who refuse t o consider repatriation as a solution should take note that unlimited Jewish immigration according to the Israeli "Law of Return", together with the denial of the Palestinians' right of return is a sure recipe for continued conflict, instability and war in the Middle East. The fact that, according to Israeli press reports, over 27 percent of Russian immigrants to Israel are not Jewish, makes the continued exclusion of Palestinians even more indefensible (Reclaiming the Right of Return, Friends of Al-Aqsa). This refutes all claims that Israel cannot absorb the Palestinian refugees which i t is obliged t o do under international law. This injustice can only lead t o continued conflict and instability in the Middle East.
Q. DOES I S U E L DPSCWIMHNAVE AGAINST I T S PALESTINIAN A M B CITIZENS?
A. Out of an Israeli population of 6 million, 18% are non-Jews. Zionists claim that the sole legal difference between Jews and Arab citizens of Israel is that the latter are not required t o serve in the army. However, since 1948, Zionists have employed Apartheid policies in order to drive out the Palestinians and consolidate a purely 'Jewish' presence in the whole of Palestine. Those Palestinians who remained in Israel after 1948 did not automatically become Israeli citizens. A non-Jew can never be a national of Israel although he or she can be.a citizen. A non-Jew is considered a citizen only if:
1. They were registered under the Registration of Inhabitants Ordinance on 1 March 1952, and 2. They were living in Israel on 1 April 1952, and 3. They were living in Israel or in an area which subsequently became Israeli territory from the date of the State's establishment until 1 April 1952.
All the land and buildings belonging t o Palestinian refugees was formally seized though the Abandoned Areas Ordinance of 1948. I t was followed by the Cultivation of Waste Lands Regulation which not only applied t o all land owned by the refugees but also lands owned by Palestinians who were (and are) citizens of the state. Those Palestinians who were not expelled suffered as a result of further laws. The Absentee Property Law of 1950 extended the definition of absentee t o include those Palestinians who left their place of residence temporarily (to escape bombardment or t o work in another town). The Land Acquisition Law of 1953 completed the Palestinian dispossession of 1948. The Law of Requisitioning of Property in Times of Emergency of 1949 (which remained in force until 1958) allowed the Zionists t o 'requisition' Palestinian land under the pretext of security and national defence. The land seized under the pretext of these laws was then transferred t o state ownership, and cannot, under Israeli law, be resold t o Palestinians. Through a complex system of legal and administrative arrangements, public land is in the control of the Jewish National Fund, an organisation committed t o use funds in ways "directly or indirectly beneficial t o persons of Jewish race or religion". These "national institutions" serve the interests of Jews, not the interests of citizens of Israel, 18% of whom are non-Jews. Similar arrangements would hardly be accepted in a "White State" by the international community (The Fateful Triangle, Noam Chomsky). There are other examples, such as that the state offers benefits t o large families, but restricts benefits t o families of those who have served in the army: hence discriminating against Palestinians within Israel. However, since religious Jews are also exempt from army service, the legislation incorporates a special provision for families of students in yeshivas (Jewish religious schools). Discrimination affects numerous aspects of life, including education. A report by Human Rights Watch highlighted the fact that the Israeli government operates two separate school systems, one for Jewish children and another for the Palestinian Arab children. The difference between the systems is "stark": Palestinian children attend schools with larger classes and fewer teachers, and frequently lack basic learning facilities such as libraries and recreation space. The claim that Israel does not discriminate against its Palestinian population is simply untrue.
Those Palestinian civilians who had been expelled or who had fled from the war zone were not allowed to return t o their homes when hostilities ceased.
Q. WHAT I S ISRAEL'S TREATMENT OF PALESTINIANS I N THE
OCCUPIED TERRITORIES? A. Since 1967, Israel has illegally occupied the West Bank and Gaza. The Israelis claim that this occupation was due to security reasons, as they were attacked by hostile neighbours who could attack again. They say that Israel had no choice but to remain there and use force and punishment where necessary.
However, according to Menachem Begin, the Prime Minister of Israel at the time of the 1967 war: "We had a choice. The Egyptian Army concentrations in Sinai approaches do not prove that Nasser was really about t o attack us. We must be honest with ourselves. We decided t o attack him." [Jerusalem Post, 29th August 19821 Further, General Peled of the IDF has said: "To pretend that the Egyptian forces massed on our frontiers were in a position t o threaten the existence of Israel constitutes an insult not only t o the intelligence of anyone capable of analysing this sort of situation, but above all an insult t o the Zahal [Israeli army]." [Ha'aretz, 19th March 19721 Since the invasion of 1967, Israel has refused to comply with international law and has remained illegally in the West Bank and Gaza. I n the name of security, i t has successfully demolished or sealed over 8500 homes, of which 2500 were in East Jerusalem alone. There are currently 2000 demolition orders in effect. Houses are demolished as punitive measures or under the pretext of "lack of building permit", while permits are rarely granted. Palestinians are prohibited from building in 60% of the West Bank and 87% of Jerusalem. Perhaps most harmful t o Palestinian human,.civil, and economic rights has been Israel's policy of closure, in effect since March 1993. This policy severely limits Palestinians' freedom of movement. B'Tselem, a leading Israeli human rights monitoring organization states that Israel's neglect of the educational, health, economic and cultural infrastructure of the West Bank and Gaza during more than 33 years of military occupation rendered Palestinians overly dependent on services and resources accessible only within Israel or Jerusalem. Thus, closure constitutes a chillingly effective form of collective punishment, as i t brings Palestinian economic, medical, and educational life t o a virtual halt. Israel's draconian closure policy, which denies Palestinians the freedom t o travel easily or at all - between various areas and into Israel or Jerusalem t o
pursue work, education, or medical care, has crippled the Palestinian economy and caused significant economic suffering to scores of Palestinian families, who now find themselves in much worse straits than they did during the days of outright Israeli Military Administration. I n Gaza, fully 40°/o of all households are living well below the poverty line. According t o the World Bank, the direct cost of Israel's closure to the Palestinian economy is over five million dollars per day. Furthermore, renewable water resources in Occupied West Bank and Gaza are under the control of the Israelis. Palestinians are only allowed 83 cubic meters for each Palestinian per year, whereas the Israelis use 333 cubic meters for each Israeli per year i.e. one Israeli consumes four times the water of a Palestinian. Many towns and villages are suffering from a severe water shortage as a result Israel's closure policies. Most Palestinian:; living in refugee camps do not have running water taps in their homes. A single water tap at the end of the street serves 30 to 50 homes. I n the Gaza Strip, the problem of water shortage is compounded by the poor quality of water flowing through the pipes. This seriously affects the quality of life of the local residents and exposes them t o severe heath risks. Continuous attacks by Israeli settlers on Palestinian water tankers prevent them from reaching their water supply source-taps, which have been cut off by local Israeli settlers who solely own and control the flow of water in the region. Of the water supplied t o the Palestinians, the quality is sub-standard and a danger t o health. Jeff Halper of the Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions has remarked: "The essential elements of Apartheid exclusivity, inequality, separation, control, dependency, violation of human rights and suffering define the relationship between Israel and the Palestinians" (Middle East Report 216, 2000).
Further, according to Nelson Mandela: "Apartheid is a crime against humanity. Israel has deprived millions o f Palestinians of their liberty and property. It has perpetuated a system o f gross racial discrimination and inequality. It has systematically incarcerated and tortured Palestinians, contrary t o the rules of international law. It has, n in p h i c u l a r , waged a war against a civilian ~ ~ p u l d t i o in, particular, children."
of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, Northwestern University Press) Zionists often claim that Ottoman Turkish sovereignty over Palestine had been ceded t o Britain after the First World War. They refer t o the Sevres Peace Treaty, where reference t o the Balfour Declaration occurs. However, this Treaty was never ratified by the Ottoman Turks: i t was aborted. The final treaty signed between the Turks and the Allied Powers omitted any reference to the Balfour Declaration. I n conclusion, neither the Bible nor the Balfour Declaration confirm any legitimacy upon Zionist claims on Palestine. "Palestine belongs to the Arabs in the same sense that England belongs to the English, or France to the French. I t is wrong and inhumane to impose the Jews on the Arabs. What is going on in Palestine today cannot be justified by any moral code of conduct" Ghandi (Mahatma, Tendulker)
against because they are not Jews? Zionists argue that they are not racist and point to the fact that non-Jews have the right t o vote and to be elected t o the Knesset. Zionists also cite the anti-racist law which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, colour or ethnicity; religion was left out so that religious discrimination is not illegal in Israel. Palestinians in Israel have a right to vote and hold citizenship; however, unlike anywhere else in the world, citizenship in Israel is distinguished from nationality, and mere citizenship does not give an individual equal rights. Israel was declared a state of the Jewish people: a state for all Jewish people wherever they live. This is different from state religion. For example not any Anglican may come t o the U.K. and automatically become a national by mere virtue of a shared religion. Such, however, is the case in Israel and only the Orthodox Rabbinate definition of a Jew is followed and recognised. The Orthodox Rabbinate insist that Jewish ethnicity and religion are inseparable and that a Jew is only born of a Jewish mother or converted t o Judaism in a conversion authenticated by the Orthodox Rabbinate. The Zionists do not accept conversions done by the other two schools of Jewish thought. The Orthodox Rabbinate is not concerned with a Jew's beliefs or lack thereof, but only his biological status. I n this manner, the Orthodox Rabbinate have created an equation between religion and race, with Israel being a state fit only for the Jews. "There can only be one national home in Palestine, and that a Jewish one, and no equality in partnership between Jews and Arabs" (Montague David Eder, President of the Zionist Federation of Great Britain, 1931). This policy results in widespread discrimination against the Palestinians in all of the professions at all levels of society from birth. For example, Jewish birth certificates have "Israeli" on them whereas non-Jewish certificates have "NIA". Palestinians are urlrepresented in acadaemia, medicine, law, politics and business. Arab Israelis are among the poorest of the country's population. They are denied benefits such as the "retireme,litg' eeyivalent because in the&@~try's milit g~~~rn$&t d from pre-1967 Israel
A. Zionists claim that Zionism is the national liberation movement of the Jewish people, rooted in freedom and equality and oppcsed to racism. Further, any criticism of Zionism is deemed by them to be anti-Semitic. Zionism is a political ideology of complex European origin rooted in the socio-economic realities of the Eastern European Jewish community and the trail of Captain Dreyfas in France. An Austrian newspaper dispatched a journalist called Theodor Herlz t o cover the story. Until then, Herzl had believed that the solution of the 'Jewish problem' lay in the assimilation of Jews into their resident countries. However, the Captain who was unfairly convicted of treason, and the wave of anti-Jewish sentiment that followed, changed Herlz's views. I n 1896, Herlz wrote The Jewish State, in which he argued assimilation was impossible, and the only real solution was a Jewish state. The plan for this 'ingathering' to be established in Palestine not only blurred the distinction between Judaism and Zionism but also forged a political identity out of a historical-religious ethnicity of which Zionism would be the only legitimate expression. I n 1975, the U.N. described the ethnic exclusivity of Zionism as a form of racism and racial discrimination. Although the U.N. Resolution caused an outcry leading t o the U.S. Ambassador t o the U.N. declaring i t t o be anti-Semitic, none of its critics addressed the issues behind the arguments considered for the passage of the resolution. The question is simple: are non-Jews in Israel legally discriminated
by the government. As a result, the inhabitants of these villages have no municipal services and are not allowed t o vote, however they must pay taxes (Jenin, Lebanon, and the only democracy in the Middle East, Jennifer Loewenstein). Whenever Zionism or the actions of the Zionist state are criticised, Zionists label the critics anti-Semitic, as t o suggest that only racists and those who are non-Jews could ever criticize Israel and Zionism. This is very misleading, as there are Jewish criticisms of both Zionism and Israel. Rabbi Hirsch (of Jerusalem) has stated: "The 12th principle of our faith, I believe, is that the Messiah will gather the Jewish exiled who are dispersed throughout the nations of the world. Zionism is diametrically opposed t o Judaism. Zionism wishes t o define the Jewish people as a nationalistic entity. The Zionists say, in effect, 'Look here, God. We do not like exile. Take us back, and if you don't, we'll just roll up our sleeves and take ourselves back.' This, of course, is heresy. The Jewish people are charged by Divine oath not t o force themselves back t o the Holy Land against the wishes of those residing there" (Washington Post, 3 October 1978).
The Association of University teachers (AUT) has adopted a resolution echoing Professor Rose's call. So far, Israel has convinced the world that i t is possible for the Palestinians t o live without land and water in isolated ghettos surrounded by illegal settlements and fences, bypass roads and IDF posts. Despite 'peace talks', Israel now exceeds the crimes of the white South African regime. No doubt, if the boycott is successful, i t will affect researchers and *,eholars: but that is the logic of sanctions, which are meant t o hurt the political and economic systems. I n South Africa, the first t o suffer were the Blacks; yet they still pleaded with the West t o continue. A leading South African vice-chancellor, Professor Brian Figaji, has pledged support t o the British academic boycott of Israel, comparing the Middle Eastern country's regime t o that of apartheid South Africa. Professor Figaji said he had recently turned down invitations to take part in conferences in Israel. " I will not go there under the present circumstances - this is a political statement against the Israeli state. I t looks too much like South African oppression." Referring to the British boycott, he added: "So little is being done internationally vis-avis the plight of the Palestinians; a boycott is a way of signaling t o the world that what is happening is unacceptable and inhumane" (The Guardian, 1 July, 2002). 1 The boycott itself is being supported by academics even within Israel, who feel that i t is justified and in the long term will produce positive result. Israel also enjoys a preferential trading relationship with the E.U., its second most important trading partner after the U.S. The most substantial exports are fruits, vegetables and clothing (supplying to Marks & Spencer, Donna Karen and Calvin Klein t o name a few). When goods are manufactured or produce grown in the Occupied Territories, illegally by settlers, they are labelled "Made in Israel" and exported as coming from within Israel's pre-1967 borders, hence enabling Israel t o avoid E.U. excise duty. I n July 2001, a boycott campaign was launched in the U.K. called "Boycott Israeli Goods" (B.I.G.) to highlight the activities of the Israeli government. This campaign is Europe-wide and growing. After 36 years of occupation, i t is clear that Israel has no intention of withdrawing and expects the Palestinians t o live with Apartheid or
Q. I S A BOYCOTT OF ISRAEL JUSTIFIED?
A. Since the call for the academic boycott of Israel, there has been much controversy. I t s critics view i t as a violation of academic freedom. Firstly, boycotts need t o be put into a context. The first time that the academic community imposed a boycott on a state was during the Apartheid regime in South Africa. The second time such an action has been called is against Israel.
I n May 2002, at the time of the Jenin controversy, Professor Steve Rose, director of the Brain and Behaviour Research Group at the Open University, sent a letter t o the Guardian signed by 125 prominent academics stating that "the Israeli government appears impervious t o moral appeals from world leaders... However, there are ways of exerting pressure from within Europe." "Many... research institutions, including those funded from the EU and the European Science Foundation, regard Israel as a European state for the purposes of awarding grants. Would i t not therefore be timely if...a moratorium was called upon any further support unless and until Israel abides by U.N. resolutions and opens peace negotiations with the Palestinians?"
'transfer': which means mass expulsion from the Occupied West Bank and Gaza.The facts are that Israel is in violation of over 80 U.N. resolutions and has continued a policy of oppressive, expanding and illegal occupation of another people's land. Such a record would not be tolerated if the country in question were France, Germany or any other member of the European Union. Indeed, "If Palestinians were black, Israel. would now be a pariah state subject to economic sanctio d States" (The Observer, 15th October
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THE FEDERATION OF STUDENT ISLAMIC SOCIITIES (FOSIS)
FOSIS, the Federation of Student lslamic Societies in UK and Ireland, is an independent voluntary student organisation and is one of the leading Muslim student organisations in Europe. It has links with over 1 0 0 lslamic Societies and has established relationships with the National Union of Students (NUS) and other key student organisations in the UK and Europe. As one of the oldest and most established organisations in the UK, FOSlS has developed a variety of resources and specialised teams to assist and represent Muslim students within universities and other educational institutions, making it a primary source of reference for Muslim as well as non-Muslim organisations. As an independent body, FOSlS enjoys a unique position allowing different Muslim and non-Muslim groups to work for the betterment and needs of lslamic Societies, Muslims and the wider student body. The work of FOSlS is guided principally by the following aims and objectives:
* To unite all existing student lslamic
societies in the UK and Ireland on lslamic principles;
* To represent Muslim Students
and lslamic Societies at all levels;
* To protect and promote the interests
of Muslim students;
* To encourage the formation of new
lslamic societies on campuses and to support the activities of existing ones;
* To facilitate communication
co-ordination among lslamic Societies;
* To develop the Muslim student's
understanding, character and skills in line with lslamic principles;
* To promote understanding of
and Muslims, in an effort to eradicate intolerance and lslamophobia from campuses and our British society;
* To encourage understanding between
Muslim 81non-Muslim students.
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