Gemstones, precious and semiprecious stones

Precious and semiprecious stones, in addition to gold, silver, and platinum, are the most commonly used components of jewelry. Precious stones: Diamonds have traditionally been the most highly prized of such stones, varying in color from yellow to bluish white and sometimes reaching enormous size. Rubies, emeralds, and sapphires are other precious stones used for jewelry, as are the less costly chrysoberyl, topaz, and zircon. Semiprecious stones: Amethyst, garnet, opal, aquamarine, jade , turquoise, agate, onyx, lapis lazuli, and malachite. Stones of organic origin: Amber, a fossil tree resin, is a highly valued stone. Pearls and corals, though animal in origin rather than mineral, are also usually considered gemstones. Gemstone is any of various minerals highly prized for beauty, durability, and rarity. Of the more than 2,000 identified natural minerals, fewer than 100 are used as gemstones and only 16 have achieved importance. These are beryl, chrysoberyl, corundum, diamond, feldspar, garnet, jade , lazurite, olivine, opal, quartz , spinel , topaz, tourmaline, turquoise, and zircon. Some of these minerals provide more than one type of gem. Beryl, for example, provides emeralds and aquamarines, while corundum provides rubies and sapphires. In virtually all cases, the minerals have to be cut and polished for use in jewelry. Gemstones have attracted humankind since ancient times, and have long been used for jewelry. The prime requisite for a gem is that it must be beautiful. The beauty may lie in color or lack of color, in the latter case, extreme limpidity and "fire" may provide the attraction. A gem must also be durable to withstand the wear and tear of constant handling. In some cases, the color of gemstones is also artificially enhanced (treated gem) to increase the value of the stone. Staining, heat treatment, and irradiation are used among the treatments. Agate may be stained a variety of colors: red, lemon yellow, green, blue, and brown. Jasper stained blue to simulate Lapis Lazuli, and turquoise is stained to imitate opal. Heat treatment of gems to improve or change color has been practiced for centuries. When heated, smoky quartz resembles citrine or topaz, some brownish or reddish zircon becomes bright blue or colorless, yellow topaz becomes pink, slightly colored chalcedony becomes carnelian red, and some rubies or amethysts are more evenly colored. Irradiation of certain gemstones also causes color changes. Some colorless diamonds become green, rose quartz becomes brown, and decolorized amethyst regains its purple hue. These color changes are not always permanent, and the stone may become radioactive. In recent times various kinds of synthetic gems, including rubies, sapphires, and emeralds, have been produced. Two methods of fabrication are currently employed, one involving crystal growth from solution and the other crystal growth from melts. In addition to their use as jewelry, gems were regarded by many civilizations as miraculous and endowed with mysterious powers. Different stones were endowed with different and sometimes overlapping attributes. The diamond, for instance, was thought to give its wearer strength in battle and to protect him against ghosts and magic. During the Middle Ages, a ruby ring was thought to bring its owner lands and titles, to bestow virtue, to protect against seduction, and to prevent

effervescence in water--but only if worn on the left hand. Vestiges of such beliefs persist in the modern practice of wearing a birthstone. Agate brings stability to your life. Color: Agate comes in most colors. Agates range from transparent to opaque in a variety of beautiful colors. It presents various tints in the same specimen. The stones can be artificially stained to produce combinations of color more vivid than those found in the natural state. i Description: SiO 2 Agate is a semipellucid crystallized quartz, consisting of banded or with branching inclusions chalcedony . Physical properties of agate are in general those of quartz. Agate has irregular, sometimes circular bands of color and often replaces fossil wood. Many fossils are agatized material where the original organic substance has been replaced by agate while retaining the original structure. Agates are identical in chemical structure to jasper , flint, chert, bloodstone , and tiger-eye , and are often found in association with opal . The colorful, banded rocks are used as a semiprecious gemstone and for making mortars and pestles. One will often see these in beads, agate pendants and necklaces. The name's origin: Agate derives its name from the Greek "Agate??" - happy. According to another theory the word Agate comes from the Greek name of a stone found in the Achates River in Sicily, now known as the Drillo River, which still remains a major source of this stone. Birthstone: Agate is the birthstone of Taurus (Bull): April 20 - May 20. Wedding anniversary: Agate is the anniversary gemstone for the 12th year of marriage. Moss Agate is the anniversary gemstone for the 14th year of marriage. Varieties: There are several types of agate. Varieties include Blue, Blue Lace, Crazy Lace, Green, Indian, Moss, Tree and Wood. The Moss agate or mocha stone contains visible impurities in the form that resemble moss. Care and treatment: Agate will chip and crack rather easily though it has a hardness rating of 7. As with all gems, protect agate from scratches and sharp blows. Avoid sudden temperature changes and household chemicals. From the stone history: Agate was discovered with the Stone Age man in France 20,000-16,000 BC. The Egyptians used it prior to 3000 BC. Agate was highly valued by ancient civilizations. Said by the ancients to render the wearer invisible. The agate-working industry grew up centuries ago in the Idar-Oberstein district of Germany, where agates were abundant. Cameos are cut from stones, such as onyx or agate, where different colors occur in layers. The background material is cut away, leaving the cameo design in relief. Agate is one of the gemstones, that used in commesso , also called florentine mosaic. Commesso is a technique of fashioning pictures with thin, cut-to-shape pieces of brightly colored, semiprecious stones, developed in Florence in the late 16th century. The stones most commonly used are agates, quartzes , chalcedonies , jaspers , granites, porphyries, petrified woods, and lapis lazuli . Commesso pictures, used mainly for tabletops and small wall panels, range from emblematic and floral subjects to landscapes.

Healing ability: Agate is cooling stone, it reduces fever, quenches thirst, beneficial in stomach area. It quiets the pulse and heart throbs and insures good health and a long and prosperous life. Botswana Agate: Use with high-pressure oxygen therapy. Fire Agate: Master healer with color therapy, enhances all essences. It grounds and balances, binds sexual & heart chakra, burns energy. Moss Agate: Emotional priorities, mental priorities; circulatory, pancreas & pulses, blood sugar balance, agriculture.

Mystical power: Agate guards against danger. Wearers become temperate, continent and cautious. It helps one view themselves with more clarity and see the world through a broader viewpoint. Wearing Agate is believed to cure insomnia and to insure pleasant dreams. Deposits: Important sources of agate are Russia (Ural mountains), Brazil, Eygpt, Germany, India, Italy, Madagascar, Mexico, Uruguay and the USA (Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana ).

Alexandrite is a stone of good omen.
Color: The best known and most widely used variety of chrysoberyl is an alexandrite. Because of its great power of absorption of certain colors, alexandrite looks green in daylight and reddish purple in artificial light. Description: BeAl2O4 Alexandrite is a remarkable and valued variety of chrysoberyl that when viewed along the different crystallographic (optical) axes, changes from columbine red to orange yellow to emerald green. The name's origin: Alexandrite is named after Czar Alexander's II. Birthstone: Alexandrite along with pearls and moonstone are birthstones of Gemini (Twins): May 21 June 21. Wedding anniversary: Alexandrite is the anniversary gemstone for the 45th and 55th year of marriage. Care and treatment: Protect alexandrite from scratches, sharp blows, harsh chemicals and extreme temperatures. From the stone history: Alexandrite was discovered in 1831 in the Ural Mountains (Russia) on the Czar Alexander II birthday. Shopping guide: Alexandrite is a beautiful rare stone which is quite expensive. It is very difficult to find natural alexandrite. Most Alexandrites on the market are synthetic. Alexandrite rings are very beautiful. If Alexandrite is set in a ring, the wearer can watch the color change. Healing ability: Alexandrite helps fighting low self-esteem. Improves central nervous system disorders. Alexandrite relieves spleen & pancreas problems. Mystical power: Alexandrite is a stone of good omen. Alexandrite can assist one in centering the self, reinforcing self-esteem, and increases ones ability to experience joy. Deposits: Alexandrite is found in Brazil, Madagascar, Myanmar, Russia, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe

Amazonite makes your married life happier.
Stone's names: Amazonite, Amazonstone. Color: Amazonite varies in color from yellow-green to blue-green and may also exhibit fine white streaks. Description: KAlSi3O8 Amazonite is a gemstone variety of green microcline, a feldspar mineral. It is usually opaque and therefore is cut en cabochon (with a rounded and convex polished surface). The name's origin: Although its name is derived from the Amazon River, no deposits have been found there. Care and treatment: As with all gemstones, care should be taken to protect amazonite from

. Store amazonites in separate boxes. and you will find that we are all. From the stone history: Amber is treasured and used for centuries in jewelry. pipes. trapped insects. U. became the most important source of amazonite after 1876. Be certain to store amber jewelry separately from your other jewelry. Amber with special markings such as the intials of ones name is a great protective talisman. who used it extensively in jewelry. and other small ornamental objects. Amber beads and pendants were found in Northern Europe gravesites dating back to 8000 B. their impressive purity and size eventually forced competing Russian mineral dealers out of business. from Middle French. The Pikes Peak district of Colorado.S. synthetic resin and other natural resins amber imitations.).allowing happiness to come through. Releases fear and anxiety. Jurassic Park made amber famous! The book and the movie used the idea that amber containing an ancient mosquito might be the key to recreating dinosaurs. The best commercial amber is transparent. Baveno (Italy) and the Ural Mountains of Russia. It was familiar to Paleolithic peoples and to the Greeks and Romans. from Arabic anbar ambergris. but amber's color is usually honey brown.scratches and sharp blows. leaves. When samples were unveiled at the Centennial Exhibition. Care and treatment: As amber is soft. Its lustre is greasy to resinous. amulets. Healing ability: Amber is excellent for eyes. it can be easily scratched. and air bubbles. The basic goal was to remove blood from the gut of a mosquito which had fed on a dinosaur just before being trapped in tree resin which later became amber. Sometimes insects or pieces of earth. Amber is perhaps the oldest substance used for human adornment. Amber has been used for decoration since the stone age. from green to blue. The name's origin: Amber derives its name from Middle English ambre. The resin must be several million years old to be called amber. mouthpieces. Amber . bugs in amber" Kurt Vonnegut. From the stone history: Articles made of amazonite were found in Ancient Egypt. Colorado (U. pine needles and inclusions of small plant and animal fossils are present in the amber. cigar and cigarette holders. as I've said before. " Take it moment by moment. glass. Deposits: Amazonite has been mined in Minas Gerais (Brazil). Healing ability: Amazonite makes your skin better. Description: Amber is a fossilized tree resin of now-extinct conifer trees and ancient pine trees. Shopping guide: Amber is one of the most popular stones collected today.S. but some varieties are cloudy. Ontario and Quebec (Canada).E. It is an amorphous hydrocarbon and may contain particles of various foreign materials. Recently hardened resins are called copals. from Medieval Latin ambra. Nowdays amber is used in the manufacture of beads.C. Shopping guide: Note that amazonite is frequently confused with jade . . Be ware of plastic. Slaughterhouse V Color: Amber can vary in color from yellow to red. Mystical power: Amazonite makes your married life happier. and for glandular swellings of the throat and lungs.

reddish purple to bluish purple in hue. Fine amethysts are featured in the British Crown Jewels and were also a favorite of Catherine the Great and Egyptian royalty. The finest quality Amethyst is medium to medium dark in tone. making for important applications in electronics. in Egypt and in anterior Asia were made jewels of Amethyst. In the Western Hemisphere. Most commercial citrine is made in this manner. a much harder and rarer stone. Amethyst . from Latin amethystus. Mystical power: Amber brings good luck. the DNA of the specimens trapped inside is intact. and the state of New Jersey. and experts believe that its color arises from its iron content. Amber is also found off the coasts of Sicily and England and in Myanmar (Burma). Keep away from strong chemicals and avoid sudden temperature changes. Deposits: The most famous source of the world's amber is the Baltic coast of Germany.Amber balances endocrine and digestive network. Heating removes the color from amethyst or changes it to the yellow of citrine. was insulted one day by a mere mortal. Purple has long been the color .one of the Earth's beautiful stones. Shopping guide: Amethyst is a wonderful affordable purple gemstone. Amber has long been associated with healing energy and mental stimulation.Feb. Remorseful Bacchus wept tears of wine over the stone maiden. The name's origin: Amethyst derives its name from Middle English amatist. would be attacked by his fierce tigers. Amethyst must be removed from the setting. Birthstone: Amethyst is the birthstone of Aquarius (Water Bearer): Jan. Amber insures very long enjoyment of the qualities that make the wearer attractive. From the stone history: The story of the origin of amethyst comes from Greek legends: The god of wine. Along came a beautiful maiden named Amethyst. coarse-grained variety of the silica mineral quartz that is valued as a semiprecious gem for its violet color. Care and treatment: Amethyst often becomes paler if kept out in the sun. or purple sapphire. An especially rich bed of amber in New Jersey has yielded over 100 previously unknown extinct Cretaceous species dating back as much as 94 million years. He swore the next mortal that crossed his path. Clean your Amethyst in ultrasonic jewelry cleaner or with warm. It is associated with time. 18 Wedding anniversary: Amethyst is anniversary gemstone for the 4th and 6th year of marriage. and is said to balance aggressive traits. Varieties: Oriental amethyst. Amethyst is colorless.000 B. not drunk or intoxicating. It contains more iron oxide Fe2O3 than any other variety of quartz. The Amethyst is perhaps as popular today as it was in ancient time. affording scientists a unique opportunity to study the DNA of extinct species. Tourmaline is the only other gemstone that possesses this property. Other theories attribute the color to contained manganese or hydrocarbons. All forms of quartz (including amethyst) are piezoelectric. soapy water and a soft bristle brush. Remember that in any type of repair involving heat. 20 . vivid in intensity. in its purest form. There are evidences that around 3. Mexico. Description: SiO2 Amethyst is the most valuable transparent. is not quartz but a variety of corundum. from Greek amethustos. Color: Found in abundance. C. Bacchus. from Old French. Goddess Diana turned Amethyst in a beautiful statue of quartz to save her from the tigers claws. cycles and longevity. there are rich deposits in the Dominican Republic. and purple. Because of amber's preservative qualities. Amber is also regarded as being highly sensual and magnetic. creating a lively purple stone. Purple color has long been considered a royal color so it is not surprising that amethyst has been so popular through the history.

affordability. it occurs in pegmatite. variety in size and shape. and loyalty. the beautiful amethyst is believed to produce a calm and peaceful sleep. Ametyst relieves headaches. is also mined in Australia. earrings. and peace of mind. honesty. Amethyst is associated with a number of superstitions. security. . Amethyst is wonderful in rings. Wedding anniversary: Aquamarine is the anniversary gemstone for the 16th and 19th year of marriage. Sri Lanka. as it often becomes paler if left out in the sun. Zambia being a significant source for Amethyst. the deeper blue gems are more rare. while energizing and purifying the blood. more saturated. Bolivia. It has long been of interest because several varieties are valued as gemstones. Uruguay. As the myth goes. improves blood sugar imbalance. necklaces. While the choice of color is largely a matter of taste. therefore name "aquamarine" means sea water. Aquamarine . In Tibet. It strengthens immunity. It is given as a symbol of sincerity. Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminum silicate. Because of that. and bracelets. Aquamarine is the most common variety of gem beryl. It is a deep. amethyst is considered to be sacred to Buddha and rosaries are often fashioned from it. Amethyst was thought to encourage celibacy. care should be taken to protect aquamarine from scratches and sharp blows. Keep aquamarine jewelry in the dark place. mostly in small sizes. These are aquamarine. and peace of mind. and Argentina and some African countries.a symbol of beauty. Designers celebrate Amethyst as the ideal choice for jewelry due to its regal color. particularly a rich purple with rose flashes. The name's origin: Aquamarine name is derived from Latin words meaning sea and water. security. a commercial source of beryllium. from the palest pastel to greenish-blue to a deep blue. drinking wine from an Amethyst goblet would prevent one from becoming inebriated. in which it forms much larger and clearer crystals than emerald. Bishops still often wear amethyst rings. India. color in small sizes. and as a protection against thieves. Generally. The pale colors are sometimes called "Rose de France" and can be seen set in Victorian jewelry. People who desire purple colors are individuals who like to make a personal statement. amethyst was very important in the ornamentation of churches in the Middle Ages. being regarded as a love charm. Description: Be3Al3(SiO3)6 Aquamarine is pale greenish blue or bluish green variety of beryl. The gemstone still symbolizes sobriety. Color: Aquamarines are found in a range of blue shades. Clean your Aquamarine in ultrasonic jewelry cleaner or with warm.March 20. and while color can be quite intense in larger gemstones. Care and treatment: As with all gemstones. Placed under the pillow at night. and express their unique taste. expresses the ancient folk belief that the stone protects its owner against drunkenness. Birthstone: Aquamarine along with bloodstone are birthstones of Pisces (Fish): Feb. passionate color that evokes emotions. Very dark amethyst. amethyst from South America tends to be available in larger sizes than African amethyst but amethyst from Africa has the reputation for having better. emerald and heliodor. 19 .of royalty and nobility. Amethyst is given as a symbol of sincerity. soapy water and a soft bristle brush. Mystical power: The Greek work "amethystos" basically can be translated as "not drunken" . Siberia. Healing ability: Ametyst magnifies psychic abilities and right-brain activity. Deposits: Amethyst is mined in Brazil. the smaller Aquamarines are often less vivid. The deep colors are the most valuable. Canada. Aquamarine is a pastel gemstone. pendants. and wide tonal range from light to dark purple.

There was a custom of assigning various Masculine and Feminine Saints with a particular gem for use in talismans. avanturine. including seasickness. rivaling a nice medium blue sapphire. candelabra. However due to its delicate color and clarity it is best displayed in a more prominent position such as in earrings and pendants. When buying aquamarine jewelry for yourself. Wedding anniversary: Aventurine is the anniversary gemstone for the 8th year of marriage. bluish green and orange. The name's origin: Aventurine derives its name from Italian . as aquamarine is a symbol of beauty. Stone's names: Aventurine. A nice. honesty. For many years aquamarine is a favorite of many consumers. North Carolina. note that wearring aquamarine in earrings brings love and affection. Brazil is the source of the finest aquamarines. and for other ornamental objects. Petersburg (Russia). glandular problems. and loyalty. which cause a slight metallic iridescence. Zambia. jaw and throat. It also provides courage and strengthens the will. Pakistan and Mozambique. relieves cough.Shopping guide: Aquamarine is a beautiful affordable gemstone found in a range of blue shades. This is an easy identifying factor often called aventurescence. Deposits: Aquamarine is found in Brazil. Aventurine also comes in silvery. Others say that the Aquamarine is an excellent stone for meditation. pipes. Moreover. Russia (Ural mountains) and USA (Maine.per avventura . Color: Aventurine is a soft green semi-translucent to mostly opaque stone with mica flecks. It is said to help ease depression and grief. The highest quality aquamarine is transparent. greenish-brown. ears and stomach. New Hampshire. Mystical power: Aquamarine has a soothing effect on "just married" couples. But they are rare and expensive. From the stone history: For many centuries aventurine is used for jewelry. girandoles. India. Aquamarine is a hard gemstone making it a good choice for jewelry that is worn frequently like aquamarine rings. aquamarine protects from perils of the sea. Aquamarine protects against the wiles of the devil. therefore the aventurine jewelry is better kept in the dark place. and disorders of the neck. but especialy for weddings. It's claim to fame is having inclusions that look like sparkles. Be ware far too many blue topaz have been sold as aquamarines.a stone of confidence and tranquility. Shopping guide: Aventurine is a very charming inexpensive stone. It contains inclusions of small crystals that reflect light and give a range of colors . Description: Aventurine is composed of two gem minerals. Aquamarine diminishes problems with eyes. yellow. The name Andrew or Andre (i. as blue topaz is much cheaper. Aquamarines are mined in a number of exotic places including Nigeria. art museum in St. . one is a plagioclase feldspar and the other is quartz . medium dark blue aquamarine is a perfect gift for any occasion. Care and treatment: Translucent aventurine often fades in the sun. Connecticut. toothache.depending on the nature of the inclusion. Both have a sparkling reflection from oriented minute inclusions of mica or hematite.e. Unique ancient vase made of bright aventurine is displayed in Hermitage. In its finest color aquamarine will be a rather dark chance. patron Saint Andrew) is associated with Aventurine. Aquamarine is said to reawaken love in long-married couples and signify the making of new friends. vases and bowls (sometimes very large). It strengthens liver and kidneys. Healing ability: Aquamarine works against nerve pain. Aventurine . Colorado and Vermont). reddish brown. Madagascar. assisting them in working out their differences and insuring a long and happy marriage. Healing ability: Avanturine is said to increase libido.

China. or light tan species of chalcedony are also occured. China. It strengthens blood purifying organs and improves blood circulation. and USA. sharp blows. so it is received its name due to this similarity. Healing ability: In ancient times. promotes emotional tranquility and positive attitudes. Description: Bloodstone is dark-green variety of the silica mineral chalcedony that has nodules of bright-red jasper distributed throughout its mass. Extensive beds in mica schist occur in the Russian Ural Mountains. It also occurs in shades of dark green with red. Bloodstone has a positive influence on a bladder. It is often used for pendants and bead necklaces. Chalcedony promotes calm and peace. It is commonly pale blue.Releases fear and anxiety. bloodstone was thought to be able to stop hemorrhages with the merest touch. Green aventurine strengthens one's blood and muscle tissues. and from the resemblance of these to drops of blood it derives its name. has been found in the state of Tamil Nadu (formerly Madras). buff. China. brown and multicolored spots. Aventurine is a wonderful stone to use daily. and gratitude. It was used in sculptures representing flagellation and martyrdom. From the stone history: In the Middle Ages. and in Rutland (Vermont). Calcedony. India. Mystical power: Bloodstone is used to help one become more knowledgeable in the ways of the world. Birthstone: Bloodstone along with aquamarine are traditional birthstones of Pisces (Fish): Feb. Polished sections therefore show red spots on a dark-green background. Its physical properties are those of quartz. Tanzania. Bloodstone helps one become more knowledgeable in the ways of the world. Kathiawar Peninsula and the USA (Wyoming). . Color: Chalcedony can be virtually any color of the rainbow. Shopping guide: Bloodstone is an inexpensive stone. Brazil. A white. The iron minerals cause the deep red and brown colors. Japan. Russia. The polish will be removed if you get this type of stone wet. Care and treatment: Protect bloodstone from scratches. The name's origin: Bloodstone is a stone with red spots which resemble drops of blood. Bloodstone relieves stomach and bowel pain. bloodstone was attributed special powers as the spots were thought to be the blood of Jesus Christ. India. Deposits: Aventurine is found in Brazil. 19 March 20. India. brown or gray with nearly waxlike luster. Bloodstone is also believed to be a very magical stone. Mystical power: Aventurine is said to increase confidence. Heliotrope derives its name from Greek words meaning sun and turning. colored by a chrome mica. Heliotrope Color: Bloodstone is a green stone with red spots. especially during meditation and prayer. harsh chemicals and extreme temperatures. Deposits: Bloodstone is found in Australia. Green aventurine. yellow. Stone's names: Bloodstone. Stone's names: Chalcedony.

gray and black veining. colors. peach and opalescent gray.Na)3Si4O10(OH. range from emblematic and floral subjects to landscapes. Description: (Ca. The name's origin: Charoite is named after the nearby Charo River. From the stone history: The Russians first discovered charoite in 1947 in the Murun mountains in Yakutia. mental illness and sadness.Description: SiO2 Chalcedony is a finely crystallized or fibrous quartz that forms rounded crusts. and chrysoprase all make up the chalcedony gemstones. Wearing chalcedony is believed to be excellent for eyes. but the most prized Chalcedony are from India. Chalcedony was used in Renaissance magic for health and safety. but it was not known in the West until 1978. jaspers.A Stone for Courage. In all ages chalcedony has been the stone most used by the gem engraver.F)H2O. rinds. and shapes. Madagascar. Healing ability: This beautiful stone is believed to banish fear. Mystical power: Mystical power: Charoite is said to be useful for the cleansing and purification of . chalcedonies. also called florentine mosaic. The heat. Charoite .the online store that offer a large collection of pictures decorated with natural precious and semiprecious stones. Royal lavendar flows with chatoyant streaks of white around bits of black. Chalcedony is a precious stone that occurs in many forms. cornelian.K. Healing ability: Put charoite beneath your pillow. onyx. . It is one of the best wearing stones on the market. Chalcedony reduces fever. depression. or stalactites in volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Burma. Charoite is used as an ornamental stone and as a gemstone. and lapis lazuli. Care and treatment: Protect chalcedony from scratches. and the Victorians carved them into an endless array of cameos and intaglios. quartzes. Commesso is a technique of fashioning pictures with thin. cut-to-shape pieces of brightly colored. semiprecious stones. In combination with amethyst. harsh chemicals and extreme temperatures. It formed from alteration of limestones by the close presences of an alkali-rich nephline syenite intrusion. The stones most commonly used are agates. sharp blows. Other physical properties are those of quartz. Brazil. that used in commesso. It forms a swirling pattern of interlocking crystals. Chalcedony also one of the most collected gemstones today. Visit all-that-gifts. hysteria. Chalcedony. From the stone history: The Romans prized chalcedony as seals. especially if you are prone to disturbed sleep or fears which surface in dreams. pressure and more importantly. petrified woods. porphyries. jaspers. and many colored varieties are still cut and polished as ornamental stones. Commesso pictures. Chalcedony is one of the gemstones. Color: The colors in each piece of Charoite range from bright lavender. used mainly for tabletops and small wall panels. Chalcedony also stimulates creativity. agates. Mexico & USA. Worn by many to promote calm and peace. Mystical power: Chalcedony prevents from touchiness and melancholy. Charoite is an unsual mineral and of rare occurence. Shopping guide: Chalcedony is an inexpensive stone. violet and lilac to dark purple with both white. Chalcedonic pseudomorphs after other minerals often give rise to very interesting specimens. the infusion of unique chemicals into the rock is responsible for the transformations into new minerals such as charoite. it will help to release these fears. Deposits: Chalcedony is found in many parts of the world. granites. developed in Florence in the late 16th century.

It helps liver & adrenal function. Peridot should be priced about the same as a garnet or tourmaline. Birthstone: Peridot along with sardonyx are birthstones of Leo (Lion): July. Do not clean peridot in a home ultrasonic cleaner. olive green or medium dark green hues. Peridot protects against nervousness and aids in healing hurt feelings. and manifest your soul's wisdom and light in daily life. can be dissolved and replaced with more empowering energies. Legend has it that pirates favored peridot to protect them against evil. . while white represents the connection to spirit. that was mentioned by Pliny in his Natural History (AD 70). But it is probably due to a combination of a chemically unique limestone reacting with a chemically unique intrusion and subjected to unique physical conditions. also called precious olivine. Peridot is also thought to protect lungs. Charoite facilitates the release of fear and dissolution of negative energies encountered in the process of aligning with your soul's purpose. It occurs in lime. Be aware of a very good imitation of peridot that is actually a type of synthetic peridot. Wedding anniversary: Peridot is the anniversary gemstone for the 16th year of marriage. is a gem-quality transparent green olivine. Also avoid drastic temperature changes. eridot is a symbol of fame. Some of Cleopatra's emeralds were in fact peridots. This part of Russia is known for its forbidding climate and terrain and as a traditional place of exile for political prisoners. even the thoughts we hold as true.Aug. Gem-quality olivine is a mineral that composes a lot of the earth's mantel. Stone's names:'s energy body as well as for the transmutation of negative energies within oneself. The deposit on Saint Johns Island in the Red Sea. helps to bring us closer to spirit by showing us that everything. People in the Middle Ages wore peridot to gain foresight and divine inspiration. Varieties: Chrysolite is a golden yellow variety of peridot. Shopping guide: Peridot is a beautiful stone that wears well and looks beautiful with a lot of your wardrobe. 23 . Description: [Mg. Peridot was greatly prized by Egyptian Kings. 22. Deposits: Charoite is found in only one location . Charoite transmutes negativity and cleanses the aura.along the Chary River at Aldan in Russia. Color: Peridot is a stone with a sparkling pale green color. still produces fine gems. The purple color of Charoite. The crystals of peridot have a vitreous lustre and conchoidal fracture. dignity. walk your spiritual path with awareness. and protection. Chrysolite (golden yellow peridot). It is also common in basalts on the moon. The name's origin: Chrysolite means "golden stone" in Greek. From the stone history: Peridot has been adored since ancient times and has been valued for centuries. yellowish green. and enables us to explore the nature of our fears. The information for mineralogist: Charoite has a hardness of from 5 . among its other roles. the layer below the crust. Peridot is readily available in most sizes and a variety of shapes.Fe] 2SiO4 Magnesium iron silicate Peridot. sinuses. Work with Charoite to foster a synthesis between the heart and crown chakra. Care and treatment: As with all gems. protect peridot from scratches and sharp blows. The color black in this stone grounds the purple ray. and wrists from illness and injury. Peridot increases strength & physical vitality.6 on the MOHS scale. Healing ability: This beautiful stone is worn or carried for general healing purposes. Why charoite has not been found in other locations is not fully understood.

kidney and liver. Shopping guide: Citrine is a beautiful translucent yellow gemstone. The information for mineralogist: Peridot has a hardness of 6. and these stones are among the finest ever seen. Mystical power: Citrine symbolizes light-heartedness. and New Mexico). Color: Pale yellow to a madeira orange in all of its glorious golden and yellow colors. . China. From the stone history: Citrine is a gemstone which has been used in Greece since the Hellenistic period (end of the 4th to the end of the 1st century BC).Nov. Burma. It aids digestion. Citrine is a semiprecious gem that is valued for its yellow to brownish color and its resemblance to the rarer topaz. Citrine is often marketed under various names that confuse it with topaz to inflate its price. coarse-grained variety of the silica mineral quartz . Peridot has been mined from St John's Island in the Red Sea for over 3500 years. It is a popular and affordable alternative to the much more expensive yellow sapphire or yellow diamond. joy and happiness. This very popular stone is believed to attract love. The name's origin: The name citrine is derived from the French word citron .7.the higher the grade. Description: SiO2 Citrine is transparent. Citrine is said to help one connect with Spirit. The deep green hue of the peridot also suggests a connection in wealth-attracting.5 . and it is believed to promote sleep when worn to bed. Wedding anniversary: Citrine is the anniversary gemstone for the 17th year of marriage. It stimulates the mental body and aids the opening of the bridge between higher mental body and intuitional levels. both of which are often heated to turn their natural color into that of citrine. It helps fighting diabetes. Very large crystals are found in the Mogok district of Myanmar and in the Minas Gerais in Brazil. In 1994. Care and treatment: Citrine can be easily scratched. It may be distinguished from topaz by its inferior hardness and from decolorized amethyst by its lack of reddish cast. hence citrine jewelry should be kept away from prolonged exposure to strong light or heat. the darker the color . especially for heart. Citrine is said to stimulate memory. Eygpt. It calms and soothes. Much of the today's Peridot comes from Arizona. 21 . Pakistan. Brazil. Natural citrine is rare compared to amethyst or smoky quartz . Healing ability: Citrine is valuable in the treatment of depression. an exciting new deposit of peridot was discovered in Pakistan. amethyst. The larger the stone. Citrine is the signature of wisdom and peace. Peridot calms a raging anger. The yellow color is from the presence of iron. and USA (Arizona. Citrine permenantly changes color if left in the sunlight for several hours. 24 . Citrine is a good healing stone. Norway. Citrine is a great protective talisman. Birthstone: Citrine along with topaz are birthstones of Scorpius (Scorpion): Oct. It is also useful to dispel negative emotions. Hawaii. Citrine is a signature of wisdom and peace. Colorado. Deposits: Peridot is found in Australia. and garnet. the more golden the tone. and removes toxins from the body. To create wondeful multi-colored jewelry.lemon. and motivates writers. it eliminates self-destructive tendencies. it is often combined with other stones such as: peridot. It enhances creativity.Mystical power: Peridot is used to help dreams become a reality.

Shopping guide: Corals are beautiful in rings. so it can be cut or . However. Wedding anniversary: Coral is the anniversary gemstone for the 35th year of marriage. Madagascar. probably conchiolin. It is difficult to accept that chemically this brilliant gemstone is the same as black opaque graphite and even ordinary soot. Coral protects children. depression and lethargy. purple. including amber. It excites nerve power. health and hope. porcelain. Colorado. Mystical power: Coral is said to cure madness and give wisdom. glass. It relates to the circulation of the blood and to the heart. A black horny coral growth.Deposits: Citrine is found in Brazil. in which pearls. Care and treatment: Coral is especially fragile. Coral helps restore harmony in the event of emotional conflict. brown. gems. Color: Coral comes in a variety of colors: in red. Coral is often imitated by plastic. a number of other organic materials. Mediterranean coasts. gray and black variations are also found depending on the impurities present. and Nevada) and Russia. Color: Diamonds are usually colorless. Coral is used to build an emotional foundation. Malaysia. of which the most sought after are rose red to red. orange. Black and golden coral is conchiolin. Brilliant. and pendants. Do not clean coral in a home ultrasonic cleaner. particularly off the coasts of Algeria and Tunisia. It aids in the safe crossing of rivers. necklaces. Scotland. Diamonds are beautiful symbols of love around the world. Stone's names: Diamond.a symbol of youth. has been obtained off the islands of Hawaii. blue. From the stone history: A variety of forms were used in the Indian jewelry for the earrings. which hardens on exposure to air. Brazil is the main source of citrine. blue. Coral . with a hardness of 10 on Mohs' scale. Deposits: Coral is found on the African coasts. Description: C Native carbon Diamond is a mineral composed of pure carbon. Coral is thought by the ancients to be a stone. passages through tempests. Natural coral has a distinctive wood grain texture which can help identify it as the real thing. Australia. Protect coral from scratches and sharp blows. and stained bone. Japan. and the West Indies. ivory. Georgia. brilliancy and gladness and is a true health-giver. filigree. yellow. rose. red. Description: Coral is the skeletal material of calcium carbonate. pearl. Uruguay. Diamond is the hardest natural substance. pink. pink. and white coral is mostly calcium carbonate. The best coral comes from the Mediterranean Sea. built up by small animals that live in colonies in the sea. green. North Carolina. and jet. It works against nutritional deficiencies. USA (California. white and black. Healing ability: Coral is used in difficulties of the lungs and digestion. and coral appeared in floral compositions based on the contrast between the different colors. In addition to coral. are considered gems. Coral is said to protect children and it is given as a gift to children in many countries. Spain. Note that coral loses its powers when broken. Coral is usually branchlike and occurs in a variety of colors. Red. Also avoid large temperature changes. Store corals in separate boxes.

It is believed the diamond loses its brilliance with the health of the wearer. Zaire. innocence and repentance. They can scratch other jewelry as well as each other. colorless sapphire. Diamonds are welcome gifts for all occasions. Low price means low quality. and sparkle of diamonds make them unsurpassed as gems. masonry saws for shaping building stone. Mystical power: Diamonds give faith. Colorado. It is beneficial in stomach area. rarity. Diamonds used for jewelry are graded on the basis of color from blue-white to yellow. synthetic moissianite. Diamonds are said to be of the first water when very transparent. In the West the limited use of diamonds began in the late Middle Ages. The diamond. Because of their extreme hardness. USA (Arkansas. brilliance. From the stone history: Diamonds from Indian deposits were known in ancient times. which varies from perfectly clear. The name's origin: Diamond derives its name from the Greek word adamas. Famous diamonds: . California.01 carat). They are used in drill bits. A diamond with proper proportions will send all light entering the diamond out of the top of the stone. and of the second or third water as transparency decreases. purity. They are beautiful symbols of love around the world. Birthstone: Diamond is the birthstone of Aries (Ram): March 21 . was thought to give its wearer strength in battle and to protect him against ghosts and magic. synthetic rutile. strontium titanate. Diamond stones are weighed in carats (1 carat = 200 milligrams) and in points (1 point = 0. Diamonds strengthen the owner's memory. and many others. Large demand provided an incentive for the production of false diamonds as early as 1675 in Paris. Scratching glass is useless test as many imitations made of quartz .C.289 degree C a diamond will completely burn up leaving nothing behind. Be aware of numerous imitations of diamonds: cubic zirconia. which means "invincible". and for cutting other diamonds. If you want a nice diamond be prepared to pay a nice price. Consult a professional. Grading also is done on the basis of purity. Deposits: Diamonds are mostly found in Australia. The hardness. life. They assist in developing concentration and in beeing straight-forward and honest. the better it supports these qualities. glass cutters. independent retail jeweler to insure you are getting the real thing. Diamond is an antidote to poison and is capable of detecting poison by exhibiting a moisture or perspiration on its surface.April 19. extremely pure stones to those with many impurities and flaws. It can be identified by its hardness and adamantine lustre. Diamonds are the most popular gemstone of all time. diamonds have a number of important industrial applications. Ghana. If you are making a large investment in a diamond make sure that you are getting a diamond grading report from a reputable gemological laboratory. Supposedly.The first river-bed diamonds were probably discovered around 800 B. This is considered an ideal cut and what you should be looking for. Russia. Wedding anniversary: Diamond is the anniversary gemstone for the 30th and 60th year of marriage. Care and treatment: Diamonds should be stored separately. Despite its extreme hardness diamond is brittle and at 4. joy. The rest are discolored or contain flaws. regaining it only when the owner recovers. colorless topaz. Only 20 per cent of diamonds are suitable for cutting as gems.polished only by another diamond. Healing ability: Diamond is a great assistance for all brain diseases. which also scratches glass. and North Carolina). durability and beauty. Shopping guide: Diamonds are special gifts due to their glamour. and Brazil. the higher quality the diamond.

probably in the Golconda mines in India. who had discovered the mine three years earlier. After long study the Excelsior diamond was cut (1904) by I. and some believe that either the Orlov diamond or the Koh-i-noor may have been cut from this stone after its loss following the assassination of its owner. or Cullinan I. are now part of the British regalia. sapphire-blue gemstone from India. Orange Free State. The French jewel trader Jean-Baptiste Tavernier described it in 1665 as a highcrowned rose-cut stone with a flaw at the bottom and a small speck within. S. named for the London banker Thomas Hope.J. the year of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee. Its present location is unknown.cut gem from India. which until the discovery of the Cullinan had been the largest known diamond. Orlov diamond. regent of France--hence its present name. It was discovered as a 787-carat rough stone in the Golconda mines in 1650 and subsequently was cut by the Venetian lapidary Hortentio Borgis. Washington. with facets covering its domed surface. 1591. The other is the most valuable stone in the imperial state crown. In 1792 it was stolen along with other crown jewels but was recovered. was recut into a 67-carat heart in 1673 and disappeared after the crown-jewel robbery of 1792. and Fath 'Ali Shah. indicating it was discovered before 1591. also called PITT DIAMOND. a brilliant-cut stone with a slight blue tinge that once was the outstanding gem of the French crown jewels. Named for Sir Thomas Cullinan. Asscher and Company of Amsterdam into 21 stones ranging in weight from less than 1 carat to more than 70 carats. According to legend. from which it takes its name.106 carats in rough form when found in 1905 at the Premier mine in Transvaal. Excelsior diamond. later called the French Blue. Regent diamond.C. one of the largest blue diamonds known. yellow-tinged stone of about 89 carats that bears three ancient Persian inscriptions. King Edward VII. on June 30. clear white diamond weighing almost 651 carats in rough form. Given to Tsar Nicholas I by Fath 'Ali Shah in 1829. 1826. Asscher and Company of Amsterdam. the colorless stone was purchased by the Transvaal government and was presented (1907) to the reigning British monarch. The two largest are the largest cut diamonds known. a 530.2-carat. It was faceted into a cushion brilliant of about 245 carats in 1897. who published a letter in the London Daily Post to counter rumours that he had stolen the gem. The Hope diamond is on display in the Smithsonian Institution. Hope diamond. The inscriptions are to Nezam Shah Borhan II. Napoleon I wore the stone in the pommel of his sword. it is shaped like half an egg. Shah Jahan.5-carat Hope diamond. the largest diamond ever found in India. It was cut into 9 large stones and about 100 smaller ones by I. the 317-carat Cullinan II. was apparently formed from it. 1641. 1893. It was purchased by Sir Thomas Pitt. one of the Romanov crown jewels. Great Mogul diamond. it was discovered in India in 1701 and weighed 410 carats in rough form. who purchased it in 1830. flawless. British governor in Madras. Excelsior diamond.Jubilee diamond. it was found in the Jaegersfontein mine in South Africa in 1895. When found by a worker loading a truck in the De Beers mine at Jagersfontein. all flawless. the blue-white stone weighed about 995 carats. It is thought to have been cut from a 112-carat stone brought to France by the jewel trader Jean-Baptiste Tavernier and purchased by Louis XIV in 1668 as part of the French crown jewels. Cullinan diamond. It weighs nearly 200 carats. The 45. in 1747. rose.Af. it was once used as the eye of an idol in a Brahman temple in Mysore and . The stones cut from the Cullinan diamond. world's largest gem diamond. Shah diamond. pear-shaped gem set in the English sceptre. It has been on display in the Louvre since 1887.J. son of Shah Jahangir. and the underside is nearly flat. Nader Shah. and the larger of these is the Great Star of Africa. the world's largest-known uncut diamond. The stone was cut to a 141-carat cushion brilliant called the Pitt diamond and was purchased in 1717 by the Duke of Orleans. until the discovery of the Cullinan diamond in 1905. which weighed about 3. sometimes called the Second Star of Africa. it is displayed in the Diamond Fund of Russia in Moscow. This stone. D.

duke of Burgundy. and it is now part of Russia's Diamond Fund (which contains the tsarist regalia) in Moscow. king of Persia. The stone loses color when strongly heated. Wedding anniversary: Emerald is the anniversary gemstone for the 20th. of Indian origin.was stolen by a French deserter. After the flight of James II from England to France in 1688. ranging from the traditional rectangular stepcut. Maria Theresa of Austria acquired it through her marriage (1736) to the Duke of Tuscany. It reappeared in 1828. clear. the stone came into the possession of Pope Julius II and the Medici family early in the 16th century. Later it became the property of Lady Nancy Astor. 35th and 55th year of marriage. who in an unsuccessful attempt to regain favour gave it to Empress Catherine II the Great. Emerald is the perfect emblem of an everlasting love. Florentine diamond. The physical properties of emerald are essentially the same as those of beryl. a name that seems to have been given to a number of stones having little in common except a green color. 129-carat white diamond with a rosy glow. pale-yellow stone weighing 137 carats. Description: Al2Be3[Si6O18] Emerald is grass-green variety of beryl that is highly valued as a gemstone. Others contend that the authenticated history of the Orlov extends to the middle of the 18th century. 3rd Army and returned to the Viennese by Gen. attempts were long made to manufacture it synthetically. Color: Emeralds occur in a variety of green colors. it was cut as a double rose with 126 facets. when it was purchased by the Russian prince Demidov. ovals. The name's origin: The name emerald comes indirectly from the Greek smaragdos. Emeralds and are cut in a variety of different shapes. it reappeared among the French crown jewels of Louis XIV and was stolen with these in 1792. Some emeralds have yellowish to bluish overtones. Star of the South. and it subsequently became part of the Austrian crown jewels. Purchased in Constantinople about 1570 by Nicolas Harlay de Sancy. fiery stone of Indian origin that is shaped like a peach pit and weighs 55 carats. Care and treatment: Clean your emerald with a soft. it was lent to the French kings Henry III and Henry IV. dry cloth. Catherine had it mounted in the Romanov imperial sceptre.May 20. the French ambassador to Turkey. Aquamarine crystals are placed in a water solution and used as a seed to produce emeralds. Nowdays synthetic emeralds are manufactured in the United States. Later it was purchased by Queen Elizabeth I of England and descended to the Stuarts. in whose family it remained until 1900. one of the largest ever found in Brazil. it weighed about 262 carats in rough form. Birthstone: Emerald is the birthstone of Taurus (Bull): April 20 . known as the "emerald cut. unblemished. In either case. Seized by the Germans when they took over Austria just before World War II. The crystals thus grown appear very similar to natural crystals and rival them in color and beauty. Because of emerald's high value. The magnificent green color that gives extraordinary value to this gem is due to small amounts of chromium and vanadium. when the stone (believed to be the long-missing Great Mogul diamond) belonged to Nader Shah. Varieties: Uralian emerald is in fact yellowish green or emerald-green andradite (variety of garnet). who was given her freedom and pensioned as a reward. Sancy diamond. Oil is used during the stone . Mark Clark. Once owned by Charles the Bold. squares and cabochons. It was discovered in 1853 in the Bagagem River (in Minas Gerais state) by a slave woman.S. These efforts finally met with success in the mid of thirties in Germany." to rounds. who lost it when he fell in battle in 1477. It has a long history and has passed through many royal families. it was recovered by the U. it was purchased in 1774 by Count Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov. who escaped with it to Madras. After his assassination it was stolen and sold to an Armenian millionaire named Shaffrass.

during the life of Pharaoh Sesostris III. If worn about the neck or finger.C. and in a pegmatite vein piercing slaty rocks near Emmaville. Mystical power: Many virtues are ascribed to emerald. The emerald gives faith. and when held in the mouth it is believed to be a cure for dysentery. and to preserve the chastity of the wearer. where they occur in mica or chlorite schist. Highly valued and desired. Deposits: Today. an emerald is regarded as an amulet for good fortune. The Garnet is a stone of vitality and passion. occasionally black. do not clean emerald in hot soapy water since it too can remove this oil. the builder of the Taj Mahal. true friendship. As a love token. it registers the degree of love. purple. the brilliant green color of emerald has never ceased to dazzle. Around the edge in Persian runs the inscription: "He who possesses this charm shall enjoy the special protection of G-d. in the Habachtal. Greek miners were working the mines in the time of Alexander the Great. It is said to drive away evil spirits. who found large emeralds in the possession of the Aztecs and Incas. Australia. and later the mines yielded their gems to Cleopatra. called Mogul emeralds. and discovery of false friends." Shopping guide: Emeralds have long been cherished for their brilliant green beauty. About 1830 emeralds were discovered in the Urals (Russia). emeralds strengthen the owner's memory. Emerald is said to bring wisdom. and felicity in domestic life. where it is said to have been worked as early as 2000 BC. northeast of Sverdlovsk. From the stone history: The ancients appear to have obtained emeralds from Upper Egypt.treatment. Remains of "Cleopatra's Mines" were discovered about 1817. in the United States. It promotes constancy of mind. Emeralds are also an antidote for poisons and poisonous wounds. A fine quality emerald of good color and clarity is more valuable than diamonds.S. loved emeralds so much they inscribed them with sacred text and wore them as talismans. colorless. emerald is extensively used for physical and emotional healing. emerald prevents convulsions in children. Emeralds help fighting all mental illness and neurological disorders. The . which has amazing healing powers for eyes. It aids with ailments of the spine. The Moguls of India. Brazil and Zambia. If pale. N. kindness and purity. green. Norway. and it is a good talisman for any eye trouble. Consult a professional. They have been worked on the River Takovaya. For centuries only those of great wealth could venture upon so priceless a gift. the stone is supposed to prevent epilepsy attack. Emerald has refreshing soft green color. Believed by the ancients to empower the owner with foresight into the future. South America's rich bounty of emeralds was discovered by 16th Century Spanish explorers.. as a consumer. therfore you should never clean an emerald with an ultrasonic cleaner because this oil could be removed or damaged. There are a lot of unknowns about emeralds that may confuse you. When worn. one talismanic emerald is deep green and weighs 78 carats. they are situated on the Red Sea coast. brown and many shades of red and green. the symbol of faith. Avoid sudden temperature changes as emeralds lose their color when strongly heated. independent retail jeweler to insure you are getting the real thing. Healing ability: Though not meant to replace traditional medical treatment. In addition. in granite in Eidsvold. Cleopatra was an avid emerald collector. success in love. including pink. According to legends.. quicken the intelligence and assist in predicting the future. yellow. red.W. Color: The versatile garnet comes in a virtual rainbow of colors. Fine crystals have been obtained from Hiddenite. including Shah Jahan. N. It is supposed to assist women at childbirth. It changes color in the presence of false friends or false witnesses. An emerald symbolizes rebirth and youth. also in mica schist. orange. love is waning. can still be seen in museums and collections today. Some of these sacred stones. Emeralds have been found. violet. For example. Austria. most of the world's emeralds are mined in Colombia.

Its energy is balancing and peaceful. relieves rheumatism and arthritis pain. sharp blows. or Cinnamon stone). 22 . Care and treatment: Clean garnet with a dry soft cloth. glass. It is beautiful in rings. Grossular (also called grossularite. Bohemian Garnet is deep red gemstone. andradite. Hessonite (also called essonite. colors. As with all gemstones. During the latter part of the 19th century. constancy and fidelity. Pyrope (also called Bohemian garnet. It also offers protection to the traveler. Spessartine. The dazzling beauty of garnets is responsible for their widespread use as gemstones. courage. Shopping guide: Garnet is a reasonably priced stone. From the stone history: One of the world's most ancient gems. one of several red gems. Canada and USA. The hardness of garnets and their sharp fracture make them suitable as abrasives for wood. California and Virginia. Garnets are actually one of the largest families of gemstones. A green tsavorite garnet is a very rare and highpriced stone. garnet bracelets and brooches were particularly popular. faith. grossular. grace. frequently consisting of a locality with the name of another mineral variety. garnet has been treasured for thousands of years. pendants. Birthstone: The garnet is considered to be the birthstone for Capricornus (Goat): Dec. . Brazil. sometimes opaque with a vitreous or resinous lustre. which the ancients used to call Carbuncles. In USA garnet has been obtained in Arizona. It stimulates bloodstream and pituitary gland. Florida. Topazolite. leather. or Gooseberry garnet). harsh chemicals and extreme temperatures. Colorado. Carbuncle. enhance the wearer's imagination. and plastics. New Hampshire. almandine. Pennsylvania. The best known type of garnet is red semi-precious stone pyrope. Use of garnets as gems is traced to the Nile Delta in 3100 B. metals. North Carolina. such as Uralian emerald or Cape ruby. There are some beautiful orange garnets. spessartine. Madagascar. Rhodolite. Garnet varieties have become known by misleading names. 19. The name's origin: Garnets were so called by the ancient Greeks since color reminded them of the pomegranate seed or granatum. Garnets since ancient times used widely as an abrasive. Garnet symbolizes fire. necklaces and bracelets. uvarovite. Georgia. Cures fever and promotes good health. Utah. Russian Demantoid and African Tsavorite are vibrant green. Andradite. This stone of passion stimulates the sexual drive. The majority of today's Garnet supplies come from Africa. Garnets are a group of common silicate minerals that have similar crystal structures and chemical compositions. Most familiar during the peak of popularity were varieties of pyrope. Garnets occur in a very wide variety of formations. India. Garnets are said to have been used by Asiatic tribes in place of bullets. Varieties: There are following major types of garnets: Almandine. Notable quantities of garnets have been also found in Czech Republic and Spain. compassion. The oranges and browns of Spessartite and Hessonite hail from Namibia and Sri Lanka. Uvarovite and Uralian emerald (or demantoid).C. Egytian artisans created beautifull garnet beads. Deposits: Garnets are found in a wide variety of locations including Kenya.Jan. Sri Lanka. or Cape ruby). bracelets and other jewelry. truth. Thailand.most common color of garnets is reddish brown. Description: Pyrope: Mg3Al2[SiO4]3. It can be translucent to transparent. and clarities. Healing ability: Garnet is an excellent assistance for blood deficiency diseases. Garnet also stimulates the spleen properly. Most natural garnets are mixtures of two or more of the following pure species: pyrope. New Mexico. care should be taken to protect it from scratches. Garnet gives energy and courage. Idaho. Mystical power: Garnet should be carried close to the body. Garnet protects against depression and impure thoughts. It is said to encourage robust good health and sexual desire. Garnet combats depression and lethargy.

5 . Iolite . often with a reniform surface (kidney ore) or a fibrous structure (pencil ore). Color: Hematites occur in opaque red or red-brown. blue. Cerro Bolivar (Venezuela).5 it will scratch glass.6. only as a result of contamination of the magma by aluminous sediment. Description: Mg2Al3O Magnesium Aluminum Silicate.5. and Quebec. Much hematite occurs in a soft. The information for mineralogist: Hardness: 5. Iolite has a pleasing color of blue. Red ochre is used as a pigment in paints and crayons. Hematite inspire inner life and helps to keep inward peace. rouge. that constitutes the most important iron ore because of its high iron content (70 percent) and its abundance. light blue.5-6. but a rather extraordinary optical property. The steel-gray crystals and coarse-grained varieties have a brilliant metallic lustre and are known as specular iron ore or looking glass ore. Shopping guide: As hematite hardness is 5. The name's origin: Hematite derives its name from the Greek word haem (blood ) in allusion to its red color. Haematite. Nowdays hematite may also be used as a polishing powder and as a paint pigment. fine-grained. Deposits: The most important deposits of hematite come from a sedimentary deposit: the Lake Superior district in North America. Thin scaly types are called micaceous hematite. Healing ability: Garnet helps fighting against venereal diseases. which is the color of the dried blood. Stone's names: Iolite.the Vikings' compass. The name's origin: The name Iolite is derived from the Greek "los". Description: Fe2O3 Iron oxide. Stone's names: Hematite. is used to polish plate glass. earthy form called red ochre or ruddle. Mystical power: Said to be a good healing and grounding stone. Iolite is a blue silicate mineral that occurs as crystals or grains in igneous rocks. From the stone history: Ancient Egyptians used hematites as ornamental objects placed inside their tombs. it has a positive influence on a bladder. but is in turn scratched by quartz. meaning violet. Hematite is a silvery.Hematite helps to keep inward peace. Intermediate between these types are compact varieties. Varieties: Many of the various forms of hematite have separate names. The gemstone changes colors depending upon which angle it is viewed from. shiny opaque stone that almost looks like metal. They are used as intaglios in men's signet rings. This stone also helps to treat hysteria. violet-blue. a purified form. Other important deposits include Minas Gerais (Brazil). It can be identified by this property and by its streak. Labrador. Color: Iolite is a transparent. Dichroite or Cordierite. rich blue-violet stone. Varieties: The stones from the gem gravels of Sri Lanka have been called water sapphires due to the . it strengthens the body and improve resistantance to life's stresses. Hematite is heavy and relatively hard oxide mineral. Red ochre was used by preistoric artists in their cave paintings.

due to it's ability to determine the direction of the sun on overcast days. while the third colorless variety is called Ceylon or Matura diamond. transparent red.5. Zircon provides the wearer with wisdom. Iolite is commonly cut into traditional shapes. Description: ZrSiO4 Zircon is a silicate mineral. and navigate safely. in detrital deposits. 21. and its most desirable color is a rich violet-blue. The natural mineral has little commercial use. Precambrian deposits of the Laramie Range. The first variety is called jacinth (also spelled hyacinth) and was used to a great extent in classical antiquity. It occurs in the clear. Iolite shows many colors in a single stone. The name's origin: The name Zircon is originated from Persian Zargun which means "gold color". . This pleasing violet gemstone is gaining widespread popularity for its beauty and its attractive affordability. As with all gems. Shopping guide: Be ware of colorless glass and synthetic spinel zircon imitations. orange. Shopping guide: Iolite necklaces and pendants wear better than iolite rings. honor and riches. they could determine the exact position of the sun. From the stone history: Iolite. brown and green. India. Iolite is sometimes called dichroite because of its marked pleochroism: different colored light is transmitted in different directions. Color: Zircon is known as a colorless stone used to imitate diamonds. color. it also occurs in metamorphic rocks and. When the legendary Viking mariners sailed the wide ocean. Avoid hot water. orange. zirconium silicate. Care and treatment: Zircon will chip and crack rather easily though it has a hardness rating of 7. Synthetic magnesium iolite has a low thermal expansion and is used as a semirefractory material because of its resistance to thermal shock. Deposits: Most of the Iolite available today comes from Sri Lanka. When clear. The blue variety is called starlite or Siam Zircon. Birthstone: Zircon along with turquoise are birthstones of Sagittarius (Archer): Nov. protect zircon from scratches and sharp blows. Burma. sudden temperature changes and household chemicals. It is known for its high dispersion and for many years was used to imitate diamonds. Zircon is widespread as an accessory mineral in acid igneous rocks. Looking through an iolite lens. The price of iolites about the same as of nice amethysts in a good color. From the stone history: Zircon has been around in jewelry for hundreds of years. It is very important to look at an iolite from several directions before you purchase. Stone's names: The orange variety of zircon is called jacinth. If cut properly the stone shows its best blue color through the top of the stone. The high refractive index and dispersion of zircon cause it to approach diamond in fire and brilliancy.(Wyoming. iolite is cut as a gem. known as the Vikings' compass.000 tons of Iolite. 22-Dec. fairly often. and yellow colors. Madagascar and Brazil. they used thin pieces of iolite as the world's first polarizing filter. Store a jewelry made of zircon in separate boxes. The information for mineralogist: Hardness: 7. because the stone presents very different colors from different angles. red. but also comes in: blue. contain more than 500. But viewed from another angle the stone may appear colorless. USA). Varieties: Zircon is quite widely used in its three varieties.

Nigeria and Tanzania. Jasper. Brazil. It owes its color to admixed hematite. and Florida. Color: Jasper exhibits various colors. developed in Florence in the late 16th century. Deposits: It occurs in beach sands in many parts of the world. Myanmar. North Africa. Mystical power: Leopard skin Jasper is said to bring one what they need. Jasper was thought to drive away evil spirits and protect against snake and spider bites. Venezula and Germany. Description: SiO2 Jasper is opaque. jaspers. called a touchstone. India. but chiefly brick red to brownish red. particularly Australia. For thousands of years. France. but when it occurs with clay admixed. Commesso pictures. a brown or yellow. Visit our online store that offer a large collection of pictures decorated with natural precious and semiprecious stones. porphyries. Jasper brings joy into life. Shopping guide: Jasper is a very pretty. . concretions. Mystical power: Zircon supposedly helps one be more at peace with oneself. Zircon also prevents nightmares and ensures a deep tranquil sleep. range from emblematic and floral subjects to landscapes. Poppy Jasper is said to help bring joy into life. Jasper was known as the great "rain-bringer" in the fourth century. occurring chiefly as veinlets. that used in commesso. Its hardness and other physical properties are those of quartz. The name's origin: The name jasper is from the Greek iaspis.Healing ability: Zircon relieves pain. and lapis lazuli. It is said to whet one's appetite. as in the Urals. has a dull lustre but takes a fine polish. Commesso is a technique of fashioning pictures with thin. but also was applied to the opaque jasper. Care and treatment: The polish on jasper will often be washed away in water. or with goethite. honor and riches. The stones most commonly used are agates. and New Zealand. inexpensive gemstone. Zircon is also found in Cambodia. and replacements in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Opalite Jasper is said to help one sleep. but also in Burma. From the stone history: In ancient writings the term jasper was chiefly applied to translucent and brightly colored stones. Deposits: Jasper is common and widely distributed. Australia. quartzes. Often jasper is multi-colored. Jacinth helps rising one's self-esteem. black jasper was used to test gold-silver alloys for their gold content. fine-grained or dense variety of the silica mineral chert. the color is a yellowish white or gray. Zircon forms an important part of the syenite of southern Norway and occurs in large crystals in Quebec. France. Jasper was also believed to cure gynecological problems. Jasper is one of the gemstones. Zircon is believed to provide the wearer with wisdom. The lost of luster on a Zircon stone is said to warn of danger. produces a streak the color of which determines the gold content within one part in one hundred. semiprecious stones. It is usually worn as beads or cabochon jewelry. Gem varieties occur in stream gravels and detrital deposits. also called florentine mosaic. granites. cut-to-shape pieces of brightly colored. India. Rubbing the alloys on the stone. particularly chalcedony. used mainly for tabletops and small wall panels. Thailand. long used for jewelry and ornamentation. Clean your jasper jewelry with a soft dry cloth. including a belief that wearing it strengthened the stomach. particularly in Indochina and Sri Lanka. petrified woods. chalcedonies. Healing ability: Medicinal values were long attributed to jasper. Sicily.

porphyries. and calm. small amounts of white calcite and of pyrite crystals are usually present. It is most often seen as a necklace of beads or carved pendants. Commesso is a technique of fashioning pictures with thin. lacquers. used mainly for tabletops and small wall panels. Because lapis is a rock of varying composition. The source of the pigment ultramarine. lecturers and speakers. Commesso pictures. The stones most commonly used are agates. buried with the dead to protect and guide them in the afterlife. Lapis is said to be a cure for melancholy and for certain types of fever.Some varieties are color-banded. quartzes. granites. virility. Shopping guide: Lapis lazuli has been widely used as a semiprecious stone throughout history. Persian legend says that the heavens owed their blue color to a massive slab of Lapis upon which the earth rested. hence clean your lapis lazuli jewelry with a soft dry cloth. From the stone history: Lapis Lazuli with deep azure blue color. Lapis lazuli eliminates negative emotions. Water can dissolve the stone's protective coatings. that used in commesso. Wedding anniversary: Lapis Lazuli is the anniversary gemstone for the 7th and 9th year of marriage. often flecked with golden pyrite inclusions. Lapis lazuli is not a mineral but a rock colored by lazurite. and decorating materials. chalcedonies. was treasured by ancient Babylonian and Egyptian civilizations and often worn by royalty. Ultramarine is used in paints.the online store that offer a large collection of pictures decorated with natural precious and semiprecious stones. Stone's names: Lapis Lazuli. Utah and Wyoming. also called florentine mosaic. cut-to-shape pieces of brightly colored. and lapis lazuli. The name's origin: The name lapis comes from word pencil in Spanish. crystallized quartz and never the goldlike flecks of pyrite. developed in Florence in the late 16th century. Lapis lazili is one of the gemstones. Fine natural Lapis Lazuli can be rather . Lazurite. Jewelry with the high quality stones with no calcite or pyrite veins can be quite expensive.S. In USA Jasper is also found in California. petrified woods. Lapis lazuli was widely used by Egyptians for cosmetics and painting . It is believed to be useful in relieving depression and promoting spirituality. Healing ability: The stone is said to increase psychic abilities. Lapis Lazuli is also powerful during meditation. semiprecious stones. U. The finest Lapis Lazuli is even blue color with little or no veining from other elements. range from emblematic and floral subjects to landscapes. Mystical power: Traditionally believed to increase mental clarity. Much of the jewelry that is sold as Lapis is an artificially colored jasper from Germany that shows colorless specks of clear. It relieves sore throat pain. Care and treatment: Lapis Lazuli can easily be scratched or chipped. and beautiful examples of jasperized fossil wood are found in Arizona. . Enhances creative self-expression. Visit all-that-gifts. It has a particularly brilliant blue color and is very lightfast. Lapis Lazuli is a gemstone compared to stars in the sky. its physical properties are variable. jaspers. For centuries Lapis Lazuli has been prized for jewelry. Color: Lapis Lazuli occurs in various shades of blue with some qualities being speckled with white calcite and some with yellow pyrite. In addition to the sodalite minerals in lapis lazuli. Description: Lapis lazuli is a semiprecious stone valued for its deep blue color. Lapis Lazuli was believed to be a sacred stone. Lapis Lazuli is energy focuser for teachers. But it has also been used to make the beautiful blue paint ultramarine and has been used as a source of writing instruments.

Washing malachite in water will remove its protective polish.a talisman for children. Malachite is a semi-precious stone and also a valuable copper ore. Namely it led to the search for other metallic ores. the colors in the bands range from a very light green to almost deep green. Mystical power: A gorgeous stone. Notable occurrences are in Ural. This beautiful green stone offers bands of varying hues and is believed by many to lend extra energy. Protect malachite from scratches and sharp blows. From the stone history: Mining Malachite began as early as 4000 BC by ancient Egyptians. Shopping guide: Malachite is a beautiful green earth stone with irregular black banding. If setting or repairing in jewelry be careful of heat since a jeweler's torch can damage the stone. Description: Cu2CO3(OH)2 . the US. to the development of metallurgy.soft. Moonstone . hydrous copper carbonate. Malachite is said to bring harmony into one's life. northeastern Afghanistan. Malachite is used as a children's talisman to ward off danger and illness. In the New Stone Age came the discovery of the possibility of extracting certain metals from the ores in which they generally occur. It is beautiful in earrings. green streak. It is impossible to be precise about the time and place of this discovery. malachite serves as a prospecting guide for that metal. In the Middle ages. It is easily recognized by its color. Care and treatment: Malachite is especially fragile. and near Ovalle. then already in use as a cosmetic and easily reduced to copper in a strong fire. and South America. Siberia. Probably the first such material to be used was malachite. Malachite -. The name's origin: Malachite derives its name from Greek word malakos . Malachite has been used as an ornamental stone and as a gemstone. creates calm and peace. In Ancient Greece amulets for children were made of malachite. Canada. banded stone. and silky or velvety lustre. The most important sources are the mines in Badakhshan. Because of its distinctive bright green color and its presence in the weathered zone of nearly all copper deposits.brings love into ones life. France. South Australia. Healing ability: Malachite is said to aid in the regeneration of body cells. Chile. According to another theory the word malachite comes from Greek malhe. It is attached to infant's cradles. Namibia and USA (Arizona). where gemstone is usually pale rather than deep blue. and aids one's sleep. but its consequences were tremendous. Deposits: The most important mine is in Zaire. Chile. Also avoid large temperature changes. Do not clean malachite in a home ultrasonic cleaner.Deposits: The main supplies of Lapis Lazuli are found in the Afghanistan. which means grass. and pendants. . malachite was worn to protect from black magic and sorcery. It is also believed that malachite gives knowledge and patience. It is responsible for the green color of tarnished copper and bronze. Egypt. Imitation malachite has very regular black or white banding. It is believed that gazing at Malachite or holding it relaxes the nervous system and calms stormy emotions. Malachite is worn by many to detect impending danger. Wedding anniversary: Malachite is the anniversary gemstone for the 13th year of marriage. necklaces. Color: Malachite is an opaque.

European Alps. . In India moonstone is considered a sacred stone to this day. Obsidian gives a clear insight into problems. Tanzania. red. orange. Obsidian is made of the same minerals as granite but cooled so quickly that they do not have time to crystallize. Store moonstones carefully and never allow two specimens to touch each other. Clarity ranges from transparent to translucent. From the stone history: Moonstone was very popular with the Romans. gray. perfect clarity. India. green. orange. Description: (K. brown. the most valuable variety of feldspar with an rainbow sheen. yellow. the presence of hematite produces red and brown varieties. It is good digestive aid. Healing ability: Moonstone aligns vertebrae. Varieties: Black patterned obsidian with greyish-white inclusions which resemble snowflakes is often called snowflake obsidian. Moonstone also soothes and balances the emotions. Wedding anniversary: Moonstone is the 13th anniversary stone. gray. Care and treatment: Moonstone can be easily scratched as it has a hardness of 6. The best moonstone has a blue sheen. Mystical power: Moonstone is believed to be protective for women and babies. who thought it was formed out of moonlight. Other colors include: brown. Na) AlSi3O8. The name's origin: Discovered by Obsius in Ethiopia. or pink. Obsidian in attractive and variegated colors is used as a semiprecious stone. moonstone is regarded as a sacred stone. It is believed to bring good fortune.Color: Moonstones come in a variety of colors. and the inclusion of tiny gas bubbles may create a golden sheen. The name's origin: The moonstone named for its semblance in color to the moon. yellow. Though obsidian is typically jetblack in color. blue and green. Deposits: Moonstone is found in Brazil. Moonstone is said to balance yin and yang. Sri Lanka. Description: Obsidian is a natural glass of volcanic origin that is formed by the rapid cooling of viscous lava. Obsidian has a glassy lustre and is slightly harder than window glass. and USA (Pennsylvania and Virginia). obsidian is named after him. Moonstone (also called rainbow moonstone) is soft milky white stone. Sri Lanka produces the highest quality moonstones. which also exhibit iridescence. Madagascar. clear. Obsidian is extremely rich in silica (about 35 to 80 percent) and is low in water. Legend says that Moonstone is a highly prized gift for lovers as it arouses tender passion. It is often worn in rings. also used in Roman jewelry since 100 AD. Birthstone: Moonstone along with alexandrite and pearls are birthstones of Gemini (Twins): May 21 June 21. ranging from colorless to white. It's also associated with the sea and planting cycles. Mexico. that is caused by the intergrowth of two different types of feldspar with different efractive indexes. The term moonstone also has been applied to the plagioclase feldspars peristerite and labradorite. Myanmar. In India. Moonstone shows a silvery or bluish iridescence. pendants or bead necklaces. and a colorless body color. Shopping guide: Stone has a rainbow-like array of colors and will pick up colors you wear. Color: Obsidian is usually black.

who obtained large quantities of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff in Yellowstone National park. The Aztecs used a great deal of obsidian for tools. white and brownish-red bands. southeast of Mexico City. U. Avoid sharp blows as it will crack. sardonix or agate. In 1967 archaeologists working at the site of Tlapacoya. The name's origin: The word Sardonyx is derived from the Greek. Obsidian is used for dating. red.. too. The stones vary in color. with white and red bands. brown or red alternating bands.Aug 22. the Eolie Islands off the coast of Italy. ranging to many colorful varieties. Stone's names: Onyx. Roman soldiers wore sardonyx talismans engraved with heroes such as Hercules or Mars. Japan and Java. uncovered a well-made blade of obsidian associated with a radiocarbon date of about 21. Sardonyx stones usually contain flat-banded. Mystical power: Obsidian is often used for gaining clear insight into problems.S. Black Onyx is the anniversary gemstone for the 10th year of marriage. Obsidian has also been used for jewelry for centuries. Sharp shards of obsidian were formed into arrowheads by Indians. Dark pieces found in Arizona and New Mexico are called Apache Tears.a symbol of eloquence. and what is now known as onyx marble. where different colors occur in layers.000 BC." Varieties: Varieties of onyx include carnelian onyx. god of war. Care and treatment: Onyx may chip or scratch rather easily. Obsidian is also found in Hawaii. Obsidian stabilizes and is a chastiser. Onyx ." and onyx meaning "veined gem. From the stone history: The name onyx was used by the Romans for a variety of stones including alabaster. They may be white or gray. semiprecious variety of the silica mineral agate with white and black. Sardonyx (with white and brown bands). and the thickness of the weathered layer is measured microscopically and gauged against known standards to give a date in years. Description: SiO2 Onyx is striped. the eyes of carving of their gods. Its properties are the same as those of quartz. They believed that the stone would make the wearer as brave and daring as the figured carved on it. . so store onyx carefully and never allow two specimens to touch each other. and Obsidian Cliff in Yellowstone National Park. From the stone history: Obsidian has been used for thousands of years for toolmaking. including sacrificial knives. are all well-known occurrences. Color: The layers in these stones range from translucent to opaque for sardonyx. Wedding anniversary: Onyx is the anniversary gemstone for the 7th year of marriage. Birthstone: Sardonyx is the birthstone of Leo (Lion): July 23 . such as onyx. black. Deposits: The obsidians of Mount Hekla in Iceland. The information for mineralogist: Obsidian has a hardness rating of 5. sardonyx was believed to bring eloquence upon the wearer and was regarded with great value by public speakers and orators. During the Renaissance. Wyoming. chalcedony. and even mirrors. Sard meaning "reddish brown. Obsidian weathers slowly at a uniform rate. Cameos are cut from stones. with white and brown bands. Onyx is a gemstone with alternating light and dark bands.Care and treatment: Obsidian is fairly fragile. white and grey. and sardonyx. which are colored in brown.

. Onyx is said to bring spiritual inspiration. The milkiness of many white and gray opals is attributable to an abundance of tiny gas-filled cavities in them. SiO2 + nH2O. Varieties: Black opal. or sapphire. capillary. or red body color. And always remember. Deposits: The chief localities of onyx are India and South America. Precious opals are translucent to transparent and are distinguished by a combination of milky to pearly opalescence and an attractive play of many colors. This gemstone helps to eliminate apathy. Opal is extensively used as a gemstone. From the stone history: The most striking quality of opal is its ability to refract and reflect specific wavelengths of light. meaning seeing jewel. Healing ability: Onix is used as a heart.The background material is cut away. insulation media. Disseminated impurities generally impart to opal various dull body colors that range from the yellows and reds derived from iron oxides to black from manganese oxides and organic carbon. is particularly rare and highly prized. and makes it one of the most sought-after gemstones in the world at all times. White and Fire opals are much more common. loss of water causes loss of iridescence. These colors flash and change as a stone is viewed from different directions are caused by interference of light along minute cracks and other internal inhomogeneities. happiness and truth. opals can be fairly brittle because they contain water. eye and nail strengthener. Onyx is also used in intaglios because its layers can be cut to show a color contrast between the design and the background. Birthstone: Opal along with tourmaline are birthstones of Libra (Balance): Sept. and ceramic ingredients. In addition to cracking. stress and neurological disorders. The interplay of different wavelengths of light gives opal its unique visual appeal. A solidified jelly so it has no crystal structure and contains up to 13% water. Sardonyx at one time was more precious than gold. Black Onyx is used to help one change habits. Fire opal is characterized by yellow. White opal has light body colors. Mystical power: This gemstone eliminates negative thinking. orange. Sardonyx is always widely used in cameos and intaglios. nerve. but such material is rarely found. Precious opal reflects light with a play of brilliant colors across the visible spectrum. red being the most valued. Care and treatment: Opals develop crazing if they are exposured to sun and allowed to dry out. Treated agate is often sold as Black Onyx. Various forms of common opal are widely mined for use as abrasives.Oct. 23 . According to another theory the word opal comes from upala. a Sanskrit word simply meaning a stone. therefore they need to be oiled regulary to keep the water inside. Shopping guide: Onyx is a rich-looking. Description: Amorthous silica. Onyx is said to help one sleep. affordable gemstone. with a very dark gray or blue to black body color. 23. kidney. fillers. Opal is given as a symbol of hope. hair. Wedding anniversary: Opal is the anniversary gemstone for the 14th and 18th years of marriage. Opal also must be protected from detergents that dry the gem. The name's origin: The name opal is derived from the Latin word opalus. leaving the cameo design in relief. It is often mixed with pearls to create elegant jewelry. Color: Opal is fundamentally colorless. It is a great assistance in holding emotions and passions under control. silver. it is also believed to sharpen the wits of the wearer.

Fire Opal: Red corpuscle & blood disorders. lethargy. spleen & pancreas. to the very expensive black opals." Opals are also set in the crown jewels of France. ward off bad dreams. the cells attach to the particle and build up more or less concentric layers of pearl around it. Deposits of White opal in Japan. Australia. Pearls that grow adjacent to the shell are often flat on one side and are called blister pearls. or mother-of-pearl) as the mollusk's shell. It was described "as though pure white snow flashed and sparked with the color of bright ruddy wine. Black Opal: Reproductive organs. Pearls are characterized by their translucence and lustre and by a delicate play of surface color called orient. Fire opal in Mexico and Honduras. yellow. especially of sexual origin. Light-colored stones are often dyed to resemble rarer. A beautiful opal called the orphanus was set in the crown of the Holy Roman Emperor. As always consult the proffesional before gems shopping. More than 90% of the world's quality gem opals come from Southern Australia. Cultured pearls are being produced in virtually every color of the rainbow. The more perfect its shape (spherical or droplike) and the deeper its lustre. When a foreign particle penetrates the mantle. and happiness. Irregularly shaped pearls called baroque pearls are those that have grown in muscular tissue. Opals range from very inexpensive stones which are the almost pure white milk opals. lavender. It has reputed healing properties. depression. earl symbolizes love. Mystical power: Black opal is regarded as an extremely lucky stone. many finished stones are protected by water or films of oil until they are sold. bone marrow. Mexico. filters red corpuscles & aids white corpuscles. although it can be found in other parts of the world such as Brazil. There are several opal imitations and even some synthetic opals on the market. Color: The color of pearls varies with the mollusk and its environment. Because opal may crack or lose its color if it dries. Most opal is more than 60 million years old and generally dates back to the Cretaceous period when dinosaurs roamed the earth. but most other precious opals are finished en cabochon because their optical properties are best displayed on smoothly rounded surfaces. Most of the precious opal marketed in ancient times was obtained from occurrences in what is now Slovakia. Opals have been ground up and used a magic potions to heal the body. In ancient times opal was accepted as a symbol of faithfulness and confidence. especially to increase mental capacities such as creative imagination.Precious opal has been a gemstone since Roman times. The shell-secreting cells of the mollusk are located in the mantleof its body. Description: The chief component of the nacre that constitutes the pearl is aragonite CaCO. It is a highly valued gemstone. and used an energy enhancement tools. blue. stimulates white corpuscles. White Opal: Balances left and right brain hemispheres for neuro disorders. and was overcome by this radiance. Pearls are formed by a mollusk consisting of the same material (called nacre. The cost of Black Opal may reach US$ 20. New South Wales. Opal was included among the noble gems and was ranked second only to emerald by the Romans. Examine the opal very carefully before you buy it to avoid the purchase of the crazed stone. depression. Shopping guide: Fire opals usually are facet cut. All occur in delicate shades.000 per 2 gr. green. success. Other colors are cream. Black opals worn near the heart on necklaces made of gold are said to protect one from the evil eye and protect travelers on journeys to far away lands. with the rose of Indian pearls esteemed most. and mauve. apathy. All superb black stones have been obtained from the Lightning Ridge field. It ranges from black to white. gray. more deeply colored varieties. the greater its . Healing ability: Opal has been described in medival times as a cure for diseases of the eye. Czechoslovakia and USA (Nevada and Idaho). Deposits: Most opal is found where geothermal hot springs dried up during seasonal periods of rainfall and extended dry periods.

Fake pearls is usually either too heavy (inside is filled with glass)or too light (inside is plastic). Dry your pearls flat on an absorbant soft (preferably lint-free) towel. In the Americas. If you wear cosmetics. the pearl symbolizes love. the Gulf of Mexico. color and type. and the islands of the South Pacific. Only those pearls produced by mollusks whose shells are lined with mother-of-pearl (e.June 21. Hence stay with your independent professional retail jeweler. When taking off your pearls. aid stomach. spleen. Pearl is the anniversary gemstone for the 12th and 30th year of marriage. The research that led to the establishment of the industry was started in the 1890s by Mikimoto Kokichi. They are sensitive to acids.value. The most reliable method of testing if a pearl is natural or cultured is a combination of the X-radiography and X-ray fluorescence testing procedures. From the stone history: The discovery that pearls could be cultivated in freshwater mussels is said to have been made in 13th-century China. They help one master the heart chakra. success. Healing ability: Perls eliminate emotional imbalances. lint-free cloth. in particular. dryness. Deposits: The finest Oriental pearls are found in the Persian Gulf. size. The price of pearls vary widely as a result of luster. Fresh water pearls tend to be relatively inexpensive. As an emblem of modesty. Other notable sources of finequality pearls include the Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka. The surface of a pearl is rough to the touch.g. It is a classic piece of jewelry. intestinal tract & ulcer problems. Varieties: Jewelers commonly refer to saltwater pearls as Oriental pearls and to those produced by freshwater mollusks as freshwater pearls. as for example those from the Mississippi River. how they were grown. If needed. one such pearl is known to have weighed 1. Cultured pearl is natural but cultivated pearl produced by a mollusk after the intentional introduction of a foreign object inside the creature's shell. Mystical power: Pearl is said to help one see themselves and help improve self-worth. the waters off Celebes. porcellaneous. Those weighing less than 1/4 grain (1 pearl grain = 50 milligrams = 1/4 carat) are called seed pearls. after long experimentation. and the Chinese have been adept for hundreds of years at cultivating pearls by opening the mussel's shell and inserting into it small pellets of mud or tiny bosses of wood. Freshwater mussels in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere have produced pearls of great value. . Indonesia. Shopping guide: Everyone seems to love the beauty of a strand of pearls. who. the Gulf of California. followed by cultured pearls.. Cultured pearls of China have been almost exclusively blister pearls. Natural pearls are the most expensive. Wedding anniversary: Freshwater Pearl is the anniversary gemstone for the 1st year of marriage. and the forest streams of Bavaria. or lacking in pearly lustre. or metal and returning the mussel to its bed for about three years to await the maturation of a pearl formation. The largest naturally occurring pearls are the baroque pearls. That means that you as a customer has no way to distinguish among two types of pearls. Pearl often symbolizes a happy marriage and in many countries are used as a wedding gift. are the source of choice pearls. Cultured pearls closely approximate natural pearls. perfume or a hair spray. and happiness. Pearls from other mollusks are reddish or whitish. chastity and purity. Pearling is a carefully fostered industry in central Europe. Birthstone: Pearl and cultured pearl along with alexandrite and moonstone are birthstones of Gemini (Twins): May 21 . clean your pearls with warm soapy water being very careful to not get water into the drill hole as the pearl may discolor. wipe them with a dry. Pearls come in a wide range of sizes. concluded that a very small mother-of-pearl bead introduced into the mollusk's tissue was the most successful stimulant to pearl production. certain species of both saltwater oysters and freshwater clams) are really fine pearls. put these on before wearing your pearl jewelry. Care and treatment: Pearls are less durable than most gems. bone. and humidity.860 grains. The production of whole cultured pearls was perfected by the Japanese. and the waters of the Pacific coast of Mexico have yielded dark-hued pearls with a metallic sheen as well as white pearls of good quality.

Brazil. Eygpt. Mystical power: Peridot is used to help dreams become a reality. Cultured pearls: Northern Australia established its first cultured pearl farms in the 1960s. It helps liver & adrenal function. In 1994. Chrysolite (golden yellow peridot). though Fiji also produces some. Color: Peridot is a stone with a sparkling pale green color. and protection. Gem-quality olivine is a mineral that composes a lot of the earth's mantel. People in the Middle Ages wore peridot to gain foresight and divine inspiration. and wrists from illness and injury. sinuses.Aug. Also avoid drastic temperature changes. China. dignity.Freshwater pearling in China has been known from before 1000 BC. 23 . eridot is a symbol of fame. Healing ability: This beautiful stone is worn or carried for general healing purposes. Peridot has been mined from St John's Island in the Red Sea for over 3500 years. Colorado. still produces fine gems. Peridot should be priced about the same as a garnet or tourmaline. This very popular stone is believed to attract love. . an exciting new deposit of peridot was discovered in Pakistan. Norway. Care and treatment: As with all gems. also called precious olivine. Deposits: Peridot is found in Australia. Shopping guide: Peridot is a beautiful stone that wears well and looks beautiful with a lot of your wardrobe. and USA (Arizona. Peridot calms a raging anger. Be aware of a very good imitation of peridot that is actually a type of synthetic peridot. and it is believed to promote sleep when worn to bed. Peridot protects against nervousness and aids in healing hurt feelings. that was mentioned by Pliny in his Natural History (AD 70). From the stone history: Peridot has been adored since ancient times and has been valued for centuries. The crystals of peridot have a vitreous lustre and conchoidal fracture. Varieties: Chrysolite is a golden yellow variety of peridot. The deep green hue of the peridot also suggests a connection in wealth-attracting. Much of the today's Peridot comes from Arizona. Legend has it that pirates favored peridot to protect them against evil. It is also common in basalts on the moon. Hawaii. the layer below the crust. Birthstone: Peridot along with sardonyx are birthstones of Leo (Lion): July. It is also useful to dispel negative emotions. Japan and Australia are the largest producers of cultured pearls. and New Mexico). olive green or medium dark green hues. is a gem-quality transparent green olivine. that by the mid-1970s were an established industry.Fe] 2SiO4 Magnesium iron silicate Peridot. producing pearl shell as well as pearls. Stone's names: Peridot. Some of Cleopatra's emeralds were in fact peridots. Peridot increases strength & physical vitality. yellowish green. Pakistan. Burma. The deposit on Saint Johns Island in the Red Sea. protect peridot from scratches and sharp blows. 22. It occurs in lime. and these stones are among the finest ever seen. The name's origin: Chrysolite means "golden stone" in Greek. Do not clean peridot in a home ultrasonic cleaner. Peridot is also thought to protect lungs. Peridot is readily available in most sizes and a variety of shapes. Very large crystals are found in the Mogok district of Myanmar and in the Minas Gerais in Brazil. Wedding anniversary: Peridot is the anniversary gemstone for the 16th year of marriage. Description: [Mg. Peridot was greatly prized by Egyptian Kings.

in pegmatite dikes. Description: Tiger eye is quartz that contains oriented fibres of crocidolite that have been replaced by silica. Tiger eye .5 . Color: Tiger eye has a rich yellow and golden brown stripes. but it also occurs in a broad range of colors: yellow. gold. pink. strengthens convictions and confidence. Some natural yellow stones are heated to become permanently pink (pinked topaz). It therefore retains the gray-blue or green of the asbestos. Shopping guide: Tiger Eye is widely used in pendant and beads where it's lovely tiger-like peculiarity displays out best. and in hightemperature veins with cassiterite and tourmaline. Tiger eye wear is very helpful in the presence of following diseases: bronchial asthmakidney. It is said that Tiger Eye offers protection during travel. Stone's names: Tiger eye. Deposits: The most important mine for Tiger Eye is in South Africa. The name's origin: Tiger eye with its bands resembles an eye of tiger. Healing ability: Tiger eye relieves high blood pressure. Wedding anniversary: Tiger Eye is the anniversary gemstone for the 9th year of marriage. Tiger eye is also called crocidolite cat's-eye or African cat's-eye. green. Care and treatment: As with all gems. meaning fire. rheumatic heart disease. Tiger Eye was thought to be all seeing due to its appearance. where . under suitable conditions. Mystical power: Tiger Eye is used for focusing the mind. Color: Pure topaz is colorless. grow into enormous crystals. Topaz typically occurs in cavities in rhyolites and granite. Description: Topaz is an aluminum fluorite silicate containing fluorine and has a chemical formula of Al2F2SiO4. Topaz is a stone of strength. Varieties: Hawk's-eye is similar to tiger eye. also spelled tiger's-eye and tigereye. Tiger eye is displaying chatoyancy (a vertical luminescent band like that of a cat's eye) . in the Red Sea. From the stone history: Roman soldiers wore tiger's-eye for protection in battle. brown and pink variety of topaz are valued as a gemstone. This very warm stone is beneficial for the weak and sick. Also avoid large temperature changes. with a fine golden lustre when polished. red. blue. The stone is transparent with a vitreous luster.7. peach. except that the crocidolite was replaced by quartz before altering to iron oxide. It is one of the few gem minerals which. and brown. According to another theory topaz derives its name from the Island of Topazos. energy. The pure crystals of topaz used a great deal in jewelry.offers courage. so it is received its name due to this similarity. The name's origin: The name topaz is derived from the Indian Sanskrit word tapas. otitis and psoriasis. The best stones come from Griqualand West. protect tiger eye from scratches and sharp blows. Tiger eye typically has lustrous alternating yellow or brown bands. and luck. A light yellow.The information for mineralogist: Peridot has a hardness of 6.

Mystical power: Topaz balances emotions and calms passions. and pendants. Scotland. keep your gems in separate boxes to protect other jewelry from scratches. In the United States the best topaz has been worked near Pikes Peak. and this treatment has since been extensively applied. Australia. Africa and China. Deposits: Important sources of topaz are in Russia. Colorado. Such "burnt topaz" is often known as Brazilian ruby. Red and intense pink are the most rare and most desirable colors for topaz. as is the very rare. It also increases poor appetite and helps fighting blood disorders. Myanmar. Pakistan. yields pale yellow crystals. Siberia. Also avoid large temperature changes. so that nearly all the pink topaz occurring in jewelry has been heat-treated. Do not clean topaz in a home ultrasonic cleaner. pink from manganese. sizes and shapes. princes and magnates. Green is from iron. The best way to clean topaz is warm soapy water. 24 . natural red topaz. The famous topaz rock of the Schneckenstein. Topaz is valuable in the treatment of hemorrhages. It assists in general tissue regeneration. From the stone history: It is believed that the topaz of modern mineralogists was unknown to the ancients and that the stone called topazos was the mineral chrysolite or peridot. chromium and vanadium. Birthstone: Topaz along with citrine are birthstones of Scorpius (Scorpion): Oct. but which was the modern chrysolite or peridot. California. Brazil. Nigeria. Description: Tourmaline is borosilicate mineral of complex and variable composition. 21. red. In ancient times. California. Blue Topaz is available in a variety of shades. Pure topaz when brilliant-cut sometimes is mistaken for diamond. Japan. It releases tension and gives feelings of joy. and Utah). in Germany. Shopping guide: Topaz looks beautiful in rings. and beautiful crystals come from Takayama and Tanokamiyama in Japan. necklaces. Orange-red Imperial Topaz is rare. and in the United States (in Maine. During medieval days it was thought to heal physical and mental disorders as well as prevent death. Topaz is Stone of Strength noted by Greeks. Colorado. In 1750 a Parisian jeweler discovered that the yellow Brazilian topaz becomes pink on exposure to a moderate heat. The information for mineralogist: Topaz has a hardness of 8. Care and treatment: As topaz has a hardness of 8. Healing ability: Topaz stimulates an endocrine system. Color: Tourmaline comes in many colors such as blue. Mexico. Imperial topaz is the anniversary gemstone for the 23rd year of marriage. yellow. Topaz often becomes paler if kept out in the sun. bracelets. and in San Diego county. Topaz is known as spiritual rejuvenation gemstone. Varieties: Nothing compares to the sparkling brilliance of Blue Topaz. Fine topaz occurs at several localities in the Urals and in Siberia. The largest known deposits are located in Minas Gerais in Brazil. Tourmaline is very abundant and has the best-developed crystals in pegmatites and in metamorphosed limestones . a figure of a falcon carved on a Topaz was thought to help earn the goodwill of kings. black.Nov. Wedding anniversary: Topaz is the anniversary gemstone for the 4th and 19th year of marriage. Sri Lanka. Russia. green and clear.the Romans obtained a stone which they called by this name. Tourmaline brings tranquillity and serenity into your life. The finest British topaz is found in the Cairngorm Mountains in the Central Highlands. Some crystals are pink at one end and green at the other. especially at Ben a Buird. pink. New Hampshire.

Healing ability: Tourmaline calms nerves. Color: The color of turquoise ranges from sky blue through various shades of green to greenish and yellowish gray. Varieties: Three types of tourmaline. Avoid drastic temperature changes. Care and treatment: As with all gems. Maine. are usually recognized: iron tourmaline (schorl). 23. resentment and insecurity. Another peculiarity of tourmaline is that crystal when heated acquires an electric charge and attracts small objects such as hair or small pieces of paper. The colored crystals of tourmaline are very strongly dichroic-. and has a feeble. Transparent crystals of tourmaline are dichroic . Sri Lanka. which may be pink (rubellite). Schorl: release anxiety. to increase fertility. protect tourmaline from scratches and sharp blows. The name's origin: Tourmaline came from the Sinhalese name of turmali or tormally (multicolored). In addition to its use as a gem. deflects negativity. and USA (southern California. necklaces. Namibia. faintly waxy lustre. During medieval days tourmaline was thought to heal physical and mental disorders as well as prevent death. black in color. 23 . to smooth away passive or aggressive nature. neutralizes distorted energies. The Isle of Elba is famous for pink crystals tipped with black which are known as Moors' Heads Turquoise brings happiness and good fortune. Shopping guide: Tourmaline is beautiful in rings. New York and Texas). alkali tourmaline. A pair of these plates form a very simple polarizing apparatus known as tourmaline tongs. The colored varieties. helps fighting heart diseases. Used as a gem for over 2. if two such plates are placed in crossed position. the light is entirely blocked.i.e. Madagascar. the tourmaline of all colors protects the wearer against many dangers and misfortune. raises altruism. brown.Oct. negativity and grief. . Wedding anniversary: Multicolored Tourmaline is the anniversary gemstone for the 8th year of marriage. Connecticut.e. tourmaline is employed in pressure devices because of its piezoelectric properties.000 years. Rubellite: Is believed to enhance creativity. or colorless (achroite). Birthstone: Tourmaline along with opal are birthstones of Libra (Balance): Sept. fights against genetic disorders. when transparent and free from flaws. Mystical power: Tourmaline is said to dispel fear. and pendants. Brazil. Do not clean tourmaline in a home ultrasonic contact with granitic magmas. Myanmar. Tourmaline induces a tranquil sleep. i. regulates hormones. Rubbing crystal imparts a similar charge.the depth of color varies as the crystal is turned in the light. magnesium tourmaline (dravite). Turquoise is opaque except in the thinnest splinters. green (Brazilian emerald). Colored crystals were imported from Sri Lanka at the beginning of the 18th century. It has been used in depth-sounding apparatus and other devices that detect and measure variations in pressure. Plates cut parallel to the vertical axis of a tourmaline crystal allow only the extraordinary ray through. are cut as gems.. From the stone history: Tourmaline was known by cenuries by the name schrol. Mexico. they are of different color when viewed in the direction of different axes. According to legend. Schorl relieves arthritis pain. distinguished by the predominance of certain elements. Deposits: Tourmaline is found in Africa.

Care and treatment: The stone's color and lustre tend to deteriorate with exposure to sunlight. Iran. In the 13th century. Turquoise is believed by many to bestow wealth and happiness upon its receiver. caused by impurities. Healing ability: Turquoise is said to be a guard against all diseases. Deposits: Highly prized turquoise has come from Neyshabur. Turquoise is also believed to bring happiness and good fortune to all. and it occurs chiefly as an opaque. It may be carved or engraved.turquoise was thought to protect the wearer from falling. heat. obsidian. A delicate sky blue. Shopping guide: Given as a gift. Avoid hot water and household chemicals. turquoise provides an attractive contrast with precious metals. 22-Dec. is among the oldest known gemstones. Wedding anniversary: Turquoise is the anniversary gemstone for the 5th year of marriage. It graced the necks of Egyptian Pharaohs and adorned the ceremonial dress of early native Americans. hydrated copper and aluminum phosphate [CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8*4H2O]. Turquoise is reasonably priced and quite lovely. Make sure certain coatings are not removed. subtle body alignment & strengthening. Turquoise also occurs in northern Africa. or various weak acids. is desired by some collectors as proof of a natural stone. Birthstone: Turquoise along with zircon are birthstones of Sagittarius (Archer): Nov. The finest stone is an even blue. making it a premier healing stone. Siberia. The name's origin: The name turquoise undoubtedly comes from turc (Turkish in French) as it was transported to Europe through Turkey.Description: Turquoise. Turquoise is a secondary mineral deposited from circulating waters. Turquoise is a sacred stone to many American Indian tribes and has been used in various jewelry items. Delicate veining. Turquoise is relatively soft so avoid scratches and sharp blows. It's said that turquoise attracts healing spirits. and irregular pieces are often set in mosaics with jasper. especially from horses. A very special stone indeed. Turquoise has been attributed with healing powers as well as promoting the wearer's status and wealth. From the stone history: Turquoise with its blue hue. Australia. Turquoise is also a valuable amulet for travelers. It assist in tissue regeneration. blue-green. turquoise is worn to guard against violence and accidents. . Believed to be a protective stone. Turquoise was an important ornamental mineral for jewelry and other object by the ancient Egyptians. Turquoise started being used before 4000 BC. Numerous deposits in the southwestern United States have been worked for centuries by American Indians. and mother of pearl. that is extensively used as a gemstone. Turquoise was obtained from the Sinai Peninsula before the 4th millennium BC in one of the world's first important hard-rock mining operations. 21. Mystical power: Turquoise has been thought to warn the wearer of danger or illness by changing color. or green color with little or no mottling. and Europe. granular vein running through a host rock.

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