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Worked Design Examples Using Strut-and-Tie Method – Deep Beam (ACI 318-02 Appendix A)

**Design Example of A Deep Beam Using Strut-and-Tie Method per ACI 318-02 Appendix A
**

Consider the 2 meter deep beam described in the figure below. Use the strut and tie model to determine the required amount of reinforcement. Additional details: f c' = 25 MPa, f y = 420 MPa, PDL = 800 kN, and PLL = 400 kN.

P

2000 mm 2000 mm

P

All Bearing Plates are 450 mm x 500 mm 2000 mm

2000 mm

Cross Section 500 mm wide 400 mm

P

6000 mm

P

400 mm

Step 1: Evaluate the Total Factored Load, Pu Pu = 1.2 PDL + 1.6 PLL = 1.2(800) + 1.6(400) = 1600 kN Step 2: Check Bearing Capacity at Loading and Support Locations

Bearing strength at points of loading = φ0.85 f c'β n Ac = 0.75(0.85)(25)(1.0)(450)(500)/1000 = 3586 kN > 1600 kN ∴ OK Bearing strength at supports = φ0.85 f c'β n Ac = 0.75(0.85)(25)(0.80)(450)(500)/1000 = 2868 kN > 1600 kN ∴ OK

http://www.cee.uiuc.edu/kuchma/strut_and_tie/STM/examples/dbeam/dbeam(1).htm

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25 wc. where β s = 1. the design strength of tie AD must be greater than the factored load in tie AD. jd will be a maximum and wt = 1. In addition. The horizontal position of nodes A and B are easy to define.htm Page 2 of 4 . http://www.wt/2 = 2000 – 1.8 (on tie anchored in Node A) By setting the design strength equal to the required capacity.85β n f c' )bwt ≥ FAD .Strut-and-Tie Resources Web Site Worked Design Examples Using Strut-and-Tie Method – Deep Beam (ACI 318-02 Appendix A) Step 3: Select the Strut-and-Tie Model to Use in Design Pu = 1600 kN 2000 mm 2000 mm Pu = 1600 kN 2000 mm B FBC C F AB F A D 2000 mm A θ FAD θ D Pu 400 mm 6000 mm Pu 400 mm Step 4: Isolate Disturbed Region and Estimate Member Forces and Dimensions The entire deep beam is a disturbed region. Tie AD: φFnt = φAy f y ≥ FAD and Tie AD: φFnn = φf cu Ac = φ(0. That is: Strut BC: φFnc = φf cu Ac = φ(0.85β s f c' )bwc ≥ FBC . where β n = 0.125wc. but it is only necessary to consider the left third of the structure to complete the design.edu/kuchma/strut_and_tie/STM/examples/dbeam/dbeam(1). The flexural lever arm will be jd = 2000 .wc/2 . but the vertical position of these nodes must somehow be estimated or determined.0 (prismatic strut) Similarly. this tie must be anchored over a large enough area ( wt b) such that the factored load is less than φFnn .uiuc. What we do know is that the design strength of strut BC must be greater than or equal to the factored load in strut BC.cee.

Strut-and-Tie Resources Web Site Worked Design Examples Using Strut-and-Tie Method – Deep Beam (ACI 318-02 Appendix A) Pu = 1600 kN C L φ fcu = φ 0. and 240 mm from bottom Check capacity of tie AD: φFnt = φAs f y = 0. wc will be selected to be 240 mm. and therefore wt = 288 mm. By substituting φ(0.htm Page 3 of 4 . and wt will be selected to be 300 mm. and the force in tie FAD will be anchored in just sufficient area. ∴ jd = 2000 – 240/2 – 300/2 = 1730 mm and FBC = FAD = 1600(2000)/1730 = 1850 kN Check capacity of strut BC: φFnc = φ(0.1.85βs fc B ' wc FBC FA B jd = 2000 .2 Consider 1 layer of 6 #36(11) bars = 6036 mm @ 150 mm from bottom 2 Consider 2 layers of 5 #29(9) bars = 6450 mm @ 80 mm and 220 mm from bottom 2 Consider 3 layers of 6 #22(7) bars = 6966 mm @ 60.125 wc A θ wt φ fcu = φ 0.uiuc.75 / 420 = 5873 mm.85 f c' )bwc for FBC.cee.85β s f c' )bwt = 0.0)(25)(500)(240)/1000 = 1912 kN ∴ OK Step 5: Select Reinforcement Tie AD: φFnt = φAs f y ≥ FAD = 1850 kN ∴ As ≥ 1850(1000) / 0. the stress in strut FBC will be at its limit. wc = 231 mm.75(6450)(420) = 2032 kN > 1850 kN ∴ OK 2 http://www.edu/kuchma/strut_and_tie/STM/examples/dbeam/dbeam(1).75(0. 150.125wc ). If these values are used for the dimensions of the struts and ties. It is often wise to increase these values a little to leave some margin.85βn fc Pu 2000 mm ' FAD By taking summation of moments about point A: ∑ M A = 1600(2000)(1000) = FBC (2000 − 1.85)(1.

9o + 300 cos 40.0017 > 0. Width at top of strut = wct = l b sin θ + ha cos θ = 450 sin 40. then β s = 0.0015 ∴ OK Vertical Web Reinforcement: Use one #16(5) on each face at sv = 300 mm over entire length.1o = 0. Ah/(b sh) = 2(129)/500/300 = 0.cee.75.00265 > 0.75(0.00265sin 49.85)(0.9o = 521 mm. Width at bottom of strut = wcb = l b sin θ + ha cos θ = 450 sin 40.9o = 476 mm.75)(25)(500)(476)/1000 = 2885 kN > 2444 kN ∴ OK Step 7: Minimum Distributed Reinforcement and Reinforcement for Bottle-Shaped Struts Horizontal Web Reinforcement: Use one #13(4) on each face at sh = 300 mm over entire length.Strut-and-Tie Resources Web Site Worked Design Examples Using Strut-and-Tie Method – Deep Beam (ACI 318-02 Appendix A) Step 6: Calculate Force in Diagonal Compressive Strut FAB and Check Capacity Pu = 1600 kN C L 450 mm B 240 mm θ wct FBC wc jd = 1730 mm B 300 mm FAB wcb θ A 450 mm A θ FAD Pu 2000 mm tan θ = 1730 / 2000 and θ = 40. Assuming that sufficient crack control reinforcement is used.9 o Therefore.00312 ≥ 0.edu/kuchma/strut_and_tie/STM/examples/dbeam/dbeam(1). FAB = 1600 / sin 40.85β s f c' )bwct = 0. the force in the diagonal compressive strut.9o + 0.9o + 240 cos 40. 2003 http://www.htm Page 4 of 4 .0017 sin 40.9o = 2444 kN.uiuc. Check capacity of strut AB: φFnc = φ(0. Av/(b sv) = 2(199)/500/300 = 0.0025 ∴ OK Check of Reinforcement to Resist Bursting Forces in Bottle-Shaped Struts: ∑ ρvi sin γ i = 0.003 ∴ OK Last Update: March 20.

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