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XV1
Section XV. Antenna reflector
1. Introduction
Virtually every antenna has a certain ground plane or a reflector. The primary goal of the
ground plane is to shape the antenna pattern (increase gain in the desired directions) and
minimize the backlobes or sidelobes or, which is the same, minimize radiation to or
reception from unwanted directions. The ground plane also has an effect on the antenna
impedance, but this effect is typically not very profound, except for metal or dielectric
surfaces closely spaced to the antenna. The design of a proper ground plane may be a
significant challenge.
The most straightforward example is the ground plane of the path antenna – the PCB
ground – or that of the VHF car monopole antenna – the car exterior. Similarly, for
airborne antennas, the ground plane is the airplane fuselage. For other symmetric dipole
like antennas, the ground plane is typically a metal or wire conducting reflector; which
should simultaneously serve as a neutral or common voltage reference for the antenna
feeding circuit. In particular, for vertical wireless communication dipoles, the ground is
represented by the Earth surface. In this section, we will review basic analytical models of
solid metal ground planes and reflectors for dipolelike antennas including the edge effects
and the simple diffraction mechanisms.
There are three common analytical models that greatly help us to understand and analyze
the effect of a ground plane or a reflector on the antenna, and to design an appropriate
antenna ground plane. They include
 Wave reflection and Geometrical Optics (GO);
 Diffraction, Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD), and Uniform Theory of
Diffraction (UTD);
 Physical Optics (PO).
1. Introduction
2. Ground plane for an electric dipole. The ì/4rule
3. Method of images
4. Extensions of the image methodcorner reflector
5. Finite ground plane – Geometrical Optics
6. Fronttoback ratio
7. Phase center of an antenna with the ground plane/reflector
8. Example – parabolic reflector
9. Edge diffraction model for the sheet ground plane
Problems
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and are commonly referred to as highfrequency methods. These models will be outlined
in the present Section, as applied to some simple antenna examples.
Even today, a large ground plane or a large reflector present a challenge for numerical
modeling of antennas as the electrical size of the complete structure increases and often
can no longer be handled with a full wave simulator, whether FEM, or FDTD, or MoM,
with an accuracy necessary for lownoise applications. Hence, the value of the related
analytical models greatly increases.
Interestingly, the same analytical models find applications in a broader area of wireless
communications that includes wireless channel estimation and path loss estimation for an
indoor or outdoor environment. The ray tracing model, which is currently widely
employed for channel estimation in terrains, uses these theories.
2. Ground plane for an electric dipole. The ì/4rule
Consider a radiating dipole above a PEC ground plane as shown in Fig. 1. We will use the
geometrical optics approximation for the incident/reflected signals and will only consider
the signal in the dipole Eplane – the xzplane. The dipole radiates two signals – the
forward wave that propagates in the positive direction of the zaxis and the backward
wave that is incident upon the metal ground plane. The backward wave is reflected by the
ground plane and is eventually added to the forward wave with a proper phase shift. The
resulting radiated field is thus a combination of the direct forward wave and the reflected
wave.
Fig. 1. Concept of a reflecting (metal) ground plane.
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Neglecting field divergence, one has a solution in the form of plane waves in time domain,
with zero phase at d z =
z
z x x
z x x
z x x
k k
d z k t E z t E
d z k t E z t E
d z k t E z t E
=
+ ÷ ÷ =
÷ + + =
÷ ÷ + =
)) ( cos( ) , (
)) ( cos( ) , (
)) ( cos( ) , (
0
ref
0
inc
0
for
e
e
e
(1)
The reflected wave has been selected in such a way that it satisfies the boundary condition
on the metal surface at z=0, i.e.
) 0 , ( ) 0 , ( 0
ref inc
= + = = = = z t E z t E E E
x x tx t
(2)
Note that Eq. (1) is the exact solution to the reflection problem in plane wave geometry.
Thus, the total forward radiated field becomes a combination of two signals
( ) ) 2 cos( cos ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
0
ref for total
t e e ÷ ÷ + = = + = = = d k t t E d z t E d z t E d z t E
z x x x x
(3)
phase shifted by
t v + = d k
z
2 (4)
The result is clearly obtained in the form
) 2 / cos( ) 2 / cos( 2 ) , (
0
total
v e v ÷ = = t E d z t E
x x
(5)
but Eq. (4) for the phase shift is generally more important to us. It says that the resulting
phase shift includes two contributions:
i. the shift of t or the Efield phase reversal due to the reflection from a PEC
boundary;
ii. plus the shift ì t / 4 2 d d k
z
= , which corresponds to time delay of a reflected
signal over the travel distance of 2d.
If there were no phase reversal (e.g. a perfect magnetic boundary was present instead of a
metal boundary), the dipole close to ground plane would radiate forward twice the field
(and four times the power) compared to that in free space. When phase reversal is present,
the total forward radiation is nearly zero when ) ( 0 t v ÷ ÷ d . So is the input resistance
of the antenna. This is why the dipole close to a metal surface is a very poor antenna
radiator. The physical reason for it is the appearance of surface induced currents on the
metal ground plane that are oppositely directed and radiate a field in antiphase with the
main current.
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The optimal separation distance – optimal for the maximum total radiated field – is
achieved when v in Eqs. (4) and (5) is zero or a multiple of 2t , i.e. when 4 / ì = d , or
4 / 3ì = d , or etc. This separation distance is an important design parameter, not only for
the horizontal dipole above a ground plane but also in many other cases.
The phase reversal at the reflection from the metal boundary is responsible for a number
of interesting effects. In particular, the righthanded circularly polarized (RHCP) signal
will be reflected as the left handed circularly polarized (LHCP) signal from a metal
boundary, and vice versa. Here, we can immediately see a way to eliminate or reduce a
multipath: if an antenna is intended for RHCP reception then it will only receive the
original RHCP signal but will reject at least its first reflections that are LHCP.
Finally we note that the above derivation (Eq. (5)) can indeed be done in the phasor form
and the final result becomes
  ) exp( ) sin( 2 ) 2 / exp( ) 2 / cos( 2 ) , (
0 0
total
d jk E d k j j E d z t
z x z x x
÷ = ÷ = = v v E (6)
The term in square brackets is recognized as the array factor – see below in the following
Sections. The term ) exp( d jk
z
÷ is of little importance to us– it contributes to the absolute
solution phase only.
As another example of the general character of the “ì/4” rule, which may appear in many
other situations, let us consider a feed of a standard horn that is typically given by a
coaxiallydriven monopole in the cavity – see Fig.2. The length of the monopole is mostly
defined by the impedance matching criteria and may vary from horn to horn. However, the
horn’s feed separation from the side wall is again close to 4 / ì = d , to enable the proper
reflection.
Fig. 2. Feed placement for a horn cavity.
3. Method of images
The next question is how does the ground plane work for other separation distances and
elevation angles different from zenith? Unfortunately, the answer cannot be given in
closed form for an arbitrary antenna and a finite ground plane. However, the exact answer
can be given for an arbitrary antenna over an infinite ground plane using the socalled
image method – see Fig. 3.
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The idea of the image method is simple and powerful: let’s remove the PEC ground plane
but put another (image) dipole at the distance –d from the origin, i.e. symmetrically versus
the ground plane position. It is then clear that the required boundary condition
0 =
t
E (7)
is satisfied everywhere on the plane of the ground due to field cancellation – see Fig. 1.
This fact can proved for the tangential Ecomponent by field superposition, not only for
normal incidence direction, but also for any point in the xyplane. Thus, the two dipoles
will radiate in the upper hemisphere as one dipole above the ground plane since both
configurations satisfy Maxwell’s equations and the same boundary conditions. The
radiation to the lower hemisphere must be zero, but this is not the case for the image
method. Therefore, the image method works only for the exterior problem (upper
hemisphere that includes the dipole) and cannot formally provide the null in the interior
(lower hemisphere).
Fig. 3a. Method of images for a horizontal dipole above a ground plane. The ground plane effect
is replaced by that of the image dipole.
How does current in the image dipole flow? Fig. 3b illustrates the answer to this question:
remember that the radiated Efield is always directed parallel with the current. To satisfy
the PEC boundary conditions we thus need two oppositely directed currents. When put
close to one another, the opposite currents radiate two oppositely directed fields that also
cancel each other – one might say that the antenna is “shorted out” and becomes itself a
nonradiating transmission line.
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Fig. 3b. Current and field directions.
The ground plane alters both the antenna impedance and the radiation pattern. The image
method allows us to find the corrected dipole impedance and the resulting radiation
pattern analytically. Let’s start with the impedance first. The treatment in what follows
will be essentially that of Ref. [3]. Two dipoles: the original one and the image are
mutually coupled through the impedance matrix (see Section II)
=
2
1
22 21
12 11
2
1
I
I
Z Z
Z Z
V
V
(7)
where index 1 corresponds to the original dipole; index 2 – to the image. For reciprocal
identical antennas, the mutual and self impedances are identical, i.e.
22 11 21 12
, Z Z Z Z = = (8)
The active or drivingpoint impedance of the original dipole (the impedance under
presence of the image dipole) becomes from Eq. (7)
12 11
2
1
12 11
1
1
1
Z Z
I
I
Z Z
I
V
Z
d
÷ = + = ÷ (9)
since currents
2 1
, I I are equal in magnitude but are oppositely directed – see Fig. 3b. Once
12
Z is known as in Section II, the dipole impedance above the ground plane simply
coincides with
d
Z
1
from Eq. (9). One special case that should be evaluated is when the
separation d approaches zero. Then
11 12
Z Z ÷ (two dipoles tend to coincide) and
0
1
÷
d
Z , which again means that the original antenna is “shorted out”.
Now, let’s proceed with the radiation pattern of a single horizontal infinitesimally small
dipole [1] centered at origin and oriented along the xaxis. The pattern is conveniently
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presented in spherical coordinates. The phasor of the electric field has the form (Section
IV)
m u
t
n
u
2 2 0
sin sin 1
4
) exp(
÷
÷
=
r
r jk l kI
j E (10)
If the dipole were of a finite length, with the sinusoidal current distribution, the pattern
expression would become as in Section IV.
We know that neither the pattern magnitude nor its polarization should change when we
move the dipole (or any other antenna) by a certain finite distance, say ±d, from the origin
– any linear translation cannot change the pattern magnitude or add new polarization
components. What changes, however, is the phase since the signal from the dipole spaced
closer to the observation point will arrive earlier, no matter how large the absolute
distance to that point is. Thus, for ±d translation along the zaxis, one needs to replace r in
the phase factor ) exp( r jk ÷ in Eq. (10) by a new distance r'. According to the law of
cosines and Fig. 4
Fig. 4. Radiation geometry in spherical coordinates. The dipole offset from the origin is given by
±d.
u u u cos 2 1 cos 2 ; cos 2
2
2 2 2 2 2

.

\


.

\

+ = + = ' + = '
r
d
r
d
r rd d r r rd d r r
(11)
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with d/r being a small parameter u , 1 << u . Using Taylor series expansion and keeping
only dominant terms, one has
) ( cos ; ) ( cos 1
2 2
u u u u rO d r r O
r
d
r r + = ' +

.

\

= ' (12)
which leads to (after substitution of r' instead of r)
m u
t
u
n
u
2 2 2 , 1 2 , 1
sin sin 1
4
) cos exp( ) exp(
÷
± ÷
=
r
d jk r jk l kI
j E (13)
where
2 , 1
u
E are the fields radiated by the original dipole and by the image dipole,
respectively;
0 2 , 1
I I ± = . The total field is given by their sum, i.e.
m u
t
n u m u
u
2 2 0 total
sin sin 1
4
) exp(
)] cos sin( 2 [ ) , , ( ÷
÷
=
r
r jk l kI
j kd j r E (14)
Once again we recognize the factor in square brackets as the array factor – one may want
to compare this result to Eq. (6) at u=0. One reason for emphasizing this name is that the
linear pattern of two dipoles (or one dipole above the ground plane) is obtained as the
single pattern multiplied by the array factor – see Eq.(10). Another reason is that the array
factor does not really change from antenna to antenna: if we repeat the above derivation
not for the infinitesimally small dipole but for a dipole of arbitrary length we will have
exactly the same array factor in front of the corresponding singledipole pattern.
However, the array factor will change if the current directions in two dipoles were not the
opposite (phase shift of t) but the same (phase shift of 0). This happens, for example, for a
horizontal dipole above a PMC ground plane. Another (and more important) example is
that of the vertical dipole above the ground plane, when the image current flows in the
same direction as the current in the actual dipole [1]. Instead of subtracting two exponents
in the case of the opposite current flow
) cos sin( 2 ) cos exp( ) cos exp( u u u kd j d jk d jk = + ÷ + (15a)
one should add them together in order to obtain the array factor in the form
) cos cos( 2 ) cos exp( ) cos exp( u u u kd d jk d jk = + + + (15b)
The antenna arrays considered in the following text extensively use the array factor for
pattern synthesis. However, more generic (phased) arrays usually use a certain prescribed
(not necessarily 0 or t) phase shift between the individual elements.
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4. Extensions of the image methodcorner reflector
4.1 General
The method of images can be quite helpful in other antenna problems like that of the
corner reflector antenna shown in Fig. 5a to 5d. The dipole pattern is shaped by two finite
ground planes, with corner (or flare) angle o. The cornerreflector antenna is made up of
two plane reflector panels and a dipole element. This arrangement prohibits radiation in
the back and side directions and hence makes the antenna more directional. The antenna is
useful in obtaining gains of up to 12 dB. Its major advantage is construction flexibility and
simplicity.
The method of images is shown schematically in Fig. 5a. It assumes three image dipoles
(one for every plane plus one “balancing” image dipole). All four dipoles (the original one
plus three images) form two polar dipole pairs that cancel the tangential Efield on both
corner planes. Again, the field outside the corner angle is nonphysical and should be
ignored.
The method of images is a reasonable assumption when the corner plates are rather long
and the dipole is located far way from the corner edges. Again, this method allows us to
find the dipole impedance and the resulting radiation pattern. These calculations are done
in particular in [3] and in many other sources – see [6]; we will consider them below as an
example.
Fig. 5a. The corner reflector with corner angle of 90 deg – top view – and the related method of
images.
The method of images could be applied to other corner angles, for example 60 deg – see
Fig. 5b ([6]). There are five image dipoles now, according to the anticipated symmetry.
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Fig. 5b. Corner reflector with corner angle of 60 deg – top view – and the related method of
images.
According to [6] , the method of images is applicable for corner angles equal to 180 deg/n,
where n is any positive integer. This is a wellknown fact in electrostatics. Corners of 180
degrees (flat sheet), 90, 60, 45 degrees, etc., can be treated by this method. The
performance of corner reflectors of intermediate angles cannot be determined by this
method but can be interpolated approximately from the others.
Could the method of images be applied to a corner angle higher than 180 deg? Such an
opportunity would be really inviting since the corner becomes an infinite metal wedge and
one might be able to treat the wedge diffraction problem – one of the most complicated
problem for any kind of ray tracing algorithm – by a simple mean. Unfortunately, the
images need to be place into free space for such an approach; this circumstance violates
the image method itself.
4.2 Corner reflector antenna
Returning back to the corner reflector antenna, in general, its feed element is almost
always a dipole or an array of collinear dipoles placed parallel to the vertex a distance s
away, as shown in Fig. 5a (top view). To obtain a greater bandwidth the feed elements are
thick cylindrical or biconical dipoles instead of thin wires. The aperture of the corner
reflector (D) is usually made between one and two wavelengths ( ) ì ì 2 < < D [1]. The
feedtovertex distance (s) is usually taken to be between a third and twothirds of the
wavelength( ) 3 / 2 3 / ì ì < < s [1].
For each reflector, there is an optimum feedtovertex spacing. If the spacing becomes too
small, the radiation resistance decreases and becomes comparable to the loss resistance of
the system which results in an inefficient antenna. For very large spacing, the system
produces undesirable multilobes, and it loses its directional characteristics [2]. The length
of the sides of the 90
o
corner reflector is mostly taken to be twice the distance from the
vertex to the feed( ) s L 2 ~ . The height (H) of the reflector is usually taken to be about 1.2
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XV11
to 1.5 times greater than the total length of the feed element, in order to reduce radiation
towards the back region from the ends.
Figs. 5c and 5d show typical UHF corner reflectors at 433 MHz, with variable flare angle.
The antenna impedance bandwidth covers the band from 415MHz to at least 465 MHz.
The fine impedance tuning could be made by a slight variation of the distance s, without
affecting much the radiation pattern. The corner ground plane is not floating; it is always
connected to the outer conductor of the coaxial splittube balun.
Fig. 5c. Typical dimensions for a 433 MHz corner reflector.
Fig. 5d. Typical wideradiation angle UHF corner reflector dipoles at 433 MHz. Antenna Lab,
ECE Dept./WPI.
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5. Finite ground plane – Geometrical Optics
A question of significant practical importance relates to understanding the impact of the
finite ground plane. The geometry of a dipole antenna above the finite ground plane is
shown schematically in Fig. 6. A first naive guess about the field distribution of the
antenna is that of pure geometrical optics (GO)– see Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Geometrical optics approximation for a dipole above a finite ground plane.
In terms of geometrical optics, the total field is considered to be a combination of rays
emanating from the dipole and then reflected from the metal surface according to the
Snell’s law, that is [3]
0 ) ( , 0 ) (
1 2 1 2
= + · = ÷ × S S n S S n
(16a)
where
2 1
, S S
are the incident and reflected ray directions, respectively; n
is the unit outer
normal to the reflector surface. From Eq. (16a), one can express
1
S
through
2
S
and vice
versa
n S n S S n S n S S
) ( 2 , ) ( 2
1 1 2 2 2 1
· ÷ = · ÷ = (16b)
Both expressions indeed coincide due to reciprocity.
According to geometrical optics, the field everywhere within the reflection boundary (RB)
in Fig. 6 is a combination of the incident (lineofsight or LOS signal) and the reflected
signal (RS). The field everywhere outside the reflection boundary but still inside the
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XV13
shadow boundary (SB) is the LOS signal from the dipole. The field below the shadow
boundary is zero. The diffracted field in Fig. 6 is ignored.
6. Fronttoback ratio
Is the field in the shadow zone really zero? If it is, then a small reflector might be
completely sufficient for a dipole antenna. In practice, however, one prefers to use
reflectors as large as possible, despite apparent size and weight constraints. This points us
to the fact that a finite ground plane does not quite follow the laws of geometrical optics.
In order to estimate the accuracy of geometrical optics, consider first a numerical example
of a halfwave strip (o blade) dipole spaced a quarter wavelength apart from the square
ground plane of a variable size. The geometry is shown in Fig. 7; the dipole width is
ì/150.
Fig. 7. Geometry for a halfwave dipole with quarter wave separation. The xzplane is the Eplane
of the dipole; the yzplane is the Hplane. The size, G, of the ground plane shown in this figure is
approximately 1.7ì.
We will further vary the ground plane size, G, as 0.5ì, 1.0ì, 1.5ì, and 2.0ì and start
looking at two radiation patterns: total gain in the Eplane of the antenna (the xzplane)
and total gain in the Hplane (the yzplane). For the selected dipole geometry, total gain is
close to elevation gain. The corresponding results (both rectangular and polar plots) are
shown in Fig. 8 that follows. These are obtained with Ansoft HFSS software (using
radiation boundary of a sufficiently large size and fine meshes with about 100,000
tetrahedra).
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Fig. 8. Radiation pattern of the dipole above a finite ground plane of variable size. Left –
rectangular plot; right – the equivalent polar plot.
One can see from Fig. 8 that there is in fact no shadow zone beneath the ground plane.
Moreover, the radiation in the backward direction is quite significant. The backward
radiation indeed decreases, when the ground plane size increases, but not monotonically.
The ratio of power gain at zenith (in the direction of maximum radiation) to the gain in the
opposite direction (at nadir) is called the fronttoback ratio. For the gain in dB, this ratio
is just a difference between two gain values. For the present example, this ratio is given in
Table 2.
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Table 2. Fronttoback ration for horizontal dipole as a function of ground plane size
(square ground plane).
Ground plane size, G Fronttoback ratio, dB
0.5ì
~8 dB
1.0ì
~14 dB
1.5ì
~21 dB
2.0ì
~21 dB
One can see that performance obviously improving as the size of the ground plane
increases. From the view point of performance/size ratio, the most beneficial is perhaps
the ground plane on the size of about 1.5ì – the incremental performance deteriorates after
this point.
Note that the fullwave numerical simulations for a large ground plane meet considerable
difficulties. For example, in Ansoft HFSS, even the flat ground plane of 34ì can hardly
be simulated at present (accurate fronttoback ratio) on an ordinary PC, either with the
radiation box or with the PML. For antenna modeling on large metal platforms, including
aircrafts and ships, other methods are necessary that are considered below.
7. Phase center of an antenna with the ground plane/reflector
The phase center of an antenna is the local center of curvature of the farfield phase front.
In other words it is the center of a sphere that is tangent to the farfield phase front for a
given direction (observation angle). It is clear that the phase center is in general
frequency and angledependent. The phase center is important in applications such as
GPS navigation and indoor geolocation as long as the antenna has a significant physical
dimension. If not, then the antenna phase center may be approximated by its geometrical
center. The directionofarrival (DOA) or timeorarrival (TOA) methods for source
location will rather point to the antenna phase center but not to its physical center.
For a simple dipole without the ground plane, the farfield is given by Eq. (10). Its
inspection shows that the phase front is angleindependent and is also frequency
independent. The phase center coincides with the physical center of the antenna.
Note: Why is the ground plane important? Consider one example: a GPS antenna.
You already know how weak the received signal could be. Now, imagine all the
noise that is coming from Earth ground and surroundings. If the ground plane does
not block it properly, this noise may entirely mask the useful signal.
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For a dipole (and any other antenna) with a reflector the situation changes. Consider Eq.
(14) for the horizontal dipole pattern above the infinite ground plane. Even though there
seems to be no explicit phase variation in the far field, remember that radiusvector r
is
now measured from the ground plane. Therefore, the phase center is now the center of the
ground plane, for any frequency and for any dipole height. In other words, it is located
exactly in the middle between the dipole and its image.
When the ground plane is that of finite size or just small, the phase center is expected to be
located somewhere between the ground plane and the dipole – see Fig. 9 – for the effect of
the ground plane is less profound. It is also expected to have an angular dependence,
especially at low elevation angles versus the ground plane.
Fig. 9. A schematic that illustrates the phase center of the dipole antenna above a finite ground
plane.
Tranquilla and Best [7] have investigated the phase center of a monopole above a
concentric wiremade ground plane. The ground plane was an array of eight quarter
wavelength radial ground plane rods. They found that the computed distance from the
monopole base to the phase center varies between 0.120.15ì except at zenith where the
abrupt phase reversal in the field leads to a discontinuity in the plot of the phase center
location. The angular position information indicates that the phase center remains near but
not on the actual monopole axis (z>0) except for observation angles approaching the
zenith or ground plane angles. This is contrary to DeJong’s formulation [8], which places
the phase center along the negative monopole image axis. See also early Carter's work [9].
The phase center of horn antennas has been investigated in great detail  see [1] for a list
of references  for it is critical in the proper design of a hornfed reflector antenna.
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8. Example – parabolic reflector
Despite all critics of the geometrical optics, it may be quite useful for certain problems;
among them is the concept of the parabolic reflector schematically shown in Fig. 10. We
require that any ray emanating from the center F of a reflecting surface will propagate as a
plane wave in the positive xdirection. The opposite is also true: a plane wave incident into
the negative direction of the xaxis should be focused at point F.
Fig. 10. A concept of the parabolic reflector.
Based on the GO model, one can establish the form of the surface needed to satisfy those
specifications. We will use the Snell’s law given by first expression in Eq. (16b). It is also
more convenient to use indexes inc and ref instead of 1 and 2. With reference to Fig. 10,
Eq. (16b) reads
n S n S S
) ( 2
ref ref inc
· ÷ = (16c)
where y n x n n
2 1
+ = is the unit surface normal, y x S y x S
0 1 , sin cos
ref inc
+ · = + = m m .
Symbols y x
, denote unit vectors in the x and ydirections, respectively. Substitution into
Eq. (16c) gives
2 1
2
1
2 sin , 2 1 cos n n n ÷ = ÷ = m m (16d)
The solution to the surface normal is straightforward:
2
cos ,
2
sin
2 1
m m
÷ = = n n (16e)
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The surface equation can then be established based on the expression of the surface
normal. An easier way, however, is to use the identity
f SQ FS 2 = + (16f)
which again states that the plane wave of constant phase is created by the reflector. With
reference to Fig. 10, we arrive at the surface equation in the form
( ) 2 / sin
, cos ,
2
m
p m p p
f
SQ SF = ÷ = = (16g)
which is the familiar parabolic surface equation.
9. Edge diffraction model for the sheet ground plane
Aside from a numerical simulation, is there an analytical model that can provide us with
an explanation of the radiation in the shadow zone of the antenna ground plane? The
answer is indeed yes and it relies upon a famous solution for the wedge diffraction
obtained by Arnold Sommerfeld some 120 years ago (in 1896) – see, for example, [10]
[13]. The approach was based on the fact that wave functions (solutions) to a diffraction
problem may not be unique in a physical space but are unique in Riemann space, which is
a generalization of Riemann surfaces used in the theory of functions of complex variables.
A certain contour integral on the complex plane was therefore formulated and then solved.
Other methods have been considered for both metal edge and metal wedge that are based
on Bessel functions expansions [11][15]
1
. The literature on modern diffraction methods
related to antenna problems is extensive – see, for example, [3], [4],[11],[15].
Consider Fig. 6 again. When the signal from the dipole reaches the edge of the ground
plane a diffraction occurs so that the edge will start to radiate in all directions, including
the antenna backlobe. Hence, the shadow zone disappears. The diffraction phenomenon
becomes significant in a number of antenna applications. In particular, the design of a
large parabolic reflector antenna is impossible without taking into account the diffraction
effects (see below in this Section).
The scattering problem on a 2D metal wedge might appear to be similar to that of the
corner reflector but the corner angle should now be greater than 180 deg – see section 1.4
above. Unfortunately, this circumstance makes it impossible to apply the image method.
Instead, one has to develop a more complicated solution that extensively uses Bessel
functions. Below, we will generally follow the Sommerfeld’s solution given in terms of
1
The original Sommerfeld’s derivation is complicated and it is skipped not only in the classic antenna books
[1],[3],[4] but also in more advanced EM sources [11]. The derivation of the Sommerfeld’s result from a
series of Bessel functions on the order of n+1/2i s given in [12],[15].
ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector
XV19
Fresnel integrals. We will first consider the “knife edge” diffraction and then proceed to a
more complicated wedge diffraction.
9.1. Incident field Consider the geometry shown in Fig. 11a. The incident field is a plane
wave (not a dipole) that is polarized in zdirection – it is thus TM to z wave according to
the generally accepted terminology
2
. We introduce cylindrical coordinates
kr R z r y r x = = = ; , cos , cos m m (17)
where k is the freespace wavenumber.
Fig. 11a. Metal edge excited by a plane wave (“knife edge” diffraction).
In the phasor form, the incident plane wave field in Fig. 11a is given by
  0 , sin , cos ), exp(
inc inc 0
inc
m m k k k r k j E E
z
÷ ÷ = · ÷ =
(18)
or, when expanded results in Eq. (19),
]) sin sin cos [cos exp( ) exp(
inc inc 0 0
inc
m m m m + = ÷ ÷ = jkr E x jk x jk E E
y x z
(19)
2
In this and in some other contexts, acronyms TM and TE are mostly used to specify the direction of the
electric field and magnetic field in a plane traveling wave. Originally however, the separation into TM and
TE modes comes from waveguide physics where it has a significant physical meaning.
ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector
XV20
Eq. (19) yields the wellknown representation of the plane wave in cylindrical coordinates
)) cos( exp(
inc 0
inc
m m ÷ = jR E E
z
(20a)
Simultaneously, for the plane wave reflected back from the infinite metal ground plane,
)) cos( exp(
inc 0
ref
m m + = jR E E
z
(20b)
9.2.Scattered field and total field
The total solution to the problem is a combination of the incident field and the scattered
field. The total field must satisfy Maxwell’s equations (usually in the form of wave
equations) and boundary conditions, i.e.
0 at 0 ;
total
t
scatt inc total
= = + = m E E E E
(21)
It is usually the matter of convenience what field is sought: the scattered field or the total
field. Since the incident field is known a priori both approaches should yield the same
result. In the present problem, we will proceed with the total field. The solution for the
total field is assumed to have the same TM polarization form. In cylindrical coordinates,
this can be represented by
0 , ,
1
); , ( , 0
total
total
total
total
stotal
total total total total
=
c
c
÷ =
c
c
=
= = =
z
z z
r
z z r
H
R
E jk
H
E
R
jk
H
R E E E E
eu m eu
m
m
m
(22)
9.3. Exact solution
The form in which the solution is sought is critical for the subsequent analysis. The
solution to the present problem will use the prerequisites of geometrical optics. A more
simple solution to the problem is obtained when we replace the edge (a half of the infinite
ground plane) by the infinite ground plane itself. One has
)) cos( exp( )) cos( exp(
inc 0 inc 0
scatt inc total
m m m m + ÷ ÷ = + = jR E jR E E E E
z z z
(23)
In that case, the scattered field is just the reflected field and no special fullwave analysis
of the scatterer is necessary in contrast to other examples. Now, for a semiinfinite ground
plane (the edge), one may extend Eq. (23) by
) , ( ) , (
inc inc
scatt inc total
m m m m + ÷ ÷ = + = R E R E E E E
z z z
(24)
where E is a solution to Maxwell’s equations with the augmented boundary conditions that
becomes the plane wave far enough from the edge. Sommerfeld has found that
ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector
XV21
÷ ÷ = ÷
í
·
t
ì ì
t
m m m m d j
j
jR E R E ) exp( )) cos( exp( ) , (
2
inc 0 inc
(25)
where
2
cos 2
inc
m m
t
÷
÷ = R (26)
The integral
j
d j d j F
t
ì ì ì ì t
t
2
1
) exp( , ) exp( ) (
0
2 2
= ÷ ÷ =
í í
· ·
(27)
is the original the Fresnel integral; it is now common to use Fresnel integrals C and S
3
in
the form
j
F F jS C
j
F
t
t t t
t
t
t
t t
t = ÷ +


.

\

÷


.

\

÷ = ) ( ) ( ,
2 2
2 2
1
) ( (28)
The asymptotic behavior, which is mostly needed for the analytical solution in the far
field, is as follows
÷· ÷
÷
÷
+· ÷
÷
÷
t
t
t t
t
t
t
t
t
at
2
) exp(
 ) (
at
2
) exp(
) (
2
2
j
j
j
F
j
j
F
(29)
Note that for the TE plane wave incidence
4
(Efield is perpendicular to the edge corner),
the Efield in Eqs. (23)(25) is replaced by the Hfield, which is now parallel to the edge,
3
Integrals dx x u S
u
í

.

\

=
0
2
2
1
sin ) ( t and dx x u C
u
í

.

\

=
0
2
2
1
cos ) ( t are implemented in Mathematica and
MATLAB (in Version 7.1.0 R14 of 2005 but not in the most recent versions of MATLAB).
4
Quite often in the literature, the TE incidence case is designated as the hardsurface case whereas the TM
incidence case is designated as the softsurface case, by analogy with acoustics (Neumann or Dirichlet
boundary conditions, respectively).
ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector
XV22
and the minus sign on the righthand side of Eqs. (23),(24) is replaced by plus, that is
[11],[12],[15]
) , ( ) , (
inc inc
scatt inc total
m m m m + + ÷ = + = R H R H H H H
z z z
(30a)
÷ ÷ = ÷
í
·
t
ì ì
t
m m m m d j
j
jR H R H ) exp( )) cos( exp( ) , (
2
inc 0 inc
(30b)
9..4. Far field
The Fresnel integrals are highly oscillatory fields close to origin in Fig. (9), i.e. at 0 ÷ t .
However, they stabilize at large argument amplitudes. We are mostly interested in the
radiation pattern that, except for the nondecaying incident and reflected plane waves
includes the decaying diffracted field. That diffracted field behaves as R / 1 , which
corresponds to a finite contribution into the farfield radiation pattern for a 2D geometry
since the radiation intensity behaves as 1 ~ ) / 1 (
2
R R . Thus, Eq. (24) may be in general
rewritten as
diff ref inc total
z z z z
E E E E + + = (31)
where the separation is now made of the scattered field into the reflected one and the
diffracted one. There are three solution regions marked in Fig. 11a. We’ll consider every
of them separately:
Region I, above the reflection boundary RBFig. 11b. In that region, both the incident
wave and the reflected wave exist. Furthermore,
· ÷ ÷· ÷ >
+
>
÷
R
inc inc
at , 0
2
cos , 0
2
cos t
m m m m
in both terms on the right hand side of Eq. (24). According to Eqs. (24)(29),
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷
÷
÷ =
÷
+ =
+ ÷ =
÷ + =
+ + =
) 2 / ) cos((
1
) 2 / ) cos((
1
2 2
1
) exp(
) , (
)) cos( exp(
)) cos( exp(
inc inc
inc 0
diff
inc 0
ref
inc 0
inc
diff ref inc total
m m m m
t
m m
m m
m m
kj
D
r
jkr
D E E
jR E E
jR E E
E E E E
z
z
z
z z z z
(32a)
where D (a linear complex field pattern) is called a diffraction coefficient.
ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector
XV23
Fig. 11b. Region I for edge diffraction.
Region II, between the reflection boundary RB and shadow boundary SBFig.11c. In
that region,
· ÷ · ÷ <
+
>
÷
R
inc inc
at , 0
2
cos , 0
2
cos t
m m m m
and there should not be a reflected wave. The use of Eqs. (24)(29) gives precisely the
expected result:
r
jkr
D E E
E
jR E E
E E E E
z
z
z
z z z z
) exp(
) , (
0
)) cos( exp(
inc 0
diff
ref
inc 0
inc
diff ref inc total
÷
+ =
=
÷ + =
+ + =
m m
m m
(32b)
ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector
XV24
Fig. 11c. Region II for edge diffraction.
Region III, the shadow boundary SBFig. 11d. In that region,
· ÷ · ÷ <
+
<
÷
R
inc inc
at , 0
2
cos , 0
2
cos t
m m m m
Neither the incident wave nor the reflected wave is expected to exist. The use of Eqs. (24)
(29) again confirms this conclusion,
r
jkr
D E E
E
E
E E E E
z
z
z
z z z z
) exp(
) , (
0
0
inc 0
diff
ref
inc
diff ref inc total
÷
+ =
=
=
+ + =
m m
(32c)
ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector
XV25
Fig. 11d. Region III for edge diffraction.
Note that the diffraction coefficient has the same form in all three cases. Again, for TE
plane wave incidence on a edge, the diffraction coefficient has the same form as in Eq.
(31) but relates to the Hfield, with the minus sign in curled brackets replaced by a plus
[11]. In the dimensionless form,
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷
÷
÷
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷ + =
) 2 / ) cos((
1
) 2 / ) cos((
1 ) exp(
2 2
1
inc inc
0
diff
m m m m
t R
jR
j
E E
z
(33a)
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
+
÷
÷
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷ + =
) 2 / ) cos((
1
) 2 / ) cos((
1 ) exp(
2 2
1
inc inc
0
diff
m m m m
t R
jR
j
H H
z
(33b)
One can now generalize the above result to state that the diffracted ray (diffraction
coefficient) from an edge is also given by Eq. (31) when an arbitrary incident field at the
edge is given by
0
E . This field can be that of a plane wave, a line source, a finitelength
dipole, or the field from a previous diffraction.
ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector
XV26
References
[1] C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory. Analysis and Design, Wiley, New York, 2005 3
rd
ed., pp. 883884.
[2] R.C. Johnson and H. Jasik, “Antenna Engineering Handbook”, third edition,
McGrawHill Book Company, 1993.
[3] T. A. Milligan, Modern Antenna Design, WileyIEEE Press, New York, 2005.
[4] W. Stutzman and G. A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, Wiley, New York,
1998, 2
nd
edition.
[5] L. Diaz and T. A. Milligan, Antenna Engineering Using Physical Optics, Artech
House, Boston, 1996.
[6] J. D. Kraus, “The corner reflector antenna,” Proceedings of the I.R.E., Nov. 1940,
pp. 514519.
[7] J. M. Tranquilla and S. R. Best, "Phase center considerations for the monopole
antenna, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. AP34, no 5, pp. 741744, May,
1986.
[8] G. DeJong, “The phase centre of a monopole antenna,” Radio Sci., vol. 17, no. 2, pp.
349355, 1982.
[9] D. C. Carter, “Phase centres of microwave antennas,” IRE Trans. Antennas
Propagat., vol. AP4, pp. 597600, 1956.
[10] A. Sommerfeld, Optics, Academic Press, New York, pp. 245265.
[11] A. Ishimary, Electromagnetic Wave Propagation, Radiation, and Scattering,
Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1991.
[12] H. Bateman, The Mathematical Analysis of Electrical and Optical Wave Motion on
The Basis of Maxwell’s Equations, Diver Publications, Inc., 1955.
[13] J. Van Bladel, Singular Electromagnetic Fields and Sources, IEEE Press,
Piscataway, NJ, 1991.
[14] J. Meixner, “The behavior of electromagnetic fields at edges,” IEEE Trans.
Antennas Propagation, vol. 20, pp. 442446, 1954.
[15] C. A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, Wiley, New York, 1989.
ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector
XV27
Review Questions
1. Please, formulate the ì/4 rule for the dipole with a metal ground plane in your own
words.
2. A dipole operates at 1GHz. At which distance from the dipole should the ground
plane be located?
3. What is the maximum gain for the dipole with a properly located ground plane?
4. Which ground plane size is most beneficial for the dipole from the viewpoint of
performance/size ratio, in terms of operating wavelength ì?
ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector
XV28
Problems
Problem 1. Equations of subsection 3
give an approximation for the dipole
field above a metal ground plane, i.e.
above the perfect electric conductor
(PEC) in the ideal case. One could
consider an impedance ground plane in
Fig. 1 with a nonzero surface impedance
(boundary condition on the reflecting
surface) given by
0 ,
) 0 (
) 0 (
=
=
=
÷
S
y
x
S
Z
z H
z E
Z
1. Derive the dipole field above the
ground when
) 0 ) 0 ( ( = = · = z H Z
y S
. This case
is known as perfect magnetic
conductor (PMC).
2. Find separation values d (in terms of
wavelength) necessary for optimal
separation distance – optimal for the
maximum total radiated field.
Problem 2. Repeat Problem 1 when
O = n j Z
S
(an inductive surface
impedance)
5
. Consider normal incidence
only.
Problem 3. The field of a infinitesimally
small dipole above a ground plane is
given by:
m u
t
n
u m u
u
2 2
0
total
sin sin 1
4
) exp(
)] cos sin( 2 [ ) , , (
÷
×
÷
× =
r
r jk l kI
j
kd j r E
5
More precisely, units for surface impedance are
not exactly Ohms but Ohms per square – see
Section III.
Find analytical expression for total
radiated power in terms of feed current
for 4 / ì = d
6
.
Problem 4. The combination of two
horizontal perpendicular dipoles shown
in the figure that follows is known as a
turnstile antenna. It is commonly used
for creating dual independent
polarization or circular polarization. In
this problem we will assume
infinitesimally small dipoles. By
applying the method of images it is
possible to evaluate parameters of a
circularlypolarized antenna above a
metal ground plane.
1. Obtain an analytical expression
for the total radiated electric field
of the turnstile above the ground
plane assuming independent
currents (phasors) in the dipole
feeds
2 , 1
I and dipoles of the same
length l.
2. Plot total normalized directivity
in the Hplane to scale when
0 2 1
I I I = = and 4 / ì = d , and
show on the same graph
6
This is a difficult question; integrate over
azimuthal angle first and then introduce a new
integration variable u cos = t .
ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector
XV29
directivity of only dipole 1
( 0 ,
2 0 1
= = I I I ).
Problem 5. Let’s denote dipole 1 in the
figure to Problem 4 as dipole X and
dipole 2 as dipole Y, according to the
axes of Cartesian coordinates. The total
electric field, E
, of two dipoles in the H
plane of dipole X becomes
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
Y X
Y X Y X
jE E L
jE E R y E x E E
÷
+ + = + =
where ) (
2
1
, y j x L R
= are the so
called righthanded circular polarization
(RHCP) and lefthanded circular
polarization (LHCP) orthogonal unit
vectors, respectively. These vector
determine the RHCP and LHCP
components of the total field – see, for
example, [3]. From this equation, one
obtains (RHCP) polarization isolation,
or crosspolarization ratio
C
p , in the
form
L
R
C
E
E
= p . Polarization isolation is
generally measured in dB and shows how
is good is quality of circular polarization
produced by an antenna. With all other
data identical to these from Problem 3
and 4 / ì = d ,
1. Plot
C
p (dB) in the Hplane of
dipole X to scale when
0 2 0 1
, jI I I I ÷ = = ;
2. Plot
C
p (dB) in the Hplane of
dipole X to scale when
0 2 0 1
, I I jI I = = ;
3. Plot normalized RHCP gain
7
for
either case 1 or 2.
4. Polarization isolation of a GPS
RHCP antenna should be 15 dB
or better. Over which beamwidth
is this value achieved?
5. Will your result change if the E
plane of dipole X is considered?
6. Why cannot we have a good
polarization isolation over the
entire hemisphere? Explain your
answer. Could you suggest a
possible solution?
Problem 6. Figure that follows shows a
vertical electrical dipole above a ground
plane. In this problem we will assume an
infinitesimally small.
1. Obtain an analytical expression
for the total radiated electric field
of the vertical dipole above the
ground plane assuming a short
dipole of length l.
7
Gain in dBic  antenna gain, decibels referenced
to a circularly polarized, theoretical isotropic
radiator of the same total power. The realized
gain of a circularlypolarized antenna is also
often measured in dBic, which not quite correct
since the realized gain additionally takes into
account impedance mismatch losses.
ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector
XV30
3. Plot normalized directivity in the
Eplane to scale;
4. Repeat for directivity in the H
plane.
Problem 7. Show how to apply the
image method to a dipolefed corner
reflector with corner angle of 45 deg.
The feeding dipole is centered.
Problem 8. Could we apply the image
method when the corner angle is 270
deg? Why yes or why no?
Problem 9. In this problem, we consider
a vertical monopole over an infinite
ground plane. The monopole length is
not critical for the following analysis.
1. Explain how does the method of
images works for the vertical
monopole over an infinite ground
plane? Present an equivalent
dipole.
2. If the impedance of an equivalent
dipole is Z, what is the monopole
impedance?
Problem 10. Consider an idealized case
of tunnel environment shown in the
figure that follows. Both 2D walls are
PEC boundaries. A more realistic tunnel
environment is important from the
geolocation point of view in mines.
Is it possible to apply the image method
to the present problem? Do not rush to
give a negative answer.
Problem 11. Evaluate the following
Fresnel integrals:
1.
í
·
÷ =
0
2
) exp( ì ì d j F
2.
í
÷ =
10
0
2
) exp( ì ì d j F
3.
í
·
÷ =
10
2
) exp( ì ì d j F
Problem. 12. What was unclear in the
assigned reading. What needs to be
extended?
ECE529/ECE539 Section XV
Antenna reflector
and are commonly referred to as highfrequency methods. These models will be outlined in the present Section, as applied to some simple antenna examples. Even today, a large ground plane or a large reflector present a challenge for numerical modeling of antennas as the electrical size of the complete structure increases and often can no longer be handled with a full wave simulator, whether FEM, or FDTD, or MoM, with an accuracy necessary for lownoise applications. Hence, the value of the related analytical models greatly increases. Interestingly, the same analytical models find applications in a broader area of wireless communications that includes wireless channel estimation and path loss estimation for an indoor or outdoor environment. The ray tracing model, which is currently widely employed for channel estimation in terrains, uses these theories. 2. Ground plane for an electric dipole. The /4rule Consider a radiating dipole above a PEC ground plane as shown in Fig. 1. We will use the geometrical optics approximation for the incident/reflected signals and will only consider the signal in the dipole Eplane – the xzplane. The dipole radiates two signals – the forward wave that propagates in the positive direction of the zaxis and the backward wave that is incident upon the metal ground plane. The backward wave is reflected by the ground plane and is eventually added to the forward wave with a proper phase shift. The resulting radiated field is thus a combination of the direct forward wave and the reflected wave.
Fig. 1. Concept of a reflecting (metal) ground plane.
XV2
ECE529/ECE539 Section XV
Antenna reflector
Neglecting field divergence, one has a solution in the form of plane waves in time domain, with zero phase at z d
for E x (t , z ) E x 0 cos( t k z ( z d )) inc E x (t , z ) E x 0 cos( t k z ( z d ))
E xref (t , z ) E x 0 cos( t k z ( z d )) k kz
(1)
The reflected wave has been selected in such a way that it satisfies the boundary condition on the metal surface at z=0, i.e.
inc 0 Et Etx Ex (t , z 0) Exref (t , z 0)
(2)
Note that Eq. (1) is the exact solution to the reflection problem in plane wave geometry. Thus, the total forward radiated field becomes a combination of two signals
for E xtotal (t , z d ) E x (t , z d ) E xref (t , z d ) E x 0 cos t cos( t 2k z d )
(3)
phase shifted by
2k z d
The result is clearly obtained in the form E xtotal (t , z d ) 2 E x 0 cos( / 2) cos( t / 2)
(4)
(5)
but Eq. (4) for the phase shift is generally more important to us. It says that the resulting phase shift includes two contributions: i. ii. the shift of or the Efield phase reversal due to the reflection from a PEC boundary; plus the shift 2k z d 4 d / , which corresponds to time delay of a reflected signal over the travel distance of 2d.
If there were no phase reversal (e.g. a perfect magnetic boundary was present instead of a metal boundary), the dipole close to ground plane would radiate forward twice the field (and four times the power) compared to that in free space. When phase reversal is present, the total forward radiation is nearly zero when d 0( ) . So is the input resistance of the antenna. This is why the dipole close to a metal surface is a very poor antenna radiator. The physical reason for it is the appearance of surface induced currents on the metal ground plane that are oppositely directed and radiate a field in antiphase with the main current.
XV3
However. or etc. Fig. The length of the monopole is mostly defined by the impedance matching criteria and may vary from horn to horn. In particular. and vice versa. let us consider a feed of a standard horn that is typically given by a coaxiallydriven monopole in the cavity – see Fig. i. to enable the proper reflection. Method of images The next question is how does the ground plane work for other separation distances and elevation angles different from zenith? Unfortunately. (5)) can indeed be done in the phasor form and the final result becomes E total (t . However. The term exp( jk z d ) is of little importance to us– it contributes to the absolute solution phase only. XV4 . z d ) 2 E x 0 cos( / 2) exp( j / 2) 2 j sin(k z d )E x 0 exp( jk z d ) x (6) The term in square brackets is recognized as the array factor – see below in the following Sections. when d / 4 . Here. the answer cannot be given in closed form for an arbitrary antenna and a finite ground plane. the exact answer can be given for an arbitrary antenna over an infinite ground plane using the socalled image method – see Fig. we can immediately see a way to eliminate or reduce a multipath: if an antenna is intended for RHCP reception then it will only receive the original RHCP signal but will reject at least its first reflections that are LHCP. (4) and (5) is zero or a multiple of 2 . As another example of the general character of the “/4” rule. the righthanded circularly polarized (RHCP) signal will be reflected as the left handed circularly polarized (LHCP) signal from a metal boundary. 3. the horn’s feed separation from the side wall is again close to d / 4 . which may appear in many other situations. or d 3 / 4 . 2. Feed placement for a horn cavity. The phase reversal at the reflection from the metal boundary is responsible for a number of interesting effects. This separation distance is an important design parameter. Finally we note that the above derivation (Eq. not only for the horizontal dipole above a ground plane but also in many other cases.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector The optimal separation distance – optimal for the maximum total radiated field – is achieved when in Eqs.2. 3.e.
To satisfy the PEC boundary conditions we thus need two oppositely directed currents. the image method works only for the exterior problem (upper hemisphere that includes the dipole) and cannot formally provide the null in the interior (lower hemisphere). 3a. i.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector The idea of the image method is simple and powerful: let’s remove the PEC ground plane but put another (image) dipole at the distance –d from the origin. 3b illustrates the answer to this question: remember that the radiated Efield is always directed parallel with the current. It is then clear that the required boundary condition Et 0 (7) is satisfied everywhere on the plane of the ground due to field cancellation – see Fig.e. but this is not the case for the image method. Fig. This fact can proved for the tangential Ecomponent by field superposition. 1. the two dipoles will radiate in the upper hemisphere as one dipole above the ground plane since both configurations satisfy Maxwell’s equations and the same boundary conditions. The radiation to the lower hemisphere must be zero. Thus. When put close to one another. not only for normal incidence direction. but also for any point in the xyplane. XV5 . the opposite currents radiate two oppositely directed fields that also cancel each other – one might say that the antenna is “shorted out” and becomes itself a nonradiating transmission line. The ground plane effect is replaced by that of the image dipole. Method of images for a horizontal dipole above a ground plane. Therefore. How does current in the image dipole flow? Fig. symmetrically versus the ground plane position.
(7) Z 1d V1 I Z 11 Z 12 1 Z 11 Z 12 I1 I2 (9) since currents I 1 . [3]. Once Z 12 is known as in Section II. One special case that should be evaluated is when the separation d approaches zero. For reciprocal identical antennas.e. Two dipoles: the original one and the image are mutually coupled through the impedance matrix (see Section II) V1 Z 11 V Z 2 21 Z 12 I 1 Z 22 I 2 (7) where index 1 corresponds to the original dipole. the mutual and self. which again means that the original antenna is “shorted out”. The pattern is conveniently XV6 . Let’s start with the impedance first. The treatment in what follows will be essentially that of Ref. 3b. i. Then Z 12 Z 11 (two dipoles tend to coincide) and Z 1d 0 . Current and field directions.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector Fig. index 2 – to the image. The ground plane alters both the antenna impedance and the radiation pattern. 3b.impedances are identical. The image method allows us to find the corrected dipole impedance and the resulting radiation pattern analytically. Z 12 Z 21 . the dipole impedance above the ground plane simply coincides with Z 1d from Eq. Z 11 Z 22 (8) The active or drivingpoint impedance of the original dipole (the impedance under presence of the image dipole) becomes from Eq. Now. I 2 are equal in magnitude but are oppositely directed – see Fig. let’s proceed with the radiation pattern of a single horizontal infinitesimally small dipole [1] centered at origin and oriented along the xaxis. (9).
for d translation along the zaxis. one needs to replace r in the phase factor exp( jk r ) in Eq. the pattern expression would become as in Section IV. We know that neither the pattern magnitude nor its polarization should change when we move the dipole (or any other antenna) by a certain finite distance. According to the law of cosines and Fig. however. 4. Radiation geometry in spherical coordinates. say d. from the origin – any linear translation cannot change the pattern magnitude or add new polarization components. Thus.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector presented in spherical coordinates. What changes. (10) by a new distance r. The dipole offset from the origin is given by d. is the phase since the signal from the dipole spaced closer to the observation point will arrive earlier. with the sinusoidal current distribution. d d r 2 r 2 d 2 2rd cos . r r 2 d 2 2rd cos r 1 2 cos r r (11) 2 XV7 . The phasor of the electric field has the form (Section IV) E j kI 0 l exp( jk r ) 1 sin 2 sin 2 4 r (10) If the dipole were of a finite length. 4 Fig. no matter how large the absolute distance to that point is.
e. 2 I 0 . for example. for a horizontal dipole above a PMC ground plane. However. However. more generic (phased) arrays usually use a certain prescribed (not necessarily 0 or ) phase shift between the individual elements.(10).ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector with d/r being a small parameter . ) [2 j sin( kd cos )] j kI 0 l exp( jk r ) 1 sin 2 sin 2 4 r (14) Once again we recognize the factor in square brackets as the array factor – one may want to compare this result to Eq. Instead of subtracting two exponents in the case of the opposite current flow exp( jk d cos ) exp( jk d cos ) 2 j sin(kd cos ) one should add them together in order to obtain the array factor in the form exp( jk d cos ) exp( jk d cos ) 2 cos(kd cos ) (15b) (15a) The antenna arrays considered in the following text extensively use the array factor for pattern synthesis. i. 2 are the fields radiated by the original dipole and by the image dipole. 1 . Using Taylor series expansion and keeping only dominant terms. XV8 . Etotal (r . This happens. Another (and more important) example is that of the vertical dipole above the ground plane. the array factor will change if the current directions in two dipoles were not the opposite (phase shift of ) but the same (phase shift of 0). . r r d cos rO( 2 ) r (12) which leads to (after substitution of r instead of r) 1 E . when the image current flows in the same direction as the current in the actual dipole [1]. I 1. The total field is given by their sum. One reason for emphasizing this name is that the linear pattern of two dipoles (or one dipole above the ground plane) is obtained as the single pattern multiplied by the array factor – see Eq. one has d r r 1 cos O( 2 ) . 2 j kI 1. (6) at =0. Another reason is that the array factor does not really change from antenna to antenna: if we repeat the above derivation not for the infinitesimally small dipole but for a dipole of arbitrary length we will have exactly the same array factor in front of the corresponding singledipole pattern. 2 l exp( jk r ) exp( jk d cos ) 4 r 1 sin 2 sin 2 (13) 1 where E . respectively.
XV9 . The cornerreflector antenna is made up of two plane reflector panels and a dipole element. Again. 5a. this method allows us to find the dipole impedance and the resulting radiation pattern. All four dipoles (the original one plus three images) form two polar dipole pairs that cancel the tangential Efield on both corner planes.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector 4. Its major advantage is construction flexibility and simplicity. according to the anticipated symmetry. There are five image dipoles now. The antenna is useful in obtaining gains of up to 12 dB. for example 60 deg – see Fig.1 General The method of images can be quite helpful in other antenna problems like that of the corner reflector antenna shown in Fig. 5a. It assumes three image dipoles (one for every plane plus one “balancing” image dipole). 5a to 5d. 5b ([6]). These calculations are done in particular in [3] and in many other sources – see [6]. the field outside the corner angle is nonphysical and should be ignored. we will consider them below as an example. Again. The method of images is a reasonable assumption when the corner plates are rather long and the dipole is located far way from the corner edges. This arrangement prohibits radiation in the back and side directions and hence makes the antenna more directional. Fig. The method of images could be applied to other corner angles. with corner (or flare) angle . The dipole pattern is shaped by two finite ground planes. The corner reflector with corner angle of 90 deg – top view – and the related method of images. The method of images is shown schematically in Fig. Extensions of the image methodcorner reflector 4.
Unfortunately. the method of images is applicable for corner angles equal to 180 deg/n. For very large spacing. the system produces undesirable multilobes. Could the method of images be applied to a corner angle higher than 180 deg? Such an opportunity would be really inviting since the corner becomes an infinite metal wedge and one might be able to treat the wedge diffraction problem – one of the most complicated problem for any kind of ray tracing algorithm – by a simple mean. Corner reflector with corner angle of 60 deg – top view – and the related method of images. etc.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector Fig. To obtain a greater bandwidth the feed elements are thick cylindrical or biconical dipoles instead of thin wires. 45 degrees. there is an optimum feedtovertex spacing. The feedtovertex distance (s) is usually taken to be between a third and twothirds of the wavelength / 3 s 2 / 3 [1]. 90. According to [6] . as shown in Fig. This is a wellknown fact in electrostatics. can be treated by this method. in general. and it loses its directional characteristics [2]. its feed element is almost always a dipole or an array of collinear dipoles placed parallel to the vertex a distance s away. The length of the sides of the 90 corner reflector is mostly taken to be twice the distance from the vertex to the feed L 2 s . this circumstance violates the image method itself. Corners of 180 degrees (flat sheet). For each reflector. The performance of corner reflectors of intermediate angles cannot be determined by this method but can be interpolated approximately from the others. 5b. 5a (top view). the radiation resistance decreases and becomes comparable to the loss resistance of the system which results in an inefficient antenna. where n is any positive integer. If the spacing becomes too small.2 Corner reflector antenna Returning back to the corner reflector antenna. the images need to be place into free space for such an approach. The height (H) of the reflector is usually taken to be about 1. The aperture of the corner reflector (D) is usually made between one and two wavelengths D 2 [1]. 4.2 XV10 .. 60.
The fine impedance tuning could be made by a slight variation of the distance s. 5c. Typical dimensions for a 433 MHz corner reflector. Figs. ECE Dept.5 times greater than the total length of the feed element. Antenna Lab. without affecting much the radiation pattern. 5c and 5d show typical UHF corner reflectors at 433 MHz. The antenna impedance bandwidth covers the band from 415MHz to at least 465 MHz. 5d. XV11 . Fig. Fig. with variable flare angle. The corner ground plane is not floating. in order to reduce radiation towards the back region from the ends.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector to 1. Typical wideradiation angle UHF corner reflector dipoles at 433 MHz./WPI. it is always connected to the outer conductor of the coaxial splittube balun.
the total field is considered to be a combination of rays emanating from the dipole and then reflected from the metal surface according to the Snell’s law. the field everywhere within the reflection boundary (RB) in Fig. Fig. one can express S 1 through S 2 and vice versa S 1 S 2 2(n S 2 )n . The geometry of a dipole antenna above the finite ground plane is shown schematically in Fig. (16a). 6. A first naive guess about the field distribution of the antenna is that of pure geometrical optics (GO)– see Fig. 6. The field everywhere outside the reflection boundary but still inside the XV12 .ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector 5. S 2 S 1 2(n S 1 )n (16b) Both expressions indeed coincide due to reciprocity. respectively. 6 is a combination of the incident (lineofsight or LOS signal) and the reflected signal (RS). According to geometrical optics. From Eq. n is the unit outer normal to the reflector surface. S 2 are the incident and reflected ray directions. that is [3] n ( S2 S1 ) 0. Geometrical optics approximation for a dipole above a finite ground plane. 6. In terms of geometrical optics. n ( S2 S1 ) 0 (16a) where S 1 . Finite ground plane – Geometrical Optics A question of significant practical importance relates to understanding the impact of the finite ground plane.
7. consider first a numerical example of a halfwave strip (o blade) dipole spaced a quarter wavelength apart from the square ground plane of a variable size. In order to estimate the accuracy of geometrical optics.0. Fronttoback ratio Is the field in the shadow zone really zero? If it is.7. The corresponding results (both rectangular and polar plots) are shown in Fig. The diffracted field in Fig. 6 is ignored.000 tetrahedra).5. XV13 . 1. Fig. total gain is close to elevation gain. 8 that follows. G.0 and start looking at two radiation patterns: total gain in the Eplane of the antenna (the xzplane) and total gain in the Hplane (the yzplane). and 2. These are obtained with Ansoft HFSS software (using radiation boundary of a sufficiently large size and fine meshes with about 100. This points us to the fact that a finite ground plane does not quite follow the laws of geometrical optics. then a small reflector might be completely sufficient for a dipole antenna. however. despite apparent size and weight constraints. the dipole width is /150. of the ground plane shown in this figure is approximately 1. The xzplane is the Eplane of the dipole. as 0. The field below the shadow boundary is zero.5. 6. the yzplane is the Hplane. The geometry is shown in Fig. G. The size. 7. one prefers to use reflectors as large as possible.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector shadow boundary (SB) is the LOS signal from the dipole. We will further vary the ground plane size. Geometry for a halfwave dipole with quarter wave separation. In practice. For the selected dipole geometry. 1.
Left – rectangular plot. but not monotonically. One can see from Fig. this ratio is just a difference between two gain values. The backward radiation indeed decreases.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector Fig. 8. this ratio is given in Table 2. Radiation pattern of the dipole above a finite ground plane of variable size. when the ground plane size increases. For the gain in dB. 8 that there is in fact no shadow zone beneath the ground plane. Moreover. the radiation in the backward direction is quite significant. For the present example. The ratio of power gain at zenith (in the direction of maximum radiation) to the gain in the opposite direction (at nadir) is called the fronttoback ratio. XV14 . right – the equivalent polar plot.
From the view point of performance/size ratio. Note that the fullwave numerical simulations for a large ground plane meet considerable difficulties. Ground plane size. For antenna modeling on large metal platforms. For a simple dipole without the ground plane. this noise may entirely mask the useful signal. If the ground plane does not block it properly. the farfield is given by Eq. in Ansoft HFSS. either with the radiation box or with the PML. Its inspection shows that the phase front is angleindependent and is also frequencyindependent.0 Fronttoback ratio. including aircrafts and ships. The phase center is important in applications such as GPS navigation and indoor geolocation as long as the antenna has a significant physical dimension. 7.5 1. Now. dB ~8 dB ~14 dB ~21 dB ~21 dB One can see that performance obviously improving as the size of the ground plane increases.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector Table 2. Fronttoback ration for horizontal dipole as a function of ground plane size (square ground plane). For example. In other words it is the center of a sphere that is tangent to the farfield phase front for a given direction (observation angle). It is clear that the phase center is in general frequency. G 0. other methods are necessary that are considered below. The directionofarrival (DOA) or timeorarrival (TOA) methods for source location will rather point to the antenna phase center but not to its physical center. even the flat ground plane of 34 can hardly be simulated at present (accurate fronttoback ratio) on an ordinary PC. then the antenna phase center may be approximated by its geometrical center.5 2. Phase center of an antenna with the ground plane/reflector The phase center of an antenna is the local center of curvature of the farfield phase front. If not. Note: Why is the ground plane important? Consider one example: a GPS antenna. The phase center coincides with the physical center of the antenna. (10). the most beneficial is perhaps the ground plane on the size of about 1. You already know how weak the received signal could be. imagine all the noise that is coming from Earth ground and surroundings.and angledependent.0 1. XV15 .5 – the incremental performance deteriorates after this point.
The ground plane was an array of eight quarterwavelength radial ground plane rods. When the ground plane is that of finite size or just small. remember that radiusvector r is now measured from the ground plane. the phase center is expected to be located somewhere between the ground plane and the dipole – see Fig. it is located exactly in the middle between the dipole and its image. especially at low elevation angles versus the ground plane. A schematic that illustrates the phase center of the dipole antenna above a finite ground plane.see [1] for a list of references . 9 – for the effect of the ground plane is less profound.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector For a dipole (and any other antenna) with a reflector the situation changes.for it is critical in the proper design of a hornfed reflector antenna. Even though there seems to be no explicit phase variation in the far field. XV16 . This is contrary to DeJong’s formulation [8]. which places the phase center along the negative monopole image axis. It is also expected to have an angular dependence. See also early Carter's work [9]. for any frequency and for any dipole height. Consider Eq. Tranquilla and Best [7] have investigated the phase center of a monopole above a concentric wiremade ground plane. 9. Therefore. They found that the computed distance from the monopole base to the phase center varies between 0.15 except at zenith where the abrupt phase reversal in the field leads to a discontinuity in the plot of the phase center location. Fig. In other words.120. (14) for the horizontal dipole pattern above the infinite ground plane. the phase center is now the center of the ground plane. The phase center of horn antennas has been investigated in great detail . The angular position information indicates that the phase center remains near but not on the actual monopole axis (z>0) except for observation angles approaching the zenith or ground plane angles.
(16b). y denote unit vectors in the x.and ydirections. among them is the concept of the parabolic reflector schematically shown in Fig. Fig.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector 8. 10. Substitution into Eq. n2 cos 2 (16e) XV17 . A concept of the parabolic reflector. (16c) gives cos 1 2n12 . sin 2n1 n2 The solution to the surface normal is straightforward: (16d) n1 sin 2 . Example – parabolic reflector Despite all critics of the geometrical optics. We will use the Snell’s law given by first expression in Eq. (16b) reads S inc S ref 2(n S ref )n (16c) where n n1 x n2 y is the unit surface normal. one can establish the form of the surface needed to satisfy those specifications. S ref 1 x 0 y . 10. With reference to Fig. Symbols x . S inc cos x sin y . Eq. It is also more convenient to use indexes inc and ref instead of 1 and 2. Based on the GO model. The opposite is also true: a plane wave incident into the negative direction of the xaxis should be focused at point F. 10. respectively. We require that any ray emanating from the center F of a reflecting surface will propagate as a plane wave in the positive xdirection. it may be quite useful for certain problems.
Unfortunately. 1 XV18 . sin / 2 2 f (16g) which is the familiar parabolic surface equation. The approach was based on the fact that wave functions (solutions) to a diffraction problem may not be unique in a physical space but are unique in Riemann space.[4] but also in more advanced EM sources [11]. including the antenna backlobe. The scattering problem on a 2D metal wedge might appear to be similar to that of the corner reflector but the corner angle should now be greater than 180 deg – see section 1. for example. The literature on modern diffraction methods related to antenna problems is extensive – see. With reference to Fig. When the signal from the dipole reaches the edge of the ground plane a diffraction occurs so that the edge will start to radiate in all directions. we arrive at the surface equation in the form SF . is there an analytical model that can provide us with an explanation of the radiation in the shadow zone of the antenna ground plane? The answer is indeed yes and it relies upon a famous solution for the wedge diffraction obtained by Arnold Sommerfeld some 120 years ago (in 1896) – see. An easier way. 9. for example. Other methods have been considered for both metal edge and metal wedge that are based on Bessel functions expansions [11][15]1. is to use the identity FS SQ 2 f (16f) which again states that the plane wave of constant phase is created by the reflector. we will generally follow the Sommerfeld’s solution given in terms of The original Sommerfeld’s derivation is complicated and it is skipped not only in the classic antenna books [1]. SQ cos . The diffraction phenomenon becomes significant in a number of antenna applications. [4].4 above. Consider Fig. the design of a large parabolic reflector antenna is impossible without taking into account the diffraction effects (see below in this Section). Instead. Below.[11]. [10][13]. however. 6 again. this circumstance makes it impossible to apply the image method.[15]. The derivation of the Sommerfeld’s result from a series of Bessel functions on the order of n+1/2i s given in [12].[3]. the shadow zone disappears. Hence.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector The surface equation can then be established based on the expression of the surface normal. In particular. A certain contour integral on the complex plane was therefore formulated and then solved. [3]. Edge diffraction model for the sheet ground plane Aside from a numerical simulation.[15]. 10. which is a generalization of Riemann surfaces used in the theory of functions of complex variables. one has to develop a more complicated solution that extensively uses Bessel functions.
the incident plane wave field in Fig. acronyms TM and TE are mostly used to specify the direction of the electric field and magnetic field in a plane traveling wave. 11a.1. the separation into TM and TE modes comes from waveguide physics where it has a significant physical meaning. E zinc E 0 exp( jk x x jk y x) E 0 exp( jkr [cos inc cos sin inc sin ]) (19) 2 In this and in some other contexts. when expanded results in Eq. (19). y r cos . We will first consider the “knife edge” diffraction and then proceed to a more complicated wedge diffraction. 11a is given by E zinc E 0 exp( jk r ). In the phasor form. k k cos inc . (17) Fig. Originally however. We introduce cylindrical coordinates x r cos . The incident field is a plane wave (not a dipole) that is polarized in zdirection – it is thus TM to z wave according to the generally accepted terminology2. k sin inc . 9.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector Fresnel integrals. 11a. Incident field Consider the geometry shown in Fig. XV19 . Metal edge excited by a plane wave (“knife edge” diffraction).0 (18) or. R kr where k is the freespace wavenumber. z.
inc ) (24) where E is a solution to Maxwell’s equations with the augmented boundary conditions that becomes the plane wave far enough from the edge. E zref E 0 exp( jR cos( inc )) (20b) 9. the scattered field is just the reflected field and no special fullwave analysis of the scatterer is necessary in contrast to other examples. Now. Sommerfeld has found that XV20 . The solution to the present problem will use the prerequisites of geometrical optics. we will proceed with the total field. one may extend Eq.2. (23) by E ztotal E zinc E zscatt E ( R. ). In cylindrical coordinates. One has E ztotal E zinc E zscatt E 0 exp( jR cos( inc )) E 0 exp( jR cos( inc )) (23) In that case.3. (19) yields the wellknown representation of the plane wave in cylindrical coordinates E zinc E 0 exp( jR cos( inc )) (20a) Simultaneously. A more simple solution to the problem is obtained when we replace the edge (a half of the infinite ground plane) by the infinite ground plane itself. for a semiinfinite ground plane (the edge). H rstotal jk 1 E ztotal jk E ztotal total . E ttotal 0 at 0 (21) It is usually the matter of convenience what field is sought: the scattered field or the total field. i. E ztotal E ztotal ( R.Scattered field and total field The total solution to the problem is a combination of the incident field and the scattered field. for the plane wave reflected back from the infinite metal ground plane. The solution for the total field is assumed to have the same TM polarization form. Exact solution The form in which the solution is sought is critical for the subsequent analysis. E total E inc E scatt .ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector Eq. H ztotal 0 R R (22) 9. Since the incident field is known a priori both approaches should yield the same result. this can be represented by total Ertotal E 0. In the present problem.e. The total field must satisfy Maxwell’s equations (usually in the form of wave equations) and boundary conditions. inc ) E ( R. H .
4 XV21 . 3 Integrals S (u ) sin 0 u 1 2 1 x dx and C (u ) cos x 2 dx are implemented in Mathematica and 2 2 0 u MATLAB (in Version 7. respectively). which is mostly needed for the analytical solution in the far field. (23)(25) is replaced by the Hfield.0 R14 of 2005 but not in the most recent versions of MATLAB). the Efield in Eqs. is as follows F ( ) F ( ) exp( j 2 ) 2 j at exp( j 2 ) 2 j j (29) at Note that for the TE plane wave incidence4 (Efield is perpendicular to the edge corner). which is now parallel to the edge. 2 exp( j 0 2 ) d 1 2 j (27) is the original the Fresnel integral.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector j E ( R. inc ) E 0 exp( jR cos( inc )) exp( j2 )d where (25) 2 R cos The integral inc 2 (26) F ( ) exp( j )d . the TE incidence case is designated as the hardsurface case whereas the TM incidence case is designated as the softsurface case. it is now common to use Fresnel integrals C and S3 in the form F ( ) 2 1 2 jS . F ( ) F ( ) C 2 j 2 j (28) The asymptotic behavior. Quite often in the literature. by analogy with acoustics (Neumann or Dirichlet boundary conditions.1.
11b. E ztotal E zinc E zref E zdiff E zinc E 0 exp( jR cos( inc )) E zref E 0 exp( jR cos( inc )) E zdiff E 0 D( . they stabilize at large argument amplitudes.(24) is replaced by plus. XV22 . inc ) (30a) j 2 H ( R. Far field The Fresnel integrals are highly oscillatory fields close to origin in Fig. which corresponds to a finite contribution into the farfield radiation pattern for a 2D geometry since the radiation intensity behaves as (1 / R ) 2 R ~ 1 . i.[15] H ztotal H zinc H zscatt H ( R. inc ) H 0 exp( jR cos( inc )) exp( j )d (30b) 9. We are mostly interested in the radiation pattern that. inc ) H ( R. (24). (24)(29). (9). at 0 .[12]. Furthermore. cos inc 2 0. We’ll consider every of them separately: Region I. Thus. cos inc 2 0. (23). except for the nondecaying incident and reflected plane waves includes the decaying diffracted field.4. However. According to Eqs. (24) may be in general rewritten as E ztotal E zinc E zref E zdiff (31) where the separation is now made of the scattered field into the reflected one and the diffracted one. That diffracted field behaves as 1 / R . Eq.e. inc ) D 1 exp( jkr ) r (32a) 1 1 2 2 kj cos(( inc ) / 2) cos(( inc ) / 2) where D (a linear complex field pattern) is called a diffraction coefficient. above the reflection boundary RBFig. 11a. at R in both terms on the right hand side of Eq. both the incident wave and the reflected wave exist. that is [11]. In that region.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector and the minus sign on the righthand side of Eqs.. There are three solution regions marked in Fig.
Region I for edge diffraction. cos inc 2 0.11c. between the reflection boundary RB and shadow boundary SBFig. inc ) exp( jkr ) r (32b) XV23 . Region II. cos inc 2 0. (24)(29) gives precisely the expected result: E ztotal E zinc E zref E zdiff E zinc E 0 exp( jR cos( inc )) E zref 0 E zdiff E 0 D( .ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector Fig. at R and there should not be a reflected wave. The use of Eqs. 11b. In that region.
inc ) exp( jkr ) r inc inc (32c) XV24 .ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector Fig. the shadow boundary SBFig. Region III. 11d. cos E ztotal E zinc E zref E zdiff E zinc 0 E zref 0 E zdiff E 0 D( . 0. at R 2 2 Neither the incident wave nor the reflected wave is expected to exist. (24)(29) again confirms this conclusion. cos 0. Region II for edge diffraction. The use of Eqs. 11c. In that region.
(31) but relates to the Hfield. XV25 . Note that the diffraction coefficient has the same form in all three cases. In the dimensionless form. Again. (31) when an arbitrary incident field at the edge is given by E 0 . a line source. 11d. with the minus sign in curled brackets replaced by a plus [11]. the diffraction coefficient has the same form as in Eq. a finitelength dipole. or the field from a previous diffraction. 1 exp( jR ) 1 1 E zdiff E 0 R 2 2 j cos(( inc ) / 2) cos(( inc ) / 2) 1 exp( jR ) 1 1 H zdiff H 0 R 2 2 j cos(( inc ) / 2) cos(( inc ) / 2) (33a) (33b) One can now generalize the above result to state that the diffracted ray (diffraction coefficient) from an edge is also given by Eq. for TE plane wave incidence on a edge.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector Fig. This field can be that of a plane wave. Region III for edge diffraction.
Tranquilla and S. New York. New York. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation. A. [12] H. pp. vol. D. May. A. Meixner.E. Optics.. 1991. C. 1996. G. Piscataway. [15] C. A. 2005. NJ.” IEEE Trans. Balanis. New York. 597600. The Mathematical Analysis of Electrical and Optical Wave Motion on The Basis of Maxwell’s Equations. Kraus. vol. 1998. 17.R. McGrawHill Book Company. "Phase center considerations for the monopole antenna. Wiley. [13] J. “The corner reflector antenna.” IRE Trans. IEEE Trans. L. third edition. 2nd edition. New York. [14] J. Balanis. Antenna Engineering Using Physical Optics. pp. 883884. XV26 . Antennas Propagation. 741744. Best. vol. Jasik. pp. 1956. Prentice Hall. Carter. Academic Press. Van Bladel. J. IEEE Press. “Phase centres of microwave antennas. 1940. T. New York. [11] A. M. A. 20. R. Diaz and T. Upper Saddle River. pp. Nov. WileyIEEE Press. Johnson and H. “The behavior of electromagnetic fields at edges. R. Antennas Propagat. Bateman. Thiele. D. NJ. 349355. 2005 3rd ed. Ishimary. Boston. vol. 1989.” Radio Sci. 2. “Antenna Engineering Handbook”. 1982. 1955. pp. Antennas Propagation. and Scattering. no 5. Diver Publications. Analysis and Design. Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics... J.” Proceedings of the I. Wiley. no.C. 1993. “The phase centre of a monopole antenna. W.. Antenna Theory. Milligan. Artech House. 514519. Singular Electromagnetic Fields and Sources. AP34. 442446.. DeJong. 245265. AP4. Stutzman and G. [8] [9] [10] A. Milligan. 1986. A. pp. Antenna Theory and Design. 1991. Sommerfeld.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] C. Modern Antenna Design. Inc. Radiation. 1954. pp. Wiley.
Please. A dipole operates at 1GHz.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector Review Questions 1. At which distance from the dipole should the ground plane be located? 3. What is the maximum gain for the dipole with a properly located ground plane? 4. in terms of operating wavelength ? XV27 . formulate the /4 rule for the dipole with a metal ground plane in your own words. Which ground plane size is most beneficial for the dipole from the viewpoint of performance/size ratio. 2.
Problems Problem 1. i. 2. Equations of subsection 3 give an approximation for the dipole field above a metal ground plane. 1 with a nonzero surface impedance (boundary condition on the reflecting surface) given by E ( z 0) ZS x . The field of a infinitesimally small dipole above a ground plane is given by: Etotal (r . One could consider an impedance ground plane in Fig. Find separation values d (in terms of wavelength) necessary for optimal separation distance – optimal for the maximum total radiated field. 1. Obtain an analytical expression for the total radiated electric field of the turnstile above the ground plane assuming independent currents (phasors) in the dipole feeds I 1. The combination of two horizontal perpendicular dipoles shown in the figure that follows is known as a turnstile antenna. . ) [2 j sin(kd cos )] j kI 0 l exp( jk r ) 4 r Problem 4. 6 1 sin 2 sin 2 More precisely. Repeat Problem 1 when Z S j (an inductive surface impedance) 5. Derive the dipole field above the ground when Z S ( H y ( z 0) 0) . Problem 3. and show on the same graph This is a difficult question. integrate over azimuthal angle first and then introduce a new integration variable t cos . ZS 0 H y ( z 0) 1. 2.e. Problem 2. By applying the method of images it is possible to evaluate parameters of a circularlypolarized antenna above a metal ground plane.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV Antenna reflector Find analytical expression for total radiated power in terms of feed current for d / 4 6. In this problem we will assume infinitesimally small dipoles. 2 and dipoles of the same length l. This case is known as perfect magnetic conductor (PMC). Consider normal incidence only. It is commonly used for creating dual independent polarization or circular polarization. above the perfect electric conductor (PEC) in the ideal case. 5 XV28 . units for surface impedance are not exactly Ohms but Ohms per square – see Section III. Plot total normalized directivity in the Hplane to scale when I 1 I 2 I 0 and d / 4 .
Obtain an analytical expression for the total radiated electric field of the vertical dipole above the ground plane assuming a short dipole of length l. Plot normalized RHCP gain 7 for either case 1 or 2. 4. XV29 . The total electric field. 1. I 2 0 ). Will your result change if the Eplane of dipole X is considered? 6. Over which beamwidth is this value achieved? 5. I 2 jI 0 . L 1 ( x jy ) are the so Problem 6. E . These vector determine the RHCP and LHCP components of the total field – see. of two dipoles in the Hplane of dipole X becomes 1 E E X x EY y R ( E X jEY ) 2 1 L ( E X jEY ) 2 2 called righthanded circular polarization (RHCP) and lefthanded circular polarization (LHCP) orthogonal unit vectors. I 2 I 0 . Plot C (dB) in the Hplane of dipole X to scale when I 1 jI 0 . one obtains (RHCP) polarization isolation. [3]. or crosspolarization ratio C . in the E form C R . decibels referenced to a circularly polarized. 7 Gain in dBic . Polarization isolation is EL generally measured in dB and shows how is good is quality of circular polarization produced by an antenna. From this equation. Let’s denote dipole 1 in the figure to Problem 4 as dipole X and dipole 2 as dipole Y.antenna gain. Figure that follows shows a vertical electrical dipole above a ground plane. In this problem we will assume an infinitesimally small. where R. The realized gain of a circularlypolarized antenna is also often measured in dBic. which not quite correct since the realized gain additionally takes into account impedance mismatch losses. With all other data identical to these from Problem 3 and d / 4 . 2. Polarization isolation of a GPS RHCP antenna should be 15 dB or better. Why cannot we have a good polarization isolation over the entire hemisphere? Explain your answer. respectively. 1. according to the axes of Cartesian coordinates. for example. Plot C (dB) in the Hplane of dipole X to scale when I 1 I 0 .ECE529/ECE539 Section XV directivity of only dipole 1 ( I 1 I 0 . theoretical isotropic radiator of the same total power. Could you suggest a possible solution? Problem 5. Antenna reflector 3.
The monopole length is not critical for the following analysis. 4. Both 2D walls are PEC boundaries. In this problem. Could we apply the image method when the corner angle is 270 deg? Why yes or why no? Problem 9. Evaluate the following Fresnel integrals: 1. Problem 11. Plot normalized directivity in the Eplane to scale. 1. What needs to be extended? XV30 . Repeat for directivity in the Hplane. A more realistic tunnel environment is important from the geolocation point of view in mines. If the impedance of an equivalent dipole is Z. 12. 2. The feeding dipole is centered. Explain how does the method of images works for the vertical monopole over an infinite ground plane? Present an equivalent dipole. Show how to apply the image method to a dipolefed corner reflector with corner angle of 45 deg. Problem. What was unclear in the assigned reading. Problem 8. we consider a vertical monopole over an infinite ground plane. F exp( j2 )d 0 10 3. what is the monopole impedance? Is it possible to apply the image method to the present problem? Do not rush to give a negative answer. F exp( j2 )d 0 2.ECE529/ECE539 Section XV 3. Consider an idealized case of tunnel environment shown in the figure that follows. Antenna reflector Problem 7. F exp( j2 )d 10 Problem 10.
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