INTRODUCTION TO MICROWAVE TRANSISTORS

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Mohammad Sadegh Dadash Fall 2009

TRANSISTORS VS. VACUUM TUBES
Advantages
 

Small size and minimal weight Highly automated manufacturing processes


 

Greater energy efficiency
Higher reliability Availablity of complementary devices
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TRANSISTORS VS. VACUUM TUBES
Limitations

 

Lower operating voltage of transistors High power, high frequency operation is better achieved in vacuum tubes

A higher degree of amplification linearity can be achieved in electron tubes
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Major concerns for a microwave transistor: transit time  parasitic capacitance.MICROWAVE TRANSISTOR   The microwave transistor is a nonlinear device. and resistance  4 . and its principle of operation is similar to that of the low-frequency device.

MICROWAVE TRANSISTOR  Bipolar transistor Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) Heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT)  Unipolar transistor Metal oxide field effect transistor (MOSFET ) Metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) High electron mobility transistor (HEMT) 5 .

  Current is conveyed by slow process of diffusion Transite time ( ) 6 .BJTS  Two back-to-back intimately coupled p-n junctions.

Cje. Rc) and parasitic capacitances (Cjc.BJTS  Parasitic resistances(Rb. Cjs) 7 . Re.

BJTS  Frequency of transition (ft) 8 .

BJTS  Major effort is focused on minimizing parasitic 9 .

BJTS  Power-frequency limitations inherent in the transistors 10 .

The Si bipolar transistor is inexpensive. s Silicon BJTs dominate for frequency range below S band (about 3 GHz). durable. integrative. s µp = 450 cm2/V.BJTS  NPN bipolar transistors µn = 1500 cm2/V.   11 .

57 $ . VCE = 1.BJTS BFP620F SD1728 NPN Silicon RF Transistor High power applications 15dB @13. VCE = 6 V STMicroelectronics 130.5 V Infineon 1.8 $ 12 Type Application Gain Current gain (hfe) Company Price NPN Silicon Germanium High gain low noise 21 dB @ 1.8 GHz 110 IC = 50 mA.56MHz 23 IC = 10 A.

646 A for Ge a = 5. a = 5.653 for GaAs matched to within 1% 13 .HBTS  HBT is an improvement of the BJT Main difference Use of different semiconductor materials for the emitter and base regions   Lattice constants of two semiconductor materials should be matched.

HBTS  When an n -Ge and a p -GaAs are isolated 14 .

HBTS  When the two materials are jointed together 15 .

HBTS  The effect is to limit the injection of holes from the base into the emitter region  This allows a high doping density to be used in the base A high base doping results in a small base resistance and a low emitter doping reduces the base emitter junction capacitance  16 .

HBTS  HBT structure 17 .

HBTS Advantages    Lower forward transit time Much lower base resistance The ability to turn off devices with a small base voltage change. 18 .

  19 . High-reliability applications.HBTS Application  Modern ultrafast circuits. such as power amplifiers in cellular phones. mostly radio-frequency (RF) systems Applications requiring a high power efficiency. such as laser drivers.

with a maximum operating speed of 604 GHz. developed a transistor less than half a millionth of a metre long. 20 .BREAKTHROUGH  Feng and Hafez at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

MOSFETS  Distinguishing feature presence of an insulator between the gate and the remainder of the device. 21 .

MOSFETS  Distributed nature of gate  Maximum operating frequency of the MOSFET scales as 1/L^2 The time it takes the carriers to move from drain to source  The mobility of the carriers is proportional to the electric field strength.  22 .

MOSFETS  Parasitic capacitances Internal capacitance  External capacitance  23 .

 Discounting the gate resistance causes an underestimation of the noise figure of the transistor.  Discounting the gate resistance causes an overestimation of the MOSFET’s available power gain and maximum frequency.  24 .MOSFETS  The distributed gate resistance Discounting the gate resistance causes nonoptimal power matching source impedances.

MOSFETS Advantage    The MOSFET’s mature fabrication technology Its high integration levels Its capability for low voltage operation Disadvantage  High resistive channels  Widening the channel causes the increase of capacitance  Lower transconductance in comparison to BJTs 25 .

MOSFETS  MOSFET technology has the performance levels necessary to operate in the 900 MHz to 2.4 GHz  Important for existing cellular and wireless network applications  Future generations of MOSFET Scaled below the 100 nm gate length  Operate beyond 5 GHz  26 .

45 GHz 11 dB 5.NE5511279A Type Frequency range Gain Dimension Pout Transconductance UHF BAND RF POWER SILICON MOS FET NE552R479A Silicon MOSFET 2.9 GHz 15 dB 5.7 x 1.1 mm 40 dBm 2.7 x 1.1 mm 26 dBm 0.3 S California Eastern Labs Company .7 x 5.4 S California Eastern Labs 27 0.7 x 5.

a charge-depletion region is set up in the channel  28 .MESFETS  Using of metal-semiconductor Schottky-barrier diode The current in the channel causes a voltage drop along its length As a result.

45 volt Lower reverse recovery time For normal diode ~ 100 nsec For schottkey diode almost nothing Lower resistance devices are often possible    Greatly simplified fabrication 29 .7-1.7 volt voltage drop for schottky diode = 0.15-0.MESFETS Why Schottky Barrier Diode?  Higher system efficiency voltage drop for normal diode = 0.

MESFETS Limitations   Relatively low reverse voltage (~ 50 v) Relatively high reverse leakage current 30 .

MESFETS Benefits of GaAs MESFET over Si MESFET     Higher electron mobility Higher electric field Greater output power Lower noise figure. accounted for by its higher electron mobility 31 .

THE EQUIVALENT MODEL 32 .

Applications     Military communications Military radar devices Commercial optoelectronics Satellite communications 33 . The maximum record of cutoff frequency. for GaAs MESFETs reached 168 GHz.MESFETS   Production MESFETs are operated up to approximately 30 GHz.

11 High Power. High Linearity GaAs FET CRF24010D SiC RF Power MESFET Up to 5 GHz Operation 15 dB 40 dBm 140 mS CREE 34 Type Frequency range Gain Pout Transconductance Company 12 GHz 7 dB 28 dBm 290 mS MwT .MESFETS MwT.

HEMTS  Also known as heterostructure FETs  Incorporating a junction between two materials with different band gaps as the channel instead of a doped region 35 .

HEMTs avoid this through the use of high mobility electrons generated using the junction of a highly-doped wide-band gap ntype donor and a non-doped narrow-band gap layer.  36 . electrons are slowed down through collisions with the impurities (dopants) used to generate them in the first place.HEMTS  In general.

HEMTS  HEMTs have exhibited lower noise figure and higher gain at microwave frequencies up to 70 GHz  The switching speed of a HEMT is about three times as fast as that of a GaAs MESFET  Power dissipation reported at about 100 pW 37 .

HEMTS  Excellent candidates for millimeter-wave analog applications and high-speed digital applications Excellent for application where high gain and low noise at high frequencies are required Cellular telecommunications Direct broadcast receivers Electronic warfare systems such as radar and for radio astronomy 38     .

HEMTS 39 .

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