# Karakteristik Lalu Lintas

Kuliah ke - 3 SJ-5121 Rekayasa Lalu Lintas
Harun alRasyid Lubis

Program Magister Sistem & Teknik Jalan Raya ITB

Outline
• Introduction • Basic Traffic Flow Theory • Definitions ; LHR, VJP • PHF (Peak Hour Factor) • Speed (space mean speed Vs time mean speed) • Traffic Density, Headway and spacing • Basic Relationship • Simple Car following theory • Queueing theory

Volume Jam Perencanaan (VJP)

Basic Relationship (S,D,V)

ILLUSTRASI LOS

Traffic Flow Concepts
• • • Volume, speed and density Average travel speed or space mean speed and time mean speed If travel times t1, t2, t3,...,tn are measured for n vehicles traversing a segment of length L, the average travel speed (space mean speed) would be

u=

L n∗L n = n t (1 / n ) ∗ ∑ t i ∑ i 1 1

Generally

(1/ n) ∗ ∑ l 1 i speaking, u = n (1/ n) ∗ ∑ t 1 i,l i

n

5 vehicles over a given one-mile section with travel times (in minutes) of 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 0.75 and 1.0 respectively. Average travel time = 5.45/5=1.09 min = 0.0182 hr. u = 1/0.0182 = 55.05 mph.

Time mean speed is the arithmetic average of all vehicles passing a given “spot” on a roadway section. Space mean speed < time mean speed

Speed-Flow-Density Relationships
• Density is defined as the number of vehicles occupying a given length of a lane or roadway at a particular instant; density can be computed using the relationship: k = n/l. Alternatively, if q is the rate of flow and u is average travel speed, k = q/u. Unit of density is vehicles per mile (vpm). • Spacing is defined as the distance (ft) between successive vehicles in a traffic stream, as measured from front bumper to front bumper; headway is the time (sec) between successive vehicles, as their front bumpers pass a given point. Headway (sec/veh) = spacing (ft/veh)/speed (ft/sec). Density = 5,280/spacing. Flow rate or practical capacity = 3,600/average headway.

u = u 1- k f k j

⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

⎛ k2 ⎞ q = u ⎜k - ⎟ f⎜ k ⎟ j⎠ ⎝

2 q=k u-u u j f
⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

um = u / 2 q m = u m ∗ k m f u ∗k km = k / 2 q = f j j m 4

Greenshields’ Model (1935)

uf
Speed

Alternative Functional Forms 0
Density

kj

Flow-Density Relationship
Optimal flow or capacity,qmax Flow (q) Uncongested flow Density (k) Optimal density, ko

Congested flow Jam density, kj

Speed-Flow Relationship
Free-Flow Speed, uf Uncongested flow

Speed (u)

Congested flow Flow (q)

Empirical Speed-Flow Relationship

Traffic flow is not uniform. Rather may follow a Poisson process described by p(n) = e-λt (λt)n /n! Poissonian arrivals also imply a negative exponential distribution for vehicle headways

Speed-Flow relationships
Speed(S) S0 SF Figure 1: A typical speed-flowrelationship

SC F C Flow(V)

Equation of S-F Relationship
• • • • S1(V) = A1 – B1V S2(V) = A2 – B2V A1 = S0 A2 = SF + {F(SF – SC)/(C – F)}
– – – – – – –

V < F ........................ (2) F<V<C ............ (3) B1 = (S0 – SF) / F B2 = (SF – SC) / (C – F)

S1(V) and S2(V) = speed (km/h) V = flow per standard lane (veh/h) F = flow at ‘knee’ per standard lane (veh/h) C = flow at capacity per standard lane (veh/h) S0 = free-flow speed (km/h) SF = speed at ‘knee’ (km/h) SC = speed at capacity (km/h)

Flow-Delay Curves
• • • Exponential function appropriate to represent effects of congestion on travel times. At low traffic, an increase in flows would induce small increase in delay. At flows close to capacity, the same increase would induce a much greater increase in delays.

Time (t) tC

Figure 2: Effects of Congestion on Travel Times

t0 C Flow (V)

Equation of F-D Curve
• t(V) = t0 + aVn V<C ........................ (4) – t(V) = travel time on link t0 = travel time on link at free flow – a = parameter (function of capacity C with power n) – n = power parameter input explicitly V = flow on link • Parameter n adjusts shape of curve according to link type. (e.g. urban roads, rural roads, semi-rural, etc.) Must apply appropriate values of n when modelling links of critical importance.

Converting S-F into F-D
• If time is t = L / S equations 2 and 3 could be written:
– t1(V) = L / (A1 – B1V) – t2(V) = L / (A2 – B2V) V<F .......................... (5) F<V<C ............. (6)

These equations represent 2 hyperbolic (time-flow) curves of a shape as shown in figure 3. Use ‘similar areas’ method to calculate equations. Tables 1 in paper gives various examples of results.
Time (t) tC Figure 3: Conversion of Flow-Delay Curve

tF t0 F C Flow (V)

Fundamentals of Queuing Theory
• • • •

Arrivals – uniform or random Departures – uniform or random Service rate – departure channels Discipline – first-in-first-out (FIFO) and last-infirst-out (LIFO) being popular Notation of queues: X/Y/N
– – –

X – arrival rate nature Y – departure rate nature N – number of service channels

Popular notations: D/D/1, M/D/1, M/M/1, and in general M/M/N

Simple Queuing Theory Applications
• • • •

Use D/D/1 only when absolutely sure that both arrivals and departures are deterministic Use M/D/1 for controls unaffected by neighboring controls Use M/M/1 or M/M/N as general case Factors that could affect your analysis:
– –

Neighboring system (system of signals) Time-dependent variations in arrivals and departures

Peak hour effects in traffic volumes, human service rate changes People jumping queues! More than one vehicle in a lane! Grocery store counter lines

Breakdown in discipline

Time-dependent service channel variations

Graphically Analyzing Queues
D/D/1 Qmax Queue Dissipation Vehicles Total Vehicle Delay Delay of nth arriving vehicle t1 Time Delaymax

Queue at time t1

Queuing Components

Multi-Channel Queues

Numerically Analyzing Queues
ρ = λ/μ, and <1

Average Arrival Rate M/M/1
Q= ρ (1- ρ)
1⎡ λ ⎤ ⎥ w= ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ μ −λ ⎥ μ⎢ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣

λ
M/M/N

Average Departure Rate

μ

M/D/1
2ρ - ρ2 Q= 2(1- ρ)
1⎡ ρ ⎤ ⎥ w= ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1−ρ ⎥ 2μ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

Q=

P0 ρN+1 ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ N!N ⎣(1− ρ N)2 ⎦

P0 = 1
nC = 0

w =

Q λ

1 − μ

∑n

N −1

ρn

C

C!

+

ρN
N !(1 −

ρ
N

)

1 ⎡ 2 -ρ ⎤ ⎥ t= ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢1−ρ ⎥ 2μ ⎢ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣

1 t= μ -λ

Q⎤ t= ⎥ ⎥ λ⎥ ⎥ ⎦

⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣

P n>N

P0 ρ N +1 = N! N(1 − ρ N )