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# EUROPEAN TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRICAL POWER Euro. Trans. Electr.

Power 2011; 21:824–838 Published online 21 July 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/etep.479

Reactive power compensation in a steel industrial plant with several operating electric arc furnaces utilizing open-loop controlled TCR/FC compensators

Arash Dehestani Kolagar*,y, Arash Kiyoumarsi, Mohhamad Ataei and Rahmat Allah Hooshmand

Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

SUMMARY Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) produce voltage ﬂuctuations and ﬂicker because of the reactive power severe variations. Furthermore, these loads absorb a large amount of reactive power. The static VAr compensators (SVCs) have been widely used by the industrial customers with arc furnaces to compensate the reactive power due to the quick response of the power electronic devices. In this paper, reactive power compensation in the steel industrial plant with several EAFs by utilizing open-loop controlled thyristor controlled reactor/ﬁxed capacitor (TCR/FC) compensator is performed. The TCR/ FC compensator is usually applied in conventional steel making plants; one is in Mobarakeh/ Isfahan, Iran which is considered as the case study in this paper. Simulation results show that, although open-loop controlled TCR/FC is effective for compensating reactive power, it cannot efﬁciently compensate the ﬂuctuations of the reactive power and reduce the ﬂicker intensity. Copyright # 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

key words:

electric arc furnace; open-loop controlled TCR/FC; ﬂicker intensity

1. INTRODUCTION The electric arc furnace (EAF) is considered as a nonlinear and erratic load; it creates a series of adverse effects to the power grid such as three-phase unbalance of the power grid, negative sequence current, high order harmonics, severe voltage distortion, serious ﬂicker, and low power factor. EAF compensation is usually performed using static VAr compensators (SVCs). Though, these devices are effective in mitigating ﬂicker whenever controlled properly, their performance is limited due to inherent delays and their harmonics generation. A control method for the thyristor controlled reactor/ﬁxed capacitor (TCR/FC) was presented to improve the dynamic response using a fast detection method [1]. This method is based on the substitution of conventional ﬁltering by an efﬁcient, faster, and simpler process with a lower computational burden and it guarantees that the compensation process will perform within 1=4 cycle of the fundamental period of the line voltage. On the other hand, a solution of obtaining an optimum ﬂicker reduction at a comparatively low compensator power rating by an anti-windup extension of the controller is presented in Reference [2]. The dimensioning of a SVC for a steel plant grid with several operating EAF, taking the economic dimensioning of the compensator into account, is also demonstrated in this paper.

*Correspondence to: Arash Dehestani Kolagar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran. y E-mail: dehestani@ee.iust.ac.ir Copyright # 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Some researches proposed a hybrid control and compensation system that allows an optimal tradeoff in performance and system cost, while providing high efﬁciency and reliability [3]. The solution is a thyristor-based series controller coupled with a high performance shunt compensator. The voltage ﬂuctuation problem of a large steel plant in Taiwan was investigated in Reference [4] and the mitigation strategy by applying the SVC and cogenerator was presented. In the mentioned paper, it is understood that the dynamic load behavior of the EAF in the isolated industrial power system can well be compensated by the cogenerator with adaptive control of exciter and governor to generate proper reactive power and real power according to the ﬂuctuation of the bus voltage and the system frequency, respectively. In this paper, an industrial steel-making plant with several operating arc furnaces, which was previously installed in Mobarakeh, Isfahan, Iran, is considered for study. This plant has eight three-phase EAFs supplied via four three-winding three-phase, core-typed transformers. In this study, for simplicity and software capability limitations, four single-phase EAFs are considered at the point of common coupling (PCC). The system characteristics, such as cable impedances, system layout, the style of compensator connections to the PCC, are modeled similar to that of existing plant. According to the prescribed plant, open-loop controlled TCR/FC is applied for reactive power compensation. In order to evaluate its effects, the system was simulated by means of power system analyzer software. Simulation results indicate that although reactive power of the EAF is almost compensated, open-loop controlling of the SVC cannot effectively suppress the ﬂicker phenomenon. At a detailed glance, Section 2 commences to explain the modeling of the steel-making plant. Different operating stages of EAFs, such as scrap, melting, and reﬁning, can be considered via this model in simulations. At a glimpse, the open-loop control of the TCR/FC compensator, which is connected to the PCC and uses reactive power demand of the whole load, is presented in Section 3. The design procedure of the parameters of the RLC harmonic ﬁlters, by which the fundamental component of the reactive power demand of the load is produced, is comprehensively illustrated in Section 4. Section 5 explains the main performance of the TCR/FC as a static compensator. In this section, the idea of the reactive power compensation using switched inductances is brieﬂy brought. Section 6 introduces the description of the ﬂicker, the ﬂicker-meter and the results of instantaneous ﬂicker sensation curves, and their corresponding cumulative probability function (CPF) curves for several time instances. The results of instantaneous ﬂicker level (IFL) and CPF for the open-loop control of the TCR/FC compensator are compared with the one obtained before compensation at PCC. Based on the Sections 5 and 6, it can be judged that although reactive power at the PCC is more or less compensated, the ﬂicker problem still exists and the open-loop compensation cannot completely suppress the ﬂicker phenomenon. It needs to consider closed-loop control method with predictions. The paper ends in Section 7 with a few conclusions and several suggestions to commence to the new researches based on these methods.

2. THE ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE MODELING Figure 1 shows the considered system which is the same as the actual plant in Mobarakeh. Static compensator is connected to the third winding of one transformer and arc furnaces are linked to the PCC busbar. In this research, we try to propose a method to model EAFs that contains random behavior of the arc and has minimum error compared with actual arc model. This means that for a special EAF, by sampling arc current in each stage of EAF operation such as the scrap stage, melting and reﬁning, we obtain the arc model. Thus, after sampling AC current in each stage of furnace operation, applying a program, arc is modeled as a current controlled voltage source. Corresponding to the input current that is the arc current, arc voltage is obtained by interpolating based on previous samples. According to random behavior of the arc and the fact that in this paper we want to lay stress on this property in order to model arc random nature, a band-limited white noise, which is based on existing

Copyright # 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Euro. Trans. Electr. Power 2011; 21:824–838 DOI: 10.1002/etep

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400 Kv Busbar

Static VAr Compensator

63 Kv Busbar

Electric Arc Furnace (1)

Electric Arc Furnace (2)

Electric Arc Furnace (3)

Electric Arc Furnace (4)

**Figure 1. Considered Steel-Making Plant layout.
**

300 200 100 0 -100 -200 -300 -200 -100 0 100 Arc Current (kA) 200

Figure 2. Voltage–current (V–I) characteristic of the electric arc, considering ﬂicker.

frequency band in ﬂicker, is generated and obtained voltage is modulated by the white noise [5]. The preference of this model to the others is that this model is based on actual samples obtained from EAF. Therefore, this model has a behavior close to the actual arc. Simulation results for arc model, including ﬂicker noise, are shown in Figure 2.

3. MEASUREMENT OF LOAD REACTIVE POWER CONSUMPTION In reactive power measurement process, a signal, which introduces the newest value of the reactive power, is required. This signal, which stands on an average-based method, is given in the following equation [6]: 1 qð t Þ ¼ T Z T vðtÞi t À dt 4 tÀT

t

Arc Voltage (Volt)

(1)

where q(t) represents the reactive power at the period that ends at instant t. This equation has been implemented utilizing a designed accounting circuit in the software. Utilizing the mentioned accounting circuit, the average reactive power is calculated during each cycle and resulted value is used for the next cycle. It should be noted that above equation is applied for single-phase systems.

Copyright # 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Euro. Trans. Electr. Power 2011; 21:824–838 DOI: 10.1002/etep

**REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION IN A STEEL INDUSTRIAL PLANT
**

960 Reactive Power at PCC, without TCR/FC

827

955 Qpcc (MVAr) 950 945 0

1

2 3 Time (Sec)

4

5

Figure 3. Simulated reactive power at 400 kV busbar without TCR/FC.

For three-phase systems, the related equation is more complicated. Figure 3 shows the simulated reactive power at 400 kV busbar. This curve is obtained from simulation and represents the whole reactive power consumption by furnaces, transformer windings, and cables. Harmonic ﬁlters, which provide required reactive power in addition to absorbing harmonic components, are designed based on the fundamental reactive power that is some percentage more than the measured reactive power. Excessive reactive power is then absorbed by TCR.

4. HARMONIC FILTER DESIGN The main aim of the passive ﬁlter design is to eliminate or attenuate of some harmonic components. In fact, these ﬁlters provide low impedance paths for the harmonic components to pass through them, and avoid their penetration into the other areas in local network. Regarding the literatures and existing statistical information, the amounts of created harmonics are determined and then compared with the allowed quantity of such harmonics. Consequently, the harmonic order, which should be ﬁltered, and the power of the ﬁlters are determined. In this case study, according to the existing conditions, harmonic ﬁlters were again designed for 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 7th harmonics. Each ﬁlter has two tasks: the ﬁrst one is to suppress the corresponding harmonic component and another one is to act as a capacitive impedance in order to provide the expected reactive power at fundamental frequency.

4.1. Harmonic ﬁlter design steps (a) Determining the required reactive power to compensate the load (b) Distributing the determined reactive power between ﬁlters properly, i.e., proportional to the each harmonic power (c) Determining the capacitance value of each ﬁlter (Cf) according to the following equation [7]: n2 À 1 Qcf ðF Þ (2Þ n2 vV 2 where n is the considered harmonic order, V is the line-to-line voltage, v is the fundamental angular frequency, and Qcf is the fundamental reactive power allocating to the ﬁlter that corresponds to the nth order harmonic. (d) Calculating the effective current of each capacitance and comparing it with the whole nth harmonic current, which is obtained by adding nth harmonic current of the load, and ones of the compensator. If the nth harmonic current is greater than the current of the capacitance, the Cf ¼

Copyright # 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Euro. Trans. Electr. Power 2011; 21:824–838 DOI: 10.1002/etep

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whole fundamental reactive power should be distributed between the ﬁlters again and more reactive power should be allocated to this ﬁlter (e) Calculating the value of the series inductance of each ﬁlter (Lf) using the following equation [7]: Lf ¼ 1 n2 v 2 C

f

(3Þ

(f) Evaluating the impedance of the ﬁlters (Zf) and feeding system as a function of frequency Zf ¼ F(v) and ZN ¼ F(v), respectively, to determine whether the ﬁlters impedance and the feeding system impedance causing a resonance at harmonic frequency, which was not ﬁltered, or not. If resonance occurs, the following remedies can be considered: Again distributing the whole fundamental reactive power between the ﬁlters or design a new ﬁlter at this resonance frequency in addition to the previous ﬁlters. Bringing partial changes in the resonance frequency of the ﬁlters. 4.2. Essential remarks in passive ﬁlter designing The voltage across the capacitors in the ﬁlters is greater than the nominal phase voltage of the busbar that joins to the ﬁlter. The amount of this overvoltage is proportional to the harmonic order corresponding to the ﬁlter tuned frequency. The per cent of this overvoltage at steady state condition (Vrise) is obtained from the following equation [8]: Vrise ¼ n2 Ã 100 n2 À 1 (4)

The overvoltage due to the inductors is only concerned with the fundamental frequency. If harmonics exist in the system, the overvoltage resulting from harmonics is added to the noted value.

Table I. The values of the ﬁlters elements Harmonic ﬁlter 2nd 3rd 5th 7th C (f) 0.043270 0.060125 0.036287 0.027284 L (h) 0.000058540 0.000018724 0.000011169 0.000007579

0.05 0.045 0.04 0.035 0.03 abs(Z) 0.025 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 0 500 1000 1500 w(Rad/Sec) 2000 2500 3000

Resonance Frequency

**Figure 4. Frequency characteristic of the ﬁlters impedance as well as the ones of the system impedance.
**

Copyright # 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Euro. Trans. Electr. Power 2011; 21:824–838 DOI: 10.1002/etep

**REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION IN A STEEL INDUSTRIAL PLANT
**

5 Reactive Power at PCC, with FC but not TCR 0 Qpcc (MVAr)

829

-5

-10

-15

0

1

2 3 Time (Sec)

4

5

Figure 5. Simulated reactive power at 400 kV busbar after applying the harmonic ﬁlters.

L/2

SW1 SW2

L/2

Figure 6. The thyristor controlled reactor conﬁguration.

If the system impedance at a special harmonic is low, the corresponding ﬁlter to that harmonic does not operate well and vice versa, i.e., if both the system and ﬁlter impedance have large values, it causes very high harmonic voltages in the system. Ordinarily, a series resistor is inserted at each phase of the harmonic ﬁlter whose value is obtained from the following equation [9]: R¼

10 Reactive Power at PCC, with TCR/FC

Xn Q

(5)

5 Qpcc (MVAr) 0 -5 0

1

2 3 Time (Sec)

4

5

**Figure 7. Simulated reactive power at 400 kV busbar after applying TCR/FC.
**

Copyright # 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Euro. Trans. Electr. Power 2011; 21:824–838 DOI: 10.1002/etep

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TCR Voltage(V) and Current(kA)

200

TCR Current (kA) TCR Voltage(V)*30

100

0

-100

-200

-300 0.2

0.21

0.22 0.23 Time (Sec)

0.24

0.25

**Figure 8. TCR voltage and current from t ¼ 0.2 second to t ¼ 0.25 second.
**

4 Before Compensation 3 2 Voltages at PCC (kV) 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0.2 After Applying TCR/FC

0.21

0.22

0.23

0.24 0.25 Time (Sec)

0.26

0.27

0.28

**Figure 9. Voltages at PCC from t ¼ 0.2 second to t ¼ 0.28 second.
**

2.3 2.2

RMS Voltages at PCC (kV)

2.1 2 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 0.2

Before Compensation After Applying TCR/FC

0.21

0.22

0.23

0.24

0.25

0.26

0.27

0.28

Time (Sec)

**Figure 10. RMS voltages at PCC from t ¼ 0.2 second to t ¼ 0.28 second.
**

Copyright # 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Euro. Trans. Electr. Power 2011; 21:824–838 DOI: 10.1002/etep

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Figure 11. IEC Flickermeter block Diagram [10].

where pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Xn ¼ X L XC ¼ rﬃﬃﬃﬃ L C (6)

and Q is quality factor in the range of 30 Q 100. It is important to note that in order to prevent of resonance, if a ﬁlter is designed for eliminating a special harmonic, lower order harmonic ﬁlters should be designed and installed at connection point. Filters installing should also be accomplished according to the harmonic order from low to high.

Figure 12. IFL curve (a) and its corresponding CPF curve (b) for 1st second before open-loop compensation.

Copyright # 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Euro. Trans. Electr. Power 2011; 21:824–838 DOI: 10.1002/etep

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By considering the fundamental reactive power, which is some percentage more than the measured one, 2nd, 3rd, 5th and 7th harmonic ﬁlters have been designed. Table I shows the values of the ﬁlters elements, that are obtained through the explained process in previous section. Figure 4 shows the frequency characteristic of the ﬁlters’ impedance as well as the ones of the system impedance. Figure 5 shows the measured reactive power at 400 kV busbar (QPCC) after applying the harmonic ﬁlters. As seen in this ﬁgure, the injected reactive power by harmonic ﬁlters provides the required reactive power for load compensation. The remnant reactive power should be absorbed by TCR. By comparing Figures 3 and 5, it can be seen that the total measured reactive power at PCC busbar before and after applying harmonic ﬁlters are approximately 951 and À8 MVAr, respectively.

5. FINAL COMPENSATION BY APPLYING THYRISTOR CONTROLLED REACTOR Figure 6 shows the scheme of a static compensator of the thyristor controlled reactor (TCR) type. By increasing the thyristor ﬁring angle, the magnitude of the component of the current reactor is reduced. This is equivalent to the increase in the effective inductance, or reduction in the reactive power absorbed by the reactor. However, it should be pointed out that the change in the reactor current may take place only at discrete points of time. It means that adjustments cannot be made more frequently than once per half-cycle. Static compensators of the TCR type are

Figure 13. IFL curve (a) and its corresponding CPF curve (b) for 1st second after open-loop compensation.

Copyright # 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Euro. Trans. Electr. Power 2011; 21:824–838 DOI: 10.1002/etep

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characterized by the ability to perform continuous control, maximum delay of one half cycle and practically no transients. The principal disadvantages of this conﬁguration are the generation of low frequency harmonic current components, and higher losses when working in the inductive region [10]. By installing the TCR at PCC busbar, remnant reactive power is absorbed by TCR. The TCR operation causes harmonic creation. In fact, when the furnaces are in their operating stage, i.e., special scraping and melting stages, different harmonics are generated and the thyristors of the TCR are turned off because of the high reactive power consumption of the furnaces. Moreover, when the charge of the furnaces is alleviated, specially in reﬁning stage, the generated harmonics from furnaces are reduced and TCR turns on in order to absorb the surplus reactive power. Therefore, some harmonics resulting from TCR operation are generated. Consequently, existing harmonics should be eliminated by harmonic ﬁlters. After determining the reactive power, which should be absorbed by TCR, the TCR desired susceptance (B) is obtained by [6] B¼ qTCR V2 (7)

where V is the root mean square (rms) voltage along the TCR. Then, the conduction angle of the TCR thyristors (s) can be found from Equation (8) [6]: B¼ s À Sins pXL (8)

Figure 14. IFL curve (a) and its corresponding CPF curve (b) for 8th second before open-loop compensation.

Copyright # 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Euro. Trans. Electr. Power 2011; 21:824–838 DOI: 10.1002/etep

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The ﬁring angle (a) of the TCR thyristors can then be obtained from the following equation [6]: aþ s ¼p 2 (9)

It should be noted that, in practice, after obtaining TCR desired susceptance in each cycle, thyristors conduction and ﬁring angles are generally determined by means of an off-line computed look-up table. Figure 7 shows the measured reactive power at 400 kV busbar after applying TCR/FC compensator. As seen in this ﬁgure, the TCR can balance the reactive power at PCC busbar properly. Figure 8 demonstrates TCR voltage and current from t ¼ 0.2 second to t ¼ 0.25 second. Figures 9 and 10 also display the voltages and the RMS voltages at PCC before and after compensation from t ¼ 0.2 second to t ¼ 0.28 second, respectively.

6. APPLYING IEC FLICKERMETER BEFORE AND AFTER OPEN-LOOP COMPENSATION The international electrotechnical commission (IEC) ﬂicker meter simulates spectator reaction independent of ﬂicker source. In fact, as the ﬂicker meter operates based on ﬂicker distinction feeling, measurement of ﬂicker is more or less relative. The basis of ﬂicker calculation by IEC ﬂicker meter is that ﬂicker intensity in input waveform is considered according to the quantity proper to the ﬂicker intensity. In this manner, the value of the corresponding quantity shows the indication level of the ﬂicker at each moment in input signal and also is an indication of the intensity and weakness of the ﬂicker. The name of this quantity is IFL. The IFL variable is an indication of instantaneous ﬂicker

Figure 15. IFL curve (a) and its corresponding CPF curve (b) for 8th second after open-loop compensation.

Copyright # 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Euro. Trans. Electr. Power 2011; 21:824–838 DOI: 10.1002/etep

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value in each moment [11–15]. Figure 11 shows the block diagram of the IEC ﬂicker meter that was simulated for ﬂicker measurements [11]. For obtaining the instantaneous ﬂicker sensation curve or short-term ﬂicker severity curve (Pst), IFL curves were evaluated for 15-second intervals, so that Pst value in each second is obtained by considering the IFL curve in the same instant. Finally, after having 15 points, instantaneous ﬂicker sensation curve is estimated. Figures 12 and 13 show the IFL curve and its corresponding CPF curve for 1st second before and after open-loop compensation, respectively. Figures 14 and 15 show the IFL curve and its corresponding CPF curve for 8th second before and after open-loop compensation, respectively. The IFL curve and its corresponding CPF curve for 15th second before and after open-loop compensation are shown in Figures 16 and 17, respectively, too. Figure 18 shows the instantaneous ﬂicker sensation curve for the PCC busbar voltage before and after compensation. As it is seen in this ﬁgure, open-loop compensation method at some points reduces ﬂicker intensity and in several points deteriorates it. Therefore, as a result, it can be stated that this controlling method of the TCR/FC cannot reduce the ﬂicker intensity, effectively. In fact, TCR absorbs average surplus reactive power injected by FC banks at each cycle and cannot follow the reactive power variations. In each cycle, TCR absorbs the average reactive power measured at previous cycle. Because of the approximate similarity of two successive cycles, the amounts of reactive power, which should be absorbed by the TCR at these two cycles, are very close together. Therefore, it can be stated that TCR cannot track down the random variations; however, it can approximately absorb the average surplus reactive power. The Pst values related to Figure 18 are demonstrated in the Table II from t ¼ 1 second to t ¼ 5 second.

Figure 16. IFL curve (a) and its corresponding CPF curve (b) for 15th second before open-loop compensation.

Copyright # 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Euro. Trans. Electr. Power 2011; 21:824–838 DOI: 10.1002/etep

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Figure 17. IFL curve (a) and its corresponding CPF curve (b) for 15th second after open-loop compensation.

Figure 18. Instantaneous ﬂicker sensation curves before (1) and after (2) open-loop compensation.

Table II. Pst values related to Figure 16 from t ¼ 1 second to t ¼ 5 second Time Pst value of curve (1) Pst value of curve (2) t ¼ 1 second 3.9649 3.5375 t ¼ 2 second 0.9200 0.9353 t ¼ 3 second 0.2396 0.2437 t ¼ 4 second 0.1293 0.1312 t ¼ 5 second 0.0931 0.0946

Copyright # 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Euro. Trans. Electr. Power 2011; 21:824–838 DOI: 10.1002/etep

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7. CONCLUSION In this paper, an industrial steel making plant, which was previously installed in Mobarakeh, Isfahan, Iran, is considered for research. An open-loop controlled TCR/FC was applied for reactive power compensation. Arc model in this paper is derived from sampling arc currents and their corresponding voltages. Then, the modulated arc voltage is considered by a band-limited white noise. This model can represent an actual arc V–I characteristic. The open-loop control scheme for reactive power compensation is accomplished. Since the open-loop controller directly calculates the requisite reactive power as a feedforward control, it gives a fast response to compensate the load reactive power consumption. Simulation results indicate that although the consumed reactive power is almost compensated, open-loop control of the TCR/FC can not effectively reduce the ﬂicker intensity.

8. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CPF EAF FC IEC IFL PCC SVC TCR Cumulative Probability Function Electric Arc Furnace Fixed Capacitor International Electrotechnical Commission Instantaneous Flicker Level Point of Common Coupling Static VAr Compensator Thyristor Controlled Reactor

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Special thanks are dedicated to the center of research and technology at University of Isfahan for their full supports. The present research work was originally related to a research project, which was successfully carried out and ﬁnalized by the authors. Special thanks go to the people of Mobarakeh Steel-Making Company for their full support to us.

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Copyright # 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Euro. Trans. Electr. Power 2011; 21:824–838 DOI: 10.1002/etep