DOA: 28-8-2010 DOR: 11-9-2010 DOS: 10-11-2010


Submitted by: MS PARMAR ROLL NO: RG5001B REG NO: 110HJ098 CIVIL

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A thanks giving is a sacred Indian culture. As it help me to improve a lot and complete it in time. care. Finally I would like to thanks my friends for their patience. I am explicitly expressing my thanks to only few. After her I would like to give a sincere thanks to my parents for their continued patience. support and comments. . I express my thank to 1. 2. suggestions. 3. as only due to her guidance and encouragement we are able to complete this term paper. Our physics teacher MS PREET KAUR. due to space constraint. moral support and encouragement all through this term paper. Although I owe a lot to many.


motor coaches or railcars. Traditionally. These are not normally considered locomotives. and can be controlled from a control cab at the other end of the train. ablative of locus. Vehicles which provide motive power to haul an unpowered train. “causing motion”.INTRODUCTION What are locomotives? A locomotive is a railway vehicle that provides the motive power for the train. and is a shortened form of the term locomotive engine first used in the early 19th century to distinguish between mobile and stationary steam engines. “place” + Medieval Latin motives. locomotives pull trains from the front. and may be referred to as multiple units. In contrast. The use of these self-propelled vehicles is increasingly common for passenger trains. are known as power cars. but rare for freight. In picture given below you can see the locomotive pulling a train . some trains have self-propelled payload-carrying vehicles. The word originates from the Latin word loco-“from a place”. Increasingly common is push-pull operation. where a locomotive pulls the train in one direction and pushes it in the other. and its sole purpose is to move the train along the tracks. but are not generally considered locomotives because they have payload space or are rarely detached from their trains. A locomotive has no payload capacity of its own.

near Merthyr Tydfil in Wales. The oldest locomotive Puffing Billy in London Museum In 1814 George Stephenson. one of the first successful flange wheel adhesion locomotives. Salamanca. The first intercity passenger railway. In 1829 he built The Rocket which was entered in and won the Rain hill Trials. which became the first public steam railway. Stephenson played a pivotal role in the development and widespread adoption of steam locomotives. In 1825 he built the locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway. Liverpool and Manchester Railway. opened in 1830. making exclusive use of steam power for both passenger and freight trains. In 1804 his unnamed steam locomotive hauled a train along the tramway of the Penydarren iron works. where it was seen by the young George Stephenson. This was followed in 1813 by the Puffing Billy built by Christopher Blackett and William Hedley for the Wylam Colliery Railway. including one which ran at a colliery in Tyneside in northern England. north east England. Puffing Billy is now on display in the Science Museum in London. . The locomotive only ran three trips before it was abandoned. The first commercially successful steam locomotive was Matthew Murray’s rack locomotive. He built the Blucher. inspired by the early locomotives of Trevithick and Hedley persuaded the manager of the Killingworth colliery where he worked to allow him to build a steam-powered machine. This success led to Stephenson establishing his company as the pre-eminent builder of steam locomotives used on railways in the United Kingdom. it was too heavy for the cast iron rails used at the time. the first successful locomotive running by adhesion only.HISTORY OF LOCOMOTIVES The first successful locomotives were built by Cornish inventor Richard Trevithick. His designs improved on the work of the pioneers. the oldest locomotive in existence. the United States and much of Europe. Trevithick built a series of locomotives after the Penydarren experiment. built for the narrow gauge Middleton railway in 1812. Although the locomotive hauled a train of 10 tons of iron and 70 passengers in five wagons over nine miles (14 km).

The boiler was the largest single part of a steamer. petroleum or natural gas). and held the water which was heated to make steam. or they may take power from an outside source of electricity. . The cylinder moved back and forth and moved the driving wheels (under the boiler) through drive rods and connecting rods. Diesel locomotive 4. Gasoline locomotive 3.CLASSIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVES Locomotives may generate their power from fuel (wood. Behind the boiler was the firebox where burning fuel (wood.Steam Locomotive A steam locomotive uses steam from boiling water to power a set of driving wheels that move the engine forward or backward along the track. It is common to classify locomotives by their source of energy. The common ones include: 1. coal. Steam from the boiling water was captured in a steam dome on top of the boiler. Gas turbine-electric locomotive 7. coal. Slug or Drone 1 . and from there fed through a pipe to the cylinders below the smoke box. Hybrid locomotive 6. Steam locomotive 2. Electric locomotive 5. or oil) provided heat that was fed through the boiler in fire tubes and was exhausted through a smoke box and out a stack in front of the boiler.

The used steam was exhausted into the smoke box and used to blow the heat (and smoke) from the fire tubes out the stack. without the former’s waste when inactive. A led truck and trailing truck supported the cylinders and firebox. however. Gasoline Locomotive For long trunk lines. The side- . and coal must be used continuously. which propelled locomotives. The six cylinders of the huge gasoline engine furnish one hundred and sixty horse powers. Whether the locomotive is standing idle or not. Behind the fire box was the cab where the engineer or fireman controlled the speed and direction of the locomotive. The driving wheels. respectively. The gasoline locomotive which has now entered the field is doing all that the steam locomotive does. Immediately behind the engine was its tender which contained water (for the firebox). 2. were located under the boiler whose weight increased traction. steam propulsion is about the most expensive. steam must be kept up. and factory yards or railroad terminals.The movement of the cylinder was controlled by additional rods (valve gear) that controlled the flow of steam to either end of the cylinder. Connecting the engine shaft with the wheel driving-cranks on either side of the locomotive are a rigid gear transmission and an automobile friction clutch of appropriate dimensions. the steam locomotive has proven itself to be the most economical type of tractor. This gasoline locomotive is virtually the ordinary automobile mounted on a locomotive frame. For short lines.

Instead of the locomotive drawing current from overhead catenaries’ or a third rail. The correct term is “diesel-electric”. an electric locomotive-its axles powered by powerful traction motors-that carries its own source of electricity. a mist of fuel oil was injected into a cylinder’s compression chamber. When the gasoline. . the diesel engine generates the electricity through an alternator/generator arrangement.bars connecting the wheels with the cranks are exactly similar to those on the rectangular steam locomotive. and it did so with uniform pressure and without the need for spark plugs. The resulting ignition powered the cylinder. Simple structure of gasoline locomotive 3. ignited the vapor. which is stored on the top of the hood. superheated by compression. Diesel locomotive is in fact. in which the air. the locomotive can haul seven modern freight cars filled to their fifty-ton capacity at a speed of six miles an hour. Diesel Locomotive Diesel locomotive utilized crude fuel oil. is fed into the engine under full load conditions. which was cheaper and less volatile than gasoline and distillates. In this engine.

do not find it justifiable and choose to stick with diesel powered locomotives. high tractive efforts. The method for store (batteries. The means used to mechanically couple the traction motors to the driving wheels (drivers). ultra capacitors) or collecting (transmission) electrical power. so much so that most railroads. even today. no other locomotive can match the low operating costs. This is in marked contrast to a diesel-electric locomotive. Even today. either alternating current or direct current.4 . such as a third rail or overhead wire is also used. ultra capacitor) system. as battery or ultra capacitor powered mining locomotives. However. The distinguishing design features of electric locomotives are: The type of electrical power used. the initial cost of capital involved to reap the benefits afforded by electricity is extremely high. A stationary source. An electric locomotive cab be supplied with power from rechargeable energy storage systems. . electrified operations do have one substantial downside. which combines an onboard diesel engine with an electrical power transmission or store (battery. Electric Locomotive Electric locomotive are the epitome of efficiency. and swift acceleration speed of electrics.

the storage system can be electric traction batteries. or a flywheel.6. It will capture the energy dissipated during braking and store it in a series of sophisticated batteries. placed between the power source and the traction transmission system connected to the wheels. It is developed with a goal of creating the cleanest. or hydrogen (for fuel cell) and transmission is direct mechanical. During acceleration. or energy derived from regenerative braking. In existing designs. charges the storage system. a hybrid will operate more efficiently in higher altitudes and up steep inclines. boosting that available from the main power source. Hybrid locomotive A hybrid locomotive is a rail vehicle or train uses an onboard rechargeable energy storage system. In addition to environmental advantages. Surplus energy from the power source. . That stored energy can be used by the crew on demand – reducing fuel consumption by as much as 15 percent and emissions by as much as 50 percent compared to most of the freight locomotive in use today. liquefied petroleum gas. electric or hydrostatic. The energy source is diesel. stored energy is directed to the transmission system. most fuel-efficient high-horsepower locomotive ever built.

fundamentally. Gas Turbine-Electric Locomotive It is a machine that uses burning fuel to develop expanding gases which. A gas turbine has only a rotary motion. The rotor is a wheel which has shaped buckets attached to the outer edge.Working process of a hybrid locomotive 7. A gas turbine offers some advantages over a piston engine. decreasing the need for lubrication and potentially reducing maintenance costs. in turn. It differs from a diesel engine only in that it uses expanding gases against the rotor to get a rotary motion. whereas a diesel engine uses gases to force a series of pistons down to get the same motion. and the power-to-weight ratio is much higher. a rotating machine will be less expensive to maintain. whereas a diesel has both rotary and reciprocal motion. operate a rotor and shaft. The third thing is that the gas turbine is a rotating machine and not a reciprocating machine and. A . There are few moving parts. The gas turbine fundamentally has three big advantages. One of them is more horsepower in a limited space than you can secure with any other prime mover. The second one is the possibility of burning the cheaper oils.

You can have a idea of slug by viewing this picture of slug locomotive. allowing a locomotive to be very powerful without being inordinately large. a turbine’s power output and efficiency both drop dramatically with rotational speed. 8. Slugs are most effective at low speeds. A locomotive has more power than it can use for tractive effort at low speed-at a certain point. The electric current for its motors is provided by a “mother” unit. which has a comparatively flat power curve. This makes systems useful primarily for long-distance high-speed runs. Slug or Drone Locomotive A slug is a vehicle used for moving trains. unlike a piston engine. Since their introduction in the 1940’s they have found wide use in hump yards.turbine of a given power output is also physically smaller than an equally powerful piston engine. a standard locomotive fitted with cable connections to feed current to the slug. Slugs enable a more complete use of a locomotive’s power output than would otherwise be possible. By spreading the power over the additional wheels of the slug. Without a power source of itself and is not a locomotive in the strictest sense of the world. View of a slug . the application of more power only makes the wheels slip. greater tractive effort can be had. where entire trains must be moved at a walking pace during classification. having traction motors and added weight but no prime mover or generator. However.

the heavier mass of a locomotive is less likely to be deviated from its normal course. . If an obstacle is encountered on the line. Failure or maintenance of the motive power unit does not require taking the entire train out of service. and vice versa. Noise A single source of tractive power. rather than in self-propelled vehicles. the locomotive may act as buffer zone for the rest of the train. The noise problem is particularly present in diesel multiple units. Safety In case of an accident. Obsolescence Cycles Separating the motive power from payload-hauling cars enables one to be replaced without affecting the other. Separate locomotives enable costly motive power assets to be moved around as needed. Maximum Utilization Of Power Cars Idle trains waste costly motive power resources. which means only motors in one place. where one or more motors are located under every carriage.ADVANTAGES OF LOCOMOTIVES There are many reasons why the motive power for trains has been traditionally isolated in a locomotive. At times locomotive have become obsolete when their cars were not. it is easy to replace it with another. A ‘passenger’ locomotive can also be used for freight duties if needed. Flexibility Large locomotive can be substituted for small locomotives where the grades are steeper and more power is needed. Also it may be safer in the event of fire especially with diesel locomotives. Ease Should the locomotive fail. and vice versa. means that the train will be quieter than with multiple unit operation.