ii. l.


)oints (articulating bones) are enclosed within


fibrous capsule. 2. The synovial fluid separates articulatlng bones Vertebrae are linked together by ligaments to form an upright column and they allow the attachment of

(c) i.



The femur has to bear all the weight of the upper


2 (a) i. P: Biceps ii. P: Flexor
(b) A muscle
Q: Triceps Q: Extensor


can only pull and cannot push. Therefore, the coordinated contraction and relaxation of antagonistic muscles can pull a bone in opposite directions and make movement possible. i. R: Tendon S: Ligament ii. R: Attaches a muscle to a bone S: Binds two bones together iii. R needs to pull bones so it should not be stretchable. S is flexible to enable bones to move at the joint.

3 (a) R: Parenchyma
S: Xylem

(b) X: Y: (c) X:

Terrestrial Aquatic Has more xylem tissue to provide support against bending stress produced by wind.

Y Has large and

numerous intercellular space to

provide water buoyancy.

(d) R: The water content of the thin-walled S:
Section B mechanical support.

cells provide turgid support. The rigidity of the thickened cell wall/xylem provides

a (a) . .

To search for food, mate and shelter [1 m) To escape from predators and other dangers [1 m) Grasshopper - walking . Uses the first two pairs of smaller legs to walk [1 z] . To walk - supports body by using three legs; the other three legs move the body forward ll ml Grasshopper - jumping A pair of long hind legs for jumping ml Flexor muscles in the femur contract and bring the tibia close to the femur in a "Z" l1 ml Then the extensor muscle contracts and propels the grasshopper into the air. 11 m\ Grasshopper - flyrng Has a pair of wings; movements of the wings drive air downwards and produce lift and [1 m] Contractions of the flight muscles move the wings forward and backwards, upwards and downwards. [1 m] Fish - swimming There are myotomes on both sides of its vertebra [1 m] Antagonistic contractions of myotomes create wavelike movements from the anterior to the tail. [1 z] Wave-like movements push water backvrards and its bodv forward. [1 m]

. . .



. . . . .




strain, overuse or abuse of the musculoskeletal
The grasshopper needs to support its body weight in air against the gravitational pull. It has a strong chitinous exoskeleton to support its body and protect its internal organs, and strong legs to carry its

The body weight of the fish is supported by water buoyancy. It only requires an internal bony skeleton to support its body for swimming. 12 ml

. . . . 6(a).




To avoid and decrease the abnormal wearing of joint surfaces that could resuit in arthritis [1 la] To prevent the vertebral column from becoming
fixed in abnormal positions



To reduce the stress on the ligaments holding the

joints ofthe vertebral column together 11 ml To contribute to a good physical appearance

ml The high density of water creates a lot of resistance and drag to movement. The body ofa fish is streamlined to reduce water resistance while fins help it to manoeuwe and swim in

Diagram (A) is a herbaceous plant or herb; has relatively little woody tissue and no lasting woody




Resistance to movement by the air molecules very low due to the low density of the atmosphere. The grasshopper moves about easily by walking,

hopping, and flying without the need for streamlined body.





[2 m]

5 (a) i. . . ii. . . .

The human musculoskeletal system is an organ system that gives humans the abiiity to move by using the muscular and skeietal systems. [2 m] It is made up of the skeleton, muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints and other connective
[2 m] and organs to attach themselves to as well as holding the body above the ground. ll ml Locomotion - antagonistic pairs of muscles work to flex and extend the legs during walking and

Vascular bundles: Arranged in a ring around to provide flexibility and support. lr m) Parenchyma: Forms most of the herbaceous plant; are living cells with thin cellulose walls; contribute to support via turgidity. 11 ml Collenchyma: Found just below the epidermis in stems and petioles; forms a cylinder of flexible but strong tissue (cellulose strands) which allows them to bend in the wind lr ml Diagram (B) is a woody plant; has shoots that last year after year during which time the stems become hard and woodv. [2 ml Sclerenchyma: Dead cells with very thick lignified walls, which provide hard structural support to the
plant. lt ml Xylem vessels form long cyiindrical vessels, with walls thickened by lignin, which give the plant support.



. . . . .

tissues. Support - as a framework for tissues


running. ll ml Movement - e.g. contractions of external and internal intercostal muscies move the ribcage, enabiing inhalation and exhalation to occur.


Tracheids consist of dead cells with thick, walls; give support to the plant ml Support in plants: To grow towards sunlight so that photosynthesis can take place lt ml To support tropic (besides phototropic) and nastic ll ml To position leaves for maximum absorption of light lor maximum photosynthesis lr ml . To produce and display flowers to attract insects for

trrll#l ll



skull protects the soft and delicate
ml marrow

. . .

. Production of blood cells - the red
liver. Storage

of some bones produces blood cells to


existing cells that have been destroyed by the


are stored in bones; muscle proteins, are converted into sugar for respiration when there is a shortage of

- calcium and phosphorus






glycogen and fat. [1 m) Posture - the correct way the human body should be carried against gravity while standing, sitting or lving down. [2 m] . To keep the bones and joints in the correct

Support in animals: To maintain the body shape ll ml Supporting tissues provide protection for the delicate tissues and internal organs. lt ml . To allow movement - supporting tissues form a hard skeleton against which the muscles can act lI m] . To escape from predators or to capture prey [1 m] . To enable breathing and act as a store for calcium and phosphorus [1ml

pollination [1 m1 To hold fruits up for effect dispersal ofseeds [l m]

CHAPTER 3: Coordination and Response

alignment so that the muscles can function

. . .

To prevent fatigue and strain by using muscles more efficiently lr ml To prer-ent strain or overuse of certain parts of
the musculoskeletal system [1 m] To prelent backache and muscular pain due to


lC 7B t3B 19c 25C 3rC

20c 26A 328


2B 8C


2tA 278


3B 9A

4C 10D t6D 22D 284 34D

23D 29C 358

5B rrA t7D

6B t2A
18B 24C 30B 36A

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