pGgt cf]v/ v]tL k|lalw

kl/ro n]sfnL xfjfkfgLdf x'g] tyf ;'Vvf kmn (Dry fruit) lbg] cf]v/sf] pTklQ pQ/–klZrd lxdfnog If]q b]lv kl;{of -O/fg_ ;Ddsf] If]qdf ePsf] dflgG5 . ;+;f/e/ o;sf sl/a @! hftLx? kfO{G5 -Fjellstrom and Parfitt, 1994_ . g]kfndf kfO{g] cf]v/ h'unG8];L (Juglandaceae) kl/jf/ cGtu{tsf] h'un]G; /]lhof (Juglans regia L.) gfds kl;{og cf]v/ -Persian walnut_ xf] . cf]v/ !)–$) ld6/ cUnf] ktem/ ?v xf] . o;sf] kft @)–$% ;]=ld nfdf] %–( efudf ljefhLt x'G5 . r}q dlxgfdf km'Ng] cf]v/sf] efn] km"n Ps jif{ k'/fgf] xf+ufsf] 5]pdf -Laterally_ em'l08P/ km"Nb5g eg] kf]yL km"n gof+ xf+ufsf] 6'Kkfdf hf]8fdf -af]ltnf]sf] ?kdf÷with nutlet_ km"Nb5g . ljZje/ ;g\ @))(÷!) df !@*@@$) d]= 6g cf]v/ pTkfbg eof] -USDA, 2010_ . k|d'v cf]v/ pTkfbs b]zx?df rLg -%^)))) d]= 6g_, cd]l/sf -#(^$$) d]= 6g_, o"s||]g, 6sL{, cfbL kb{5g eg] l5d]sL ef/tdf klg o;sf] v]tL jif]{gL a9L /x]sf] 5 . ljZje/ ;g\ @)) (÷!) df ;a} eGbf j9L cf]v/ cfoft ug]{ b]zx? o'/f]kLog o'lgog -!! $^)) d]= 6g_, 6sL{ -$@%)) d]= 6g_, ?; -#^%)) d]= 6g_, x+s+u -@&!)) d]= 6g_, hfkfg -#)#)) d]= 6g_ cfbL x'g\ -USDA, 2010_ . g]kfndf cf]v/ v]tLsf]] jt{dfg l:ylt g]kfnsf] k|fo M ;a}h;f] n]sfnL xfjfkfgL ePsf klZrdL kxf8L lhNnfx?df xf8] cf]v/sf la?jfx? h+unL cj:yfdf kmln /x]sf e]l6G5g eg] s]xL lhNnfx?df -vf;u/L s0ff{nL c~rnsf_ bf+t] cf]v/sf la?jfx? klg kfOG5g . oBlk cem} klg s'g} klg lhNnfdf cf]v/sf] Aofj;flos v]tL ul/Psf] kfO{+b}g, ljut s]xL jif{ b]lvsf] ;'Vvf kmnkm"n ljsf; s]Gb|, a}t8Lsf] ljz]if k|of; tyf ljleGg lhNnf s[lif ljsf; sfof{nox? Pj+ cGo s]xL ;/sf/L / u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx? ;d]tsf] kxndf bf+t] cf]v/sf] pGgt t/Lsfn] v]tL ug]{ k|rngdf lgs} a9]sf] 5 .

c?0f vgfn*

cf]v/ v]tLsf nfuL pGgt k|lalw  pko'St :yfg M xfjfkfgL M– cf]v/ v]tLsf] nflu &))–!%)) 306f . a}t8L.{/Lx?n] jif]{gL xhf/f}+sf] .Gt'ng sfod /fVg / kf]if0f . b]zsf] laleGg e]sdf /x]sf lztf]i0f afujfgL ljsf. a}t8L / o.}n] cf]v/ v]tL tkm{ s[ifs / .!&@ x]=_.n] cfDbfgL a9fpg. To. g]kfn jftfj/0fLo .xof]u ub{5 .taf+h. pTkfbg $./x? k|bfg ubf{ ub}{ klg #)Ü eGbf j9L g]kfnL u/LaLsf] /]vf d'gL 5g\ .  hftx? M g]kfndf kfOg] æ:yfgLo bf+t]Æ / ljb]zaf6 NofO{Psf ælyg. +Vofdf bf+t] cf]v/ -Thin shelled walnut_] sf] sndL Pj+ lah' la? jfx? pknAw u/fO{ pGgt cf]v/ v]tLsf] If]q la:tf/df 7"nf] of]ubfg k'¥ofO{ /x]sf 5g\ . æcfzn] -Ashley_Æ./sf/ b'a}sf] Wofgfsif{0f x'g' h?/L b]lvG5 . xfjfkfgLsf] lx.'Vvf kmnkm"n ljsf.'b"/ klZrdf~rnsf] a}t8L. pRr kxf8L e]udf u/LaL / s'kf]if0fsf] . @)^%_ . vf. .Dd &) . s]Gb÷kmfd{x?.Defjgf ePsf .^$( d]=6= / pTkfbsTj $=) d]=6=÷x]= /x]sf] lyof] -kmnkm"n ljsf.fan]] /fd|f] . clws[t. lgb]{zgfno.d:of ljs/fn 5 . df6f] M– cf]v/ v]tLsf] nflu ^–& kL=Pr= ePsf] kfgL ghDg] t/ lr:ofg /lx/xg] dlnnf] tyf kf+uf] -silt_ jf lrD6\ofO{nf] bf]d6 df6f] pko'Qm x'G5 .'/Iff ug{ . ef}uf]nLs / xfjfkfgLsf] ljljwtfsfn] pTkfbgzLn sfo{ åf/f cyfxf .]= eGbf sd tfkqmd rfFlxg] x'bf !@))–@%)) ld6/ prfO{ ePsf g]kfnsf pRr kxf8L If]qx?df o.f/ g]kfndf cf]v/ jfnLn] 9fs]sf] If]qkmn #.lsG5 .DefJotfsf cj.cf=j=@)^$÷)^% sf] tTYof+s cg''.u/L . Aofa. bfr'{nf.'Vvf kmnkm"n ljsf.]n -Thin shell_Æ. v]tL k|lawL åf/f *kmnkm"n ljsf. 88]Nw'/f.b}j b]vf k/L/xG5 .!&* x]S6/ -pTkfbglzn If]qkmn !.flos ?kdf cf]v/ v]tL ug]{ xf] eg] o. ef/tsf] lxdfrn k|b]zdf 2 . j/k/sf !( j6f lghL kmnkm"n g. æxf6{n] -Hartley_Æ / ækm|fGSj]6 -ranquette_Æ hftsf cf]v/x? pGgt v]tLsf nfuL k|of]u ug{ . s]Gb|. aemf+u / afh'/f.oL 7fFpx?df pGgt s]G›. Toxf eL/fnf gfËf 8f8fx? j9L ePsf]n] af9L kxL/f]sf] vt/f klg . ækfog] -Payne_Æ.sf] v]tL ug{ pko'Qm x'G5 . cf]v/ v]tL eO{ /x]sf d'Vo d'Vo lhNnfx?df . dWo klZrdf~rnsf] s0ff{nL c~rn cGt{ut kg]{ % j6} lhNnfx? tyf klZrdf~rnsf] dgfË / d':tfË lhNnfx? kb{5g .

d]t /fd|f] x'g] x'Fbf u'0f:tl/o la?jf pTkfbg ug{ .sf] nflu kfgLdf lehfPsf] cf]v/sf] jLpnfO{ pko'Qm dfWod -Vermiculite.f] pkrf/ gu/L . cf]v/sf] jLpnfO{ l9nf] ul/ kmfu'gsf] klxnf] xKtf b]lv r}qsf] klxnf] xKtf . To. cf]v/sf] jLpnfO{ kf}if–df3df @$ 306f hlt kfgLdf lehfP/ lr. kl5 kf}if– df3sf] lr. lalwaf6 pTkflbt la?jfx?df k}t[s u'0f zt k|ltzt gx'g] ePklg g]kfndf ckgfO{g] d'Vo ljlw olx xf] .]= tfkqmd sfod ul/ /fVg' k5{ .dodf jLp /f]Kbf /fd|f] pdf/sf] nflu /f]Kg' cl3 g} jLpsf] lr.]=dL= ulx/f] /f]Kg' k5{ .f]em} -In situ Stratification åf/f_ klg g.'Vvf kmnkm"n ljsf. @)^$÷^%_ .'= km= lj= s=]. jLpnfO{ t}of/ hdLg -Aof8_ df #)×#) .f/0f -n}+lus k|hgg_M o.f/0f -cn}+lus k|hgg_ M o.kfO{g] æk/tfk -Partap_Æ. al9 pd|g] / la?jfsf] prfO{ .f/sf] b"/L / ulx/fO{ ldnfO{ /f]Kg' k5{ . o. .taf+h.'sfP/ l9nf] klg /f]Kg . o.kmntf kfO{Psf] 5 .fy} pQm cjlwdf lr:ofg / xfjf . tl/sf åf/f t}of/ kfl/Psf cf]v/sf la?jfx?df ztk|ltzt dfp af]6sf] u'0f cfpF5 . t/ o.lsG5 ./L cuf8L g} /f]Kbf jLp l56f] pd|g]. cf]v/sf] jLp l56f] /f]Kg] eP efb|sf] bf]>f] xKtf b]lv cflZjgsf] klxnf] xKtf . o. o.Dd klg /f]Kg .Dd la?jfsf] a[l4 ljsf. kftx? emb{5g\ t/ km]l/ kmfu'gsf] clGtd xKtfaf6 g.{/L Aof8df dfly pNn]v u/] cg'.{/Ldf la?jfx? knfpg yfNb5g . clxn] .f/0f ljlw -k|hgg_ M  jLpaf6 k|.lsG5 . s]Gb|.f]n] a[l4 /f]lsG5. Moss jf afn'jf_ df tx tx u/L @–# xKtf .lsG5 . a}t8Ln] ckgfpFb} cfPsf] cf]v/sf] sndL ug]{ ljlw lha|] sndL -Tongue grafting_ xf] . ljlw cg'.  k|.f] pkrf/ -Stratification_ ug'{ h?/L x'G5 ./ dlxgf .Dd pko'St x'G5 .lsG5 .  jfg:klts k|. jfg:klts k|./L pkrfl/t jLpnfO{ pd|{g yfn] kl5 g.f/0f cGt{ut .+rf/sf] plrt Aoj:yf x'g' k5{ . ljlw af6 cf]v/df sndL ubf{ cf}ift &)Ü . æuf]laGb -Gobind_Æ / æs] 8ANo' )! @ -KW 012_Æ hftsf bf+t] cf]v/ v]tLsf]] ljsf.Dd #—%) .lsG5 -.{/L Aof8df /f]Kg . .f/ cf]v/sf] jLp nfO{ ?vaf6 l6k]sf] !)–!% lbg leq} jf . . /fd|f] x'G5 . lha|] sndL ljlw af6 sndL ug{ kfn'jf cfpg' cl3sf] kmfu'gsf] bf]>f] 3 . ug{ .]=dL= sf] b"/L sfod u/L &–!) .Ddsf] cg'ejdf o. Peat./L jLp /f]Kbf /f]k]sf] @)–@% lbgd} jLp pld|G5 / d+l.Dd . o.

+rfO{ u/L 5fkf] lbg .'xfp+bf] t/sf/L Pj+ d.f]emf] kfg]{ tyf l.fdfGotof lah' cf]v/ aLr !@×!@ ld6/ -nfOg / la?jf aLrsf] b"/L_ tyf sndL cf]v/ aLr !)×!) ld= sf] b"/L sfod x'g] u/L ux|f sfGnf -sG6'/_ jf juf{sf/ ljlw af6 hUufsf] /]vf+sg ul/G5 -s[[ .  dnvfb / l. ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . To.f/ . kl5 kf}if–df3df la?jf nufpFbf Tof] 5]:sf x6fO{ vf8nsf] aLrdf kg]{ u/L tyf sndL hf]8]sf] efu df6f] d"gL gk'l/g] u/L la? jf /f]Kg' k5{ .fog -sndL ul/g] xf+uf_ sf] tn k§L klg .Dd au}+rfsf] vfnL hUufdf 7fp+ . o.7sf] 5]:sfn] lrgf] nufpg' kb{5 ./L g.s]df /fd|f] x'G5 . o.lsG5 .f]xL cg'.]=dL= dfly sf6]/ To.]= ld= dfly . o:tf] df6f] dnnfO{ vf8nsf] dfly / dflysf] df6f]nfO{ tn kf/L vf8nsf] sl/a !%–@) .fP/ nufpg] eP au} +rfsf] pQ/ / klZrd k§Lsf] kf6fdf nufpg' kb{5 . /f]lkPsf la?jfx?n] pTkfbg lbg z'? gu/].a{k|yd ?6:6s la?jfx? -Root stocks_ t}of/ ug{ dfly bf+t] cf]v/sf] nflu pNn]v u/] em}+ g.Ddsf] .df lha|f] h:tf] sl6Ë agfO{G5 ./L u|flˆ6Ë -sndL_ ubf{ pko'Qm jftfj/0f -@!–@$).{/Ldf g} -Insitu_ t}of/ kfl/Psf xf8] cf]v/sf lah' la?jfx? dWo] :j:y / pko'Qm cfsf/sf la?jfx? 5gf}6 u/L To. o.+ s]. cf]v/nfO{ cGo kmnkm"n jfnL .f/sf] lha|] sl6Ë agfO{ ?6:6s .Dd cfpg] ul/ vf8n k'g'{ kb{5 / aLrdf s.+u ld. tl/sf cg'. ?6:6s af6 knfPsf d'gfx?nfO{ eg] lgoldt ?kdf x6fpg'' kb{5 . @)^&_ .+u k|lt vf8n #)–$) lsnf] kfs]sf] uf]7] jf sDkf]i6 dn ld. kl5 ! ld6/ ulx/fO{ / ! ld6/ uf]nfO{sf] vf8n vGg'k5{ .nf jfnLx? nufP/ kmfObf lng .flos ?kdf cf]v/ v]tL ug{ z'?df sndL la?jfx?nfO{ &–*×&–* ld= sf] b"/Ldf /f]kL] sl/a @) jif{ kl5 lar–larsf] Pp6f la?jf x6fpg klg l.+rfO{M M 4 . o. vf8n vGbf tnsf] df6f] Psflt/ / dflysf] df6f] csf] {lt/ /fvL tnsf] df6f] .xKtf b]lv r}qsf] klxnf] xKtf .{/Ldf xf8] cf]v/sf] aLpx? /f]lkG5 .kmfl/. o.do pko'Qm dflgPsf] 5 .f] ubf{ c? kmnkm"n jfnLnfO{ a9L 5f+of kb}{g .' .fpg' k5{ . cr]n Aofj.]= tfkqmd_ ePdf !%–@% lbg leq} la?jf knfpg yfN5 .+u hf]8L Knfli6ssf] 6]k jf lkmtfn] af+lwG5 .} ul/ :j:y Pj+ /fd|f] hftsf] bf+t] cf]v/sf] cwj} +.  hUufsf] t}of/L tyf la?jf /f]Kg] ljlw M hUufsf] t}of/L la?jf /f]Kg' eGbf slDtdf ! dlxgf cuf8L ug'{k5{ .nfO{ e"O{ af6 !%–@) . o./L /f]k]sf] la?jfnfO{ cfjZos eP 6]sf lbO{ . .] af]6 -dfp af]6_ af6 sf6]/ NofOPsf pko'Qm cfsf/sf .

+rfOsf] .+Vofdf gof+ kmNg] xf+ufx?sf] lasf. k|ofKt kmn lbg yfln .{g' x+'b}g . o.+rfO{sf] e/kbf]{ Aoj:yf ug{'] /fd|f] x'G5 . @)^&_ .s] klg .sf] nflu la?jfnfO{ @–# jif{.lsG5 .folgs dn xfNg] eP k|lt jif{ $)) u| fd gfO6«f]hg / @))–@)) u|fd kmf:kmf]/. dnvfb k|of]u ubf{ la?jfsf] km}nfj6 cg'.fy} la?jfdf 5fkf] -Mulch_ /fVg .+ s].xg .  tflnd tyf sfF65fF6 M cf]v/ afnLnfO{{ kl/jlt{t d"n xf+uf k¢tL -Modified Central Leader System_ åf/f tflnd lbg] cyf{t sf+65f+6 ul/ :yfoL Pj+ alnof] cfsf/ lbg' kb{5 .+rfO{ ug'{ /fd|f] x'G5 .' . uf]7] dnsf] k'/} dfqf kf}if–df3df sf+65f+6 u/]kl5 tyf /f. sl/a #) . olb cf]v/ jfnLnfO{ k|lt jif{ k|lt la?jf . k|Tos zfvf xf+ufx?df #–$ j6f k|zfvf xf+ufx? /fVg' kb{5 . o.Gt'lnt dnvfb k|of]u ug'{ h?/L x'G5 . jiff{ ofddf kfgL lgsf.fgf gkmNg] la?jf eP !–@ 8f]sf] -@%–%) lsnf]_ / kmNg] la?jf eP @–$ 8f]sf] -%)–!)) lsnf]_] uf]7] dn dfq pknAw u/fpg .sf] Aoj:yf ldnfpg klg la.'Vvf jftfj/0f .o'Qm dn k| lt la?jf k|of]u ug'{ pko'Qm x'g]5 -s[[ .'s]sf. / u'0f:tl/o pTkfbgsf] nflu l. Pj+ kf]6f. d/]sf.d]G6sf] kf]v/L agfpg'sf .s]df klg /fd|f] pTkfbg lng .s'g} klg afnLaf6 clwstd nfe lng .df d2t k'Ug'sf .d'lrt j[l4. /f]u ls/faf6 u|:t Pj+ sdhf]/ / alNemPsf xf+ufla+ufx?nfO{ lgoldt ?kdf sf6L x6fpg' kb{5 . x'g] u/L dfq sf+65f+6 ug'{ kb{5 .]=dL= sf] b"/Ldf /x]sf $–% j6f xf+ufx? dfq /fvL cGonfO{ kf}if–df3df d"n xf+uf af6} sf6L x6fpg' k5{ .xof]u kUb5 .sf nflu kf}if–df3df w]/} h.folgs dnsf] cflw efu kmfu'g–r}qdf gof+ kfn'jf cfpg z'? x'+bf / cflw efu efb|–cflZjgdf kmn l6kfO{ kl5 k|of]u ug'{ k5{ . la?jf /f]k] b]lv /fd|/L g.d:of sd ug{ cf]v/ au}+rf leq Knfli6s jf l.f] xf+ufsf 6'Kkfx? 5f]6\ofpg] -Headingback_ / cgfjZos xf+ufla+uf x6fO{ ktNofpg] -Thinning_ . cf]v/ jfnLn] s]xL .Dd a9g lbO{ e"+O{ af6 ! dL6/ dfyL rf/}lt/ knfPsf. 5 .s] af]6 / kmnsf] j[l4 / ljsf.f] agfO{ k|of]u ug'{ k5{ / df6f]n] 5f]kL l.Dd / kmn nfUg] / a9g] a]nfdf df6f]df lr:ofg sfod /fVg .df a9L Wofg lbg' kb{5 .f/sf] b"/Ldf la?jfsf] jl/k/L s'n]./]. o.fy} u'bL el/g . ljsf.s]sf] la?jfdf rflx+ k|Tos jif{ cfjZos . l.} ul/ . /f.lsG5 . e/v/} kmNg z'? u/]sf la?jfx?df kmnnfO{ eGbf xf+ufx?sf] lasf.

Ps} k6sdf tyf s]xL lbg cuf8L g} kmn l6Kg] eP kmn kl/kSj eO{ ./L ./L kmn l6Kbf la?jfsf] km]bdf s'g} sk8f jf kfn cf]5\ofpg' /fd|f] x'G5 eg] xf+ufdf sd. cf]v/ v]tLsf] dxTj  kf}i6Ls dxTj M 6 .]n hftsf] ()–!!) bfgf. .f] / .lsG5 .s] kl5 nfu]sf 7"nf 3fpx?df af]8f]{ k]i6 nufpg' / k'/} la?jfdf af]8f]{ ldS.S5. k|lt lsnf]df sfl:d/L lyg .'sfPsf] cf]v/ bfgfdf sl/a *Ü dfq lr:ofg x'g' kb{5 .d]t x|f.sf] hft. cf]v/ kmn l6Kg' cl3 kmn kfs]sf] 5 jf 5}g elg 5'6\ofpg .S5 .Dd e08f/0f u/L /fVg] eP o. xf+ufx? xNnfP/ jf af+. :yflgo xfjfkfgL– df6f] / au}+rf Aoj:yfkgdf e/ kb{5 .fdfGotof lah' la?jfn] /f]k]sf] !%–!* jif{ kl5 tyf sndL la?jfn] *–!) jif{ kl5 k"0f{ Ifdtfdf kmn lbG5 .  kmn l6kfO{ tyf pTkfbg M lah' cf]v/ /f]k]sf] *–!) jif{ / sndL cf]v/ $–% jif{df kmNg z'? ub{5 .do. klxnf] tl/sf cg'. cf]v/sf] .'Vvf cf]v/sf] kmn k|fKt ug{ . :yflgo bf+t]sf] &)–() bfgf / xf8] cf]v/sf] %%–&% bfgf x'G5 .f/ ha cf]v/ kmnsf] af]qmf -ufn_ *)Ü hlt km'6L kmn e"+O{df emb{5 / bf]>f] ha cf]v/ bfgf -af]qmf afx]ssf] kmn_ sf] /+u v}/f] x'G5 . cfpF5 .nnfO{ lr. kl5 kmnsf] af]qmf x6fO{ bfgfnfO{ w'g]. cf}iftdf eg] Pp6f la? jfn] $)–%) lsnf] dfq} pTkfbg lbg . o:tf] Pp6f kl/kSj Pj+ :j:y af]6 af6 sl/a !%)–@)) lsnf] . kmnnfO{ xftn]. cf]v/ kmn l6kL .nfO{ @–# k6sdf s]xL lbgsf] cGt/ kf/L l6Kg' kb{5 .Sb5 .r/ 5g'{ h?/L x'G5 . cf]v/sf] pTkfbg To. elg larf/ k'¥ofpg' kb{5 .sf] af]qmf unfpg $–% lbg o.fdfGotof b'O{ j6f tl/sfx? ckgfOG5 .kmf ug]{ tyf kftnf] ul/ lkm+hfP/ s]xL lbg 3fddf .'sfpg /fVg' kb{5 . l6Kg w]/} l9nf] u/]df kmndf /f]u ls/fsf] cfs|d0f a9g .] sd rf]6 k'uf].s]kl5 l6Kg sl/a !%–@) lbg cl3 O{y]kmg @))–%)) lk=lk=Pd= -)=@–)=% ld=ln= k|lt ln= kfgLdf_ k'/} la?jfdf 5s{g' kb{5 .sf] kf]nn] lxsf{P/ emfl/G5 .'Vvf 7fpFdf /fVg' kb{5 .fy} u'bLsf] /+u v}/f] sfnf] eO{ u'0f:t/df . To. o. To. .a} kmn Ps} k6s t}of/ gx'g .fwf/0ftof g]kfndf v]tL ul/g] bf+t] cf]v/ efb| dlxgfdf l6Kg t}of/ x'G5 .sf+65f+6 ul/ . la?jfsf] pd]/.}n] o. nfdf] . .s]kl5 o.

vlgh tTjx? / le6fldg …aLÚ kfOG5 .n] s'kf]if0fsf] rk]6fdf k/]sf g]kfnLsf] kf]if0f . af/L lhnfpg / jLp nufpg -?=@))_. k|f]l6g.df k|.|f] uf]8d]ndf cflb vr{ nfUb5 . ld=u|f 8fo6/L ^=& u| le6fldg )=& kf]6flzo $$! kmfO{j/ fd …OÚ ld=u|f d ld=u|f t]n ^%=@! le6fldg @=& .fy} o. 6]jn M cf]v/df kfOg] kf]ifs tTjsf] laj/0f -!)) u|fd u'bLdf_ vfB gfk vfB gfk vfB gfk kf]if0f kf]if0f kf]if0f zlQm ^%$ le6fldg @) DofUg]l. !%* lsnf] …PÚ cfO=o" od ld=u|f Sofnf]/L = sfaf] !#=&! le6fldg @=*@! DoflUgh #=$!$ {xfO8«] u|fd …aLÚ ld=u|f ld=u|f 6 sDKn]s. jf/L vGg Ps hgf -?=@))_.{/L / cf]v/ au}rfF wgLx? .f]l8od @ ld=u| u|fd …s]Ú dfOqmf] f u|f= k|f]6Lg !%=@# SoflN.lsG5 . j}t8L lhNnfsf kmnkm"n g. h.cf]v/sf] u'bL :jflbi6 x'g'sf] .df jLp -cf}ift ?=@%) sf b/n] ?= %)))_./L 7 .od (* ld=u|f lh+s #) u|fd ( ld=u|f kfgL $=)& u| cfO/g @=(! fd ld=u|f .nfO{ !^@ dL@ df nufpg .LÚ ld=u|f /.{/Ldf pTkfbg u/L las|L u/]/ jf pGgt v]tL u/L u'0f:t/Lo kmn kmnfO{ las|L u/]/ 7'nf] /sd cfDbfgL ug{ . @ lsnf] l8PkL -?=*)_ / ! lsnf] o"/Lof -?=@%_ bf]. h. lrgL @=^! le6fldg !=# km:kmf] #$^ u|fd ….'/Iffdf d2t ub{5 .usf] 5nkmnsf cfwf/df tof/ kf/LPsf] cf]v/ v]tL ubf{sf] cfDbfgL vr{ laj/0f lgDg adf]lhd 5 .:t t]n. sfaf] {xfO8«]6.lsG5 . cfwf lbgsf b/n] # k6s . o. ^ 8f]sf uf]a/ dn -?=!*)_ af/L vGbf.Dd uf]8\g -?=#))_. ljh' la?jf j]r]/ x'g] cfDbfgL vr{ laj/0f M laz lsnf] bfFt] cf]v/sf] jLpdf cf}ift () bfgf k|lt lsnf]sf b/n] !*)) bfgf x'G5 . o.|f]t M o"gfO{6]6 :6]6 l8kf6{d]G6 ckm cd]/Lsf.foLs dxTj M cf]v/ la?jf g. 8f6f a]z  Jofj.

8 .s]kl5 cf}iftdf &)Ü . h.fogsf] -?=@ sf b/n] ?=@#$)_. #_ * jif{ kl5 jf kmn kmNg yfn] kl5 k|To]s jif{ # 8f]sf] dn -?=()_. o.'?df gkmNbfsf jif{sf] nfut vr{ p7\b5 / To.n x'g] / @Ü dg]{ x'Fbf hDdf !!) ( jf]6 las|L of]Uo x'G5g\ . To.df jLp -cf}ift ?=#) sf b/n] ?= ^))_. sf65fF6 / uf]8d]n -?=!^))_. !@^) jf]6 dWo] !)Ü pvfNbf lau|g] / sd.nfO{ !!& dL@ df nufpg . cf]v/sf] la?jf ?vf] df6f] ePsf] / c? v]tLsf] nfuL cof]Uo hdLgdf klg ug{ . tflnd. kmn l6Kg -?=*))_ / cGo -? =@))_ u/L hDdf ?=@^() nfUb5 . To.f/ o.nfO{ vGgsf] nfuL $ hgf HofdL -?=*))_ rflxG5 .f/ o. #–# 8f]sf uf]a/ dn -?=!*)_ af/L vGbf / bf].n x'g] / @Ü dg]{ x'Fbf hDdf &@! jf]6 las|L of]Uo x'G5g\ . sndL la?jf j]r]/ x'g] cfDbfgL vr{ laj/0f M laz lsnf] xf8] cf]v/sf] jLpdf cf}ift ^% bfgf k|lt lsnf]sf b/n] !#)) bfgf x'G5 . jf6 s'n cfDbfgL ?=@@!&^ x'G5 . jLp nufpg -?=!))_. @ hgf k|tL % vf8nsf b/n] * hgf hUuf jgfpg / vf8n vGg -?= !^))_ . g]kfnsf] kl/k]Iodf Pp6f jf]6n] cf}iftdf $% lsnf] kmn lbPsf] kfO{G5 . jf/L vGg / af/L lhnfpg Ps hgf -?=@))_.nufO{Psf] jLp jf6 cf}ift &)Ü pdf/sf b/n] !@^) la?jf tof/ x'G5 .Dd uf]8\g -?=#))_. o.}n] cf]v/sf] au}rf :yfkgf ug{] xf] eg] kmNg yfn]sf] klxnf] jif{sf] cfDbfgL jf6 ./sf/L b//]6 -?=@)_ cg'. @_ * jif{ . h.}n] laz lsnf] jLp nufO{ jLh' la? jf a]Rbfsf] gfkm vr{ cg'kft #=#& x'G5 .}n] laz lsnf] jLp nufO{ sndL la?jf a]Rbfsf] gfkm vr{ cg'kft #=(( x'G5 . jf6 s'n cfDbfgL ?=@!^#) x'G5 .df sndL u/L.lsG5 .nfO{ vGgsf] nfuL # hgf HofdL -?=^))_ rflxG5 .f/ vr{ nfUb5 M !_ @) jf]6sf] al9df #) sf b/n] -?=^))_.lsG5 . o. cfwf lbgsf b/n] # k6s .|f] jif{. cf]v/ jf]6n] cf}iftdf /f]k]sf &–( jif{df kmn lbg z'? ub{5 . sndL vr{ -?=*))_ cflb vr{ nfUb5 . h.sf] d'No cf}ift ?=@%) sf b/n] !!@%) x'G5 .lsg] x'bf o. .| f] jif{. tflnd. sf65fF6 / uf]8d]n -?=!^))×*Ö?=! @*))_ / cGo -?=!))×*Ö?=*))_ u/L hDdf ?=!#(^) nfUb5 . !–! lsnf] l8PkL -? =*)_ / )=%–)=% lsnf] o"/Lof -?=@%_ bf]. jf6 jif{]gL nfvf}sf] cfDbfgL ug{ .kmnsf b/n] *!( jf]6 sndL la?jf tof/ x'G5 . o.Dd k|Tos jif{ !=% 8f]sf] dn -?=$%×*Ö?=#^)_. ./L nufO{Psf] jLp jf6 cf}ift ()Ü pdf/sf b/n] !!&) la?jf tof/ x'G5 ./sf/L b//]6 -? =#)_ cg'. . To.|f] uf]8d]ndf / bf]. cf]v/ kmn j]r]/ x'g] cfDbfgL vr{ laj/0f M @) cf]v/ jf]6 nfO{ x'sf{pg lgDg cg'. $!) dWo] !)Ü pvfNbf lau|g] / sd.

cf]v/sf] h/f / jf]s|f nfO{ b+tdGhg agfpg k|of]u ub{5g\ .:yfg k|bfg ub{5 . cflbdf ul/G5 . h. hlh{ofdf cf]v/sf] . O6fnLdf cf]v/sf] jf:gf o"St gf].d:of kb}{g To. cf]v/ . o.nfO{ .kl5sf jif{df @) jf]6 jf6 cf}iftdf ?=!!@%) sf b/n] gfkmf x'G5 .L .+Vof / jg lagf. ef/tdf a}i0fj b]aLnfO{ cf]v/ k|.sf] sf7af6 :tl/o kmlg{r/ / . o.]nf] gfds k]o kbfy{ nf]sk|o 5g\ .. 8fO{ pBf]u.L / JofS6]/Lof hGo /f]u ls/f lgoGq0fdf klg k|of]u ul/G5 .xof]u ug{ .lhn} x's{g . kmnkmNg sd x'g yfn]sf] Pp6f ?v af6 sDtLdf %) ef/L bfp/f / !) j6f kmn]s lg:sG5 .n] ubf{ jif]{lg sof}+ wghgsf] Iflt x'G5 . o.Lgf] / gf].  wfld{s dxTj M ltxf/df efO{ 6Lsfsf lbg lbbL–alxgLx?n] cfÎgf bfh'–efO{x? nfO{ lbg] d. cf]v/ d'.sf] s'n d'No cf}iftdf ?=!)))) -%)×!)) / !) ×%))_ kb{5 . -Salsa di Noci Sauce_ agfO{G5 . cf]v/sf] vf]:6fsf] w'nf] k]G6nfO{ afSnf] agfpg] x]t'n] k]G6 pBf]udf k|of]u ub{5g\ . cf]v/sf] kftsf] / jf]s|fsf] emf]n nfO{ laif]zu/L sk8f /Ëofpg] /Ë agfpg k|of]u ub{5g\ .nfdf cf]v/sf] kmn .fgsf nflu o.  jftfj/0fLo dxTj M a9\bf] hg.lsG5 .lsG5 .Sg] x'bf cf]v/nfO{ pRr kxf8L If]qsf gfËf 8f8fx?df nufO{ e"—Ifo lgjf/0fdf .f. cf]v/sf] kftsf] / af]s|fsf] emf]n ljleGg jfnLdf nfUg] 9'.dfj]z ug'{ klg h?/L dflgG5 . v/fof] cfbLsf] nfuL /fd|f] cfxf/ k|bfg ug'{sf .n] ubf{ jftfj/0fLo . h.f 8L gf].fN.}n] b'u{d If]qsf ls. sd dlnnf] df6f] ePsf le/fnf e"efudf klg .'Vvf kmn ePsf]n] 9'jfgL / e08f/0fdf . o.fbsf] ?kdf r9fO{G5 .n] ubf{ pRr kxf8L If]qx?df af9L kxL/f]sf] k|sf]k a9\bf] 5 .fdfu|L agfpg .  cf}ifwLo dxTj M 9 .sf] v]tL cfDbfgLsf] e/kbf]{ dfWod xf] .nfO{ knfl:6s pBf]udf kgL k|of]u ub{5g\ . kmlg{r/ pBf]u.fy} ljleGg k+5Lx?nfO{ jf.fa'g pBf]u / 8fOgfdfO6df kgL k|of]u ub{5g\ .Gt'ng sfod x'g k'Ub5 .  cf}wf]uLs dxTj M cf]v/sf] k|of]u t]n pBf]u. a]nfotdf cf]v/sf] crf/ nf]sk|Lo 5 . nf]vs]{.hfj6sf .

nfO{ sf6]sf] / . cf]v/sf] t]n gfDn] h'sfsf] pkrf/df klg k|of]u ul/GG5 . v]tL af6 dgUu] cfDbfgL x'g] s'/fnfO{ dWogh/ u/L o.Gwfgsf] sdL x'g' cf]v/ v]tLsf] nfuL . cf]v/sf] 8f7sf] af]s|fsf] n]bf] agfO{ skfndf v}/f] rlDsnf] agfpg klg k| of]u ug{ .sf] pGgt v]tLdf hf]8 lbg' kb{5 .nfO{ dnvfb klg glbg] rng ePsf]n] of] v]tL af6 x'g' kg]{ htL cfDbfgL ePsf] 5}g .lsG5 .kmf kfg'{sf . o. cf]v/n] /ut .L k|lt/f]ws ePsf]n] o.n df6f]df o. 10 .cf]v/df kfO{g] cf]d]uf # km\of§L P. cf]v/d kfO{g] cfh]{gLg -argenine_.d:of xf] .lsG5 .  o.. sndLsf] nfuL .d:ofx? / ltgsf] Aoj:yfkg ] bf+t] / xf8] cf]v/ aLr pko'Qm -@ ls=dL=_ eGbf a9L b"/L sfod gePdf k/.n] ubf{ Pn\ 8L Pn\ sf]n]:6f]/n -LDL cholestoral_ 36L nLKkf] k| f]l6gsf] dfqf a9\g uO{ lÅbo3ft sd ub{5 -Ros et al. cf]v/sf] t]n lgsfNbf ag]sf] kLgf crf/df jf dnvfbsf] ?kdf k|of]u ug{ .}n] o.fy} jf]7 rf9} db{5 .'gLPsf] 7fFpdf cf}ifwLsf] ?kdf k|of]u ug{ . cf]v/ v]tLsf k|d'v .  g]kfndf pko'Qm hft gkfpg' / o. cf]v/ h/fdf JofS6]/Lof k|tL/f]ws zlSt x'g] x'bf o. v]tLdf ljleGg /f]u ls/fx?n] xfgL ug]{ x'bf oLgLx?sf] .  cGo dxTj M cf]v/sf] vf]:6f cfuf] tfKg k|of]u uGg .lsG5 . af/] .dodfg} Joj:yfkg ug'{ kb{5 .L8n] O{G8f]y]nLon -endothelial_ sf] sfdnfO{ ^)Ü n] a9fp5 . kftsf] emf]nn] pkLof / p8'.d:of xf] ./sf/L dfWod jf6 ah]6 5'6\6fpg' / cg'.lsG5 .fog sf6\bf cf]v/af]6sf] kmNg] Ifdtf 36\g'sf . JofS6]/Lof / 9'. cf]v/sf] kftdf kfO{g] h'u'nf]g -Juglone_ tTjdf efO/. af/]df cg'. 2004_ ..fy} lbdfusf] la/fdLnfO{ klg l7s kfb{5 .  sndL w}/} k|tLztn] c.kmn x'g' cf]v/ v]tLsf] k|d'v .L8 -Omega 3 fatty acid_ / ufdf 6f]sf]km]/f]n -gamma tocopherol_ n] d'6'nfO{ :j:Yo /fVb5 -Sabate et al. To.  sd. o. nfO{ lgoGq0f ub{5 .sf] k|of]un] d'v :j:Yo /fvL :jf.Gwfgdf sd{rf/L v6fpg h?/L b]lvG5 .]rg eO{ bf+t] cf]v/ klg xf8] lg:sG5 . 1993_ . cf]v/ v]tLsf d'Vo /f]u ls/fx? lgDg k|sf/ 5g\ .sf] v]tL ug]{ rng ePsf] / o..df tfhuL Nofp5 . kf]nLkmLgf]n -polyphenols_ / cf]d]uf # km\of§L P.

folgs laiffbL -a]leli6g jf kmd] {lN8xfO8_ k|of]u ug{ . 6'Kkf . f]u Aoj:yfkgsf] nflu /f]lu kft / xf+uf la+ufx? sf6]/ x6fO{ hnfpg' kb{5 .f h:tf nfef{ x'g sf]8ln¨ df]y -Codling moth_]] n] kmnsf] slnnf] ca:yfd} 11 .fgf bfux? b]lvg]. kl5 kftx? l5lKkb} emg]{ tyf cGtdf la/jf g} dg]{ x'G5 . a9L cfb|tf / udL{ x'g] df}. slnnf xf+ufx? 6'Kkf af6 sfnf] x'+b} . gof+ la?jf /f]Kbf lg/f]uL la?jf 5gf}6 ug]{.'Sb} hfG5g eg] ._ gfds 9'.Ln] ubf{ nfUb5 . cf]v/sf] af]qmfsf] /Ësf] rfdnsf lrn]. kl5 oL yf]Knfx? a9]/ k'/} kft 9fS5 tyf xf+uf gf¨f] x'g] ul/ kftx? Emb{5g .L -Gnomonia leptostyla_ af6 x'g] /f]u xf] .sf] clu|d Aoj:yf ldnfpg' kb{5 .S5 .–%)_ jf d}Gsf]h]a -8fO{y]g Pd–$%_ )=#Ü sf] cfjZoStfg'.Sb5 .• • • • v}/f] kft yf]Kn] /f]u -Anthracnose / Leaf blotch_ M of] 9'. /f]uL df6f]df s]lx jif{ la?jf g/f]Kg] / /f]Kg' g} kg]{ eP la?jf Pj+ df6f]sf] pkrf/ u/]/ dfq} /f]Kg' kb{5 .L -Glomerella cingulata_ af6 nfUg] /f]u xf] .ddf o.r/ jf )=@%–)=#)Ü -! nL= kfgLdf @=%–# u|fd ljiffbL_ sf] sk/clS. pkrf/sf] nflu h}las -6f«Osf]8/df_ jf /. lx+pbdf sf+65f+6 ul/ . km]b tyf h/f s'lxg] /f]u -Foot and Root rot_ M of] /f]u kmfO6f]Ïyf]/f -Phytophthora spp.–. +sng u/L hnfpg] . /f]usf] nIf0fdf z'?df kftdf clgoldt v}/f yf]Knf b]lvG5g .f/ @–# k6s 5s{g' kb{5 .Snf]/fO8 -AnfO6fS.lsG5 . gof+ kfn'jf cfpg z'? eP kl5 !Ü %M%M%)_ sf] af]8f]{ ldS.'Sg] /f]u -Die-back_ M of] klg Ps k|sf/sf] 9'. oj:yfkgsf nflu e"+O{df em/]sf kft / kmnx?nfO{ .fgf] la?jf dg{ klg . /f]u nfUg glbg au}rfdf kfgL lgsf. z'? df kft tyf slnnf xf+uf Pj+ kmnx?df v}/f wAafx? b]lvG5g h'g kl5 uP/ 7"nf wAafx?df kl/0ft x'G5g . /f]un] sf08sf] hldgnfO{ 5f]Psf] efu / h/f b'a}df cfqmd0f ug{ .s]kl5 clgjfo{ ? kdf af]8f]{ ldS.r/ 5s{g] / sfl6Psf 7"nf xf+ufx?df af]8f]{ k]i6 nufpg' kb{5 . z'?df kftdf .sf] cfqmd0f a9L x'g] ub{5 . /f]usf] nIf0f b]vf kbf{ lalQs} sk/clS.Snf]/fO8 !)–!% lbgsf] km/sdf @–# k6s la?jf k'/} leHg] u/L 5s{g' kb{5 . /f]usf] cfqmd0f a9b} hf+bf kft / kmn emb{5g .

lsG5 . 8f+7df Kjfn kfg]{ sL/f -Shoot borer_ M o. 8fO{ gf]S. ^%=@! u|fd t]n.sf] nflu sL/f nfu]sf] yfxf kfp+bf lalQs} Kjfndf kmnfdsf] dl.'xfpbf]./L{ af6 x'g] gfkmf vr{ cg'kft jLh'sf] nfuL #=#& / sndLsf] nfuL #=(( x'G5 .]tf] w. v}/f]–sfnf] /¨sf].f]{ ePsf] cf]v/sf] vk6] sL/f -Walnut weevil_ sf] nfef{x?n] kmndf leq leq} vfP/ .Lsf] cfqmd0fsf] nfuL of]Uo dx h:tf] u'lnof] kbfy{ -Honeydew_ 5f]8\g] cf]v/sf] nfxL sL/f -Walnut aphid_ n] klg cf]v/ v]tLdf 7'nf] gf]S. cf}wf}uLs. dflyNnf] efu s8f / kv]6fsf] k'R5f/ lt/ .]= eGbf sd tfkqmd x'g] xfjfkfgL ePsf]n] oL If]qx?df . le6fldgx? / ljleGg 12 . cfjZos k/] )=@ Ü sf] .'? ¨ agfp+5g h.fpg] tyf aflx/ af6 lrD6ofOnf] lunf] df6f]n] 6fNg' kb{5 .'O/f] l5/fP/ sL/f dfg]{ .n] ubf{ To. r'.Dd &) . !#=&! u|fd sfaf]{xfO8«]6.gf] tf/ jf . v]tLsf] Joj.L] /. ls/fn] a9L u|:t xf+ufx?nfO{ sf6]/ x6fpg] tyf d"n xf+ufdf ls/f nfUg glbg af]8f]{ k]i6 k|of]u ubf{ To./sf/L. o. kftsf] tNnf] . h.fg ub{5g\ . sL/fsf] ujf/f]n] la?jfsf] xf+uf / yfddf -d'n xf+uf_ Kjfn kf/L .'?¨ agfO{ kmnnfO{ kl/kSj gx'+b} emf/L gf]S. oL sL/fx? Aoj:yfkgsf] nflu em/]sf kmnx? . cf]v/sf] g.fg k'¥ofpb5 .• e]6gf]af6 leq k. wfdL{s.foLs tj/n] a9fjf lbg' h?/L b]lvG5 . &))–! %)) 306f .L u'bL vfO{ gf]S.} ul/ skf.fg ub{5g\ . kf}i6Ls cfbL kmfO{bf x'G5 .fP/ bNg' kb{5 .Sb5 ./sf/L / :jod\ s[ifssf tkm{ jf6 o. cf]v/sf] k|Tos !)) u|fd u'bLdf ^%$ lsnf] Sofnf]/L zlQm.df ls6 gfzs laiffbL klg ld.fx?n] kmnsf] af]qmf vfO{ kmn .L ltgdf 9'. jftfj/0fLo. !%=@# u|fd k|f]6Lg.]leg -sfaf{l/n_ jf 8folhgfg laiffbL !)–!% lbgsf] km/sdf @–# k6s 5s{g' kb{5 . +sng u/L uf8g] jf hnfpg] ug'{ kb{5 . cf]v/ v]tL jf6 Joj. u}x| . /ftf– kx]+nf / 6f6]kf6 kv]6fx'g] cf]v/sf] af]qm] lem+uf -Husk fly_ n] kmnsf] af]qmfdf Kjfn kf/]/ km'n kfb{5.foLs.sf cf}+. o. lgisif{ g]kfnsf pRr kxf8L If]qx?df cf]v/ v]tLsf nfuL . nfO{ d§L t]n jf laiffbL -dfnflyofg_ df rf]k]/ Kjfndf 3'.fgL k'¥ofpb5 . cf}ifwLo.tx / slnnf] xf+ufx? df a.sf] au}rf :yfkgf af6 aif] {gL xhf/f} ?k}of+ cfDbgL ug{ . eGbf dflysf kft / xf+ufx? cf]Onfp+5g eg] la?jf klg dg{ . o.

N Engl J Med. a}t8L . Centre. and D. . Walnut (Juglans spp. . @)^$÷^% . sfo{qmd jflif{s k|utL laa/0f . 1993. K.en.xof]u ub{5 .) genetic diversity determined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms.Gbe{ .. Fraser. Parfitt.+rf/ s]Gb= xl/x/ejg. Perez-Heras. 2010. lgb]{zgfno. H. USDA.' . afujfgL ljsf. 2011. Unitate State Department of Agriculture.. kmnkm"n ljsf.n] cfDbfgL a9fO u/LaL lgjf/0f ug{. @)^$÷^%= g]kfndf cf]v/ v]tL Ps kl/ro -lnkmn]6_ . Ros.+ s].vgLhx? k|fKt ug{ .ysis.flos ?kdf cf]v/ v]tL ug]{ xf] eg] o. nlntk'/= kmnkm"n ljsf. 328(9):603-7. J.org/wiki/ Juglans_regia on 21/01/2011. R . To. 109(13):1609-14. . 2004. E. Sabate.Gt'ng sfod /fVg / kf]if0f . 1994. Lindsted. Nunez and A.wikipedia. Knutsen. Genome. Burke.lsG5 . jftfj/0fLo . Satbanj. sf7df08f} @$* k]h . lgb]{zgfno. Foreign Agricultural Service. Wikipedia.G. s]Gb|. Office of Globle Ana. E. Bennett and K. lstL{k'/. 2011. F.'/Iff ug{ . E. 13 . Effects of walnuts on serum lipid levels and blood pressure in normal men. @)^&= s[[lif 8fo/L= s[[lif .'Vvf kmnkm"n ljsf.}n] pGgt v]tL k|lawL åf/f Aofa. . and farmers of Baitadi district during January. 37:690-700. Fjellstrom.'rgf tyf . Circulation. A walnut diet improves endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomized crossover trial.taf+h.'= km= lj= s]=. G. Tree nuts: world market and trade.fdfu|Lx?M s[[ . Online www. I. D. Personal communication with technical staff of Dry Fruit Dev. Juglans regia. S.

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