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wireless choices for smart grid Microwave 5.8, 6, 11, 18, 23, 60-80 GHz WIMAX (802.16 d/e/m) Mesh (802.11 or 802.16) LTE Company Headquarters
Aviat Networks
Description 5200 Great America Parkway
Smart Grid is an enabling Aviat Networks offers advanced High capacity point-to-point wireless transport for Wireless metropolitan area network (MAN) Outdoor wireless mesh network (WMN) is a Enhancements to 3G Universal Mobile Santa Clara, CA 95054
opportunity for operators to seek wireless transmission equipment backhaul or backbone of telecommunication systems. ecosystem including access, ASN and CSN for end- communications network made up of radio nodes Telecommunications System (UMTS) mobile
to-end. organized in a mesh topology. networking, providing for enhanced Contact info:
new market positions and revenue including microwave backhaul multimedia services. Tel: 408.567.7000
streams in an all-important effort and WiMAX connectivity. We also Fax: 408.567.7001
to more intelligently and efficiently provide turnkey Professional Contact sales:
FCC Part 101, Part 15 IEEE 802.16d-2004, 802.16e-2005, 802.16m IEEE 802.11, 802.16, operating on 3GPP Release 9
address energy generation and Services such as network design, FCC Part 15 Rules

consumption. system integration and deployment, w w

HOW to use in Smart Grid
network managed services
Backhaul and backbone transport for various AMI Backhaul, SCADA Backhaul, Demand Response, Last-mile access connection to residence and AMI Backhaul, SCADA Backhaul, Demand Response,
Smart Grid operators can use (including Network Operation applications such as SCADA, AMI, Distribution Mobile Workforce, Video Surveillance. building nodes; AMI backhaul, distribution Mobile Workforce, Video Surveillance.
this comparison chart to clarify Center services) in all areas of Automation and Demand Response. automation, demand response, remote monitoring.

the various choices for wireless wireless transmission.

Key Advantages
connectivity – from access to
Wide range of available capacities, frequencies, Efficient backhaul of data - aggregating 100s access Non-line-of-sight, MIMO configurations, integrated Low latency, high capacity; Fully integrated with
backhaul, for data or management Our advanced networking and configurations; lower cost than fiber build; well- points; QoS supports Service Assurance; Battery- antenna to handle wide range of deployment issues; 3GGP, compatible with earlier 3GPP releases; Full
transmission, using any one or transmission experts can help you understood deployment and ROI models; backup improves reliability and security; Simple, Easily scalable; Mesh design allows improved mobility for enhanced multimedia services; Carrier
highly secure. scalable network rollout and CPE attachment; Faster coverage around obstacles, node failures and path preferred protocol; Low power consumption.
combination of various technologies. build your foundation for Smart speeds than 3G cellular; Large variety of CPE and degradation; Rapid deployment using unlicensed;
Grid and other intelligent efforts for gateway/base station designs. Security - SNMPv1/2/3 and data encryption;
QoS available.
enabling wireless transport around
the world. Notable Weaknesses
Point-to-point configrations only; Frequency Limited access to spectrum licenses in the US; Increased delay/latency introduced by multiple hops; Not readily available in many markets/still in testing
congestion in highly populated areas; Best for high Trade off higher bitrates over longer distances; Increased complexity of protocols (MAC, routing, phases in others; Equipment cost high; vendor
capacity , full duplex, transmission applications. Assymetrical up and down link speeds; Bandwidth management, security); Mesh architecture increases differentiation still unclear; Lack of expertise
is shared among users; Competing against future 4G the cost and complexity of the network with each in designing LTE networks; Utilities’ access to
cellular standards for high-capacity, all-IP networks. additional node. spectrum.

3G Cellular Power Line Carrier WLAN (802.11b/g/n ) Zigbee (802.15.4)

3G includes wide-area wireless voice telephone, video Systems for carrying data on a conductor that is also Indoor wireless local area network (WLAN ); Low-cost, low power, wireless mesh standard for
calls, and wireless data, all in a mobile environment. used for electric power transmission. home area network (HAN). wireless home area networks (WHANs) or personal
area network (PAN).

UMTS, CDMA2000, EV-DO, EDGE Several competing:; IEEE P1901 (draft) IEEE 802.11b/g/n; IEEE Working Group provide IEEE 802.15.4-2003; ZigBee Alliance maintains
support and update. the standard

HOW to use in Smart Grid

AMI Backhaul, Communications Network, Substation Automation, AMI Backhaul, Remote Home area network, home automation. Home area network for energy management and
Mobile Workforce Monitoring, Distribution Automation. monitoring: Smart meters; Smart lighting, appliances
and electronic equipment.

Key Advantages
Widely deployed, stable and mature; standardized; Piggyback onto existing network of power Low-cost chip sets - inexpensive consumer devices; Low cost - for inexpensive consumer devices;
equipment prices keep dropping; Readily available transmission cables, as long as cables can easily Widespread use and expertise - low-cost application Low power consumption - up to 2 year battery life;
expertise in deployments; cellular chipset very reach population centers, residences, businesses, development; Stable and mature standards. Self-organizing mesh network - secure, reliable
inexpensive; Large selection of vendors. etc. Viable business model for municipalities because networking; Low data rates - network can support
of close proximity to customers. large number of users.

Notable Weaknesses
Technology is in the transition phase to LTE Specilized equipment remains high cost; Owned by Small coverge and short distances limit widespread Smart energy specifications are still under
SMART GRID deployment; Public cellular networks not as stable/ power companies that might prefer to use microwave use; Security issues with multiple networks development; Developer must join ZigBee Alliance. Aviat, Aviat Networks, and the Aviat logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Aviat Networks, Inc. 

secure for mission critical/utility applications; or fiber and sell/lease excess capacity; Standards in operating in same locations.
WIRELESS Not well-suited for large data/high bandwidth draft stages; Electromagnetic interference because © Aviat Networks, Inc. (2010) All Rights Reserved.
Data subject to change without notice.
TECHNOLOGY applications. power lines are unshielded. _z_SmartGrid_ANSI_24Sep10


Microwave 5.8, 6, 11, 18, 23, 60-80 GHz WIMAX (802.16 d/e/m) Mesh (802.11 or 802.16) LTE 3G Cellular Power Line Carrier WLAN (802.11b/g/n) Zigbee (802.15.4)

General usage
Point-to-point wireless transport for voice, data, Mobile broadband or at-home broadband Popular for last mile, broadband access in Mainly for mobile carrier adoption; Next-generation Mobile handset, tablet connectivity for Also known as power line communication, Wireless networking for LAN and WAN; widely Targeted radio frequency apps requiring
video, etc. for various network configurations connectivity across whole cities or countries municipal and rural areas; Mesh networks support network for mobile telecommunication providing voice and video calling, Internet access Broadband over Power Lines; Systems for carrying used for indoor wireless LAN; Outdoor networks low data rate, long battery life and secure
including Radio access network (RAN), WAN, (alternative to GSM, CDMA); Cost-effective delivery improved reliability and scalability, can overlay or high spectral efficiency, very low latency, improved and Mobile TV. data on a power conductor, for WAN applications; implement mesh-like architecture for more networking; In-between WiFi and Bluetooth.
backhaul, backbone, trunking, etc. to sparsely populated or underserved areas; Triple replace copper-DSL or FTTH user experience. Popular in Europe where power grid design resilient coverage.
play delivery - broadband Internet, VoIP and supports residential access.
IPTV services.

Frequency Range
5, L6, U6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 18, 23, 26, 32, 38 GHz; 2.3, 2.5, 3.5 GHz licensed bands; 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, 5.8 GHz (unlicensed) 700 MHz, AWS 1700/2100 MHz, IMT 2500 MHz, GSM GSM: 380 MHz-1.9 GHz; The RF frequencies travel at frequencies of Unlicensed: 2.4 and 5 GHz; ISM: 868 MHz , 915 MHz, 2.4 GHz (unlicensed);
E-band 70-80 GHz; 450 MHz, 700 MHz also used 900 MHz, UMTS 1900/2100 MHz, GSM 1800 MHz, CDMA/EV-DO: 800 MHz to 1.9 GHz; 1.7-80 MHz. Most providers rely on the 1-30 MHz Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), OFDM Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum coding.
Unlicensed: 2.4, 5.8, GHz PCS 1900 MHz, Cellular 850 MHz spectrum bandwidth for BPL transmission.

Channel Bandwidth
5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 80 MHz (ANSI/FCC) Typical channel bandwidth allocations are 20 or 25 20 MHz for 802.11 a/g; 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MHz, scalable carrier GSM: 200 kHz; Wide band 1200 (Hz); Medium band 600 (Hz) 20 MHz for 802.11 a/g; 20/40 MHz for 802.1n Nominal bandwidth of 22 MHz
MHz (United States) or 28 MHz (Europe) 20/40 MHz for 802.1n bandwidths, supports both FDD and TDD. CDMA: 1.23 MHz (1.25 MHz for EV-DO)

Coverage capabilities
Depends on frequency and terrain, but point-to- 3-4 miles; longer distances capable with Coverage at access points is similar to 802.11 b/g/n. 2-3 miles radius (urban area) 3-5 miles (hilly terrain) Distances of more than 15 km can be achieved over Indoor: up to 100 m; Up to 50 meters
point links are achievable up to 40 miles lower bit rates Distance between radio nodes varies between 5-7 miles radius (rural) up to 30-45 miles (flat terrain) a medium voltage network; In-building data rates Outdoor: up to 250 m
frequency and line of sight (0-15 miles) or non-line for Internet access, limited to short
of site (0-3 miles) between links distances <1000m

Peak single user data rate

Capacity/throughput (per channel, per Typical 4-16 Mbps Data rates dependent on link distance; Optimal SISO peak rates of 100 Mbps (DL), 50 Mbps (UL), cdma2000/EVDO rev B: Up to 14.7 Mbps Data rates vary broadly - approximate DSL speeds. 802.11b: up to 11 Mbps; 20 to 250 kbps, depending on frequency band.
polarization): typically up to 310/360 Mbit/s data rates similar to 802.11 b/g/n (54, 48, 36, 24, 18, min; 2x2 MIMO 172.8 Mbps (DL);57.6 Mbps (UL); 4x4 HSPA+: Up to 28 Mbps (DL), 22 Mbps (UL) Low-frequency (100-200 kHz) carriers: Few 802.11a/g/h/j: up to 54 Mbps;
TDM/Ethernet; Beyond 1 Gbit/s using cross 12, 9, 6, 4,5, 3, 2.25, 1.5 Mbps); as high as 300 Mbps MIMO 326.4 Mbps (DL) 86.4 Mbps (UL) hundred bits per second; Higher data rates mean 802.11n: >100 Mbps
polarization, etc. for outdoor. shorter ranges. Speeds up to 10 Mbps have
been achieved.

Low - Moderate. Lower cost compared to fiber Moderate - CapEx is moderately high, OpEX is Moderate - Mature technology: Low to moderate High - early adoption stage in pricing for equipment, Moderate - High. 3G cellular deployments will incur High - not widely adopted in North America: High Low - widely used and deployed in the consumer Low - intended as a low cost, low power
with greater ease of deployment. Cost/capacity low; various CPE designs available at commodity CapEx, depending on capacity and advanced QoS products availability and development; growing, recurring costs per megabyte. No control cost of implementation and lack of vendors. Typical market; Commodity pricing on chip sets. product for low bandwidth applications.
equipment costs declining; Infrastructure costs pricing; Chip prices continue to drop in price. and routing features. Integrated antenna and Spectrum costly. over network can lead to downtimes. US city grid system is poor design for BPL - will
including labor, tower space rent are increasing. zero-footprint means installation costs depends on need 10x repeaters compared to similar size
number of nodes and gateways deployed. European city.

Technology Maturity
Utilities have deployed microwave networks Mature; 500+ deployments worldwide. Mesh is a mature technology with large variety Technology demonstrations worldwide starting in Very mature but will be phased over to future More popular in Europe than North America. WiFi is a mature, proven interoperable technology. Fairly new; specifications ratified in 2004,
for decades due to its high reliability and high New 802.16m standard is proposed - up to 4x of vendors and devices, already widely used for 2010; Deployments currently in trial phase; large standards such as LTE over the next few years. Both one-way and two-way systems have been Wide variety of vendors and pricing structures ongoing specifications still in process.
performance network requirements. current speeds. Smart Grid apps. scale deployments in 2-3 years. successfully used for decades. available.