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6 How does a Voltage Stabilizer Work 
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Õ ac automatic voltage stabilizer

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Y ere are ge varieties of voltage stabilizers available in t e market, and srely it's not a
big deal to procre one, according to t e needs. Bt off corse it can be very amsing to
bild one at ome all by yo and see it actally working. ere circit of an Atomatic Voltage
Stabilizer (AVS) is well described w ic is in fact very simple in design, reasonably precise
and will give a good protection to t e electronic devices t at is connected to it. It will
particlarly gard t em against t e dangeros ig voltages and also from t e possible
brownots (low voltages).Y e otpt will stay in t e range of 200VAC ± 255VAC wit an
inpt voltage of


Y e circit of a voltage stabilizer basically consists of a voltage sensor. It is configred to
detect t e rise or fall of t e AC mains voltage to dangeros levels. As soon it senses a risky
inpt voltage, it immediately energizes t e relays connected to it. Y ese relays in trn swaps
and switc es t e appropriate winding terminals of t e ato transformer to correct and
stabilize t e otpt voltage. Y s t e appliance w ic is connected to t e otpt of t e
voltage stabilizer circit always receives a safe, tolerable voltage and is able to fnction
reliably, irrespective of t e flctating inpt voltages.



Y e voltage from smaller transformer is rectified by D1 and filtered by C1 to prodce t e
reqired operating power for t e control circit comprising of transistor Y1, preset P1, zener
diode Z1 and t e DPDY relay.

Y e above voltage is also sed as t e basic reference or t e sensing voltage. Becase t is

voltage will vary proportionately wit t e applied inpt voltage variations.

For example, if normally t e operating DC voltage is arond 12 volts, an increase or

decrease of t e inpt AC mains voltage by say 25 volts wold proportionately increase or
decrease t e DC volts to 14 or 10 volts respectively.

Preset P1 is set sc t at t e transistor condcts and operates t e relay w enever t e inpt
AC mains tends to deviate above t e exact normal voltage (110 or 225 volts) and vice

If t e inpt voltage crosses t e above limit, Y1 condcts and activates t e relay. Y e relay
contacts connect t e relevant connections of t e power stabilizer transformer to dedct 25

volts from t e inpt i.e. bring t e otpt to abot 205 volts. From ere on if t e mains
voltage keeps on increasing, t e opt to t e appliances will be 25 volts below it. It means,
even if t e voltage reac es as ig as 260 V, t e otpt will reac only p to260 - 25 = 235

Exactly opposite will appen in case t e inpt AC drops below t e normal level, i.e. in t is
case 25 volts will be added to t e otpt, and even if t e inpt keeps on dropping and
reac es 180 volts, t e otpt will reac only p to 180 + 25 = 205 volts.

Y e present design is very simple and basic, t erefore t e stabilization cannot be very
precise. Bt certainly it will keep t e otpt wit in 200 and 250 volts against inpt extreme
voltages of 180 to 275 volts (or wit in 100 and 125 against 90 and 130 volts).


We l reqire t e following parts for t e circit:

6 Resistor ¼ watt, CFR R1 = 2 K 7,

6 Preset P1 = 10 K Linear,

6 Yransistor Y1 = BC 547,

6 Zener diode Z1 = 3 V / 400 mW,

6 Diode D1, D2 = 1N4007,

6 Capacitor = 220F / 25 V

6 Relay RL1 = 12 V / DPDY mini (doble pole, doble t row),

6 Yransformer Y1 = 12 ± 0 ± 12 V / 5 amps. Y2 = 0 ± 12 volts / 500 mA (inpt as per

contry specifications)

6 General prpose board = 3´ by 3´