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Solar Heat for Industrial Processes
State of the Art within Task 33/IV Subtask C
Medium Temperature Collectors
Werner Weiss, AEE INTEC Matthias Rommel, Fraunhofer ISE
Medium Temperature Collectors
Background …………………………………….2 Medium temperature collector developments …2 Overview – Current medium temperature collector developments …………3 2AR Flat-Plate Collector ………………………6
State of the Art within Task 33/IV Subtask C
SCHÜCO Double-Glazed Flat-Plate Collector ……………………………8 Ao Sol Stationary CPC Collector ……………...10 Solarfocus-CPC – collector …………………...12 Maximum Reflector Collector …………………13 PARASOL® ………………………………15 ………………………….17
SOLITEM PTC 1800
PTC 1000 - Modular parabolic trough collector ………….…………………18
Werner Weiss, AEE INTEC Matthias Rommel, Fraunhofer ISE
www.iea-ship.org www.iea-shc.org www.solarpaces.org
Fix Focus Trough
Linear Concentrating Fresnel Collector ………22 CHAPS Combined Heat and Power Solar collector ………………………………………..24
Annex 1 ……………..…………………………………….26 Which Improvements can be achieved using single and double AR-glass covers in flat-plate collectors? Annex 2 …………………………………………………..30 The Solarmundo line focussing Fresnel collector
2005, Solar Heating and Cooling Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Publisher: AEE INTEC Feldgasse 19 A-8200 Gleisdorf Austria
Annex 3 …………………………………………………..43 MaReCo for large systems Annex 4 …………………………………………………..49 Development and Optimization of a Parabolic Trough Collector IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme …54
TASK 33/IV - Solar Heat for Industrial Processes - Subtask C - Collectors and Components ..…...... 1
Around 105 GWth corresponding to 150 million square meters of solar thermal collectors were installed by the year 2004 worldwide. Until now the widespread use of solar thermal plants has focused almost exclusively on swimming pools, domestic hot water preparation and space heating in the residential sector. The use of solar energy in commercial and industrial companies is currently insignificant compared to the sectors mentioned above. Most solar applications for industrial processes have been on a relatively small scale and are mostly experimental in nature. On the other hand, if one compares the energy consumption of the industrial, transportation, household and service sectors, then one can see that the industrial sector has the biggest energy consumption in the OECD countries at approximately 30%. The major share of the energy, which is needed in commercial and industrial companies for production, processes and for heating production halls, is below 250°C. The low temperature level (< 80°C) complies with the temperature level, which can easily be reached with solar thermal collectors already on the market. thermal collectors for the temperature level from 80°C to 250°C ('medium temperature collectors'). The collectors investigated in co-operation with the industry are double glazed flat plate collectors with anti-reflection coated glazing, stationary CPC collectors, MaReCos (Maximum Reflector Collectors), parabolic trough collectors as well as linear concentrating fresnel collectors. In these activities, investigations on materials suitable for medium temperature collectors play also an important role and appropriate durability test tools will be applied to specific materials and components to allow the prediction of service lifetime and to generate proposals for international standards. This report gives an overview and some background information on the present state of the art of the medium temperature collector developments carried out in the framework of the IEA Task 33/IV on Solar Heat for Industrial Processes.
Medium temperature collector developments
For applications where temperatures up to 250°C are needed the experiences are rather limited and also suitable collectors are missing. Therefore, for these applications the development of high performance solar collectors and system components is needed. One of the objectives of Task 33/IV is to develop, improve and optimise solar
TASK 33/IV - Solar Heat for Industrial Processes - Subtask C - Collectors and Components ..…...... 2
Overview — Current medium temperature collector developments
The following table gives an overview of the medium temperature collector developments, the range of the working temperature of the different collector types and the contact person within Task 33/IV.
Collector Type Operating Heat Transfer Temperature Medium [ºC] Contact person within Task 33/IV Page
2AR Flat-Plate Collector
Double Glazed Flat-Plate Collector with Anti-Reflective Glasses 80 – 150 Water-Glycol
Matthias Rommel Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems Heidenhofstrasse 2 79110 Freiburg Germany
Double-Glazed Flat-Plate Collector 80 - 150 Water-Glycol
R.Sillmann Schüco International KG Karolinenestr. 1-15 33615 Bielefeld Germany
Stationary CPC Collector
80 - 110
Maria Joao Carvalho DER/INETI, Edificio H, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa Portugal
Solarfocus-CPC - collector
80 - 120
Andreas Simetzberger SOLARFOCUS Kalkgruber Solar- und Umwelttechnik GmbH Werkstrasse 1 A-4451 St.Ulrich / Steyr Austria
Maximum Reflector Collector
50 - 90
Björn Karlsson Vattenfall Utveckling AB S-814 26 ÄLVKARLEBY Sweden
TASK 33/IV - Solar Heat for Industrial Processes - Subtask C - Collectors and Components ..…...... 3
Operating Heat Transfer Temperature Medium [ºC]
Contact person within Task 33/IV
Parabolic Trough Collector 100 - 200
Water or Steam
Dagmar Jähnig AEE INTEC Feldgasse 19 A-8200 Gleisdorf Austria
SOLITEM PTC 1800
Parabolic Trough Collector
100 – 200
Klaus Hennecke DLR Institute for Technical Thermodynamics D-51170 Köln Germany
Modular parabolic trough collector 80 - 300 Water
Jens Kötter Solar-Institute Jülich Heinrich-Mußmann-Str. 5 D-52428 Jülich Germany
Parabolic Trough Collector 130 - 300 Water
Esther Rojas CIEMAT - PSA Avda. Complutense, s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Parabolic Trough Collector
Claudio Estrada CIE-UNAM Privada Xochicalco S/N, Col. Centro Cuernavaca, Mor. Mexico
TASK 33/IV - Solar Heat for Industrial Processes - Subtask C - Collectors and Components ..…...... 4
Subtask C . air Klaus Hennecke DLR Institute for Technical Thermodynamics D-51170 Köln Germany 21 Linear Concentrating Fresnel Collector 100 .Collector Type Operating Heat Transfer Temperature Medium [ºC] Contact person within Task 33/IV Page Fix Focus Trough 100 ..….400 Water.150 Water Joe Coventry The Australian National University Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems Department of Engineering.... steam. 5 . thermal oil Andreas Häberle PSE Solar Info Center 79072 Freiburg Germany 22 CHAPS Combined Heat and Power Solar collector 80 ..200 water..Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . thermal oil.Collectors and Components . steam. Canberra ACT 0200 Australia 24 TASK 33/IV .
The collector was mainly built for first tests and comparison with a single-glazed collector (Collector components from Energie Solaire). 2.de Dimensions of the prototype collectors Testing collectors typically 1 m x 2 m. The desalination unit is developed by Fraunhofer ISE. Fürth. 79110 Freiburg. TASK 33/IV . Germany Phone: 0049 (0)761-4588-5141..325 m² each.8 a1a=2. e-mail: rommel@ise.. Companies involved in the development Testing collectors built together with Energie Solaire. The desalination technology is based on the membrane destillation process..Subtask C .Double-Glazed Flat-Plate Collectors with AntiReflection Glass Author(s): Matthias Rommel.. Switzerland and ESE.Collectors and Components . The double glazed AR-collector from ESE is applied in a solar driven. Belgium. A collector built by ESE was tested at Fraunhofer ISE with respect to its thermal performance.5 W/(m² K) a2a=0.008 W/(m² K²) Present development stage: First test collectors have been built. Fax: 0049 (0)761-4588-9000. It produces about 100 to 150 litres of distilled water per day. Sierre. It is presently tested in an extended exposure test on the test site of ITC in Gran Canaria. energy self sufficient. The system uses 3 modules with an aperture area of 2. Description of collector. Germany Collector parameters based on aperture area: Estimated parameters for suitably well-insulated collectors are: η0= 0.…. Rochefort. Double-glazed collector with AR-glass at Fraunhofer ISE’s outdoor test site. estimated to be in the range of 240 to 260°C for suitably well-insulated collectors Research Institution(s) development involved in the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems Heidenhofstr. but without suitable edge and rear side insulation. AR-glass from FLABEG. stand-alone system for sea-water desalination.fraunhofer. operating temperature range and stagnation temperature Double-glazed flat-plate collector with antireflection glass. Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems Operating temperature level: 80°C to 150°C Stagnation temperature: Not measured yet... The typical operating collector temperatures are between 50 and 95°C. The system was installed in December 2004 on the test site of ITC in Gran Canaria.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . The tests carried out up to now have been done without adequate edge and rear face insulation. One collector was exposed to outdoor conditions during summer 2003. Tests for a direct comparison of single-glazed collectors and double-glazed collectors were carried out in indoor collector investigations using Fraunhofer ISE’s solar simulator. 6 .
. Solar thermal-driven membrane distillation for small scale desalination plants.27 June 2003.. European Solar Thermal Energy Conference estec 2003.Double-glazed AR collector from ESE used in a solar driven desalination system installed in Dezember 2004 in Gran Canaria Estimation of the time needed or planned until the collector will be on the market Field tests are already carried out during 2005. Schäfer. 26 . Symposium Thermische Solarenergie. Matthias Rommel. Proc. Koschikowski.. 14.. page 1-412 to 1-421 TASK 33/IV . Entwicklung neuer doppeltverglaster Flachkollektoren mit Antireflex-Glas. Gombert. Schmidt.-16. Schäfer. S. Freiburg. Estimation of collector costs: No solid estimations available yet. Schmitt. Freiburg.Subtask C .….Collectors and Components . Staffelstein. Other references where further information on the collector can be found: Rommel. Further information on desalination system: Joachim Koschikowski. Marcel Wieghaus.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .. Mai 2003. OTTI. 7 .. Tagungsband 13. 221-226 Rommel. Schmitt. Germany For further information see Annex 1. Proceedings EuroSun Conference 2004.
Another important Dimensions of the prototype collectors 2.. Research Institution(s) development involved in the ISFH Institut für Solarenergieforschung Hameln/Emmerthal. Due to the high temperature difference between the two plates of glass in the double-glazing.7 m² collector Length/width/height: 2152 mm / 1252 mm / 108 mm Collector parameters based on aperture area: Measured parameters of a prototype according to EN12975: η0= 0.Subtask C . many opportunities exist for the installation and integration of the collector in a building. Since most of the heat lost in a flat plate collector is lost via the front side. fullplate selective absorber with a welldesigned frame and mounting system has resulted in a high acceptance by architects and investors. Thus the collector can be used in facades... it is possible to combine the collector with a window or PVmodule in the same design.com point was the research into collector materialsmaterials which can function at high temperatures without any problems. The combination of the visually attractive. Germany email: Rsillmann@schueco. operating temperature range and stagnation temperature Double-glazed.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . it is necessary to reduce heat loss here. 1-15. Present development stage: The development of the collector is complete. Furthermore a large double-glazed collector with an area of about 7. 8 . building integration is the focus of most Schüco collectors. flat-plate collector with antireflective glass. in roofinstallations or even as a canopy... 33615 Bielefeld. Germany Operating temperature level: 80°C to 150°C Schüco double-glazed flat plate collector Stagnation temperature: 235 °C (measured according to EN12975) Description of collector.Collectors and Components . The aim of the development was to create a flat-plate collector with high efficiency at temperatures of around 100°C for process heating and solar climatisation purposes. Because the design of the collector is very close to the design of the SchücoSol collector. The space between the glass panes is filled with an inert gas to reduce the heat conductivity. Am Ohrberg 1 31860 Emmerthal.8 a1a=2.4 W/(m² K) a2a=0. As one of the most important issues for solar thermal technologies. TASK 33/IV . Sillmann. it was essential to design the collector in accordance with the Schüco production guidelines in order to achieve industrial.5 m² (for crane mounting) has been developed. H. Köln Schüco International KG Karolinenstr. Furthermore.015 W/(m² K²) The parameters are based on global irradiation. The collector design is similar in appearance to that of the SchücoSol collector (single glazed). One of the most important items in the development was the design of the double-glazing and the frame.…. Furthermore. A.. mechanical stresses result that have to be dealt with. This is achieved by double-glazing.SCHÜCO Double-Glazed FlatPlate Collector Author(s): R. Rosenwirth. automated production of high quality units at an appropriate cost.
March 2005) Other references where further information on the collector can be found: Further information is given on the Schüco web sites www..com.7 m² collector: €1195..Subtask C ..(excl.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .. VAT.Estimation of the time needed or planned until the collector will be on the market The collector will be on the market in July 2005. TASK 33/IV .schueco..….Collectors and Components . 9 .. Estimation of collector costs: List price for the 2.
Portugal 2 Companies involved in the development Ao Sol. ε≥=0. Rodolfo Branco1. Correia de Oliveira et al. It is made up of six raisers centred in six symmetrical CPC valleys with two asymmetrical CPC valleys for the headers. Dimensions of the prototype collectors The prototype built has the dimensions: 2095 x 1280 x 165 mm following Collector parameters based on aperture area Several tests were performed with different prototype configurations: A. 2002) Description of collector.. There is enough distance between the glass and the top of the absorber for the collector to be provided with anti-convective barriers such as TIM or Teflon film. Afonso1 (Based on J.15). Carvalho2. supported by research work at IST (School of Engineering of the Technical University of Lisbon) Stagnation temperature: Experimental values are not yet available. With a Teflon film and standard selective absorber B. operating temperature range and stagnation temperature Ao Sol produces a stationary CPC-type collector with 1. Estrada do Paço do Lumiar 1649-038 Lisboa. truncated to 1.. 10 .12X concentration. Research Institution(s) involved in the development INETI – Instituto Nacional de Engenharia.7X (acceptance angle of 37º). M. Tecnologia e Inovação Nacional Institute of Engineering.Subtask C . Lda Apartado 173 2135-402 Samora Correia Portugal 1 Operating temperature level: 110 ºC (this temperature was needed in order to use the collector as a heat source for an absorption machine with 5kW cooling power and 9 kW heating power..Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . This collector is meant for domestic hot water applications. J. The collector has only two inlet/outlet connections and has a minimum back insulation of 3 cm. A. Energias Renováveis.. M.….4 m2..Ao Sol Stationary CPC Collector Author(s): João Correia de Oliveira1.. CPC collector 1. Tecnology and Inovation. The area of the collector aperture is 2. TASK 33/IV .5X (truncation angle of 56º). The absorber is Vshaped (inverted V).. It is a stationary CPC-type collector without a vacuum and with an initial concentration of 1. also in development by Ao Sol.Collectors and Components .Collares Pereira2.5X without convective barriers and with a standard selective absorber (Sunstrip α=0. The new collector is based on the same construction ideas as the commercial collector – a similar box and insulation but with a higher concentration.96.
. ISES Solar World Congress. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells.6 ± 0. 2003).Carvalho.J. Carvalho. 9 kW heating power) (see A. Afonso et al.71 ± 0. V. New low concentration CPC type collector with convection controlled by a honeycomb TIM material: A compromise with stagnation temperature control and survival of cheap fabrication materials. XI Congresso Ibérico e VI Ibero-americano de Energia Solar.200 €/m2 (factory price).65 ± 0. P. J. vol. vol. Truncation of CPC solar collectors and its effect on energy collection.175-190 M. J. ε=0.Wittwer (1995). J.64 ± 0. Carvalho.94.2 2.Collares Pereira.01 0.66 ± 0. Sweden. Solar Energy. Other references where further information on the collector can be found: António Afonso.Collectors and Components .8 ± 0.66 ± 0. Carvalho (2002). M. J.12X CPC solar collector.1) With TIM The results are described in Table 1 Linear Fit F'η0 ± σF’η0 a1 ± σ a1 Collector A Collector B Collector C Collector D 0.40-45 M. Santos (1997).J. 2 shows the five collectors with Teflon film installed in the collector stand used in the demonstration system. Collares Pereira.393-399 Estimation of the time needed or planned until the collector will be on the market The collector is already available on the market. ISES Solar World Congress 2003.J. Sweden.…. pág. The collector field is composed of six collectors. Collares-Pereira. Collares Pereira. M. Rabl (1985). TASK 33/IV . J.01 3.M.1 2.70 ± 0. M.01 0. ISES Solar World Congress 2003. pag.0 ± 0.M.01 Parabolic Fit a1 ± σ a1 3. Vilamoura.S.2 F'η0 ± σF’η0 0. A Solar/Gas powered absorption prototype to provide small power heating and cooling. M.0 ± 0.F. vol. Branco. A.F..Collares Pereira.J. Novo colector do tipo CPC sem vácuo para aplicações de aquecimento e arrefecimento ambiente..2 2. Collares pereira. Coreia M. A. Optical and thermal testing of a new 1. Correia de Oliveira (2003). Collares Pereira.2 2.68 ± 0.M.006 Present development stage: The collector described above is being used in a demonstration system with a prototype of an Ammonia Water Absorption Machine (5 kW cooling power. R.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . A. L. Carvalho. five with Teflon film and one with TIM. João Farinha Mendes. Efficiency Measurements. Carvalho.010 0. Mendes (2003). J.35.8 ± 0. 11 .01 0. pág.01 0..C.C.. D..015 ± 0.03 ± 0.109. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering. Estimation of collector costs Approximately 150 . M. 37.5 0. New CPC Type Collector with Lower Thermal Losses.B.4 a2 ± σ a2 0.65 ± 0.011 ± 0. M. Gordon (1987).J. Fig.01 0.008 0.8 ± 0. M.J.01 0. With a Teflon film and a new selective absorber (Alanod α=0.008 ± 0. M. de Oliveira. M.. C.1 ± 0. J.8 ± 0. Economic optimisation of stationary nonevacuated CPC solar collectors.Subtask C . Gordon. Oliveira. J. Algarve (Portuguese) M.Mendes..7 2.01 0. Haberle. Correia de Oliveira. Correia de Oliveira.E.
08 W/(m² K²) Research Institution(s) involved in the development The development of the collector is based on research results of a joint project with the Fraunhofer ISE (year 2000).. First knowledge in how to increase the efficiency was gained from one EU-project finished in the year 2000. expected to be about 220°C Dimensions of the prototype collectors 2405 x 1155 x 70 mm. Sketch of the CPC Collector..Ulrich / Steyr Austria Estimation of the time needed or planned until the collector will be on the market First test collectors are going to be tested and installed in a pilot plant in the year 2005. The collector will be available on the market not before 2006.Collectors and Components . The current project is in the initial phase. Nine absorber-reflector-units will be mounted in parallel Operating temperature: 80 – 120°C Stagnation temperature: Not measured yet.. may be different in future TASK 33/IV . 350 €/m² for end consumers in small scale applications.8 a1a= 2. Estimation of collector costs Approx..7 W/(m² K) a2a= 0.. total area max.Solarfocus-CPC . It started in December 2004. 2. 12 . Present development stage: A SOLARFOCUS stationary CPC collector is on the market for 11 years now.und Umwelttechnik GmbH Werkstrasse 1 A-4451 St. The aim of a current project is to further develop the CPC collector and to increase the performance as well as the working temperature of the collector..…. Kalkgruber Solarund Umwelttechnik GmbH Collector parameters based on aperture area Developmet goal: η0= 0. Companies involved in the development SOLARFOCUS Kalkgruber Solar.collector Author(s): Andreas Simetzberger.Subtask C . operating temperature range and stagnation temperature CPC collector covered with flat glass. approx.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .7m² Description of collector.
operating temperature range and stagnation temperature The MaReCo (“Maximum Reflector Collector”) is a heavily truncated and non-symmetrical CPC. forms TASK 33/IV .. with different lengths of the reflectors.. Research Institution(s) involved in the development University of Lund. The trough has a depth of 400 mm. The long reflector trough is constructed from corrugated sheet steel. The MaReCo concept can also be used for the development of PV-thermal collectors where the absorber consists of a PV module. presented at Eurosun 2000 in Copenhagen Description of collector. based on a paper by Björn Karlsson and Gunnar Wilson (“MaReCo design for horizontal. MaReCos exist for various applications.. in combination with the glass cover. extended east-west with a bifacial absorber optimized for northern latitudes.Subtask C . A roof MaReCo design was developed with the aim of a rather slim collector construction. The trough is fixed to the ground every 5m by a stand made of tubes which is further anchored by concrete blocks. vertical or tilted installation". The acceptance is extended from 20° to 65°.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .Collectors and Components .MaReCo: Maximum Reflector Collector Author(s): M. It can be reduced to about 1. Sweden Companies involved in the development Vattenfall Utveckling AB S-814 26 ÄLVKARLEBY Sweden Finsun Energy AB Gäddvägen 8 S-612 37 Finspång Sweden Operating temperature level: 50-90°C Stagnation temperature: 200-230°C Dimensions of the prototype collectors The length of a collector row in the system in the picture is 40 m.. A wall MaReCo for vertical collector applications was also developed. Rommel. The ground MaReCo consists of a vertical absorber in the bottom of a long east-west reflecting trough. These are the principals behind the development of the MaReCo design.…. The width of the glass cover is 630 mm.5 W/(m²K). All collectors are equipped with bifacial absorbers with a width of 150 mm. 13 . The collector U-value is about 2. The annual irradiation for a two dimensional east-west CPC constitutes an extremely non-Lambertian light source. The standard length of a module is 6 m.7 W/(m²K) if an additional Teflon film is used around the absorber. An optimized truncated CPC for a nonLambertian light source will always be nonsymmetrical... The corrugated trough. The glass is attached to the trough by silicon.
Design considerations were not made for other latitudes...Collectors and Components . An improved design is the "sandwichreflector" construction (Helgeson A..60 η0 diffuse = 0. The vertical absorber is fixed to the bottom of the reflector with a support that allows some movement of the absorber. The U-value is 1. VUAB PM no...7 W/(m²K) when the additional Teflon film is used. Estimation of the time needed or planned until the collector will be on the market Collector is marketable for northern latitudes. Other references where further information on the collector can be found: Karlsson B.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . Present development stage: The research activities of Björn Karlsson extensively elaborated the theoretical design for northern latitudes.40 a1a= linear efficiency curve fit: 1.. 14 .: MARECO FOR LARGE SYSTEMS Karlsson B. Andersson A.: MARECO DESIGN FOR HORIZONTAL. Ütvärdering av en dubbelskals-MaReCo.. 2. PhD-thesis at University of Uppsala.5 W/(m²K) without Teflon film. a reflector length along the curvature of 1000 mm and a glass cover width of 620 mm. Estimation of collector costs 150 €/m² aperture area TASK 33/IV . 1000 m² of MaReCos were installed.. UD 02-18).Subtask C . mainly in the installation shown in the picture. there is a Teflon film around the absorber. The newest developments rely on a steel reflector with a laminated aluminium reflector. In the installation in the picture.5 W/(m²K) without the Teflon film. This film is hung around a spring which is extended along the entire length of the trough just above the absorber.….a very strong and rigid structure with a very high resistance to buckling.. For further information see Annex 3. The reflector is bent at the edge and the glass is attached directly on the reflector. Collector parameters based on aperture area η0 beam = 0. Larsson S. VERTICAL OR TILTED INSTALLATION Monika Adsten. 2002..7 W/(m²K) with Teflon film. The first installation of the hybride collector was presented at the PV-conference in Paris 2004 and at Eurosun 2004 in Freiburg. and 2. Wilson G.. Wilson G. This MaReCo has an absorber width of 143 mm.
3 kW. operating temperature range and stagnation temperature: Parabolic trough with glass cover. AEE INTEC Dimensions of the prototype collectors Prototype dimensions: 0.. Austria Collector parameters based on aperture area (measured parameters of first prototype) η0 = 0. The system was operated with a realistic load profile for an industrial application. Based on the results a system test with a collector area of 7. Stagnation temperature: Not measured yet.Subtask C .200 °C. The efficiency in the following figure is based on direct normal radiation. Because of its small size and therefore comparatively low weight.5 m² was performed during the summer of 2004. cover tube not evacuated) TASK 33/IV . Austria Present development stage: As a first step the efficiency curve of a single trough has been measured. 600°C (prototype with selective coated receiver. The heat can be delivered as steam or pressurized water.….PARASOL® Author: Dagmar Jaehnig.Collectors and Components . The second and improved prototype has a receiver with a diameter of 12 mm. The goal of the project is to further develop and optimize a small-scale parabolic trough collector that should be suited to deliver process heat in the temperature range of 100°C to 200°C.58 See figure below for the efficiency curve Companies involved in the development Button Energy Gurkgasse 16 1140 Vienna. focal length: 10 cm Research Institution(s) involved in the development AEE INTEC Institute for Sustainable Technologies Feldgasse 19 A-8200 Gleisdorf.5 x 4 m. The first prototype has an aperture width of 50 cm and a length of 4 m.. Austria SOLUTION Neue Landstraße 70/1 A-4655 Vorchdorf. 15 . Co-operation partners are the manufacturer of the parabolic trough (Knopf Design) and a number of other Austrian companies.. Description of collector. The x-axis shows the temperature difference between receiver fluid and the surroundings divided by the direct normal radiation.March 2005). This Austrian national project is funded by the Austrian Ministry of Transportation.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . it can easily be mounted on factory roofs. The test was carried out on a laboratory scale with a maximum collector power of approx.. but theoretically estimated at approx.. Innovation and Technology as part of the research program ‘Fabrik der Zukunft’. a nonevacuated glass cover tube and is coated with a selective coating. Operating temperature level: 100 .. The thermal and optical characteristics of this first prototype have been measured and several optimization possibilities have been identified and implemented in the design of the second prototype. The project duration is two years (April 2003 .
Subtask C . The optical efficiency of the second prototype is just below 60%. Knopf.30 (Tm-Tu)/I in m² K/W Measured data Calculated curve (non-evacuated glas cover tube) Calculated curve (evacuated glas cover tube) The efficiency curve is based on the DNI (direct normal irratiation).10 0.. TASK 33/IV . A laboratory-scale demonstration system with an aperture area of approximately 7..15 0. For further information see Annex 4. 80% 70% 60% Efficiency 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0. This gave some operating experience under realistic conditions.. plants planned in Estimation of collector costs No reliable estimates yet.Collectors and Components . a case study of a selected industrial process will be carried out including design of the collector field. Other references where further information on the collector can be found Jähnig.20 0.00 0.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .…..25 0. Richard-Matthias (2004): Parabolrinnenkollektor zur Erzeugung industrieller Prozesswärme – Optimierung und erste Betriebserfahrungen. Dagmar. The system was connected to a heat load simulating a constant return temperature from an industrial process. Symposium Gleisdorf Solar 2004 (in German).The efficiency values measured are shown as squares in the figure. 16 .05 0. integration into the existing heat supply and estimation of the annual collector yield. Finally..5 m² was then built.. Estimation of the time needed or planned until the collector will be on the market: First demonstration 2005/2006. Theoretical calculations show that the thermal efficiency can be improved by evacuating the cover glass tube (top curve in the figure).
which has been galvanically coated with a selective surface.8 mm Al-coating 0. D. Diameter Wall thickness Present development stage: 180 m² prototype plant is in operation at Sarigerme Park Hotel (Turkey) since April 2004 without major problems. D-52068 Aachen Tel: (49) 0241 9631326.lokurlu@solitem. D. Up to 4 modules installed in series form a row. Estimation of collector costs Series production: cost estimates not yet available Other references where further information on the collector can be found Dr. Solarforschung.800 mm 260 mm 780 mm Al-Profiles and Al-sheet 0. Fax: (49) 02203 66900.…. eMail: dirk. for be Description of collector. Additional stiffness is provided by a torsion tube mounted at the back of the concentrator.Collectors and Components .25 mm 65 mm 2.. 25-27 52072 Aachen.Subtask C .5 mm Stainless steel Selective 38 mm 1. Mail: a. 5 rows can be connected to a single drive unit to be tracked via a rope and pulley arrangement. www. Mounted in the focal line is a stainless steel absorber tube with 38 mm diameter. operating temperature range and stagnation temperature This parabolic trough collector system is assembled from modules with an aperture area of 9m² each. Dalaman. Market still to developed. Hennecke.de TASK 33/IV . Germany Prototype installation at Sarigerme Park Hotel in Absorption tube: Material Coating Ext..SOLITEM PTC 1800 Author(s): K. Dennewartstr. Krüger Deutsches Zentrum für Luft.V. Turkey Estimation of the time needed or planned until the collector will be on the market The collector is already available demonstration plants. Fax: (49) 0241 9631328. system will defocus to avoid excessive temperature Research Institution(s) involved in the development DLR – German Aerospace Center Institute for Technical Thermodynamics Lindner Höhe 51170 Köln Germany Dimensions of the collectors Module properties: Length Width Height Focal length Support structure Reflector 5. Krüger Operating temperature level: up to 200°C Stagnation temperature: Not applicable.. 17 .2 mm Companies involved in the development SOLITEM GmbH Dennewart Str.. Unfortunately there is no systematic performance monitoring installed due to lack of funding. 25-27.solitem.de Dipl. The second prototype system is under construction at Gran Kaptan Hotel.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .. Diameter Wall thickness Glass envelope: Ext. A non-evacuated glass envelope reduces the convective heat losses from the absorber.und Raumfahrt e..090 mm 1. Institut für Technische Thermodynamik. D-51170 Köln Tel: (49) 02203 601 2661.krueger@dlr. A.-Ing. Alanya (Turkey).. Lokurlu Solitem GmbH. The concentrator consists of aluminium sheet kept in shape by specially manufactured aluminium profiles.de.
.1123 W/(m² K) a2a= 0. Description of collector Small single axis-tracking parabolic trough collector. Hoffschmidt..75 a1a= 0. Mirror: alanod mirror silver Absorber tube: standard Sydney tube from China Cover glass: anti-reflective solar-glass from Flabeg Drive: stepper motor with worm gear and sunsensors Research Institution(s) involved in the development: Solar-Institut Jülich Heinrich-Mussmannstr.. 25-27 52072 Aachen. Germany Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt Institute for Technical Thermodynamics Lindner Höhe 51170 Köln. Germany Alanod Aluminium-Veredlung GmbH & Co.PTC 1000 .Subtask C .. Schwarzer. 5 52428 Jülich. Next tests will be done with higher temperatures at DLR-Köln during spring 2005. Germany Operating temperature level: Up to 300°C Stagnation temperature: Stagnation experiments have shown temperatures around 590°C (measured) Companies involved in the development: Solitem GmbH Dimensions of the prototype collectors The collector has an aperture area with a width of 1 metre and a length of 2 metres.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .00128 W/(m² K²) η = η0 − a1a ⋅ ∆T ∆T 2 − a2 a ⋅ DNI DNI The power is about 1 kW. Müller. 18 . The collector has an efficiency of around 60% at a radiation of 800 W/m² and a temperature of 300°C. The first efficiency curve is shown in figure 2. The efficiency curve is shown in figure 2. Technologiezentrum am Europaplatz Dennewart Str.. TASK 33/IV . Sierck.. Therefore it can be used easily for roof installations.…. Germany Collector parameters based on aperture area Measured at the collector test facility for flat plate collectors at SIJ with temperatures up to 100°C.Modular parabolic trough collector Authors: Kötter. Richarts (Solitem) Krüger (DLR) Küsters (Alanod) Späte. Ciobanu (SIJ) Lokurlu.Collectors and Components .KG Egerstraße 12 58256 Ennepetal. The following values are based on DNI: η0= 0. Ebert.
Collectors and Components .juelich. Master-thesis... • Collector tests due to standard EN 12975 to get the efficiency curve • Optimisation of the collector regarding the costs Present development stage: The first testing collectors were built and experimentally investigated and outdoor exposure experiences have been made.. Estimation of collector costs One of the project goals was that the production costs should not extend around 150 € per m².Further Steps • Development of a weather resistant and high reflective Aluminium foil (project partner Alanod GmbH) Optimisation of the control unit Modelling with the toolbox CARNOT under Matlab/Simulink • • Figure 2: efficiency curve. Dec. Bad Staffelstein • TASK 33/IV .de/3431. based on DNI.…. April 2005 in Kloster Banz. The next step will be the investigation of two prototypes at DLR-Köln during spring 2005.fh-aachen. 19 .. 21-22 June 2005 in Freiburg OTTI. 2004 http://www. 15. Other references where further information of the collector can be found Miriam Ebert: Entwicklung eines modularen Parabolrinnenkollektors. To get more experiences the company Solitem wants to install a pilot plant in Germany in 2005. Applications are the supply of process heat for hotels and hospitals.-29. The project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in the frame of the FH³-programme. for industry applications and for the supply of cooling energy. 27. Diplomarbeit. Jülich. the 2nd European Solar Thermal Energy Conference.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . The costs for the prototypes were around 400 € per m².html abstract submitted at • estec2005. Polygeneration applications will be the next step.. Symposium Thermische Solarenergie. Juni 2004 Daniela Ciobanu: Small parabolic trough collector..Subtask C . Estimation of the time needed or planned until the collector will be on the market The company Solitem wants to produce and sell this collector in the near future.
it was realised that tempered glass would have to be used to avoid breakages. An improved cast was used in a second prototype. 28040 Madrid. Spain Phone: 0034 91 346 6049. After the first prototype was built. Some samples of this coating are still in the aging chamber. Complutense.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .98). Spain Fasol collector at Almería.300ºC Stagnation temperature: irrelevant Dimensions of the prototype collectors Aperture: 2. Research Institution(s) involved in the development CIEMAT .70 – 0.012 and 0.2mm thick) as reflectors on a composite parabolic structure. Spain Description of collector. The tempering process is fairly expensive for thin glasses.018 after the coating is applied.62m² and focal distance of 0.84. Silver front mirrors must be used to obtain higher reflectivity values (reflectivity between 0. CIEMAT-PSA. stiffened with metallic.. one of which has so far shown a very good performance after artificial aging in an aging chamber. Its optical quality was tested in a photogrammetric study..0. Fax: 0034 91 346 6037..94 . This problem has led to the exploration of other possibilities and strategies of construction without using composites. since it must be carried out chemically. is that they are not particularly sturdy under outdoor conditions. Reflective anodised aluminium sheets have quite small values of reflectivity of around 0.7m. 20 .Collectors and Components .80 0.. This revealed that the shape of the cast must take into consideration further reshaping of the composite after curing..PSA Avda. compared to the metallic sheets available on the market. Los Gallardos.FASOL Authors: Esther Rojas. Mail: esther.. The main problem of silver mirrors.es Companies involved in the development: Castaño Bolea e Hijos. Operating temperature level: 130ºC . Almería. parabolic arms and other metallic and composite reinforcements. Length of a module: 6m Estimation of the time needed or planned until the collector will be on the market Five years (2009) Collector parameters based on aperture area η0= 0.62m².…. s/n. The reflectivity is decreased between only 0. where their behaviour can be assured after 5000 hours. and can increase the cost of the glass eight-fold compared to nontempered glass.rojas@ciemat.Subtask C . The structure is made of a parabolic composite bed. Different protective coatings have been tested. Present development stage: The initial design of the FASOL collector was based on using thin glass mirrors (1. if the reasonable errors required are to be guaranteed. The reflecting surface was therefore changed to reflective metallic sheets.75 (theoretical estimate) a1a= not available a2a= not available Estimation of collector costs Under 150 €/m² for solar fields of around 1000m² TASK 33/IV . operating temperature range and stagnation temperature: Parabolic trough with an aperture of 2.
consisting of 2 x 6 surfaces which are 6 m long and 0. P. Hennecke. Düren.htm http://www. B. Germany Collector parameters based on aperture area not yet available Present development stage: Companies involved in the development Heinrich GmbH. reduced investment). TASK 33/IV .. Solarforschung. Köln Other references where further information on the collector can be found: Web sites: http://www. Fax: (49) 02203 66900.5 m wide.…. Hoffschmidt.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .de Operating temperature level: up to 200°C Stagnation temperature: Not applicable – absorber can be protected by de-focussing of the mirror surfaces.V. operating temperature range and stagnation temperature: The “Fix-Focus-Trough” is a linear Fresnel collector designed to be installed on horizontal or inclined industrial roofs. 21 ..Subtask C .. and adaptation to different power ranges from 10s of kWth to several MWth. D-51170 Köln Phone: (49) 02203 601 3213. Wolfhart Bucher (Eds. The modular system allows the efficient use of available space.H. Contact: Dipl.Collectors and Components . air) without the need for intermediate heat exchangers (increased efficiency. DLR Dimensions of the prototype collectors Twin module of 6m x 6m.asp (final report: AG Solar) R.. K.de/ET/ff_rinne.. The receivers are located 2. Development suspended due to lack of resources at industrial partner (KMU). DLRForschungsbericht 2001-10.ag-solar.und Raumfahrt e.hennecke@dlr. Different receiver designs enable the use of the same heat transfer medium as the industrial consumer (i. Karl-Heinz Funken. Institut für Technische Thermodynamik. Christmann.-Ing. 2001 Description of collector. Germany Pre-commercial prototype. in: Solar Thermal Power Plants and Solar Chemical Processes – Advances and Perspectives for International Cooperation. thermal oil.dlr. A.Fix-Focus-Trough Author(s): K. Estimation of collector costs Development goal: 200 €/m² Prototype mounted on test platform at DLR. A twin module was installed and first tests have been conducted.. Rietbrock. steam.. Heinrich: Fix-Focus-Trough – Qualifying of a New Concentrating Collector for Solar Process Heat.e. e-Mail: Klaus. water.).de/de/themen/projekt. Research Institution(s) involved in the development: DLR – German Aerospace Center Institute for Technical Thermodynamics Lindner Höhe 51170 Köln. Hennecke Deutsches Zentrum für Luft. Estimation of the time needed or planned until the collector will be on the market Further development to a market-ready product is unlikely at present due to a lack of resources.5 m above the mirrors.
Output simulations cannot be performed with standard flat-plate collector simulation tools. Häberle. Due to lack of funding. funded by the German Ministry of the Environment.Linear Concentrating Fresnel Collector Authors: A..Collectors and Components .Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . A technical and economical feasibility study on the concept of this collector type was performed in 2002/2003. The results of this feasibility study are promising and a new project was initiated during which preparations will be made for a new prototype for direct steam generation at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria in Spain. is currently building a demonstration collector in Liddell/Australia.….. PSE GmbH A similar concept is being pursued by the Australian company SHP (Solar Heat and Power) and SHP-Europe in co-operation with the University of Sidney. we are seeking demonstration projects for process-heat applications with pressurised water as a heat transfer medium. Germany Collector parameters based on aperture area No experimental collector data exists. PSE GmbH Christaweg 40 D-79114 Freiburg E-mail: ah@pse. Based on theoretical calculations in addition to experiments on heat losses the following parameters are expected (values based on DNI): η0=0.. SHP Ltd.de Operating temperature level: up to 400°C Stagnation temperature: not applicable. operating temperature range and stagnation temperature Linear concentrating collector concentration ratio of 30 to 100 with a TASK 33/IV . an IAM which is very different from the IAM of flat plate collectors and also different from parabolic trough collectors must be taken into account (see Annex 2). Present development stage: A prototype of the collector was built in 1999. In parallel.500m².65 a1a=0 W/(m²/K) a2a=0.. Belgium with 25m width and 100m length resulting in an aperture of 2. Description of collector.. 22 .00038 W/(m²K²) In addition. Germany DLR Institute for Technical Thermodynamics Lindner Höhe 51170 Köln.Subtask C . with a thermal peak power of 1 MW. Companies involved in the development Solarmundo. no thorough experimental evaluation was performed.. Research Institution(s) involved in the development Fraunhofer ISE Heidenhofstrasse 2 D-79110 Freiburg. collector will be defocused under stagnation Dimensions of the prototype collectors One prototype exists in Liege.
.ON.Estimation of the time needed or planned until the collector will be on the market Technically a prototype installation can be started immediately with about 2 years needed for engineering and construction. H.for a collector which is not the first but maybe the third to be built. TASK 33/IV .. M. 23 . Estimation of collector costs 120 €/m² to 150 €/m² depending on the price for material and work which can be contributed from local companies .Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .. Other references where further information on the collector can be found: A. The Solarmundo line focussing Fresnel collector. Dersch.. M. E. For further information see Annex 2. Mertins. Final report (in German): Technische und wirtschaftliche Machbarkeits-Studie zu horizontalen Fresnel-Kollektoren. Fruth.Subtask C . Morin. F. Häberle. Griestop. partially funded by the German ministry for the environment BMU. S. C. Germany. M. Zahler. C. A. M. Bockamp. DLR.Collectors and Components . 2003. Trieb... Dersch. Wittwer. Ewert. Optical and thermal performance and cost calculations. Zürich. Häberle. The price for the first prototype will probably be twice as high. J. 2002. Düsseldorf. H. Solar Thermal Power Generation. feasibility study by Fraunhofer ISE. J.…. Lerchenmüller. Mertins. T. Switzerland. G. POWERGEN Europe Conference. Lerchenmüller. Solar Paces Conference.
. The parameters are based on 1000 W/m² assuming ambient temperature of 25°C. Actually. TASK 33/IV .55 m 24 m 0. so technically the temperature difference (Tm-Tamb) should be in reference to a baseline Tamb.Collectors and Components ..85 m Collector parameters based on aperture area The thermal efficiency parameters are estimated. the tracking system uses a dc actuator with battery backup. but based on data measured at operating temperatures lower than 80ºC... The receiver is destroyed well below the stagnation temperature. building heating and domestic hot water.56 0. 24 . operating temperature range and stagnation temperature The CHAPS collector is a parabolic trough system consisting of glass-on-metal mirrors that focus light onto high efficiency monocrystalline silicon solar cells to generate electricity.. however..….0325 W/(m² K) 0.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . the absolute temperature of the receiver is what matters for electrical performance. For example. Stagnation temperature: Not applicable. Efficiencies are based on DNI (direct normal irradiation) and on the total aperture area of the mirror. this has been done for the sake of comparison. with electrical efficiency still in the order of 8%. This is combined with automatic collector 'parking' in case of overtemperature conditions.The Combined Heat and Power Solar (CHAPS) collector Authors: Dr Joe Coventry Prof Andrew Blakers thermal energy may be used via a heat exchanger for industrial applications.Subtask C .00313 W/(m² K²) Description of collector. Prototype CHAPS system Dimensions of the prototype collectors Width of single trough: Length of single trough: Focal length: 1. Water. temperatures up to around 150ºC are feasible. It is assumed that the insulation is improved for higher temperature applications. Research Institution(s) involved in the development The Australian National University Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems Department of Engineering Canberra ACT 0200 Australia Operating temperature level: The operating temperature of the collector is limited by the inclusion of solar cells. The electrical efficiency of the system reduces as operating temperature increases.126 0. Therefore the system is ideally suited to lower temperature applications (<80ºC) where electrical system efficiency is maintained above 10%. with anti-freeze and anti-corrosion additives. so preventative measures are included to avoid the possibility of stagnation conditions occuring. 300m2 Bruce Hall system under construction Thermal efficiency η0 a1a a2a 0. flows through a conduit at the back of the cells to remove most of the remaining energy as heat.355 1 Although it is not strictly correct to plot electrical efficiency on the same axes as for a therml efficiency curve. The Electrical efficiency1 0.
Issue 2. Joe S..edu. Commercialisation opportunities for the technology are currently being sought. 25 . Note that site specific costs include items such as thermal storage. February 2005. This system is due for completion in mid-2005. installation.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . The estimation is for systems of size between 100 . structural work. Estimation of collector costs It is estimated that collector costs will be in the order of € 425/m² plus site specific costs in the order of € 235/m².. Estimation of the time needed or planned until the collector will be on the market The collector is now ready for market development.Subtask C . now in continuous operation for around 3 years.Collectors and Components . Pages 211-222.. Coventry TASK 33/IV . The first deployment of the CHAPS collector on a reasonable scale is the Bruce Hall system – a 300 m2 system providing electricity and thermal energy for heating and hot water to a student college on campus at the Australian National University....1000 m² at pilot production levels. plumbing. Other references where further information on the collector can be found: The website at the Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems has some information: http://solar.au Further information can be obtained from the centre manager: Ray Prowse: Phone: + 61 (0) 2 6125 4884 Fax:+ 61 (0) 2 6125 8873 Also see: Performance of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal solar collector Solar Energy. Volume 78. receivers and the tracking system has taken place on a 15m long prototype system (pictured above).…. Longer term durability testing of mirrors.Present development stage: Efficiency measurements have been carried out on a single trough prototype.anu. etc and will vary significantly depending on the location.
Subtask C ..…..Collectors and Components ....Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . 26 ..Annex 1 TASK 33/IV .
fhg..Subtask C . Part of the work is carried out within the European CRAFT-project "STATIC-2" (ENK6-CT2001-30008) in collaboration with the companies SUNWIND (France). 26 . if good selective coatings are used.net) and in future possibly further products will appear solar glass solar glass w ith anti-reflective coating on the mar-ket. it was assumed that Fig.Which Improvements can be achieved using single and double AR-glass covers in flat-plate collectors? (Contriburion to European Solar Thermal Energy Conference estec 2003.. 2. ELCA-FRICALANZ and the research partner UPC-CTTC (all from Spain). solarthermal sea water desalination. Germany) Matthias Rommel.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . There exist different 100% 91% 100% 96% tech-niques for producing anti8% 3% reflective coat-ings (www.….flabeg. anti-reflective ("AR") coatings were developed which reduce the reflective losses of glass panes for solar radiation from 8% to 3% only.. "white glass") as used on collectors lies in the range of 89 to 91%.Collectors and Components . glass. comparison is made with a flat-plate collector which is considered as a good 'state-of-the-art' TASK 33/IV . Freiburg. 1% 1% www. MATEC (Germany). etc. Anti-reflective glass The transmission of normal solar glass ("low iron glass". Figure 1 shows that only 1% of the solar radiation is lost due to absorption in the glass. Arim Schäfer.de.. 3. 79110 Freiburg. solar cooling and air conditioning.sunarc..27 June 2003. ITELSA. Yan Schmitt Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE Heidenhofstr. What can be achieved with a single and a double glazing with AR glass compared to normal solar glass? It is well known already that double glazed collectors with normal solar glass do not achieve higher collector output in applications than single glazed collectors. especially in the temperature range of 80° to 150°C (solar heat for industrial processes. Joachim Koschikowski. But how does the situation change with the new AR coatings? In order to investigate the development possibilities of multiple glazed flat-plate collectors with AR-glass. These losses can be reduced with an antireflective coating to 3% only. This opens new development possibilities for the flat-plate collector technology which in turn will open new application fields for double-glazed flat-plate collectors. Andreas Gombert. 27 . But about 8% together are lost due to reflection at the air-glass and at the glass-air surfaces. so that the transmission is increased to 96% (in this example).). 1: The transmission of solar glass can be increase the solar transmission of normal solar substantially from 91 to 96 % if new anti-reflective coatings glass is 90% and it is 95% for ARare applied ("AR-glass") ..de 1. Germany rommel@ise. 2. Introduction Due to successful R&D work. Dr. In the following investigations.
3 0.1 0 0 3 AR standard flat-plate collector 0.05 (Tm-Ta)/G in Km²/W 0.4 2 AR 0.8..1. selective absorber α=0.. The efficiency curve is given in Figure 2. This improvement is independent of the operating temperature (comparison standard flat-plate collector to 1AR). ε=0. double and triple glazed AR collector in comparison with a standard flat-plate collector with normal solar glass.9 efficiency (based on aperture area) 0.9). Fig.6 W/(m²K).6 0.5 1 AR operating temperature 80° to 120°C 0. 2 m² module.collector for the German market.2 0.95.7 0.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes ..Subtask C . 28 . 0. estimated efficiency curves for a single.1 0. First of all. This refers to a single glazed collector with normal solar glass (τ=0..05 to 0. 3: Fraunhofer ISE indoor collector test facility with experimental 2AR collecor (right) TASK 33/IV . In the same figure.8 0..012 W/(m²K²).…. a1a=3.15 Figure 2: Efficiency curves of a single. it is important to point out that there is a big potential for improvement of flat plate collectors if the normal solar glass is replaced by AR-glass. double and triple glazed flat-plate collector with AR glass are given.. Using the nomenclature of the European Standard EN12975 and the aperture as reference area.Collectors and Components . the following parameters describe this collector: η0a =0. a2a=0.
Secondly.8% with the 2AR collector from Figure 2.0 10. improvement of collector output in % against standard flat-plate collector 45. At ∆T/G=0. Conclusion AR glass offers new and very promising development possibilities for flat-plate collectors. For a system that requires higher collector operating tempera-tures the im-provement is even higher: Figure 4 gives the results for a solar driven cooling system with an absorption cool-ing machine with a minimum operating temperature of 85°C. This temperature range of 80° to 120° is important for new fields of applications such as solar cooling and air conditioning. Therefore no further investigations were carried out for 3AR-collectors.0 0.. Double gazed collectors will be suitable in the operating temperature of 80°C to 150°C for solar process heat applications.0 5.5 41.Subtask C .7 % with a 1AR collector with the efficiency curve given in Figure 2 and by 8. Figure 3.0 35. 100 m² collector field.0 25. process heat.Collectors and Components ..0 30. Compared to a standard flat-plate collector the collector output is increase by 4. Therefore. This improvement is independent of the operating temperature (comparison standard flat-plate collector to 1AR). the complete efficiency curve of the 2AR-collector is above the standard flat-plate collector. sea water desalination etc.0 40.0 standard-fpc (=reference) 1 AR 2 AR 9. 29 . collector operating temperatue above 85°C. TASK 33/IV . weather data of Madrid. 2) is better than the standard flat-plate collector by more than 33% (relative)! These results from estimated efficiency curves have been verified by experiments and measured efficiency curves. it is important to point out that there is a big potential for improvement of flat plate collectors if the normal solar glass is replaced by AR-glass.5 21. 12m³ storage tank..1 (K m²)/W the efficiency of the 2AR collector (in Fig.3 42.0 0.1 optimistic aim vacuum tube collector Fig..First of all.…..0 20. Which collector output can be achieved with AR-collectors in applications? We carried out simulation calculations for a combined DHW and heating system in Germany (15 m² collector area. 4: Results on improvement of collector output for a solar cooling application.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .0 15. Compared to 2AR collectors the improvement by 3AR-collectors is not so large. 700 l storage tank). Especially for higher operating temperatures the advantage of 2AR collectors is promisingly large. it is interesting to note with respect to double glazings that the 2AR collector reaches the same η0-value as the standard flat-plate collector. 4. using the new indoor collector test facility of Fraunhofer ISE with the large solar simulator..
Annex 2 TASK 33/IV .Subtask C ... 30 ....….Collectors and Components .Solar Heat for Industrial Processes ..
Institute of Technical Thermodynamics. figure 1: principle of the Solarmundo Fresnel Collector. 70569 Stuttgart. Germany. However the Belgian company Solarmundo attracted attention with their concept of a Fresnel collector that claims to be more cost effective than existing CSP-systems. The mirrors themselves.de a In the recent past different groups are intensifying the work on prototypes and industrial size collectors of line-focussing Fresnel collectors. e-mail: lerch@ise.Subtask C .de b Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems. The different behaviour of Fresnel collectors compared to parabolic troughs is discussed.…... The paper presents optical and thermal properties of the Solarmundo collector. e-mail: juergen. Jürgen Dersch d PSE GmbH.5 m. Franz Trieb c.Collectors and Components .firstname.lastname@example.org d German Aerospace Center (DLR) .500 m² prototype in Liège. which were calculated using Raytracing and computational fluid dynamics simulations. Christof Wittwer b. Hansjörg Lerchenmüller b. which leads to a total collector width of 24 m. The general idea of this type of collectors is not new. An outlook on the achievable costs of electricity is given. TASK 33/IV .Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . Pfaffenwaldring 38-40. Germany. Heidenhofstr.trieb@dlr.. 79114 Freiburg. They are the basis for a simulation model to calculate the thermal output of the collector for different sites. INTRODUCTION The Principle of the Solarmundo Fresnel collector In the Solarmundo collector large fields of modular Fresnel reflectors concentrate beam radiation to a stationary receiver at several meters height. Germany. e-mail: franz.Institute of Technical Thermodynamics-Solar Research. Christian Zahler a.. are not completely flat but have a very small curvature. The collector consists of 48 rows of mirrors. each having a width of 0. which is achieved by mechanical bending. Germany. Max Mertins b.fhg.de c German Aerospace Center (DLR) . 51170 Köln. 79110 Freiburg. Belgium. Solarmundo operates a 2. 2. Christaweg 40.. 31 . This receiver contains a second stage reflector that directs all incoming rays to a tubular absorber. e-mail: ah@pse.The Solarmundo line focussing Fresnel collector Optical and thermal performance and cost calculations Andreas Häberle a..
efficient use of land since the collectors can be placed one next to the other. compared to trough collectors are: .no vacuum technology and no metal glass sealing . In addition to the cost reduction in the solar field. Turbine Feed pump Re-circulation pump Preheating section Evaporation section Superheater figure 2: flow sheet of a collector field The main advantages of the Solarmundo Fresnel collector.The second stage concentrator not only enlarges the target for the Fresnel reflectors but additionally insulates the selectively coated absorber tube.due to the planarity of the reflector. The collector rows are linked in parallel and in series and the solar field is divided in three sections for preheating..Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .. The solar field for a 50 MW solar thermal power plants will be build up in 12 collector rows each with a length of 1000 m.Collectors and Components .inexpensive planar mirrors and simple tracking system . there are considerable savings offered by lower operation and maintenance costs.. The rows can be installed one close to another so the land use of the solar field is practically not more than the mirror area.due to direct steam generation no heat exchanger is necessary .one absorber tube with no need for thermal expansion bows .…. To the back it is covered by opaque insulation and to the front a glass pane reduces convective heat losses.. According to Solarmundo these advantages lead to a cost reduction of about 50% for the solar field compared to parabolic trough.. wind loads are substantially reduced so the reflector width for one absorber tube can easily be three times the width of parabolic troughs . which at present is not evaluated systematically but might show future benefits: a controlled greenhouse can be implemented in the space below the mirrors. Cost reduction due to economy of scale and due to an optimal design of the collector will further reduce the investment costs for the solar field. The basic design of a whole collector field for direct steam generation is sketched in figure 2.Subtask C . one can produce the ideal circumstances for the growth of shadow plants even in arid climate zones. By using the diffuse light and the light reflected on the back of the mirrors (~300 W/m²).. evaporation and superheating. TASK 33/IV .fixed absorber tube with no need for flexible high pressure joints . Compared to the Solar trough technology there is an additional application for Fresnel solar collectors. 32 .
…. in order to test most of the mechanical aspects of the collector.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .. their movement can be mechanically coupled..Subtask C . Therefore the bearings and the driving mechanism of the mirror tracking was extensively tested in the laboratory. TASK 33/IV . Several mirror rows are driven by one motor.. The bearings were developed together with the Bayer AG.The Solarmundo Prototype In 1999 Solarmundo started erecting a 2. no sunshine is necessary. figure 3: 2500 m² prototype in Liège. One key problem to be solved is to be able to ensure low maintenance under very harsh ambient conditions. Belgium The rare sunshine periods were used for operational tests of the collector and to gather experience with the tracking system. which also is constructed in a way that sand and dirt can simply fall through. This is necessary to achieve low driving forces. 33 . figure 4: asymmetrical bearings figure 5: durability test of worm gear The Fresnel principle is very simple: because the relative movement of all mirrors is identical for the tracking... once they are positioned correctly.Collectors and Components .500 m² prototype collector in Liège. The mechanical coupling is done with a worm gear.. Belgium for debugging the system and verifying its mechanical aspects. However. Their asymmetrical shape adjusts the center of gravity of the mirror rows to their turning axis.
Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .. Aperture. At the prototype a black (non selective) absorber was used. a common reference area has to be defined. the bearings and the worm gear drive were intensively tested and proved their ability to withstand years of operation with the continuous presence of sand and dirt. The gross area of a collector field takes into account the space in between the troughs. The total movement due to thermal expansion in a plant of one kilometer length can be up to 6 meters at the end of one tube. In the frame of the here presented work the aperture area was chosen as basis of all comparisons.. A B figure 6: reference area of parabolic trough: aperture A. which typically is two times the aperture. The aim of the here presented calculations is to give a theoretical estimation for the achievable optical and thermal efficiency of the Solarmundo Fresnel collector.Both. The thermal expansion is allowed for by mounting the tube on rails. In order to achieve satisfactory thermal performance however..Collectors and Components . TASK 33/IV . which has to be stable under non vacuum conditions up to high operation temperatures. because the curvature of the single Fresnel reflectors can be neglected in this context.Subtask C . The optical and thermal performance has to be deduced from theoretical considerations.. which is absolutely sufficient for the purpose the prototype is used for. The aperture area of a parabolic trough is defined as the projection of its reflector area. The gaps in between the single reflectors di have to be added to the aperture area A to yield the gross area B. THEORETICAL PERFORMANCE OF THE COLLECTOR Although the prototype collector was operated under real conditions and proved to produce steam.…. reflector area and gross area In order to compare trough and Fresnel collector efficiencies. gross area B The aperture area of a Fresnel collector is almost identical to its reflector area. The absorber tube has an inner diameter of 18cm and is welded at the construction site to its total length without the need of compensation bows. Solarmundo presented samples of a selective coating on a smaller absorber tube with both: very promising optical properties and a good durability in normal atmosphere. Currently they are working on transferring the coating to the 8 inch steel tube of the collector.. no thermal efficiency measurements are available yet. a highly selective absorber coating must be applied. Raytracing results were used to calculate the optical performance whereas the thermal performance was estimated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).. 34 .
. The aperture of a Fresnel collector stays horizontally even though the single Fresnel facets are tracking the sun.. figure 8: Raytracing (cross section) figure 9: absorber and 2nd stage reflector Integrating the intensity of all absorbed rays at the absorber tube gives the result that for the given parameters and assumptions η0 = 61% (1) of the perpendicularly incident radiation (e..g..…. table 1: Material Parameters reflectance of primary reflector transmissivity of glass pane reflectance of secondary reflector absorptance of absorber tube 92% 95% 95% 94% Compared to earlier calculations  some ideal assumptions were looked at in more detail: Divergence of the beam radiation was included and assumed to be homogenous over a wide angular range to cover most of the circumsolar radiation.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . 35 . gross area B By definition the aperture of a trough is tracking the sun. TASK 33/IV .. Optical Performance 3-dimensional Raytracing calculations have been carried out with the program OptiCAD using the following material parameters.A i di B figure 7: reference area of Fresnel collector: aperture A = ∑Ai .Subtask C . at the equator at solar noon on March or December 21st) are absorbed and transformed into heat at the absorber surface. The reflectivity of the primary mirrors was modeled using a Gaussian scattering distribution and also the error of positioning of the Fresnel reflectors was assumed to be Gaussian distributed. Doing the same for incident angles other than perpendicular and comparing the two gives the incident angle modifier IAM which is shown in figure 10.Collectors and Components ..
. 36 . The transversal IAMt is defined as the IAM in a plane perpendicular to the tracking axis. This pattern doesn't change significantly for different angles of incidence. TASK 33/IV .…. It shows to be very evenly distributed (between 80% and 100% intensity) in the lower part and very low in the upper part of the tube. It does not account for cosine losses of the normal beam radiation.20 0.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .20 1.40 1.40 0. This is an advantage for the operation of a stratified two phase flow.Collectors and Components .00 0 10 20 30 40 theta 50 60 70 80 90 figure 10: biaxial incident angle modifier One advantage of Fresnel collectors is the fact that the absorber is illuminated from underneath independently of the sun position... 1. where fluid is in the lower part of the tube and steam is in the upper part.00 0...IAM = η 0 (Θ) η 0 (Θ = 0) (2) The incident angle modifier accounts for change in efficiency for incident angles other than perpendicular. One outcome of Raytracing simulations is the relative intensity distribution at the absorber (see figure 11).60 0.80 IAM transversal longitudinal 0. It is remarkable that the IAMt reaches rather high values for high incident angles. This is mainly due to the fact that for high angles of incidence less rays are lost in the gaps between the mirrors and less neighboring mirrors illuminate each others backside instead of the absorber (less blocking)..Subtask C . The longitudinal IAMl is parallel to the tracking axis and is basically determined by the aperture glass pane of the second stage concentrator.
Collectors and Components . Apart from the general geometry a number of basic parameters are used as input.5754e+03) Dec 21. convection. 3.22e+02 3.24e-01 9.31e+02 4.Subtask C .75e+02 4.96e+02 4.47e-01 2.. rngke.54e-01 1. CFD simulations (FLUENT) were carried out which take into account all heat transfer mechanisms: radiation.16e-01 1.09e-02 0.27e-02 6.. 2000 FLUENT 5.40e+02 5.. conduction.62e+02 5. Tabs = 500°C TASK 33/IV ...66e+02 3. Tabs = 500°C figure 13: Temperature distribution.05 W/mK The convection flow and resulting temperature distribution between the absorber tube and the second stage reflector and glass pane was studied for absorber temperatures from 100°C (373K) to 600°C (873K) with constant ambient temperature at 30°C (303K).4 (2d.. rngke. segregated.00e+00 5. dp. unsteady) figure 12: Convection path lines.40e-01 3. 37 .18e+02 4. 2000 FLUENT 5.85e-01 1.78e-01 2.71e-01 3.09e-01 2.88e+02 3.53e+02 4.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .7300e+03) Dec 21.44e+02 3.4 (2d.100% 80% 60% 40% 20% θt = 0° θt = 30° θt = 60° figure 11: relative intensity distribution at the absorber for different incident angles θt Thermal Performance To calculate the heat losses from the absorber tube.09e+02 3. dp.18e-02 3. segregated. table 2: Material Parameters thermal emittance of the absorber heat transfer coefficient from aperture glass pane and backside of the 2nd stage concentrator to the ambient heat conductivity of backside insulation 5% 10 W/m²K 0.….01e+02 Path Lines Colored by Velocity Magnitude (m/s) (Time=4. unsteady) Contours of Static Temperature (k) (Time=2.
61 0.51 100 200 300 400 500 absorber temperature (°C) figure 15: efficiency curve for vertical radiation It is important to note that the heat transfer from the absorber to the fluid has to be considered additionally when calculating the thermal output of the collector. As expected it shows to be strongly temperature dependant.00 0 0.30 0.. TASK 33/IV .Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .80 Tabsorber − Tambient Ebeam (4) thermal efficiency 0.Subtask C .40 0.58 0.90 0.The resulting front and backside heat flux is given in the following graph in units of W/m of the absorber tube.10 0.….60 0.60 0. 38 ...61 0.70 0. η (Tabsorber ) = η 0 − u 1. 3500 3000 heat loss in [W/m] 2500 2000 1500 1005 1000 549 500 0 100 200 60 277 56 300 111 400 140 500 234 600 1731 glass pane backside isolation 3137 absorber temperature [°C] figure 14: calculated heat losses to the front and to the back of the absorber The resulting temperature dependant heat loss coefficient per unit of aperture area is: u = 3..Collectors and Components .00 0..50 0.20 0.55 0..8 ⋅ 10 − 4 ⋅ (Tabsorber − Tambient ) [ W ] m² K (3) Efficiency Curve The following figure gives the resulting theoretical efficiency curve for vertical radiation (Ebeam = 800 W/m²) in dependency of the absorber temperature at constant ambient temperature (Tambient = 30°C).
For comparison reasons the same temperature was used as maximum temperature of the Fresnel collector.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . A north-south orientation of the absorber tubes was assumed for both systems. The usable part of the thermal power from the solar field was defined for both systems as all power between 38 MW and 152 MW.and energy-plug passes the components according to a given flow path. There is no significant difference in the seasonal performance between the Fresnel and the parabolic trough collector. All values are standardized to 1 m2 of aperture area.Collectors and Components . TASK 33/IV . Due to the fact. initially to investigate different control strategies of solar collector systems. If the thermal power from the field is lower than 38 MW all of the output is dumped.700 m² was chosen. For the Fresnel model the optical performance and the heat loss characteristics were used as given above. Solar radiation data for the Hurguada site in Egypt generated with the METEONORM software was used for the Fresnel collector as well as for the parabolic trough simulation. 39 . 38 MW corresponds to 25% part load of the turbine.... ColSim is a simulation environment. Further assumptions were the neglect of steam slip and a thermodynamic equilibrium of the two phases. where in each time-step a mass. the section with the lowest mass flow limits the performance of the field. the controller model defocuses sections of the field until the thermal output meets the desired value.…. If the thermal power from the solar field is higher than the upper limit.1% of the Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI). Because of the different temperature level and enthalpy differences of each section the reachable mass flow varies.600 m2 and for the Fresnel system an aperture area of 336. whereas the parabolic trough system exploits 50.. To estimate the thermal output of the three stage direct steam generation for a first approach the performance (mass flow at the demanded conditions) of each section was calculated in dependence of the solar radiation. which was developed at Fraunhofer ISE. The Fresnel collector was modeled in the simulation environment ColSim including the direct steam generation (two phase flow).Subtask C . The parameters used for this calculation are those of the new type of SOLEL collectors called UVAC .Simulation Model For a first comparison of Fresnel and parabolic trough collector performance an existing and validated parabolic trough model in TRNSYS was used . SIMULATION RESULTS A comparison of the annual results for Fresnel and parabolic trough collector fields is given in table 3. table 3: Results of annual performance calculation for linear Fresnel and parabolic trough collector field at Hurguada (Egypt) Direct normal irradiance 2782 Fresnel collector lower used limit Energy dumping 958 41 Parabolic trough collector upper lower upper limit used limit limit dumping Energy dumping dumping 44 1393 38 27 kWh/m2 In figure 16 the monthly values for both systems are plotted. It is based on a plug-flow concept. The other sections have to be defocused to adapt their power. Very small time-steps are possible so inertia effects can be calculated. For the parabolic trough an aperture area of 261.. The Fresnel system shows an efficiency of 34. The annual performance of a solar collector field with a design thermal output of 152 MW was calculated in hourly time steps.. that the mass flow at each section has to be identical.5% based on direct normal irradiance. This parabolic trough model is an empirical model based on measurements at the power plants at California operated with a heat transfer fluid (HTF). The upper limit comes from the design field output and the lower limit from the part load restriction of the steam turbine. The outlet temperature of the parabolic trough field was limited to 393°C to avoid decomposition of the HTF. to compensate its lower efficiency.
flow dumped due to min..2 0.8 2 0. 40 .6 energy in kWh/m 0. COST OF ELECTRICITY With the calculated values for usable thermal heat and with capital. flow used power DNI 2 Parabolic Trough 1.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 local time 0. flow dumped due to min.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 local time figure 17: Performance of Fresnel and parabolic trough collector for one single day.0 1.. Jun dumped due to max.figure 16: Monthly sums for the used Energy per square meter aperture for both systems compared to monthly sums of DNI at the Hurguada site In figure 17 a performance comparison for one single day is given.and Operation & Maintenance cost (O&M). This figure shows that the Fresnel system is specifically less efficient during the early morning and the late afternoon hours due to the flat incidence angles at the aperture. Fresnel Collector 1..Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . for both systems with the same amount for O&M staff costs and a significant lower value for O&M material costs for the Fresnel system (less breakage due to wind loads and easier access to clean the mirrors)...Collectors and Components .Subtask C . flow used power DNI 1.2 15. These projections lead to a specific solar field investment of 117 €/m².. the only reason for this certain date was the occurrence of both kinds of dumping for both systems.…. TASK 33/IV . Jun dumped due to max.2 15.8 0.4 0. O&M costs were assessed for Egyptian salaries. The date was chosen arbitrary. a first comparison for cost of electricity was made for the two different systems: Solar only power plant with Fresnel collectors and with parabolic trough collectors. The investment for the classical part is taken equal for the Fresnel and trough system and insurance was assumed to be 1% of the direct investment. For the parabolic trough this investment was assumed to be 220 €/m² . For the Fresnel collector cost projections on investment for solar thermal power plants have been made by Solarmundo.4 0.0 energy in kWh/m 0.6 0.2 0.
Collectors and Components . this lower performance is overcompensated by significantly lower investment and lower operation and maintenance costs of the collector field.832 117 39.233 T€ €/m² T€ T€ 33. This is why the next step for the Solarmundo collector must be a pilot plant under real operating conditions including commercial aspects.600 m² 34. TASK 33/IV . due to the smaller investment the efficiency drawback is overcompensated and cost of electricity for the Fresnel system is even below the cost of electricity for the parabolic trough.0750 €/kWh 458 GWh/a 364 GWh/a 120 GWh/a 0. such as simplicity of installation and making use of the land below the mirror fields.552 91.700 m² 50 MWel 33..0845 €/kWh CONCLUSIONS AND NEXT STEPS The work presented here indicates that the Solarmundo Fresnel collector has about 70% of the thermal performance of a parabolic trough (UVAC) per aperture area..Subtask C .163 Years T€ T€ T€ T€ 1..184 10.7% 28 5.7% 28 7. which provide further arguments in favor of this technology apart from the cost advantages. Fresnel collectors have additional advantages.401 74.752 1.545 T€ €/m² T€ T€ 6. the resulting electricity costs of the Solarmundo Fresnel type collector are about 10% below the electricity costs of the trough system.With this input the cost of electricity was calculated with a simple economic model (see table 4)..980 Years T€ T€ T€ T€ 6. 41 ... However. table 4: Cost of electricity for linear Fresnel-collector and parabolic trough collector field at Hurguada (Egypt) Solarmundo System Layout Rated Power Power Block Efficiency Collector Area Investment Power Block Investment Specific Field Investment Solar Field Investment Total Investment Cost Interest rate Economic lifetime Capital Cost Insurance Cost O&M (Staff and Materials) Total Annual Cost Yields/m² Solar Ressource Usable Thermal Energy Lower Dumping Upper Dumping Electricity Yield Total Yields Solar Ressource Usable Thermal Energy Electricity Yield Electricity Cost Parabolic Trough 50 MWel 33.171 958 41 44 316 kWh/m²a kWh/m²a kWh/m²a kWh/m²a kWh/m²a 1.570 7.393 38 27 460 kWh/m²a kWh/m²a kWh/m²a kWh/m²a kWh/m²a 394 GWh/a 323 GWh/a 106 GWh/a 0.940 470 1.0% 336. With the cost figures of Solarmundo and the performance figures as calculated above.993 220 57.….Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . Although the efficiency of the Fresnel collector is considerably lower.0% 261. Of course the trough system has the big advantage of being experimentally and commercially validated whereas the figures of the Solarmundo collector are only theoretical.325 654 2.
Nevada.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes ... Scott A..REFERENCES  Barkai. Australia. Scott..Collectors and Components ..a Study on the Performance and Economy of Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Systems.. 11. Price H. Peter. 2001  Häberle A. Herrmann U.. Washington DC.Subtask C . A. Jones S. Rami. Pitz-Paal R. Reno. Adelaide. Solar World Congress 2001.. Cable. 2001  Dersch J.. Robert. Advanced Technology for Solar Thermal Power Generation. SolarPaces International Symposium.. Blair. Ortmanns W. Geyer M. Robert: TRNSYS Modeling of the SEGS VI parabolic trough solar electric generating system Proceedings of the Solar Forum 2001.. Solar Energy: The Power to Choose. International Solar Energy Society Conference. Wittwer V.. 42 .…. TASK 33/IV . Pitz-Paal. Sureda J... Zahler C.. Lerchenmüller H. Zurich. 2002  Jones. Graf W. Carin: Universal Vacuum Collector (UVAC) Proceedings of the Solar 2002 American Solar Energy Society Conference.. Switzerland. Gummo.. Schwarzbözl. de Lalaing J. Ven J. Trough Integration into Power Plants . Mandelberg. Kelly B.. Menashe. Frier. Nathan.. Kistner R. The Solarmundo Project. Ezer. Eli.. 2002 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was co-funded by the German ministry for the Environment (BMU).
Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .Subtask C .….Annex 3 TASK 33/IV ...Collectors and Components .. 43 ....
5°.Subtask C .3. S-814 26 Älvkarleby. THE BACKGROUND TO THE MARECO COLLECTOR The development of large collectors systems has started early in Sweden . Distribution of direct and diffuse irradiation (kWh/m².Collectors and Components ..se Abstract . In the standard version the absorber has a width of 143 mm and the glazing has a width of 630 mm. The collector is a heavily truncated CPC-collector with a concentration ratio C=2. is neglected .Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .5°.. Stefan Larsson* Gunnar Wilson**Arne Andersson*** *Vattenfall Utveckling AB. Figure 2. 44 . i. Sweden **Finsun Energy AB. This implies that the component of the solar radiation vector which comes in an east-west direction and parallel to the collector glazing is neglected. It is however not cost effective to design the reflector collector ratio larger than in figure 1b. TASK 33/IV . The collector consists of a vertical bi-facial fin absorber in a long east-west trough.A non-tracking-concentrating collector has been developed for Swedish Conditions.isotropic sky Data 6 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 45° 28° 55° 24° Effective solar height in south (degrees) Figure 1. S-612 37 Finspång Arnes Plåtslageri AB. The effective solar height given here is defined as the angle between the projection of the sun position vector onto a north-south vertical plane and the south horizontal axis . S-702 14 Örebro Tel: +46 26 83 500 Fax: +46 26 83 670 Email:bjorn.. Collector field with a) plane or b) parabolic booster mirror mirrorsreflectors. ANGULAR DEPENDENT IRRADIATION DISTRIBUTION The figure 2 shows the annual distribution of irradiation in a north-south vertical plane.15 and an acceptance half angle θ=22. The MaReCo collector has until now been installed in a number of prototypes and in two systems of sizes of around 100 m².e. Application of booster reflectors between the collector rows in a collector field has shown to reduce the energy cost and the required ground area for a given load .…. Two of these collectors will then be connected in series in order to suppress the tube connection cost in the field. The Mareco collector has an extremely low materials content and has the potential of being cost effective in large Swedish systems. Oskarsvägen 38.MARECO FOR LARGE SYSTEMS Björn Karlsson*. From this figure it is concluded that a solar collector applied for Swedish conditions should have an acceptance angular interval between 20° and 65°. In this system each collector will have a length of 40 meter and a corresponding area of 25 m². Typical geometry’s for these systems are illustrated in figure1. below 200 W/m². where the reflector is two times larger than the absorber. In order to decrease the heat losses the absorber is surrounded by a thin film of Teflon.vattenfall. The MaReCo collector is patented.4° N).. Sweden (latitude 59. This conclusion has lead us to the development of a collector with a bifocal absorber and equipped with a rear reflector.. The choice of the lower angle will be easier determined if all hours with low irradiance. Since the main objective was to maximise the reflector to absorber area for a given ground area the collector is called a Maximum Reflector Collector or the MaReCo collector.. Gäddvägen 8. The ratio between glazed area and absorber area is 4. A field of 500m² of MaReCo collectors each of a length 40 meter has been constructed during 1998-1999 and 400 m² prefabricated MaReCo collectors was installed in 1. 2.year) in a north-south vertical plane for Stockholm. Direct radiation Diffuse radiation .karlsson@utveckling. The reflector is designed of anodised sheet aluminium or laminated aluminium foils. During the spring 99 the first large system consisting of 500 m² of MaReCo collector will be installed. since it does not contribute to the irradiance on a south oriented collector.
. The long reflector trough is constructed of corrugated sheet steel. The MaReCo with an absorber width of 143mm.25 meter. onto the aperture is obtained. Figure shows the principal design of the MaReCo. The glass is attached to the trough by silicon.3. This parabola has its optical axis directed towards a solar height of 65° and focus on the top of the absorber. Principally the parabolas can be extended until they are parallel . given by the distribution in figure 2. The Teflon film around the absorber is hanging around a spring..Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .. anodised aluminium reflector.Subtask C . The distance between these profiles is 1. The detailed cost is specified in the table 1. The stand is ground connected in concrete blocks. which allows some movement of the absorber. The position of the reflector in the extended parabola is determined by placing the reflector in the extended parabola and moving it to a position when maximum annual irradiation. Part 3 is a parabolic rear reflector between the points 2 and 3 in figure 3.. The maximum width of the reflector will be very long as indicated in the figure 3. Part 1 is a front side parabola extended between points 1 and 4 in figure 3. TASK 33/IV . absorber. A reflector width of 1 meter is chosen. DESIGN AND OPTIMISATION COLLECTOR GEOMETRY Extension of parabola OF reflector absorber cover 3 2 1 4 Figure 3. 45 . The reflector consists of three parts... means that the front reflector will be longer than the rear reflector. The vertical absorber is fixed to the bottom of the reflector with a holder. Figure 4. The MaReCo will form a heavily truncated and non-symmetric CPC collector. The non symmetric form is characteristic for high lattitudes with low winter irradiation. a reflector width of 1000 mm and a glass cover of 620 mm has total materiel’s cost of 48 U$ per m² of glazed area. It should be stressed that these costs include connection to the ground. Part 2 is a circular part between points 1 and 2.Collectors and Components . This means that all irradiation up to a solar height of 65° impinging on the front reflector will reach the absorber and all irradiation above a solar height of 20° falling on the rear reflector will reach the rear side of the absorber.…. Practical design of the MaReCo with corrugated roofing steel. which is extended along the entire trough just above the absorber. The circular part will just transfer the light falling between the point 2 and the top of the absorber on the rear side of the absorber. The corrugated trough in combination with the glass cover will form a very strong and rigid structure with a very high buckling resistance. Profiles made of square tubes formed to give the desired shape give the form of reflector. Principal drawing of the cross section of the Mareco collector. This procedure means that in Stockholm the optimum glass tilt will be around 30°. which is considerably lower than a standard flat plate collector. Then the trough is ground connected each 5 meter with a stand formed by tubes. Teflon of the annual irradiation The non-symmetrical form film and glass cover. This parabola has its optical axis along a solar height of 20° and its focus on the absorber top. DESIGN OF THE MARECO The design of the MaReCo is illustrated in figure 4. The width of the reflectors in the MaReCo is limited by the standard width of available sheet metals. 4. This position is uniquely determined by a requirement that the end points of the reflectors receive an equal amount of irradiation.
00 0 20 40 60 T abs.. (°C) U (W/m2.73 W/m². ηbeam MaReCo MaReCo with Teflon Flat plate 0.50 3. This is partly explained by the relatively low tilt angle of the MaReCo.…. The relative performance of the MaReCo collector is improved with increased temperature. The teflon film suppress the U-value. Sweden. decrease the transmittance of the glazing and simultaneously increase the F’-value of the absorber.00 2. TASK 33/IV .. PERFORMANCE OF A MARECO The over all heat loss factor U per m² of glazed area is given in figure 5..80 ηdiffuse 0. It is suppressed to U=1.T amb.63 0.4 U$ /m² 1. A field of 500m² MaReCo collectors constructed 1999 in front of the bio fuel burner in Torsåker.40 0.6 (W/m². F’UL 2.5 E 250 275 317 1.40 0. Corrugated sheet steel Frame Stand Reflector Absorber with holder Teflon with spring Glass.Subtask C .7 U$ /m² 5. teflon v. This means the the loss free efficiency of the collector is unaffected by introduction of the teflon film The collector is tested outdoors and the collector parameters are derived by multi linear regression according to methods developed by Perers.00 1.0 U$ /m² 3.m² Figure 5. Idealy a completely wet absorber should be used.6 U$ /m² 6.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .K) when a Teflon film is installed around the collector.3 U$ /m² 48 ECU/m² U .8 U$ /m² 4.50 0. Figure 6. abs. Each collector has a length of 40 meter and two of them are connected in a serie.K) v.6 U$ /m² 8. The results are presented in table 2 for a collector with antireflection treated glass from SUNARC in Denmark .63 0.Collectors and Components . antireflection treated  Silicon Concrete blocks Additional Total sum the MaReCo given 6.. The overall heat loss factor U for a MaReCo with vertical absorber and with and without Teflon around the absorber measured indoors in a collector model.50 2. Collector parameters and estimated annual heat delivery at an operating Temperature of T=60°C. Table 2..8 U$ /m² 8..00 0.Table 1 The cost for the components in per m² of glazed area.0 The MaReCo shows low heat losses but also relatively low optical efficiency due to concentration and the restricted acceptance angle. abs.5 U$ /m² 1.6 (W/m². 46 . The annual performance at an operating temperature of 60°C is around 75% of the performance of a flat plate collector. ref. This means the loss free efficiency of the collector is strongly dependent on F´. .value 3.50 1.K).0 U$ /m² 1. The relatively high concentration ration impies the the power density of the asorber is high and also the over temperatures on the fins. 80 100 5.6 4.K kWh/y. The U-value at ∆T=50°C on a MaReCo with a vertical absorber is around U=2. Accordingly an absorber with a very high F’-value is desired.
. The collectors are furnished with anti reflection treated cover glass. LARGE SYSTEM COLLECTORS WITH MARECO A field of MaReCo collectors of an area of 500m² was finished during June 1999. These collectors are connected to a small district-heating network supported from a biofuel burner. 47 .. During the fall 1999 and the Spring 2000 a large system with 1400 m² of roofintegrated flat plate collectors and 400 m² of MaReCo collectors standing on a flat roof was installed in Fränsta at latutude 63°.Subtask C . This system will have an annual solar fraction of arounfd15%..Collectors and Components .Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . latitude 63°... Two of these collectors will then be connected in series in order to suppress the tube connection cost in the field. Figure 8. A system with 1400 m² and 400 m² MaReCo on a flat roof in Fränsta. In this system each collector will have a length of 40 meter and a corresponding area of 25 m².. 6.presented in figure 6. This collector is constructed with twin reflectors.. They are illustrated in the figure 7 and the MaReCo collector is shown in figure 8. which increase the solar transmittance of the glass by 5percent and the annual output by 10 percent. A picture from this system is TASK 33/IV .. Figure 7. The design of this system with a central storage volume and distributed collectors is shown in figur9. A detailed piqture of the MaReCo collector with twin reflectors from Fränsta.…. A drawing of the principal system design with distributed collectors and a central storage volume. Figure 9.
Subtask C . Solar Energy 50..  Rönnelid. B. Solar Energy 51. A.. Acknowledgements This work has been carried out within the framework of the Swedish national solar thermal programme financed by STEM. B. R and Hinterberger.y) 8 REFERENCES  Wilson. 48 . and Karlsson.. Solar Energy 61. (1993) Stability of Antireflection Coatings for Large AreaGlazing. ISBN 91-540-4973-3.(1993) External Reflectors for Large Solar Collector Arrays. G. B.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . LIST OF SYMBOLS Symbol ηbeam ηdiffuse F’UL E Explanation Zero loss efficiency for direct irradiance Zero loss efficiency for diffuse irradiance Heat loss coefficient Annual heat delivery Unit (W/m².Collectors and Components .…. Performance and Cost Analysis of the LGB-Collector. 255-258.327-337. pp.. and Karlsson. Solar Energy 17.. M.(1997) Irradiation Distribution Diagrams and their use for Estimating Collectable Energy. L..  Perers. and Karlsson.  Winston. B. TASK 33/IV . Roos...K. the Swedish National Energy Administration and Vattenfall AB. and Karlsson..  Chinyama.pp. Svensson. North Sun Conference 1988. G..191-201.7. (1988) Construction. H.K) (kWh/m².. 105-111. (1975) Principles of cylindrical Concentrators for Solar Energy. B.
49 .Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .Subtask C .Collectors and Components .…...Annex 4 TASK 33/IV .....
Plain water at 1520 bars was used as the heat transfer medium to prevent the water from boiling at operating temperatures up to 200°C.fabrikderzukunft. The receiver itself is a concentric stainless steel tube with an outer diameter of 8 mm and is surrounded by a glass cover tube...Subtask C . the pressurized water operation mode was chosen because it simplifies the measurements and because the efficiency of the collector and not the process of direct steam generation should be analyzed..at) The goal of the underlying project was to develop a small-scale cost-efficient concentrating collector using the parabolic trough principle.Collectors and Components . for example. on factory roofs because of its small dimensions.Summary of Final Report “Development and Optimization of a Parabolic Trough Collector System for Generation of Industrial Process Heat“ financed within the Austrian program „Fabrik der Zukunft“ by the Austrian Ministry for Transport. This way the trough can be turned easily around the static receiver. The measured efficiency TASK 33/IV . The receiver tube is located in the center of gravity of the trough.…. that can easily be installed. Figure 1: Schematic of the 1st prototype by Knopf Design. The trough is covered by a glass pane that prevents the mirror from getting dirty and ensures the stability of the construction. Vienna. is an entire novelty in the field of solar technology. is made out of a glass parabolic shape with an aluminium mirror inside by the company Alanod (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). 50 . Innovation and Technology (www. The first step was to measure the efficiency curve of the collector by means of measuring the static efficiency of the collector at different receiver temperatures. For the tests within this project.. The first prototype of a parabolic trough collector by the company Knopf Design.. The collectors can operate either with pressurized water or in direct steam generation mode. Such a small-scale collector.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . Vienna Figure 2: 1st prototype at the test facility of AEE INTEC in Gleisdorf The prototype was tested at the test facility of AEE INTEC in Gleisdorf.. The cover tube of this 1st prototype was not evacuated.
The following improvements have been realized within the duration of the project and were implemented by the manufacturer into a 2nd prototype. The so-called optical efficiency (receiver temperature equals ambient temperature) of the first prototype was just below 50%.15 0. 3.05 0. Material data as well as heat loss calculations and measurements of the flux distribution in and near the focal line of the collector were used to find out how to optimize the collector. A part of the radiation is absorbed by the mirror. A part of the radiation is not reflected at the same angle as the incidence angle.. That means that it is too low to be able to compete with other collectors. 100 K above the ambient temperature showed that the slope of the efficiency curve is quite low.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes .20 0.30 (Tm-Tu)/IDNI in m² K/W Figure 3: Measured and calculated efficiency curves of the two prototypes A number of proposals for the improvement of the prototype were elaborated. This had been expected because of the small receiver diameter. are around 30%.Subtask C ..curve is shown in Figure 3 plotted against the temperature difference between receiver and the ambient divided by the direct solar radiation in the collector plane. This information allowed to deduce that the losses that are caused by the precision of the reflection onto the receiver tube. The parabolic shape of the trough is not ideal..…. the absorbtivity of the receiver coating and the heat transfer from the receiver tube to the fluid are quite well known.10 0. Measurements at receiver temperatures up to approx. The optical measurements in the focal line of the collector showed that the main reason for the relatively low optical efficiency is the inaccurate positioning of the receiver in the focal line.Collectors and Components . Possible reasons for this are: 1. cover tube Efficiency 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0. That means that the heat losses of the receiver are quite low.00 First prototype 0. The receiver is not positioned exactly in the focal line. The losses of the glass covers. 51 .25 0. 2.. 70% 60% 50% Second prototype Second prototype with evac. A selective coating and the evacuation of the glass cover tube can reduce the heat losses even further. TASK 33/IV ... 4.
A collector array with 4 parabolic trough collectors in parallel and a total of 7. The cross section of the inner receiver tube is equal to the annulus between the two tubes. This reduces the pressure drop of the receiver tube. i. Low-iron safety glass was used instead of standard window glass. The following factors influence the choice of a specific system concept: Does it make sense to use an energy store? If the heat demand of the company fluctuates significantly or there is sometimes no heat demand during daytime hours (e.e. If the company operates a steam distribution network. there are two options to integrate parabolic trough collectors into the system. the expected collector yield is..1.. The heat is simply transferred into the heat distribution network via a heat exchanger. In companies with a relatively constant heat demand and 7-day operation or if the collector area is relatively small (small solar fractions) an energy store is not necessary because the yield of the collectors can always be put into the heat distribution network of the company.. 52 . an energy store should be used. The optical efficiency is now just below 60%. Because the collector efficiency at these temperatures was exTASK 33/IV .5 m² of aperture area was installed at the test facility (see Figure 4).g. above the heat demand. a flow temperature of 140°C and a return temperature of 120°C.Collectors and Components . The chosen application was a process with a constant heat load.…. That means that constructive or manufacturing improvements will be necessary. The second option is to operate the collectors with a liquid heat transfer medium and then use a so-called indirect steam generator to generate steam that is fed into the steam network in parallel to a conventional steam boiler. The first option is to operate the collectors in direct steam generation mode and feed the produced steam directly in to the network. 10 percentage points above that of the 1st prototype.Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . The inner receiver tube has an outer diameter of 6 mm. it makes sense to operate the parabolic trough collectors also with pressurized water of some other liquid heat transfer medium. 5.Subtask C . The efficiency curve of the 2nd prototype is also shown in Figure 3. at least sometimes. More precise positioning of the receiver tube (mechanical optimization of the supports and the possibility to adjust the receiver position from the outside) Receiver coating Poligrat instead of solar varnish (leads to a lower optical efficiency but to a lower slope of the efficiency due to the selective characteristics of the coating) Evacuated glass cover tube (reduces the heat losses and prevents the decomposition of the selective coating) Receiver diameter 12 mm instead of 8 mm (This increases the optical efficiency but also increases the heat losses). In this case.. weekends). System Concepts There is a number of system concepts that can be used with parabolic trough collectors in industrial applications depending on the respective applications.. Theoretical calculations showed that the vacuum in the glass cover tube was not sufficient to ensure a good insulation. 2. As the second part of the project. 4.. The next step was to test the improved 2nd prototype with the same optical and thermal tests that were performed with the 1st prototype. Is the heat transfer medium in the heat distribution network steam or pressurized water? If the heat distribution network uses pressurized water. 3. one possible application was realized at the test facility with a realistic load profile.
TASK 33/IV .…. The goal of the operation of this laboratory-scale application was to gain experience with the operation. there is deviation between the two sensors and the collector has to be tracked accordingly. Operating temperatures and comparison with other collectors A case study of a selected application was performed to compare the annual energy yields of parabolic trough collectors with that of 'conventional' evacuated tube collectors at different operating temperatures and under central and southern European weather conditions. For this purpose a double radiation sensor is installed on one of the collectors. The advantages of a parabolic trough collector are especially significant during the winter months. That's why the yield of parabolic trough collectors is significantly higher than that of evacuated tube collectors on clear winter days. typically have a disadvantageous incident angle to the sun during winter. they have to be started up and be tracked from east to west during the day.. In the morning.Subtask C . In conclusion. 53 . identification of a suitable antifreeze medium. Thereby. Only when the flow temperature falls below the minimum set temperature. That means that at maximum radiation almost 100% of the load can be covered by solar.Collectors and Components . Therefore it makes sense for the control of the primary pump in the collector loop to use a by-pass that allows the primary pump to continue to operate during these periods of lower radiation without feeding the low flow temperatures into the heat distribution network. For starting up of the collectors. The collectors are in off position during night time (cover glass shows to the ground).75 kW. As soon as the collector is not oriented to the sun in an optimal way. the load for the process was fixed at 3..Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . The results of this study show that at a process temperature of 100°C both collector technologies reach similar energy yields under the respective climatic conditions.. improvement of a reliable control strategy and cost reduction. At higher process temperatures the advantages of parabolic trough collectors become predominant. The reason for this is that collectors that are not tracked. during hours with less radiation. Figure 4: Laboratory-scale application at the test facility in Gleisdorf On partly cloudy days the radiation sometimes collapses briefly and the flow temperature of the collectors goes down rapidly. the control and the maintenance of a parabolic trough collector system. The control of a parabolic trough collector array is more complicated than what we are used to from flat plate collectors. the solar gain will be less. Further research is needed in the areas of further improvement of the collector efficiency. the two sensor elements show the same value only if the radiation hits the sensors perpendicularly.pected to be around 50%. an additional radiation sensor is necessary because the double radiation sensor is not suitable when the collectors are in off position. the efficiency of the prototype has been improved significantly and the general functioning of the system in a real application has been proven. the system should be shut down. The double radiation sensor consists of two sensor elements that are separated from each other by a sort of wall....
passive solar and photovoltaic technologies and their application in buildings and other areas.…. 54 . Each Task is managed by an Operating Agent from one of the participating countries. for international collaboration in energy technology research and development (R&D) and deployment. Since 1977. eliminates technological risks and duplication of efforts..Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . its 20 members have been collaborating to advance active solar.. conferences and workshops—have been undertaken.. while reducing costs.. a number of special activities—Memorandum of Understanding with solar thermal trade organizations.. TASK 33/IV . such as agriculture and industry. In addition to the Task work.” the IEA is committed to carrying out a comprehensive program of energy cooperation among its member countries and the Commission of the European Communities.Subtask C . Overall control of the program rests with an Executive Committee comprised of one representative from each contracting party to the Implementing Agreement. The Solar Heating and Cooling Programme was one of the first IEA Implementing Agreements to be established. and brings multiple other benefits.IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme The International Energy Agency (IEA) is the energy forum for 26 of the Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) 30 member countries.. through IEA Implementing Agreements such as the Solar Heating and Cooling Agreement. such as swifter expansion of the knowledge based and easier harmonization of standards. Since 1974. This IEA experience has proved that such collaboration contributes significantly to faster technological progress. statistics collection and analysis.Collectors and Components . the IEA has provided a legal framework. Established in 1974 after the first “oil shock. 25 of which have been completed. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark European Commission Germany Finland France Italy Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom United States A total of 35 Tasks have been initiated. The IEA is the source of authorative energy statistics as well as researcy and analysis on all aspects of world energy.
Subtask C .. ISOLDE. both underway and completed are as follows: Current Tasks: Task 27 Task 28/ ECBCS Annex 38 Task 29 Task 31 Task 32 Task 33 Task 34/ ECBCS Annex 43 Task 35 Performance of Solar Facade Components Solar Sustainable Housing Solar Crop Drying Daylighting Buildings in the 21st Century Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar and Low Energy Buildings Solar Heat for Industrial Processes Testing and Validation of Building Energy Simulation Tools PV/Thermal Systems Task Defintion Phase: Solar Resource Knowledge Management Completed Tasks: Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Task 6 Task 7 Task 8 Task 9 Task 10 Task 11 Task 12 Task 13 Task 14 Task 16 Task 17 Task 18 Task 19 Task 20 Task 21 Task 23 Task 22 Task 24 Task 25 Task 26 Investigation of the Performance of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems Coordination of Solar Heating and Cooling R&D Performance Testing of Solar Collectors Development of an Insolation Handbook and Instrument Package Use of Existing Meteorological Information for Solar Energy Application Performance of Solar Systems Using Evacuated Collectors Central Solar Heating Plants with Seasonal Storage Passive and Hybrid Solar Low Energy Buildings Solar Radiation and Pyranometry Studies Solar Materials R&D Passive and Hybrid Solar Commercial Buildings Building Energy Analysis and Design Tools for Solar Applications Advance Solar Low Energy Buildings Advance Active Solar Energy Systems Photovoltaics in Buildings Measuring and Modeling Spectral Radiation Advanced Glazing and Associated Materials for Solar and Building Solar Air Systems Solar Energy in Building Renovation Daylight in Buildings Optimization of Solar Energy Use in Large Buildings Building Energy Analysis Tools Solar Procurement Solar Assisted Air Conditioning of Buildings Solar Combisystems Applications Completed Working Groups: CSHPSS.com..org or contact the SHC Executive Secretary. Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors.. 55 .….Solar Heat for Industrial Processes . e-mail: pmurphy@MorseAssociatesInc..Collectors and Components . TASK 33/IV . and the Evaluation of Task 13 Houses To find more IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme publications or learn about the Programme visit our Internet site at www.The Tasks of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme..iea-shc. Pamela Murphy..
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