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Steps after fabrication wax pattern
1. Investing: Surrounding wax pattern with a material that can accurately duplicate its shape and anatomic features. 2. Burnout: Removal of wax pattern so that a mold is created into which the molten alloy can be placed. 3. Casting: Introduction of molten alloy into mold.
Spruing Investing Burnout (Wax Elimination) Dental Casting Alloys Casting Common causes of casting failures
The process of whereby the wax pattern is attached to a conical base (crucible former) by a connector called sprue former.
Spruing The Pattern
Sprue former is small diam pin: wax, plastic, metal.
Crucible former is the base to which sprue is attached while wax pattern is being invested in refractory investment, convex rubber, plastic or metal base that forms concave depression or crucible in the refractory investment.
One end attached to pattern at greatest bulk, the other to crucible former. Channel left by sprue after burnout is molten alloy entry. Purposes of sprue are
to gain a portal through which the molten alloy enters the mold cavity, and to create a reservoir of molten metal from which the casting can draw as it cools and shrinks.
Sprue must allow the molten wax to escape from the mold (during burnout). Sprue must enable the molten metal to flow into mold. Metal within it must remain molten slightly longer than the alloy that has filled the mold. That provides reservoir to compensate for the shrinkage occurs during solidification of the casting.
Requirements of sprue former
Diam 8, 10, 12 gauge. Always use the largest possible
Sprue Former Diameter
Improves the flow of molten metal into the mold. Ensures a reservoir during solidification.
10-gauge (2.5-mm) sprue for molar, M-C patterns. 12-gauge (2.0-mm) sprue for premolar, partial coverage restorations.
Long and thin sprue formers cause internal porosity called shrinkage porosity. Metal will freeze in the sprue former before it freeze in crown, preventing more metal from entering the mold.
Attached to the bulkiest part, away from margins and occlusal contacts. Normally largest noncentric cusp used. Point of attachment should permit stream of metal to be directed to all parts of mold without having to flow opposite the direction of casting force. Attached to the bulkiest part, away from margins and occlusal contacts. Normally largest noncentric cusp used. Point of attachment should permit stream of metal to be directed to all parts of mold without having to flow opposite the direction of casting force.
Sprue Former Location
Sprue Former Attachment
Should be attached at angle to allow the incoming gold to flow freely to all portions of the mold. Direction at right angle to flat wall of the mold create a hot spot. Should be attached at angle to allow the incoming gold to flow freely to all portions of the mold. Direction at right angle to flat wall of the mold create a hot spot.
Space of 6.0-mm between pattern and end of ring
Provides adequate bulk of investment to withstand force of inrushing gold. Allows gases to escape from end of mold. Highest point of pattern is 6.0-mm from end of ring. Too close to end of ring cause casting alloy breaking through the end of investment. Too far, gases may not escape rapidly enough to complete filling of mold with alloy.
1. Use short, thick sprue rather than long, thin one. (shrink spot porosity). 2. Attach the sprue to the bulkiest part of the pattern. to minimize wax pattern distortion, away from margins 3. Never feed bulky section through thin section.
Rules For Spruing
4. Attach the sprue to the pattern so that the gold entering the mold will not be directed against a perpendicular surface. 5. Attach the sprue securely, but do not plunge the hot sprue deeply into wax. Cause distortion of pattern, later casting will not fit die. 6. Never use a “bottleneck” sprue. Wax should be smooth and not tapered. 7. Firmly secure the sprue to the pattern to ensure stability during investment so that the pattern is not dislodged from the sprue.
FPDs are sprued by the indirect method : * feeder sprues, * runner bar, * manifold sprues One-piece casting
Removal Pattern from Die
Increase the wettability of the wax surface, so to reduce entrapment of air bubbles on the surface during investing. Paint wax pattern with solution then dry with gentle air-stream.
Debubblizer (surface-wetting agent)
Casting ring holds the investment in place during setting and restricts expansion of mold. Liner is placed inside the ring to allow for more expansion.
Casting Ring and Liner
Layer of resilient material inside ring ⇒ allows outward expansion and easier removal from ring Asbestos: health hazard, airborne fibers. Fibrous ceramic liner and cellulose paper as asbestos substitute. One or two layers. 3.0-mm short of both ends of ring will allow supporting contact of investment with ring after liner has burned out. Wetting
Requirements: Precise reproduction of wax pattern. Sufficient strength to withstand burnout and casting. Sufficiently porous to allow escape of gases. Expand enough to compensate solidification shrinkage of alloy.
Refractory material or filler
Composition of Investment
Material that resist high temperature Expand upon heating Its problem have no cohesion to maintain the shape of investment when dried
Mixed with filler to give some strength
TYPES OF INVESTMENTS
Gypsum-Bonded Investment: use with alloys that melt below 1,000°C. Phosphate-Bonded Investment: use with alloys that melt above 1,000°C (high-fusing alloys).
Gypsum Bonded Investments
Used with Type I, II, III gold alloys Composition:
Matrix is gypsum binder 30 - 35% Filler is silica quartz or cristobalite 60-65% provides thermal expansion when heated. Chemical modifiers
Gypsum Binder: Ca (SO4)2 decomposes at high temperature releasing sulphur contaminant produce rougher casting.
Much stronger and can withstand much higher burnout temps (800°C +) For alloys with casting temp > 1150°C More Expansion more silica sol liquid, less water
Phosphate Bonded Investments
SHRINKAGE COMPENSATION: Solidification Shrinkage: Au alloys ≈ 1.5% Base-metal alloys ≈ 2.4% Need to compensate by enlarging mold Inlays and posts : slight net shrinkage acceptable Crowns : expand mold to at least equal shrinkage
Setting Expansion of Investment Hygroscopic Expansion Wax Pattern Expansion Thermal Expansion
Four mechanisms to produce mold expansion
1. Setting Expansion
Occurs as a result of normal gypsum crystal growth in air. About 0.4% but partly restricted by metal investment ring.
2. Hygroscopic Expansion
Max expansion: immerse investment-filled ring in water bath at 38°C. Water in bath replaces water used by hydration process space between growing crystals is maintained crystals grow longer outward expansion of mold. About 1.2 to 2.2% max with expandable ring.
3.Wax Pattern Expansion
While investment is still fluid, expansion occurs when wax is warmed above Temp at which it was formed. Source of heat : setting reaction of investment, or ring immersed in warm water bath. Low-Temp Burnout Technique: combine wax pattern expansion and thermal expansion of mold. - Remove investment-filled ring from water bath at 38°C. - Heat ring to 480°C only, for additional expansion.
Occurs when investment is heated in burnout oven. Two purposes : Eliminate wax Prevent molten alloy from cooling too quickly before mold is completely filled High-Temp Burnout Technique: Relies primarily on thermal expansion of mold Investment around pattern allowed to harden in air at room Temp then heated to 650°C. Investment and metal ring expand enough to compensate for shrinkage of gold alloy.
Powder: Liquid Hand mixing to ensure complete wetting of investment. Mechanical spatulation ( mixing) Setting 30-60 minutes.
Prepares mold for molten alloy. Allows thermal expansion to occur. How to compensate :
Thermal : high heat Hygroscopic: low heat
Burnout (Wax Elimination)
650ºC 1200ºF, OR 480ºC 900ºF
Heating must be gradual to allow steam to escape without cracking the mold. About 45-90 minutes.
DENTAL CASTING ALLOYS
Different Classifications: A. According to Noble metal content B. According to Physical Properties (Hardness)
Noble-Metal Alloys Semi Noble Alloys Base Metal Alloys Titanium and Its Alloys
According to Noble Metal Content
Constituents: Au, Pt, Pd plus Ag, Cu, Zn Used for 100 yrs since lost-wax technique Used for cast all-metal restorations Generally 75% Au 18kt gold 18/24 pure
Au, Pt, Pd tarnish resistance, ductility Ag lightens color, ductility Cu hardness ↑, strength ↑ Zn oxidation ↓ Noble ≠ Precious. Noble refers to chemical behavior Precious refers to price
2. Semi Noble Alloys (Semiprecious, Economy)
Constituents: Ag-Pd alloys plus alloys with 10%< Au < 75% Mechanical properties + handling: similar to standard Au Corrosion ↑ Ag-Pd alloys melt at 1100° C → use gas-oxygen torches or induction casting machines
3. Base-Metal Alloys (Non Precious or Non Noble)
Adapted alloys used in RPD frameworks Constituents : Ni, Cr, Co, Ni-Cr most common Tarnish resistance: By formation of surface monolayer of chromium oxide in mouth Applications : All-metal Crowns, PFM, Long-span FPDs, Resin-bonded FPDs
Advantages Low cost Increased strength and hardness Higher fusion Temp Less distortion during porcelain firing
Excessive oxide formation Difficult finishing + polishing
Questionable biocompatibility : Nickel allergenicity: 4.5% of population is sensitive, women 10 times more Beryllium: Controls oxide formation Improve castability, Potential Carcinogen (inhalation, swallowing)
Non-noble alternative to Au Excellent biocompatibility: thin, inert surface oxide layer Low thermal conductivity Bonds to porcelain, resin cements Low cost Difficult to cast: melting 1670ºC (-ve) Reacts with investments and O2 (-ve) Special equipment in O2–free environment (-ve)
4. Titanium and Its Alloys
B. According to Hardness
DENTAL CASTING ALLOYS ANSI / ADA SPECIFICATION No. 5 CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO HARDNESS HARDNESS TYPE TYPE TYPE TYPE I II III IV Soft Medium Hard X-Hard SUGGESTED USE Simple inlays Complex inlays / onlays CRs and FPDs Long span FPDs, RPDs
Gas-air torch Casting machines
Quenching, annealing (softening) in a cold water in plastic bowel. Gypsum-bonded investments readily disintegrate. Pickling : HCl bath, Jel-Pac to remove surface tarnish or oxidation.
Recovery of the Casting (Cleaning)
Phosphate-bonded investments stronger, need careful devestment.
Casting never fitted on die until inner surface carefully evaluated under magnification. Tiny imperfections can cause damage to the stone die.
Evaluation of Casting