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Available at www.mindstien.net
Goals and Objectives……………………………………5 Introduction…………………………………………….....6
History of Holographic Memory……..…………….……7 Never ending quest for Data Storage ……….………..8
How it works?............................................................10 H.M. disks may put DVDs to shame………………….14
9. 10. 11. 12.
Future of holographic memory………………….……23 Conclusion……………………………………………….25 What they said ?.........................................................27 References……………………………………...………..28
growing networks. and the development of many new multimedia applications.Available at www. an ultra high-density. A new optical technology. Evaluate the future of Holographic Memory • Evaluate potentials and limitations of Holographic Memory. The 21st Century will require storage capabilities that exceed the potential of currently available technology to make effective use of information systems. • How can it alter the future of data storage and retrieval? • What can be its future contributions? • THE REASON OF CHOOSING THIS TOPIC Once while downloading some important data. . the demand for mass storage capacity is increasing exponentially. three-dimensional storage mechanism called Holographic Memory (or Holographic Data Storage). I suddenly realized that the hard disk memory was to less to download that data and from that very day I had a question in mind that with more powerful computers.mindstien. offers exciting possibilities and the potential of being the most cost-effective solution of the storage requirements of multimedia computing than any existing or projected technology. Develop an understanding of Holographic Memory What is Holographic Memory? • How Holography Memory works? 2.net GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 1.
unlike conventional technologies which record data bit by bit.net INTRODUCTION Imagine being able to record 100 movies on a disk the size of a CD . These are the promises of holographic data storage. Holography can break through these density limits because it goes beyond the two-dimensional approaches of conventional storage technologies to write data in three dimensions.. instead of just writing it to the surface. enabling data transfer rates as high as a billion bits per second (fast enough to transfer a DVD movie in about 30 seconds). With its powerful combination of high storage densities and rapid data transfer rates. holography allows a million bits of data to be written and read out in single flashes of light. Days are not far. isnt it? . In addition.or one day recording the contents of the Library of Congress on such a disk.mindstien.Available at www. Holography enables storage densities that can far surpass the super paramagnetic and diffraction limits of traditional magnetic and optical recording. Holography stacks information throughout the thickness of a storage medium. holography stands poised to become a compelling choice for next-generation storage needs.
But accurate control of interference was impossible without extremely pure light. in the year 1947. It was first demonstrated in 1810 by Thomas Seebeck. Gabor needs LASER Light. they produced the diffuse-light hologram. Building on the discoveries of Gabor. You can see this effect in the beautiful colours on the surface of a soap bubble. and in the supernumerary arcs of a rainbow. the crests and troughs of their waves interact to produce patterns of interference. In the 1960s two engineers from the University of Michigan: Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks. a Hungarian physicist. and it was not until the invention of the laser that the science of holography became practical. a method of colour photography. His theory was originally intended to increase the resolving power of electron microscopes. . The result was the first hologram ever made.Available at www. Gabor proved his theory not with an electron beam. developed a new device which produced a three dimensional image of an object.mindstien. and in 1908 the French physicist Gabriel-Jonas Lippman was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on 'Interference Heliography'.net HISTORY OF HOLOGRAPHY When two beams of light overlap. but with a light beam. The theory of holography was developed by Dennis Gabor. The early holograms were legible but plagued with many imperfections because Gabor did not have the correct light to make crisp clear holograms as we can today. The use of interference for storing and reproducing images is not a new idea.
mindstien.net THE NEVER ENDING QUEST FOR DATA STORAGE .Available at www.
net THE WORKING ARENA SETUP PRINCIPLE .Available at www.mindstien.
net HOW IT WORKS? RECORDING AND READING .mindstien.Available at www.
the access time will be the same as that of the usual optical discs. The data or strings of bits are first arranged into pages or large arrays. Digital data to be stored are "encoded" onto the signal beam via a spatial light modulator. The 0's and 1's of the data pages are translated into pixels of the spatial light modulator that either block or transmit light. which are based on the usage of change in position of the carrier relative to the beams of light. signal (data-carrying) and reference beams. light from a coherent laser source is split into two beams.Available at www. Besides. and the correlative uses a beam of more complicated form. This encoded beam then interferes with the reference beam through the volume of a photosensitive recording medium.net In holographic data storage. The procedure in 3-dimensional holography which concludes in enclosure of several pages with data into the same volume is called multiplexing. Traditionally the following multiplexing methods are used: of angle of dip of the reference beam. Lately Bell Labs invented three new multiplexing methods: shift. . The shift and aperture multiplexing use a spherical reference beam. considering the fact that the correlative and shift multiplexing enable mechanical moving elements. aperture and correlative. storing the digital data pages.mindstien. The light of the signal beam traverses through the modulator and is therefore encoded with the "checkerboard" pattern of the data page. of wavelength and phase. Bell Labs managed to build an experimental carrier on the same LiNBO3 using the technology of correlative multiplexing but this time with 226 GBytes per square inch.
for example by changing its angle of incidence or wavelength. The reference beam is used during readout to diffract off of the recorded gratings. The interference patterns fill up the whole substance uniformly.high reliability of the recorded information. it leads only to tarnish of the hologram. The reconstructed array is projected onto a pixilated detector that reads the data in parallel. WORKING IN THE LABORATORY . By varying the reference beam. reconstructing the stored array of bits. This process of multiplexing data yields the enormous storage capacity of holography. This parallel readout of data provides holography with its fast data transfer rates. it gives another useful property to the holographic memory . many different data pages can be recorded in the same volume of material and read out by applying a reference beam identical to that used during writing.Available at www. While a defect on the surface of the magnetic disc or tape destroy important data.net The interference pattern induces modulations in the refractive index of the recording material yielding diffractive volume gratings. The readout of data depends sensitively upon the characteristics of the reference beam. a defect in holographic medium doesn't cause a loss of information.mindstien.
mindstien.Available at www. The fast memory minimizes the delay while the system searches for a match this type of device is being developed by the Japanese company Hamamatsu. a user places a finger on a glass plate. The fingerprint must match one of those in the memory. To gain entry to a room.000 fingerprints. which are stored as holograms.net UTILIZATION HOLOGRAPHIC LOCK stores up to 1. .
changing different parts of the beam to encode bits of information. The disc stores information through the interference of light . stores information in a light-sensitive crystal material using the interference of laser light. and slightly thicker. based in Colorado.net Holographic-memory discs may put DVDs to shame A computer disc about the size of a DVD that can hold 60 times more data is set to go on sale in 2006. "Unlike other technologies that record one data bit at a time holography allows a million bits of data to be written and read in parallel with a single flash of light." says Liz Murphy. Beam-splitter Holographic memory. Two competing successors to the DVD format . are a little wider than conventional DVDs." The discs. of InPhase Technologies. The process involves splitting a single light beam into two and then passing one through a semi-transparent material.use the same technique but exploit shorter wavelengths of light to cram more information onto a surface. developed by InPhase Technologies.Blu-ray and HD-DVD . . Information can be recorded and retrieved so rapidly because many bits of data can be recorded and read in parallel. Normal DVDs record data by measuring microscopic ridges on the surface of a spinning disc. "This enables transfer rates significantly higher than current optical storage devices. This is a grid that acts like a filter. The company. hold 300 gigabytes of data and can be used to read and write data 10 times faster than a normal DVD. US. at 13 centimeters across. The altered beam and the reference beam are then recombined in the light-sensitive material and their pattern of interference provides a record of the encoded information.a technique known as holographic memory.mindstien.Available at www. The discs. along with Japanese partner Hitachi Maxell announced earlier in November that they would start selling the discs and compatible drives from the end of 2006. by contrast.
net InPhase says the technique could theoretically be used to store up to1. says the holographic memory could challenge formats such as Blu-ray and HD-DVD. an expert in the technology at IBM's Almaden Laboratory in California. However." he told New Scientist. Coufal says the main benefit is speed of data access.mindstien.As well as offering greater storage. Coufal notes that the technology must also stand up to everyday use.6 terabytes of data on the same size of disc and to read data at 120 megabits per second. Hans Coufal. "It is an open race right now. The discs developed so far by InPhase can already stream a movie recorded in high definition television (HDTV) format." . This is 340 times the capacity of an ordinary DVD and 20 times the data rate. "But you have to convince the customer that it is going to be reliable. it has failed to find commercial success so far. However.Available at www. High-speed streaming Although holographic memory was first suggested in 1963.
To record data using holographic development. Different pages will likely be captured in an instant by using unique ray angles and wavelengths. For files reconstruction. As is the case with engraving holographic likenesses of items. Holographic information memory and processing systems offer the potential for information retrieve that is much swifter than that of present two-dimensional systems. the patterns of beam and darkness from the recreated image are reconverted into electronic files using a “Detector Array” (DA). . Shining a reference shaft on hologram-engraved photosensitive material with the same angle and wavelength used to mark the innovative hologram causes refraction within the media and recreates the holographic image or encoded files. The holographic illustration arises in three dimensions due to the observed parallax. When holographic data will generally just be recorded once in optical media. a “Spatial Light Modulator” (SLM) encodes an overall page of data into the signal ray that is then projected into the photosensitive optical media.mindstien. frequently recreating an entire (million-bit) page at a time. Beam angle and wavelength can be changed much swifter than the mechanical action necessitated to access different sectors in two-dimensional media. Holographic data systems store and retrieve files in parallel.net HOLOGRAPHIC OPTICS ( HOLOPTICS) HoloOptics are optical data storage. Two-dimensional data retention systems such as CDs and DVDs record and retrieve information in a serial way -. the signal and reference light beams intersect and imprint the information configuration in the optical media. a complete (million-bit) page of information at a time. Holographic memory is particularly hopeful for searching through large volumes of files to identify patterns or interactions among data. then the media is “Holographic RandomAccess-Memory” (HoloRAM). and processing systems and networks that use holographic technology.one bit at a time. Data is recovery extremely rapid. transmission. then the media is “Holographic Read-Only-Memory” (HoloROM). When holographic data will generally be repeatedly reached and changed in real time. For data recovery. the patterns of light and darkness from the recreated likeness are reconverted into electronic data with a detector array.Available at www.
then it will generally function as holographic random connect with memory ("holoram"). Holographic information can be more continuous and less binary than its electromagnetic counterpart. but additionally strong in construction. When holographic media will likely be repeatedly read and written in real time. Holographic data memory and retrieval additionally has the promise for greater ability to recover from minor mistakes. Modest-sized holodisks or holocubes will potentially hold upwards of a terabyte of information. This enables humans to “make sense of it all. When holographic media may just be recorded once. Similarly. holographic data retention and extraction helps computers to work more like the human brain than calculators with common electromagnetic media. Dynamic holographic images in high-technology amusement park attractions routinely attract and thrill riders. holographic development may improve computers to adapt from lower-level “pixel by pixel” vision to macro-level perception and interpretation of complex environmental patterns. Holographic science is . Even elementary holograms with alternating views will generally be excellent works of design whose two-way qualities engage the viewer.Available at www. will likely be moved very speedily. Potential forms for holographic files media include holographic media disks ("holodisks") and cubes ("holocubes"). The memory media must be accessible to light. holographic engineering will generally assist instruments to perceive more like humans do.” For example. Holographic research has been in use for decades for artistry and pleasure. without the inertia of mechanical reading and writing mechanisms. human comprehension starts with specific bits of data received through the eye. In some respects. This might be particularly possible with optical neural networks based on holographic innovation. In this respect. The human brain processes large bits of input from largely turbulent surroundings. but quickly processes these through an ascending chain of increasingly macro-level constructs before the brain infers inferences about what it perceives. so that errors are not 0-or-1 events but differences in degree.net Another reason that holographic files will generally be recorded and acquired more rapidly than circling magnetic media is that laser rays.mindstien. it is holographic read-only memory ("holorom").
three-dimensional fun experiences. Holographic visualization with temporal gated pulses will enable transparent viewing of items embedded in illumination refracting matter such as body fluid or partially opaque atmospheres. tickets. Holographic technology will generally also assemble current techniques for three-dimensional visual connection from calculators to humans. "Holocams" will use holographic files retention and reconstruction to archive and virtually display three-dimensional visual surroundings. will make possible much more natural human-computer interaction than is possible with contemporary two-dimensional displays and keyboard/mouse. holograms are used on identification cards. network acquire. There are numerous promise applications of holographic information systems in the general area of telecommunications and imaging. incorporating gesture recognition systems. Light reflected off the less layer and refracted in the upper layer creates the holographic photo. three-dimensional computer projections that do not require a screen.net already being used to record holographic DVDs over a hundred gigabytes in scale. Future holographic disks and holo-cubes could retain up to a terabyte. Some countries are already requiring holographic protection labels on drugs and different medical-related products. Some applications will be multi-user. passports. This starts with screen displays with more evolved threedimensional projection qualities and then progresses to freestanding.Available at www. Holograms are much more tough to forge than patterns (even ornate ones) produced with standard two-dimensional printing techniques. and television. Holographic machine displays and interfaces. Accordingly.mindstien. . financial securities. making the pipe dream of an image suspended in mid-air. interactive. biological compounds. and core documents and consumer goods to reduce forgery. The current state of the artistry for holographic television (HoloTV) systems is projection of brilliant likenesses onto a pane of glass spread with a translucent film. bank cards. recent holographic research products and services will come from the hybridization of data processor game playing. In the coming decade. Holographic engineering is already widely used for protection applications. Most security holograms are now produced by embossing a order into an upper “rippled” coating that is applied over a limited “mirrored” layer. Future holoTV systems will predicted be able to project full three-dimensional images in mid-air without a projection outside of any time.
It has already been used in radiology. Three-dimensional air traffic control is a promise future implementation. This makes it an excellent imaging modality for a lot of biomedical products and services. Large. positioning circuitry.g. Holographic invention will likely be used for medical diagnosis. novel product development and simulating. and various design-related applications. healing. holographic systems display maps. and analysis. dentistry. endoscopic holography. over 120 degrees) of the subject of vision from a relatively fixed position. ophthalmology. the clothes field. . chemistry and atomic modeling.Available at www. schooling. A major explosion area for holographic research uses is the field of medicine.mindstien. With increased computing power and high engineering in land vehicles. For aircraft positioning. pathology and orthopedics. littler holographic cells. the fine arts. holographic-assisted navigation may be commonly used for land travel as well. Holographic photo-rendering with temporal gated pulses provides clear viewing of objects embedded in light refracting substance. Early medical applications of holographic technology have been for picturing. medicine and bionics. architecture and construction. prototypes are under creation for car dashboards that incorporate holographic illustrates. and guiding information. urology. Holographic development may help design for: placement of three-dimensional experimental designs of molecules or biological structures. and holographic contour generation. Holocartography and holotopography apply holographic development to the creation of three-dimensional maps for transportation and mapping. Already. Design is important to engineering. encompassing: holographic interferograms.net Advances in holographic development are allowing the construction of holograms that are visible from a wide range of angles spanning a great portion (e. Holographic science will generally also be used for travel. Medical holography will generally provide threedimensional illustrations of internal body patterns to aid in diagnosis and surgical planning. such as body fluid or partially opaque tissue. holography with temporal gated pulses. biotechnology and nanopharmacology. otology. and alternative locations as well. navigational visuals. high-resolution holograms with over a terabyte of pixels may be constructed by combining numerous.
.Available at www.mindstien.net Holographic prototypes of recent outputs may be designed and viewed in a portion of the time needed by physical simulating and modeling processes.
Available at www.net DEMERITS Additional holograms change properties of the material. but they are not suitable for data recording especially for commercial use: they are expensive.mindstien. As a result. For holographic memory the LEDs based on semiconductor lasers used in traditional optical devices are not suitable. they have improved optical characteristics and are suitable for WORM (write-once/read many). So there is a need of as powerful laser as possible which gives the most exact parallel beam. So the alternative is a new class of photopolymer materials. since they have insufficient power. give out a wide beam angle. One more problem concludes in the complexity of the used optical system. The most of the investigations in the sphere of holography were carried out with usage of photoreactive materials (mainly the mentioned LiNBO3). weak sensitive and have a limited dynamic range (frequency bandwidth). what can lead to data corruption when reading. besides. Another problem standing on the way of development of holographic memory devices is a search of the appropriate material. Photopolymers are the substances where the light cause irreversible changes expressed through fluctuation of the composition and density. the images of holograms become dim. . and at last it's too difficult to get a semiconductor laser generating radiation in the middle range of the visible spectrum. and such changes mustn't exceed the definite number. The created material have a longer life circle (in terms of storing data) and are resistant to temperature change.
but only 53 were needed. it guided the vehicle along one of several prescribed paths. the parallelism of the holographic memory would permit stored information to be called up rapidly enough to let the vehicle follow roads and avoid obstacles. Pu. it was found. Some 1. the computer compared images from the camera with those in the holographic memory [see illustration above]. to navigate through several rooms in the building. each defined as a sequence of images recalled from the memory. They stored selected images of the hallways and rooms in a holographic memory connected to a digital computer on a laboratory bench and communicated them to the car via a radio link.net THE FUTURE OF HOLOGRAPHIC MEMORY Earlier this year at Caltech. Robert Denkewalter and Psaltis used a holographic memory in this mode to drive a small car through the corridors and laboratories of the electrical engineering building there. As the car maneuvered. A television camera mounted on the car provided the visual input. They are now designing a different vehicle. Even with so much capacity. which they hope to equip with a large enough memory to travel autonomously anywhere on the campus.000 images were stored in the memory. .Available at www. Once it spied a familiar scene.mindstien.
net Indeed.Available at www. holographic data storage has the potential to affect all types of data storage. navigation may be one of the specialized applications that generate the impetus needed to bring the technology into widespread use. too.mindstien. will the expediency of storing the information in three dimensions rather than two. With its high volumetric density. POTENTIAL ADVANTAGES Four scenarios highlighting the properties of holographic data storage: An all-solid memory module which takes the advantage of the potential for short access times. But as the need to store vast amounts of data increases. . two rotating-disk geometries. so. Such acceptance may be years away. with either erasable or worm-type media and finally a data warehouse with removable media.
This is mainly due to the fact that this memory is not serially operated (sequential) like most RAM but a page of data can be read out in parallel. High data transfer rates.mindstien.Available at www.net number of These experimental memories have great potential for a reasons. As mentioned above. The small footprint of the technology could be very valuable in many fields . potentially terabytes could be stored into a cube the size of a sugar cube. Very high storage density. Small size. Holoplex gives a rate between 1 and 10 Gbytes per second for transfer rate for its systems.
potential of being the most cost-effective solution of the storage requirements of multimedia computing than any existing or projected technology and enable researchers to sift through enormous databases in the blink of an eye. an ultra high-density. Holographic memory is an optical imaging technique that stores digital information throughout the depth of a storage medium.net CONCLUSIONS After getting into the thick of the things it can be said that holographic memory.mindstien. randomly accessible format. offers exciting possibilities and the potential to spawn new devices and systems. and dramatically reducing the cost to store massive amounts of data in a digital. . three-dimensional storage mechanism. enabling sustainable order of magnitude improvements in storage capacities over existing technologies.Available at www..
and it is going to happen on or before the millennium. which can hold terabytes . Network Economy Conference Online. September 2006 "The next cannibal is the displacement of magnetic and solid-state storage by holographic media .J...mindstien.Bill Gates. this enables transfer rates significantly higher than current optical storage devices. InPhase Technologies.G.net WHAT THEY SAID other technologies.. The Road Ahead." . holography allows a million bits of data to be written and read in parallel with a single flash of light. Microsoft." .Available at www. 2006 .. President. Lucent Technologies.Liz Murphy. North America. in less than a cubic inch. Butters. that record one data bit at a time. October 2006 "Unlike "We look forward toward an exotic improvement called holographic memory." . Chairman.
yahoosearch. vol.” Proceeding of the IEEE. N (2006): Holographic Data Storage: Super Storage on the Way. “Holographic Random Access Memory (HRAM). Johny. 4.com/holography/letrew.dqchannels. “Literature Review” www. T.htm 2.net REFERENCE: 1. (2005): Holographic Memory.com 5.google. “Compact Phase Conjugate Holographic Memory. http://www.com 7.com . www.com 6. Huang.Available at www. http://www. www.mindstien.entelky.G. 3.” website. 87.technologyreview.
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