NACE Standard RP0198-98 Item No.


Standard Recommended Practice The Control of Corrosion Under Thermal Insulation and Fireproofing Materials — A Systems Approach
This NACE International standard represents a consensus of those individual members who have reviewed this document, its scope, and provisions. Its acceptance does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has adopted the standard or not, from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not in conformance with this standard. Nothing contained in this NACE International standard is to be construed as granting any right, by implication or otherwise, to manufacture, sell, or use in connection with any method, apparatus, or product covered by Letters Patent, or as indemnifying or protecting anyone against liability for infringement of Letters Patent. This standard represents minimum requirements and should in no way be interpreted as a restriction on the use of better procedures or materials. Neither is this standard intended to apply in all cases relating to the subject. Unpredictable circumstances may negate the usefulness of this standard in specific instances. NACE International assumes no responsibility for the interpretation or use of this standard by other parties and accepts responsibility for only those official NACE International interpretations issued by NACE International in accordance with its governing procedures and policies which preclude the issuance of interpretations by individual volunteers. Users of this NACE International standard are responsible for reviewing appropriate health, safety, environmental, and regulatory documents and for determining their applicability in relation to this standard prior to its use. This NACE International standard may not necessarily address all potential health and safety problems or environmental hazards associated with the use of materials, equipment, and/or operations detailed or referred to within this standard. Users of this NACE International standard are also responsible for establishing appropriate health, safety, and environmental protection practices, in consultation with appropriate regulatory authorities if necessary, to achieve compliance with any existing applicable regulatory requirements prior to the use of this standard. CAUTIONARY NOTICE: NACE International standards are subject to periodic review, and may be revised or withdrawn at any time without prior notice. NACE International requires that action be taken to reaffirm, revise, or withdraw this standard no later than five years from the date of initial publication. The user is cautioned to obtain the latest edition. Purchasers of NACE International standards may receive current information on all standards and other NACE International publications by contacting the NACE International Membership Services Department, P.O. Box 218340, Houston, Texas 77218-8340 (telephone +1 281/228-6200).

Approved 1998-2-20 NACE International P.O. Box 218340 Houston, Texas 77218-8340 +1 281/228-6200 ISBN 1-57590-049-1 ©1998, NACE International


_______________________________________________________________________ Foreword
This NACE standard recommended practice provides the current technology and industry practices for mitigating corrosion under thermal insulation and fireproofing materials, a problem termed corrosion under insulation (CUI) in this standard. Because this corrosion problem has many facets and impacts several technologies, a systems approach has been adopted. This standard is intended for use by corrosion-control personnel and others concerned with the corrosion under insulation and/or fireproofing of piping and other plant equipment. This will concern chiefly the chemical process, refining, and power generation industries. This standard was prepared by NACE Work Group T-5A-30a on Corrosion Protection Under Insulation, with the assistance of Task Group T-6H-31 on Coatings for Carbon and Austenitic (1) Committee C-16.40.3 on Corrosion Under Stainless Steel Under Insulation and ASTM Insulation. Work Group T-5A-30a supports NACE Task Group T-5A-30 on Corrosion Under Thermal Insulation, a component of NACE Unit Committee T-5A on Corrosion in Chemical Processes. This standard is issued by NACE Group Committee T-5 on Corrosion Problems in the Process Industries, the sponsor of T-5A. Task Group T-6H-31 supports NACE Unit Committee T-6H (Coating Materials for Atmospheric Service), a component of NACE Group Committee T-6 on Protective Coatings and Linings. The work group has organized the standard into sections by function. Each section was written by specialists in that subject. These specialists are industry representatives from firms producing, specifying, designing, and using thermal insulation and fireproofing products on refinery and petrochemical equipment and piping.

In NACE standards, the terms shall, must, should, and may are used in accordance with the definitions of these terms in the NACE Publications Style Manual, 3rd ed., Paragraph Shall and must are used to state mandatory requirements. Should is used to state that which is considered good and is recommended but is not absolutely mandatory. May is used to state that which is considered optional.


American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Dr., West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.


NACE International




NACE International Standard Recommended Practice The Control of Corrosion Under Thermal Insulation and Fireproofing Materials — A Systems Approach
Contents 1. General..................................................................................................................... 1 2. Corrosion Mechanisms.............................................................................................. 1 3. Mechanical Design.................................................................................................... 7 4. Protective Coatings................................................................................................. 16 5. Insulation, Fireproofing, and Accessory Materials.................................................... 19 6. Inspection and Maintenance.................................................................................... 23 References.................................................................................................................. 27 Bibliography ................................................................................................................ 28 Figure 1: Effect of Temperature on Steel Corrosion in Water ....................................... 3 Figure 2: Typical Vessel Attachments Where Water May Bypass Insulation ................. 8 Figure 3: Attachment to Piping Where Water May Bypass Insulation............................ 8 Figure 4: Vessel Insulation Support Ring, the Problem and the Solution ..................... 10 Figure 5: Vertical Vessel Bottom Support Ring Minimizing Water Accumulation......... 10 Figure 6: Vessel-Stiffening Ring Insulation Detail ....................................................... 11 Figure 7: Center Nozzle at Top Head of Vessel .......................................................... 11 Figure 8: Common Nameplate Insulation Detail.......................................................... 12 Figure 9: Seal-Welded Cap on Insulation for Personnel Protection ............................. 12 Figure 10:Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger Insulation Penetrated by C-Channel Support . 13 Figure 11:Protrusions Through Jacketing..................................................................... 13 Figure 12:Pipe Supports Without Protrusions .............................................................. 14 Figure 13:Cold Service Pipe Support Without Continuous Vapor Barrier ..................... 14 Figure 14:Cold Service Pipe Support with Continuous Vapor Barrier ........................... 15 Figure 15:Pipe Insulation Penetrated by Column Fireproofing ..................................... 16 _______________________________________________________________________


NACE International

and (c) A material that may contribute contaminants that increase or accelerate the corrosion rate. 1. NACE International 1 .1 Carbon Steel Carbon steel corrodes. and some old ideas that have stood the test of performance. The increased activity was driven largely by many occurrences of severe CUI resulting in major equipment outages. 1. or process stabilization. While corrosion engineers were becoming knowledgeable about CUI. St. The role of insulation in the CUI problem is threefold. These two groups interacted but proceeded to develop their standards and information separately. Other fire protection mechanisms initiated as endothermic reactions within the fireproofing material during a fire. The mechanisms also add unique considerations to the discussion of the chemistry at the wet steel interface.4 A symposium was held jointly by NACE. 1. 1215 Fern Ridge Parkway. A material that may wick or absorb water. fireproofing materials also function. it is evident that there are many similarities. This standard incorporates the experience of many companies throughout the oil. Many articles and symposium papers have been published since 1983 as interest and activity in CUI have increased. and chemical plants. gas plants. and (2) Materials Technology Institute (MTI) on this subject with speakers from industries worldwide in October 1983. _______________________________________________________________________ Section 2: Corrosion Mechanisms 2. When comparing the various approaches. The destructive results and nature of the corrosion mechanism are not referenced in the literature until the 1950s. some differences. ASTM. at least in part. 1. Contaminants. conservation. and unexpected maintenance costs in refineries. In addition to reviews of the corrosion mechanisms. As more problems have been experienced. 2.6 Although most of the attention has been focused on corrosion under thermal insulation. MO 63141-4401. A discussion of corrosion mechanisms. NACE Task Group T-5A-30 was organized shortly thereafter to serve as a forum for further discussion regarding CUI. concern and interest have built around this subject. Louis. It is the recommendation of this committee that whenever CUI is a consideration. insulation materials. These factors and others are reviewed below.” 1. The corrosion rate of carbon steel may vary because the rate is controlled largely by the metal temperature of the steel surface and contaminants present in the water. hydro-regeneration.5 The first NACE report on CUI was written in 1989 by 3 Task Group T-6H-31 as publication 6H189. and inspection were often exchanged.7 The consensus is that the basic solution to preventing CUI is the use of a high-quality protective coating. and corrosion prevention is the same for corrosion under both insulation and fireproofing. companies have developed their own criteria and approaches to the prevention of CUI. Suite 116. such as sublimation. and ____________________________ (2) Materials Technology Institute (MTI). some new ideas. and chemical industries. ASTM Committee C-16 was preparing standards for testing insulation with a propensity to cause chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic stainless steel.2 To correct these problems. not because it is insulated. Insulation provides: (a) (b) An annular space or crevice for the retention of water and other corrosive media.1 Effects Temperature of Water. perspectives on such CUI topics as methods for mitigation. 1. are known to augment the insulating role of the fireproofing.RP0198-98 _______________________________________________________________________ Section 1: General 1.1.1 Corrosion under insulation (CUI) has been occurring for as long as hot or cold equipment has been insulated for thermal protection. as insulation applied between the critical steel structure and a potential fire. but because it is contacted by aerated water. a protective coating should be employed to protect the equipment before it is insulated. adopted in 1971 and originally titled “Evaluating the Influence of Wicking Type Thermal Insulations on the Stress Corrosion Cracking Tendency of Austenitic Stainless Steels. production losses. and intumescence. the root cause of failure. gas. The papers were published in 1985 as ASTM Publication STP 2 880.3 The first ASTM standard relevant to CUI was ASTM 1 C 692.

and washdowns.RP0198-98 2.2 Contaminants in Water Under Insulation The role of contaminants is twofold: (a) Contaminants can increase the conductivity and/or corrosiveness of the water environment.3 Effect of Temperature Service temperature is an important factor affecting CUI of carbon steel because two opposing factors are involved: (a) Higher temperature reduces the time water is in contact with the carbon steel. above temperature increases. If the insulation materials contain waterleachable acidic compounds.1. and Contaminants leached from the insulation materials. so condensation as a water source must be recognized in the design of the insulation system.1.1 Sources of Water Under Insulation The two primary water sources involved in CUI of carbon steel are: (a) (b) Infiltration from external sources. unless the insulation product is declared “chloride free. hydrolysis of the metal salts can cause localized corrosion because of development of low pH in anodic areas. The weatherproofing breaks may be the result of inadequate design. and these aqueous solutions have high electrical conductivity. While infiltration of external water can be reduced and sometimes prevented. (b) (b) There are two primary classes of contaminants in water under insulation: (a) (b) Contaminants external to the insulation materials. the contaminants are leached from the material and concentrate as water evaporates from the carbon steel surface. the corrosion rate of carbon steel in water continues 2 NACE International . then the pH of the water will be lowered. larly detrimental because their respective metal salts are highly soluble in water. External contaminants also enter the insulation materials indirectly by depositing on the jacket surface. Condensate falling from cold service equipment. approximately 80°C (176°F).1. The salts enter the insulation system by gravity or the wicking action of absorbent insulation. and Contaminants can reduce the protection offered by the corrosion product scale on the carbon steel surface.1. In some cases. Subsequent wetting then carries the concentrated salts to breaks in the weatherproofing. Chloride is generally one of the contaminants. and Condensation. incorrect installation. Higher temperature tends to increase the corrosion rate and reduce the service life of protective coatings. and atmospheric emissions. As water enters the insulation system. External water enters an insulated system primarily through breaks in the weatherproofing. 2. However. The salt concentrations gradually increase as water evaporates from the carbon steel surface. Steam discharge.1. External contaminants are generally salts that come from sources such as cooling tower drift. the corrosion rate of carbon steel in aerated water begins to decrease. 2. Condensation results when the temperature of the metal surface is lower than the atmospheric dew point.” Chlorides can be present in almost all components of the insulation system. acid rain. and sealant. and Condensation on cold surfaces after vapor barrier damage. mastics. The external contaminants are waterborne or airborne and can enter the insulation system directly through breaks in the weatherproofing. in a closed system. they are particu- Figure 1 illustrates the corrosiveness of water versus temperature. and sealants. however. including the insulation. deluge systems. Drift from cooling towers. the oxygen content of the water decreases as the 4 As a result. Contaminants contained in the insulation materials are well documented. Whether their source is external or internal. resulting in increased corrosion. insulation systems cannot be made vapor tight. In an open system. Water infiltrates from such external sources as the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Rainfall. or poor maintenance practices. Spray from fire sprinklers. Chlorides and sulfates are the principal contaminants found under insulation. Process liquids spillage.1. mastic. mechanical abuse.

This is relevant to the corrosion mechanism occurring under insulation. the same oxygen cell corrosion mechanism is taking place as in a closed system. Such salts can influence the corrosion rate because of their high solubility in water and the attendant increase in the conductivity of the water film.RP0198-98 to increase as the water temperature increases. due to the airborne or insulation-carried salts in the field. 4 Inspection of equipment has shown that carbon steel operating in the temperature range of -4°C (25°F) to 150°C (300°F) is at the greatest risk from CUI. is oxygen-saturated. Thus. Corrosion of equipment operating above 150°C (300°F) is reduced because the carbon steel surface is warm enough to remain dry. The service temperature of equipment often varies. where the thin film of water. Field measurements of the corrosion rate of carbon steel corroding under insulation confirm that the rate increases with temperature in a 5 manner similar to that of a closed system. and the corrosion rate of carbon steel under insulation will be affected by: Figure 1 Effect of Temperature on Steel Corrosion in Water NACE International 3 . while not under pressure. corrosion will tend to occur at those points of water entry into the insulation system where the temperature is below 150°C (300°F) and when the equipment is idle. Equipment that operates continuously below -4°C (25°F) usually remains free of corrosion. The corrosion rates from field measurements are somewhat greater than laboratory rates. However.

refer to Section 5. Corrosion can be reduced by careful selection of insulation materials. Shapes that are difficult or impractical to weatherproof properly.1. such as flat horizontal surfaces. and Idle or mothballed conditions. Therefore.2 Role of Weather Barrier and Vapor Barrier Materials Weather barriers and vapor barriers are applied to insulation to keep the insulation dry. Effects of Types of Insulation CUI of carbon steel is possible under all types of insulation.1. (SAE). such as angle-iron brackets. 8% nickel. and acidic materials in fire retardants. such as chloride. Shapes that funnel water into the insulation. and insulation support rings. and wettability of the insulation. In the long term.RP0198-98 (a) (b) (c) (d) Intermittent or variable operation of equipment.1. 2. Their durability against mechanical abuse. For more detailed information about insulation materials. these materials must not contain leachable compo(d) (e) The more breaks there are in equipment surface. Warrendale. and (3) the balance iron.2. nozzle extensions. refer to Section 5. the weather barriers and vapor barriers break down or are damaged to the point that they can no longer keep the insulation dry. 2. such as ladder brackets. and other structural components.2.2 Austenitic Stainless Steel The stainless steel alloys susceptible to SCC are generally classified as the 18-8s: austenitic alloys containing approximately 18% chromium. ultraviolet (UV) degradation. (3) 4 NACE International . Weather barrier and vapor barrier materials are critical components in the insulation system. Several undesirable design features that influence CUI include: (a) Shapes that naturally retain water. For more detailed information on this subject. PA 15096. refer to Section 3. and Protrusions through insulation on cold service equipment where temperature gradients from cold to ambient will occur. the carbon stabilized grades (UNS ____________________________ Metals and Alloys in the Unified Numbering System (latest revision). The insulation characteristics with the most influence on CUI are: (a) Water-leachable salt content in insulation that may contribute to corrosion. For more information on this subject. 2. the more likely that water will enter or bypass insulation and drain poorly from equipment. Materials that may be cheaper on an initial cost basis may not be more economical on a life-cycle basis if they allow corrosion. sulfate. maintenance and inspection of weatherproofing are essential to ensure the integrity of the insulation/fireproofing system. these stainless alloys include (among others) the molybdenum-containing grades (UNS S31600 and S31700). and chemicals is of prime importance. a joint publication of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the Society of Automotive Engineers Inc. and Foams containing residual compounds that react with water to form hydrochloric or other acids.2 Effects of Insulation Material 2. 2. vacuum rings. Temperature at which attachments to equipment operate.3 Effect of Design Equipment design and mechanical details have an important influence on CUI of carbon steel. such as gussets. Besides the basic alloy UNS S30400. decking. Therefore. the insulation system that holds the least amount of water and dries most quickly should result in the least amount of corrosion damage to equipment. 400 Commonwealth Drive. I-beams. Mastics and sealants are materials used to close openings around protrusions in the insulation system.1.2. Water retention. Temperature variations along the height or length of the equipment.1. because they must seal and protect the insulation. Other items that cause interruption in the weatherproofing. In addition. permeability. high-quality protective coatings must be used to protect steel and should be included in the design specifications. The insulation type may only be a contributing factor. (b) (c) (b) (c) Because CUI is a product of wet metal exposure duration. water. and platform and pipe supports. nents that increase the corrosiveness within the insulation system.

Levels.1. among others. higher-chromium duplex alloys. ASTM 7 C 795. and the low carbon grades (UNS S30403 and S31603). The drip test can be used to evaluate the stress cracking potential of all types of insulation. as discussed in Section 1. construction. Tests showed that if this wicking insulation contained leachable chlorides. and are then concentrated by evaporation of that water.2.2. wash water and fire protection deluge systems. Thermal insulation primarily provides a medium to hold and transport the water with its chlorides to the metal surface. testing and plant experience have shown that the chlorides more frequently come from coastal atmospheres.1. many believed the primary source of chlorides was the insulation itself. the ASTM specifications C 692. In summary. These are the higher-nickel.1. extracting chlorides. then a stress cracking failure becomes a possibility. These standards do not treat the other aspects of the ESCC problem. C 795. If a noncrack-producing insulation is placed in service in a chloride environment. having entered around it. This standard 6 was followed in 1977 by ASTM C 871 and the final ASTM specification in this series.1 External Stress Corrosion Cracking (ESCC) 2. then water permeating the insulation. Thus. wicking and nonwicking. C 871. Out of these experiences came ASTM C 692 in 1971.2 Tests and Standards Related to ESCC Many of the early experiences of ESCC under insulation occurred under wicking insulation. and Application of silicate to inhibit chloride in the insulation would be effective in preventing ESCC.2. ESCC can develop due to lack of silicate available on the wetted stainless steel surface. but the presence of insulation is not a requirement.2. as the hot metal surface concentrates the chlorides by evaporating to a level sufficient to cause cracking. nor is the inhibitor always in the right place to inhibit the concentrated external chlorides. The chlorides dissolved in the water are from the external sources or the atmosphere.RP0198-98 S32100 and S34700). 2.1 Sources It is now understood that these concepts. The original wicking test as specified in the initial publication of ASTM C 692 has been modified 8 and now includes the drip test. Sometimes the inhibitor may be leached so thoroughly under severely wetted conditions that it may be transported away from the surfaces needing inhibition.3. as well as mastics and sealants. and transporting them to the stainless steel surface would cause SCC. and process spillage. and Forms of Chlorides When the ESCC mechanism was first identified. This most commonly occurs beneath thermal insulation.1 Mechanism of ESCC ESCC occurs in austenitic stainless steel piping and process equipment when chlorides or other halides in the environment or insulation material are transported in the presence of water to the hot surface of stainless steel. and the lower-nickel. chromium.1. and C 929 standardize the selection and evaluation of insulation materials with regard to their propensity to cause SCC of austenitic stainless steels. 2. while correct. While some insulations do contain appreciable chloride levels. 2. Chloride concentration need not be high in the water.2. These alloys are more resistant to SCC and have been found to be resistant to SCC under thermal insulation.3 Sources. One additional specification related to this 9 matter is ASTM C 929. Plant experience shows that the inhibitor is not always leached out of the insulation in sufficient quantities. To combat SCC. In cases of nonwicking insulation. many variations of the basic 18-8 stainless steels have been developed. These three specifications are notable because they established the concepts that: (a) (b) Wet insulation containing chlorides will cause ESCC. and user groups in the petrochemical and refining industries. the water is under the insulation. are too limited and not always effective. relying solely on materials tested and approved according to ASTM standards may put stainless steel equipment in jeopardy. nearby chloride-containing chemical process units. and molybdenum-containing alloys (super stainless steels). NACE International 5 . When external water and chlorides enter around an inhibited. 2. not the insulation materials. which deals with the handling of certain insulating materials. ESCC failures have been reported under nonwicking insulation. wicking insulation material. This limitation has not been understood among the engineering.

and failures are infrequent. Attempts to control SCC by reducing the tensile stress by thermal treatment are not practical.2. Equipment that cycles through the water dew point is particularly susceptible. hydrolyzed organic chlorides. at elevated temperature water evaporates as it contacts the hot stainless steel surface. Insulations that do not absorb water are frequently specified in an attempt to lessen the problem.2.2.1. the potential for SCC increases. 2. and tubing contain enough residual processing tensile stresses to develop cracks without applied stresses. polyisocyanurate foam. wash water. water is not normally present on the metal surface.3. mastics. and the time decreases for initiation and propagation of ESCC. First. These sources account for most of the chloride-induced failures. Above 150°C (300°F).4 Effect of Temperature Temperature has a twofold effect. 2. It is useful to consider these levels when determining acceptable chloride levels for insulating materials.2 Effects of Types of Insulation Sodium chloride is the most prevalent chloride salt found in CUI events.RP0198-98 Sources of chlorides fall into two categories: insulating materials and external sources. 2. cracking may still occur.3 Forms 2. adhesives. hydrogen chloride gas. 2. If the tensile stress is eliminated or sufficiently reduced. the cracking will not occur. especially when used in the hot water range.5 Role of Stress In order for SCC to develop. Polyurethane foam. Residual chlorine or bromine compounds used in manufacturing the foam may leach out and hydrolyze.3. As the total stress rises. such as sheet. hydrochloric acid. Industry experience and testing have shown that cracking occurs under all types of insulation materials.1. Other sources of chloride ions known to be aggressive include chlorine.2.2.3 Effects of Mastics and Sealants on insulation Most ESCC failures occur when metal temperature is in the “hot water” range: 50°C to 150°C (120°F to 300°F). For more detailed information materials. Water present at the low temperature evaporates at the higher temperature. Failures after only a few years of operation are typically associated with insulating materials containing high levels of leachable chlorides.2 External sources include rain.2. coastal fog. sealants. refer to Section 5. A systems approach will develop strategies to combat both categories.3. fire and deluge system testing. sufficient tensile stress must be present in the stainless steel. Failures due to introducing chlorides from external sources tend to occur after five years or more of service. 2. Failures are less frequent when metal temperature is outside this range.1. and process leaks or spills.1. It is useful to consider these observations when specifying insulating materials. pipe. additional residual stresses are imposed.1. as stated above.2. allowing them to be deposited on the metal surface. Insulations that absorb water are particularly troublesome in that they hold water and slowly allow the concentration mechanism to proceed. the rate of the corrosion reaction increases. it causes SCC of austenitic stainless steel. The threshold stress required to develop cracking depends somewhat on the cracking medium. 6 NACE International . During each temperature cycle the chloride salts dissolved in the water concentrate on the surface. Most mill products. 2.1. Second. and phenolic foam do not provide immunity to ESCC. forming an acidic condition that accelerates the cracking of 18-8 stainless steels.2 Levels Experience has shown that insulating materials with as little as 350 ppm chloride have been identified near ESCC locations.3. and cements. and thermally decomposed polyvinyl chloride (PVC).1. When 18-8 stainless steels are cold formed and welded. This evaporation can concentrate the chloride salts. and the evaporative concentration mechanism is not significant. Deposits near ESCC events have been found with as little as 1. Below 50°C (120°F) the reaction rate is low. but without other preventive measures. as temperature increases.1 Insulating materials include insulation. Likewise. When found in sufficient quantities. plate. 2.2. acidic conditions in combination with chloride will be more aggressive than neutral or basic conditions.000 ppm chloride. The solution to ESCC of stainless steel does not lie with the type of insulation chosen.1.

1 Specification Requirements Insulation specifications are critical requirements for insulation system design and installation work. such as calcium silicate. 3. unplanned or extended shutdowns.4 Effect of Design Design steps to minimize water ingress are beneficial but not normally adequate to prevent cracking. see Section 3. and orientation of attachments can allow moisture or rainwater to bypass the insulation and to concentrate at the attachment point.3 Effect of Equipment and Piping Attachment Design The design of equipment and piping attachments is an important part of insulation system design.g. This often results in structural failures. Improper and unclear application methods: e. _______________________________________________________________________ Section 3: Mechanical Design 3. Process control. While this sounds like a reasonable approach toward prevention. so the insulation remains wet. For more information on insulation materials. refer to Section 5. The shape. and Fire protection. and substrate metal corrosion can be reduced by better design of protrusions. For additional information on design. However. and fibrous products specified for below-ambient temperature applications. Insulation system life can be prolonged. application. it should be stated in the specification..2 Thermal Insulation System Design (b) Equipment and piping are insulated for any of the following reasons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Heat conservation and/or freeze protection. mastics and sealants may contain water-leachable chlorides that can contribute to ESCC problems. Also. For more information on mastics and sealants. NACE International 7 . and supports associated with vessels and piping. lack of expansion joints.2. and ESCC would not occur. mastics. Loosely written specifications with insufficient material descriptions and application requirements may result in costly repairs during construction or after the plant is operational. in practice it is extremely difficult to prevent water ingress. and incorrect insulation securement methods. Attention to details such as these is important in order to produce a high-quality insulation system. thereby corroding the substrate 10 Metal also corrodes when weather barriers and metal. Guidelines for proper design to control corrosion in thermal insulation systems are presented below. geometry.. and for protective coatings.1 Poorly designed or applied insulation systems and protrusions through thermal insulation permit water to bypass the insulation. Personnel protection. It must clearly describe materials. once insulation becomes wetted. Condensation control. see Section 5. the insulation would stay dry. 2. 3. incorrect multilayer schedules.g. Some amount of water entry into the insulation system will eventually occur. equipment and piping operating either steadily or cyclically between these temperatures can present significant corrosion problems. opencell or wicking-type insulation materials. Sound control. missing vapor barriers. 3. Examples of such attachments are shown in Figures 2 and 3. and sealants make water escape difficult. vapor barriers break down after vessels and piping are put in service and are exposed to the weather. These problems are aggravated by selecting inadequate insulation materials and by improper insulation design. see Section 4. and unscheduled replacement of equipment. In fact. High-quality immersion grade protective coatings as outlined later in this standard shall be specified to protect the stainless steels.2. and finishing requirements. A specification needs to be complete and detailed. attachments. (c) Product specification by using a generic name without stating the properties required for the intended service. Insulated surfaces for carbon steel operating continuously above 150°C (300°F) or below -4°C (25°F) and for austenitic stainless steel operating continuously above 150°C (300°F) or below 50°C (120°F) do not present major corrosion problems. They control material and application requirements.RP0198-98 If water could be excluded. the weather barriers. If a service needs special attention from an insulation standpoint. Common specification flaws to be avoided are: (a) Incorrect application of materials: e.

RP0198-98 Nozzle Davit Platform Support Lifting Lugs Platform Bracket Pipe Bracket Insulation Support Ring Nozzle or Manway Support Ring or Stiffener Ring Insulation Support Ring Ladder Support Skirt Access Opening Figure 2 Typical Vessel Attachments Where Water May Bypass Insulation Pressure Gauge Caulking Compound Note: Jacketing Seam at Top Pipe Metal Jacketing Insulation Figure 3 Attachment to Piping Where Water May Bypass Insulation Attachment relies on caulking compound only. 8 NACE International .

as demonstrated in Figure 9. The bracket supporting the nameplate on a vessel can permit water intrusion past the insulation where the bracket penetrates it. and moisture may intrude. piping supported as shown in Figure 12 keeps the weather barrier continuous. as shown in Figure 6. (b) (d) (c) (d) (e) (e) NACE International 9 . An economical flat cut bar can be used. Uninsulated nozzles located on the top heads of vertical vessels can divert water under insulation. However. The insulation and jacketing are free to move with the piping. allow a continuous weather barrier. load-bearing supports that contact only the jacketing. Sometimes pressure vessel codes dictate which attachment shapes can be used. the vapor barrier of piping in cold service is not continuous when the piping is supported as shown in Figure 13. not on sealants.3. and a duplicate nameplate can be mounted on the outside of the metal jacketing or bottom skirt for in-service identification. An alternative is to forego the insulation and use expanded metal on stand-offs. can prevent water entry. A relatively inexpensive alternative design—a flat bar bolted onto welded clips which is shown in Figure 4—can minimize moisture accumulation. In another problem similar to (c). The caulking compound and metal flashing normally used in this situation do very little to keep out the water. the weather barrier must be cut around the steel. In a problem similar to (c). The design principle shown in Figure 4 is extended to this application in Figure 5. Therefore. The cap depends on a seal weld around the nozzle.1 Problems Insulating Vessels (b) (a) The lip or rim on bucket-type insulation support rings on vessels may act as a moisture dam. Rod hangers or clamps supporting piping by direct contact make protrusions through the jacketing as shown in Figure 11. Seal-welding a cap. These compounds cannot maintain their seal when the piping moves. can prevent the intrusion.3. and water intrusion is reduced. difficult to seal. which can be field fabricated. Caulking compounds used at jacketing penetrations keep rain water out only until the compounds fail because of weathering or burn off due to high equipment operating temperatures. is illustrated in Figure 8. when insulated piping rests directly on structural beams. A shorter bracket that does not extend beyond the insulation can be used for permanent identification of the vessel. Instead. Although structural steel angles are among the most difficult shapes to weatherproof. Stiffening rings extending beyond the insulation may allow moisture intrusion. and then by insulating the nozzle up to the cap. Figure 14 shows the design of a piping support fabricated with a built-in vapor barrier that remains continuous despite piping movement. The flashing ring. 3.2 Problems Insulating Piping (a) Insulation of piping for personnel protection can incur water entry at the termination if it is unsealed. they are widely used in industry.RP0198-98 Some attachment shapes can be modified to be easier to seal. This breaks the weather barrier continuity and allows moisture intrusion. to prevent water passage past the insulation. There are several problems frequently encountered when insulating vessels and piping: 3. vertical vessel bottom support rings can accumulate moisture at the metal-to-insulation interface if the interface is unprotected. leading to severe corrosion and pitting of the vessel. Water can enter past the insulation when the caulking compound dries enough to crack or to separate from the insulation. as shown in Figure 12. but this is not always possible. protects the insulation and fireproofing by deflecting water over and down the support ring edge. See Figure 10 as an illustration. These protrusions. insulation designs relying only on these compounds may fail prematurely. This problem can be remedied by extending the nozzle beyond the insulation and jacketing as shown in Figure 7. In a problem similar to (a). This (c) Using angle iron or C-channel to support double pipe exchangers creates many protrusions through the insulation. However. afford entry points for moisture. Built-up insulation and jacketing with “Pittsburg seams” and proper overlaps. the integrity of the insulation system relies on joint sealants and caulking compounds used at the insulation-to-pipe support interface. Using a tubular support provides a surface and protrusion-to-insulation contour that is easier to seal.

RP0198-98 Corrosion Problems with Bucket-Type Insulation Support Ring Vessel Flat bar Welded clip Flat Bar-Type Support Ring Eliminates Moisture Accumulation Figure 4 Vessel Insulation Support Ring. the Problem and the Solution Figure 5 Vertical Vessel Bottom Support Ring Minimizing Water Accumulation 10 NACE International .

Figure 7 Center Nozzle at Top Head of Vessel Extended and Insulated with Seal-Welded Cap NACE International 11 .RP0198-98 Figure 6 Vessel-Stiffening Ring Insulation Detail Seams prevent water intrusion.

RP0198-98 Figure 8 Common Nameplate Insulation Detail Water may enter through bracket penetration. Figure 9 Seal-Welded Cap on Insulation for Personnel Protection Cap prevents water entry. 12 NACE International .

RP0198-98 Figure 10 Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger Insulation Penetrated by C-Channel Support Water entry points shown Figure 11 Protrusions Through Jacketing NACE International 13 .

RP0198-98 Figure 12 Pipe Supports Without Protrusions Figure 13 Cold Service Pipe Support Without Continuous Vapor Barrier 14 NACE International .

unexpected thickness of steel column fireproofing. In cold service. is necessary for corrosion control. Mastic vapor barriers without metal jacketing require periodic inspections to check for signs of mechanical damage. drain-valve hand wheels. the conduit may suffer overheating damage. suspend conduit from structural members. such as instrument connections. in extremely hot service. and unexpected piping movement.” in practice. Knowledge of various insulation materials and their installation requirements. and valve packing glands. cracking. With the possible exception of an all-welded metal sleeve enclosure. Electrical conduit suspended from piping or penetrating its insulation presents insulation sealing difficulties for both hot and cold service. and understanding incidental corrosion can preclude many of the problems described above. keeping water out is not always feasible. e. attending to attachment geometry. along with knowledge of equipment and piping. Providing adequate piping clearances. piping movement. there is no perfect vapor barrier. The only cure is to design adequate space for insulation. mechanical damage. Caulking compounds and mastics used during construction for sealing jacket seams degrade in sunlight and at temperatures exceeding the materials’ recommended use limits. The problem is avoided by extending valve stems and instrument connections above the insulation. (b) (c) (d) NACE International 15 . While it is easy to say. Metal jackets should be avoided over vapor barriers on cold service insulation unless needed for protection of the insulation. These penetrations can allow moisture intrusion and condensation. creating cracks and open seams that allow moisture penetration. as shown in Figure 15.4 Weather Barrier and Vapor Barrier Design In insulation system design. Design considerations should include effects of adjacent structures.g. and galvanic corrosion. Weather barriers and vapor barriers break down due to chemical attack. The remedy is to avoid penetrating piping insulation. in cold service. selection of weather barriers and vapor barriers is as important as selection of thermal insulation. Clearance for insulation between piping and adjacent structures can be insufficient due to incorrect pipe spacing. the conduit may corrode. insulation and vapor barriers are often penetrated for improved access to equipment lying close to the insulation. aging. Moreover. This inadequate clearance often permits moisture to bypass weatherproofing and vaporproofing. “Keep water out. Vapor barriers also degrade in sunlight. delaminations..RP0198-98 Figure 14 Cold Service Pipe Support with Continuous Vapor Barrier (a) Also in cold service. 3. and broken seals. and expansion joints. Unattended repairs shorten insulation life and promote corrosion. sunlight. thermal insulations rely on vapor barriers to keep out moisture.

insulation design for flexible materials. based on the coefficients of thermal expansion at -73°C (-100°F) and 20°C (70°F). The use of dissimilar metals in metallic jacket design in the presence of moisture should be avoided as this often causes galvanic corrosion.1 This section presents information for the selection of protective coatings for carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel under thermal and/or noise reduction insulation systems and cementitious fireproofing.1. Figure 15 Pipe Insulation Penetrated by Column Fireproofing _______________________________________________________________________ Section 4: Protective Coatings 4. cellular glass insulation expands about the same amount as carbon steel. System designers may fail to allow for movement of insulation caused by piping expansion.5 Insulation System Design Insulation designs for rigid and semirigid materials may require expansion joints. Sometimes seams are installed on top surfaces or have improper overlaps. to control the lateral migration of water vapor. 16 NACE International . polyurethane insulated systems need more frequent vapor stops than do cellular glass systems. 3.1 Scope 4. As a result. such as fibrous blanket. Protective coatings have been recognized and accepted and are recommended as a highly effective method of protecting insulated metallic substrates such as these steels from corrosion.RP0198-98 In warm service. depending on operating temperatures and sizes of equipment and piping. Normally. Overlap seams are more vulnerable to foot traffic damage on horizontal lines. weather barriers and vapor barriers break down. This can allow migration of water into the insulation and lead to corrosion. Also. weather barriers are normally metallic. They are fabricated from roll jacketing and can have many seams. For example. cellular foams (such as a polyurethane system) require more expansion joints. does not require expansion joints. whereas cellular foam expands about nine times more than carbon steel. When the insulated system cools. vessel heads. and tank tops when thin metallic jacketing is used over fibrous insulation. Failure to employ these joints at the required locations in the insulation can lead to its uncontrolled movement. joints will compress in cellular glass but open in cellular foam. Therefore.

the coating shall not contain zinc.3.3. lead.3 Coating Carbon Steel Under Thermal Insulation and Cementitious Fireproofing 4.2 Due to the risk of LMC.3. Compounds of chlorides or other halides within the cured-resin chemical molecule are not considered harmful unless they are subject to release through aging within the expected service temperature range. 4. soluble chlorides or other halides after curing. The user should select the system appropriate for the expected temperature range. the manufacturer should be consulted regarding expected coating performance.1 The coating system shall not contain free.1.5 Coating manufacturers or project specifications should be consulted regarding suitability of specific products for carbon steels and austenitic stainless steels under insulation systems.2 Coating Austenitic Stainless Steel Under Thermal Insulation 4.1 The coating systems recommended for use on carbon steel operating below 150°C (300°F) under thermal insulation are typically tank lining systems formulated to prevent corrosion. then liquid metal cracking (LMC) of the steel may be a risk if the coating is heated above the melting point of the metal it contains. The coating manufacturer should be consulted for specific temperature resistance information. Also. coating the galvanized steel should be considered. 4.2 Epoxy protective coatings. 4.3. The manufacturer of proprietary cementitious fireproofing should be consulted regarding the compatibility of the fireproofing with galvanized steel. and corrosion protection techniques such as inhibitors and cathodic protection have been less effective than protective coatings in mitigating corrosion under insulation. the criteria for a coating system used to prevent ESCC and LMC of austenitic stainless steel are as follows: 4.2. 4. are recommended for use on carbon steel under cementitious fireproofing. and wax-tape coatings.5 Inorganic zinc coatings or galvanizing shall not be used under thermal insulation in the 50 to 150°C (120° to 300°F) service temperature range for longterm or cyclic service.8 Table 2 lists protective coating systems recommended for carbon steel equipment. Maximum service temperature and duration of the proposed application should be considered in selecting a coating system. copper. Tape application procedures should follow those prescribed in NACE 10 Standard RP0375 for wax-tape coating systems.1.7 Wax-tape coatings may be used to prevent corrosion of carbon steel during a dry cycle or when cycling through dew points.2 Table 1 lists protective coating systems for austenitic stainless steel equipment. 4.6 Thermally sprayed aluminum coatings have performed successfully in marine and hightemperature environments.1.1. Other coatings may be used at the buyer’s discretion.2. 4.3 Aluminum foil wrapping has been used to prevent ESCC of stainless steel under insulation. as a class of materials.3. Maximum service temperature and its duration should be considered. fusion-bonded coatings. sometimes wet environments. 4.3.2. 4.4 Users who steam-purge lines shall select a coating capable of withstanding the surface temperature for the duration of the purging.1 Austenitic stainless steel can be subject to ESCC when covered with insulation.1. metallizing. the subject has been addressed in NACE Publication 6H189.2.3 The coating shall be selected for the expected service temperature range if this range could allow moisture to occur on substrate surfaces.RP0198-98 Attempts to prevent water from entering insulated systems have not been successful. For other coatings. 4.1.3 Insulation covering is not addressed in this section. 4.4 Failures with inorganic zinc coatings under wet insulation are not discussed in this standard. 4. or their compounds in its formulation.2 Coating systems considered in this section are thin film liquid-applied coatings.1. NACE International 17 . 4. 4. This is especially true with processes using intermittent thermal cycling through the dew point. Other systems may also be satisfactory.3.3. 4.2. if a coating contains a low-melting-point metal. the manufacturer should be consulted regarding expected coating performance.3 If galvanized steel under cementitious fireproofing has been corroding. 4.2. Zinc provides inadequate corrosion resistance in closed. These systems have a history of successful use. 4. 4. For other coatings. Consequently.

3 25 to 50 µm (1 to 2 mils) 40 to 65 µm (1. “General Specification for Epoxy-Polyamide Paint” (Philadelphia.5 mils) The temperature range shown for a coating system is that over which the system is designed to maintain its integrity and capability to perform as specified when correctly applied. PA: Department of Defense). specifications and coating manufacturer’s recommendations should be followed. For protective coatings not listed. 3/SSPC-SP 6 (latest revision). (F) MIL-P-24441. (D) NACE No. 2 Carbon Steel System No.400°F) NACE No. However.S.N/A build (HB) epoxy N/A N/A 130 µm (5 mils) HB epoxy N/A In-shop 300 µm (12 mils) fusion-bonded epoxy application only (FBE) 75 µm (3 mils) of (F) MIL-P-24441/2 EPA U. 2 50 to 75 µm (2 to 3 mils) 25 to 50 µm (1 to 2 mils) moisture-cured urethane aluminum primer Two 75-µm (3-mil) coats of acrylic urethane N/A (Table continued on next page) The temperature range shown for a coating system is that over which the system is designed to maintain its integrity and capability to perform as specified when correctly applied. Navy Standard DOD(G) STD-2138 NACE No.S. 2 180 to 250 µm (7 to 10 mils) metallized aluminum 15 to 20 µm (0. “General Specification for Epoxy-Polyamide Paint” (Philadelphia. (G) U.5 to 0.5 to 2. 1 Carbon Steel System No. TX: NACE. 4 95°C (200°F) maximum NACE No. depending on substrate and type of coating. 3 SURFACE PROFILE(B) 25 to 50 µm (1 to 2 mils) 25 to 50 µm (1 to 2 mils) PRIME COAT(C) FINISH COAT(C) Austenitic Stainless Steel System No. (C) Coating thicknesses are typical dry film values. Acceptable profile range may vary. 3 130 µm (5 mils) high. 2 (D) SURFACE (B) PROFILE 50 to 75 µm (2 to 3 mils) 50 to 75 µm (2 to 3 mils) 50 to 100 µm (2 to 4 mils) PRIME COAT (C) INTERMEDIATE (C) COAT FINISH COAT (C) REMARKS Carbon Steel System No. based on corrosion characteristics of carbon steel at certain temperatures. Part 1 (latest revision). Temperature ranges are typical for the coating system. the user may determine whether any coating system is required. specifications and coating manufacturer’s recommendations should be followed. based on corrosion characteristics of stainless steel at certain temperatures. (C) Coating thicknesses are typical dry film values. 3 NACE No. “Commercial Blast Cleaning” (Houston. 2 NACE No. 2/SSPC-SP 10 (latest revision). 1 Austenitic Stainless Steel System No. Coating manufacturer’s recommendations should be followed. For protective coatings not listed. PA: Department of Defense). (B) A typical minimum and maximum surface profile is specified for each substrate. PA: SSPC). However. TX: NACE. (D) NACE No. Coating manufacturer’s recommendations should be followed. PA: SSPC). the user may determine whether any coating system is required. Navy/DOD STD 2138 (latest revision). “Near-White Metal Blast Cleaning” (Houston. (E) MIL-P-24441. 4(E) (A) -45 to 370°C (-50 to 700°F) -45 to 760°C (-50 to 1. 2 130 µm (5 mils) of highbuild (HB) epoxy 150 µm (6 mils) of epoxy/phenolic or hightemperature-rated aminecured coal tar epoxy 50 µm (2 mils) of air-dried modified silicone coating 100 µm (4 mils) siloxane N/A 150 µm (6 mils) of epoxy/phenolic or hightemperature-rated aminecured coal tar epoxy 50 µm (2 mils) of air-dried modified silicone coating 100 µm (4 mils) siloxane Austenitic Stainless Steel System No.75 mil) of MIL-P(E) 24441/1 epoxy polyamide (EPA) followed by 75 µm (3 mils) of MIL-P24441/1 EPA 50 to 75 µm (2 to 3 mils) moisture-cured micaceous aluminum urethane Carbon Steel System No. Part 2 (latest revision). 3 Austenitic Stainless Steel System No.RP0198-98 Table 1 Protective Coating Systems for Austenitic Stainless Steels Under Thermal Insulation SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE RANGE(A) -45 to 60°C (-50 to 140°F) -45 to 150°C (-50 to 300°F) SURFACE PREPARATION NACE No. (B) A typical minimum and maximum surface profile is specified for each substrate. (A) 18 NACE International . Table 2 Protective Coating Systems for Carbon Steels Under Thermal Insulation and Cementitious Fireproofing SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE SURFACE (A) RANGE PREPARATION -45 to 60°C (-50 to 140°F) -45 to 60°C (-50 to 140°F) -45 to 60°C (-50 to 140°F) NACE No. PA: Department of Defense). Acceptable profile range may vary. depending on substrate and type of coating. 3(D) NACE No. and Pittsburgh. and Pittsburgh. (E) This system is not recommended for cyclic service characterized by rapid temperature fluctuations. Temperature ranges are typical for the coating system. “Metal Sprayed Coatings for Corrosion Protection Aboard Navy Ships” (Philadelphia.

5. 1 (H) SURFACE (B) PROFILE 50 to 75 µm (2 to 3 mils) PRIME COAT (C) INTERMEDIATE (C) COAT N/A FINISH COAT (C) REMARKS Carbon Steel System No. and Pittsburgh. PA: Department of Defense). (I) This system is not recommended for cyclic service characterized by rapid temperature fluctuations. 2 40 to 65 µm (1. Emphasis is placed on service performance characteristics.000°F) (in continuous service above 120°C [250°F]) NACE No.200°F) Carbon Steel System No.1 Scope This section describes the properties of industrial insulation.5-mil) coats of (I) TT-P-28 high heat silicone paint N/A N/A Carbon Steel System No. No attempt is made to describe every commercial product available on the market. 8 120 to 540°C (250 to 1. PA: SSPC). 10 60° C (140°F) maximum NACE No. 7 50 to 75 µm (2 to 3 mils) 250 to 380 µm (10 to 15 mils) metallized aluminum per DOD STD-2138 75 µm (3 mils) inorganic zinc (IOZ) N/A Two 40-µm (1. “Heat-Resistant Aluminum Paint (1. Some users specify a maximum chloride content in addition to those NACE International 19 . TT-P-28 (latest revision). “Hand Tool Cleaning” (Pittsburgh. PA: SSPC). _______________________________________________________________________ Section 5: Insulation. (J) SSPC-SP 2 (latest revision). 6 NACE No. Differences between specific commercial products within a generic type are not addressed. exposure to operating temperatures.2 Insulation Materials Commonly used industrial insulation materials are described and grouped generically. 5 150 µm (6 mils) epoxy/phenolic or high-temperaturerated amine-cured coal tar epoxy 150 to 200 µm (6 to 8 mils) metallized aluminum 150 µm (6 mils) epoxy/phenolic or high-temperaturerated amine-cured coal tar epoxy Silicone seal coat per manufacturer's recommendation N/A Carbon Steel System No. and the ability to exclude water over the design life of the system.000°F) (with intermittent cycling 60 to 120°C [140 to 250°F]) 480°C (900°F) maximum NACE No. 2 120 to 540°C (250 to 1.200°F [650°C])” (Philadelphia. 2 50 to 100 µm (2 to 4 mils) N/A N/A Carbon Steel System No.5 to 2. and Accessory Materials 5. 3 (M) (K) N/A N/A Carbon Steel Under Cementitious Fireproofing System No. and Pittsburgh. 9 (-50 to 1. Insulation materials for use on austenitic stainless steel materials should be qualified as appropriate according to ASTM C 795. Some users specify stricter chloride limits than those given in ASTM C 795. 3/SSPC-SP 6 (latest revision). 2 25 to 50 µm (1 to 2 mils) N/A N/A Carbon Steel -45 to 650°C (J) System No. PA: SSPC). Fireproofing. “Power Tool Cleaning” (Pittsburgh. 11 (H) (I) Ambient 25 to 50 µm (1 to 2 mils) N/A N/A NACE No. (L) NACE No.RP0198-98 Table 2 Continued Protective Coating Systems for Carbon Steels Under Thermal Insulation and Cementitious Fireproofing SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE SURFACE (A) RANGE PREPARATION -45 to 150°C (-50 to 300°F) NACE No. (K) SSPC-SP 3 (latest revision).5 mils) 100 µm (4 mils) siloxane thin film of petrolatum or petroleum wax primer 130 µm (5 mils) of high-build epoxy or coal tar epoxy N/A 100 µm (4 mils) siloxane 1 to 2 mm (40 to 80 mils) petrolatum or petroleum wax tape N/A N/A N/A SSPC-SP 2 and/or SSPC-SP (L) 3 NACE No. “Commercial Blast Cleaning” (Houston. TX: NACE. 1/SSPC-SP 5 (latest revision). and fireproofing materials that affect corrosion. TX: NACE. insulation accessories. “White Metal Blast Cleaning” (Houston. PA: SSPC). Other performance properties of these materials are not characterized.

these products can become excellent wicking material.2. With time and repeated thermal cycling. Their use in below-ambient temperature applications. for its use outdoors. 200 ppm for calcium silicate. rigid block material that has been foamed under molten conditions to form a closed cell structure. ASTM C 610 includes a test method for determining the effect of temperature on water resistance. 5. Several ASTM specifications address various forms.3 Man-Made Mineral Fibers ASTM groups commercial glass and mineral fiber insulation materials into a single category. preferably performed by an independent third party. or glass processed from a molten state into a fibrous form and including organic binders. Also. Using references in ASTM C 795. Expanded perlite is used as a moderate-to-hightemperature insulation. perlite. most manufacturers publish a lower temperature limit. Fiber length and orientation affect these characteristics which. affect wicking. some additives burn out. It is hygroscopic and will absorb 20 to 25% by weight water in humid conditions from water vapor present in air. Manufacturers should be encouraged to provide test information. typically 150°C (300°F).RP0198-98 measurements given in ASTM C 795. binder composition and quantity.2. Construction joints (overlaps and field joints glued on themselves during installation of vapor barrier sheet) or damaged sections of vapor barriers allow moisture to migrate into the insulation system. allowing the passage of moisture. It is a rigid material furnished in block and pipe cover forms. Modifications of this method and apparatus may be useful in the testing of coatings in combination with insulation materials over a temperaturecontrolled substrate. At elevated temperatures around 315°C (600°F). Generally. generally described as rocks. A common use is as insulation on electric-traced or steam-traced lines for either freeze protection or process control. and on equipment subject to extended shutdown. these materials are used from ambient to high temperatures. ASTM material specifications refer to various test methods for use in characterizing insulation materials and accessories. in turn. ASTM C 692 specifies the test methods for qualifying materials. Compressive strength varies with density of the material and the effect of binder burn-out.2. Calcium silicate when wet is alkaline. fibrous reinforcement. and burn-out characteristics of the binder. and water resistance is reduced. Fibrous products also allow water vapor to permeate. transmitting moisture and corrosive solutions to the steel surface. It is a rigid pipe and block insulation composed principally of hydrous calcium silicate and usually incorporates a fibrous reinforcement. allowing water intrusion. It is commonly used in below-ambient to moderate temperatures (-25°C to 200°C [-13°F to 392°F]). inorganic silicate binders. This information can be very useful in characterizing specific commercial materials. having a pH of 9 to 10. The upper temperature limits vary.4 Cellular Glass It is a Cellular glass is specified in ASTM C 552. slag. After binder breakdown. Calcium silicate is intended as a high-temperature insulation. mineral fibers have a higher temperature limit. these vapor barrier joints fail. At ambient temperatures it can absorb up to 400% of its weight when immersed in water. has had limited success. 5.2.2 Expanded Perlite Expanded perlite block and pipe insulation is speci12 It is composed of expanded fied in ASTM C 610. 5. Some binders break down in the presence of heat and water. Typically. depending on the specific fiber and binder. While change in compressive strength does not directly affect corrosion. The drip method provides a technique that closely simulates insulated systems. materials with low compressive strength result in an insulation system with typical metal jacketing that is vulnerable to physical damage. At lower temperatures. and silicone water-resistant additions. and 25 ppm for mineral man-made fiber insulation. the additives for water resistance provide protection from absorption of water. 13 20 NACE International . For this reason. Ability of fibrous insulation to repel water varies from product to product and depends on the type of binder used. 5. High pH may be detrimental to coatings such as alkyds and inorganic zinc. even with a vapor barrier. Water absorption characteristics of these products vary greatly. the ratio of sodium silicate to chlorides might be specified as 20 to 1 for calcium silicate and mineral fiber or 200 to 1 for perlite. Most problems with calcium silicate are associated with use at temperatures lower than recommended cyclic temperature services with an ambient temperature for the majority of the time.1 Calcium Silicate Calcium silicate pipe and block insulation is specified 11 in ASTM C 533. such as 100 ppm for perlite.

5. When the leachate is found to be less than pH 6. 5. closed-cell foam that is formed by either an extrusion or molding process.2. All components of a system must be considered for a particular application. Of particular interest are minor components (accessory materials) that may be detrimental to austenitic stainless steels (see Paragraph 5. Washington DC 20037. 2120 L Street NW. the wicking characteristics of the particular product form will affect water absorption. 5. The leachate pH can range from 1. brominated compounds.2.RP0198-98 Cellular glass is water resistant and retains only small amounts of water on cut or fractured surfaces.2. contain varying amounts of leachable chlorides.2.2.0. silicate content. mastics. The best practice is to use condensate or some other high-purity water source. polyisocyanurate. special consideration should be given to protect the substrate from accelerated corrosion. or are rarely used today.1 to 5 perm-in.2. closedcell foam that is formed by a controlled chemical reaction.4 Faced or unfaced phenolic foam is 17 specified in ASTM C 1126.5. Levels of leachable chlorides can range from nondetectable to 200 ppm. water quality is a concern. 5.2. The pH. 5. maximum chloride content of the water must be specified. or acetic acid derivatives because the compounds promote ESCC. Organic foams are used in below-ambient to moderate temperature applications and have water vapor ratings from 2.5.5 Preformed polystyrene foam is specified 18 by ASTM C 578. as do all insulations. water entering through cracks or joints in the insulation system can reach the metal surface and cause corrosion and ESCC. If the fiber is used at moderate temperatures. NACE International 21 . flexible elastomeric.1 Spray-applied polyurethane foam is 14 specified in ASTM C 1029.2 Preformed polyisocyanurate foam is 15 specified in ASTM C 591. and seal projections through the insulation system. It is a rigid. may be of concern in existing systems. ASTM test methods for insulation materials used over austenitic stainless steels are not always appropriate for accessory materials.2. ____________________________ (4) Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 5. Its use at lower temperatures is limited due to its high cost. closedcell foam that is formed by a controlled chemical reaction.3 Preformed flexible elastomeric rubber is 16 It is a flexible. Polystyrene and polyolefin are less commonly used because of temperature limitations.5 to 127 mm (0. and sodium ions as measured by ASTM C 871.5. Concentrations of less than 50 to 100 ppm are suggested.5 Organic Foams ASTM includes specifications for various types and forms of organic foam insulation.3). 5. closedcell foam that is formed by a chemical reaction at the time of application. asbestos and magnesiumbased materials may contain high levels of chlorides. In that case. It is a rigid.3 Insulation Accessory Materials Insulation accessory materials include those components used to fabricate insulation materials into shapes that fit pipe and equipment. Some specifiers refer to Nuclear (4) Regulatory Commission requirements. as well as components used to apply those shapes. chloride content. provide weatherproofing.8 Historical Materials Materials that are no longer manufactured. closed-cell foam that is formed by an extrusion process. It is a rigid.6 Ceramic Fiber ASTM specifies ceramic fiber separately from manmade mineral fiber. silicate. It is typically used in hightemperature applications. Some users specify mastics and sealants that do not contain PVC. When used over austenitic stainless steel. specified in ASTM C 534.7 to 10. The types most commonly used in industrial applications include polyurethane. fluoride content. 5. fluorides.7 Prefabricated Systems Many products on the market combine insulation materials with various accessories to produce prefabricated systems intended to enhance installation efficiencies and/or overall service performance. It is a rigid. and coatings may require mixing with water before use.5.2. and sodium content are obtained from the leachate produced by boiling pulverized foam in water.0. 5. 5.5. These materials. Materials such as cements. However. and phenolic. chlorinated hydrocarbons. In particular.).

maintenance. and tape systems. Plastic materials such as fiberglass-reinforced plastic and thermoplastics are not commonly used for jacketing because of their low melting temperatures. These materials are only used for specialized applications and are more effective for indoor use. thermoplastics. It is commonly supplied with an inner barrier of thermoplastic film and/or kraft paper. screw holes. Water quality is a concern. 5. such as PVC. Some asphaltics may not pass acceptance testing for use with austenitic stainless steels. galvanized and aluminized-steel jacketing is commonly supplied with an inner barrier of thermoplastic film and/or kraft paper. and corrosion by many chemicals. Use of aluminum on high-temperature (above 540°C [1000°F]). fiberglass-reinforced plastic. aluminized steel. 304. Adhesives are also a component of tapes. In addition. As with the jacketing materials mentioned above. It is available with various factory-applied coatings for additional corrosion resistance. and 316. high-alloy equipment. Weatherability.1 Cements Cements are used to join insulation materials into useful shapes. Pitting and perforation of aluminum jacketing negates its function as a weather barrier. at high temperatures. lack of resistance to mechanical abuse and ultraviolet radiation (sunlight). 5. Aluminum jacketing is economical.000°F]). LMC. Adhesives used with labeling systems for identification are of concern due to the effects of chloride content and crevices. 5. such as pumps and valves. Some adhesives used on adhesive tapes have been found to cause cracking of austenitic stainless steels. The most common problem has been the use of tape to temporarily position heat tracers or other insulation system components. areas where insulation is intended to serve as fireproofing. relatively corrosion resistant. 5. prefabricated pipe covers.3. When stainless steel jacketing is used. Hydrated silicates are used with calcium silicate.5 Jacketing Materials Jacketing materials are used to provide mechanical and weather protection for insulation systems.3. are typical applications.RP0198-98 5. perlite. stainless steel. and other prefabricated systems. Materials containing chlorinated polymers. Asphaltic materials are commonly used in low-temperature systems. and suitability for the service temperature must be considered. Stainless steel jacketing is available in types 302. its use is widespread.3. Galvanized steel or aluminized jacketing suffers from iron-oxide staining as a result of corrosion at seams. Because it is more expensive than aluminum jacketing. are not suitable for insulating austenitic stainless steels. galvanized jacketing cannot be used at high temperatures greater than 370°C (700°F) as zinc is a low-melting-point metal. Stainless steel jacketing is commonly supplied with an inner barrier of thermoplastic film and/or kraft paper.3. Periodic inspection and repair of damage are necessary to maintain the usefulness of these materials. reinforced fabrics. Periodic inspection and repair of damage are necessary to maintain the usefulness of these materials. Failure of sealant and caulking systems is a common source of water intrusion into insulation systems.3 Mastics and Coatings Mastics and coatings are applied over insulation materials for weather protection and as cold service vapor barriers where metal or other jacketing is not used. and other edges where the zinc or aluminum is unable to provide adequate coverage.2 Adhesives Adhesives are used to bond insulation materials to equipment surfaces in some applications. galvanized steel. Weatherability and maintenance of these materials must be considered when used to provide primary weather protection. it should be used in conjunction with stainless steel bands and hardware to reduce the occurrence of galvanic corrosion and. and cellular glass. and use on high-temperature (above 540°C [1. its use is limited to specialized applications such as plant atmospheres corrosive to aluminum. and therefore. Irregular shapes. high-alloy equipment is normally restricted due to liquid metal cracking concerns. and easy to work with. Pitting corrosion from the inside surface due to entrapped moisture and reaction with wet insulation materials is a concern.3.4 Sealants and Caulks Sealants and caulks are used to seal protrusions through insulation systems and to provide vapor barriers in below-ambient conditions. 22 NACE International . The concerns previously discussed for ESCC of stainless steel equipment and piping are also a concern with stainless steel jacketing in the appropriate environment or in contact with leachable chloride-containing insulation. Commonly used materials include aluminum.

and a separate prioritizing checklist should be used for each item of equipment.1 How long has the equipment been in service since last insulated? Because CUI is an insidious problem. 6. In many instances. yet a very difficult task to detect and measure the effects of corrosion due to thermal insulation on the outside surface.2 Does the prevailing wind contain high humidity or corrosive contaminants? Equipment downwind of corrosive mists (e.. 6.3. CUI problems are commonly found to be significant after about five years.1 Location of Equipment 6.g. All plant personnel can and should help with the visual inspection and then consult with the company experts.2. The following list should be used in setting priorities.2.2. it is a simple task to detect and measure the effects of corrosion due to the process fluids and gases on the inside surface of piping and equipment. At the very least. NW. inspect.RP0198-98 Reinforced fabric jacketing is typically used for removable and reusable insulation covers. 6. continuous process operation at temperatures between -4°C and 150°C (25°F and 300°F) or cycling above and below the dew point. 6.1 Is it indoors or outdoors? Inside areas are less at risk. 6. and seashore) is more exposed to CUI factors. safety shower. For process (5) 19 piping.1. 6.2. it can locate “suspect” areas for further investigation. Removing all the insulation would be the ideal method for locating and evaluating CUI. refer to API 570. 6. or fire protection deluge systems. continuous process operation between 50°C and 150°C (120°F and 300°F) or cycling above and below the dew point.2 For type 300 series stainless steels.3 Age of Equipment 6.2. 1220 L St. Unfortunately.1.1 How susceptible is the alloy to corrosion or to cracking at operating temperatures? The probability of material failure varies with operating temperature or range of temperature.2. it is helpful to check records for when the equipment was installed or last insulated. the very presence of thermal insulation can set up corrosion problems that are completely unrelated to the product contained in the pipe or vessel.3 Is equipment susceptible to mechanical damage? Insulation systems bumped by tools or used as mechanical support for workers are more likely to break down and allow water entry.2. 6. DC 20005. but it is time-consuming and expensive.4 Coatings ____________________________ (5) American Petroleum Institute (API). _______________________________________________________________________ Section 6: Inspection and Maintenance 6. Washington. provided that they are not near hose-down.2.2.2. Visual inspection for evidence of moisture or corrosion will help to predict where surface corrosion threatens the piping system or equipment. 6. cooling tower.2.2 Pre-Inspection Activities A plan should be developed to inspect and record warning signs of CUI.1 For carbon steel. power plant. It is helpful to begin with a plant or area map indicating location of equipment.2.1. The following are the temperature ranges of greatest concern.1.2.1. and record suspect insulation. NACE International 23 .1 Overview Thermal insulation on plant process equipment creates a formidable barrier to easy inspection for corrosion damage. which are made specifically for specific equipment items and piping components where conventional insulation methods are impractical. The map should be used as a point of departure to prioritize.2 Temperature and Materials of Construction 6.2.

Ensure that the proper jacketing type and metal thickness is installed. the prioritizing checklist. These should be banded. the prioritizing checklist.125 in. not screwed. for systems operating below -40°C (-40°F). Ensure that the system has been caulked. NW. Ensure that a bedding coat has been applied between the first and second insulation layers. (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) (t) (u) (v) (w) 6.RP0198-98 6.3 Visual Inspection (r) 6. (6) CFR 1910. Suspect areas should be recorded. ensure that the vapor barrier has been applied to the exterior of the insulation before installing the jacket.). The following guidelines should be adhered to as CUI may occur when the following recommendations have not been followed: (a) (b) Keep insulation dry at all times. Ensure that watershed angles are provided. These are installed on the outside of the jacketing around the equipment. to the outside of the jacketing.2.2.3 What is the cost of downtime for repairs or replacement? Should key items of plant equipment be inoperable for several weeks? Several months? 6. Do not use finishing cement to fill the gap. Adequate resources must be devoted to ensure that the design details are properly implemented. Equipment designated to be coated should be checked to verify that it has been coated according to manufacturer’s or owner’s specifications.1 Are there exposed fittings? (i) Fixtures such as clips.). Ensure that the insulation has no gaps greater than 3 mm (0. and guidelines for selection of protective coatings are found in Section 4. Ensure that the jacketing is installed in watershed fashion on horizontal runs. Keep surfaces to be insulated clean and dry. Visual inspection of the insulated equipment and piping in the work area should be started using the site map.5. inspections of the insulated ____________________________ (6) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Ensure that the nozzle openings and all other protrusions are flashed and caulked. Use the insulation thickness designated in the project insulation specifications.119: Process Safety OSHA 20 (or similar local standards) Management should be used as a guide.4. Ensure that all insulation terminations have end caps. nozzles. Ensure that the bands and breather springs are the correct size and material. For systems requiring a vapor barrier.2. 100 Constitution Ave.1 Is equipment coated? Coated equipment has a better survival rate. Ensure that insulation has been secured with the specified wire. 6. Do not apply the coat to the substrate. bands. Determine whether the insulation should be single-layer or double-layer. (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Ensure that a full bedding coat of asphalt cutback is applied when required. Ensure that installed insulation is protected from rain and washdown until jacketing is installed.3.125 in.5 Risk Potential — Process/Business/Environment/Safety/Health (h) 6.2.2 What are the consequences of the leak? In choosing the frequency of inspection. Order duplicate equipment nameplates for systems operating below 0°C (32°F). and inspection ports needing caulking are potential points for water entry.5. Washington.2 Equipment in Service Using the site map.5. 6. Caulking should be left beaded. Insulated equipment that has been coated is much easier to inspect. or tape. and an inspection work sheet. Ensure that all joints are staggered. for insulated valves. where applicable. not feathered. and an inspection work sheet. but the type of coating used should also be considered. especially on double-layered systems. Do not use screws to secure jacketing on systems with vapor barriers. 6. a business should consider the environmental and economic consequences of a leak.3. Use valve stem extension handles. Replace the affected section of insulation if the gap exceeds 3 mm (0. Also. Ensure that the bands are turned under or caulked at the clips.1 New Construction (s) Design and specification documents should be reviewed to make sure they are complete and correct. Coatings suitable for liquid immersion service are usually specified. DC 20210. 24 NACE International . A change of design is sometimes the only solution.2.

1 Eddy Current Inspection 2 (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) 6. from vessels or piping greater than 61 cm (24 in. Specific items of equipment that are coated should be identified. or missing mastic moisture barriers on piping and vessels. Some of the techniques are listed in Paragraph 6. Open joints in jackets from physical damage. crusty deposits on austenitic stainless steel.4.5. 6.5. above and below manways.9 m (3 ft) long from piping less than 61 cm (24 in. Swollen or blistered insulation.) in diameter. supports.3 Neutron backscatter device NACE International 25 .1 Remove a patch of insulation.5. or a section 0.5. 6. ) in area. or non-asbestos respirable fiber (NARF) insulation.2 When repeat inspections are to be made at the same point. above supports.4. and 653. Weathered. split. 6. or corroded metal jacketing. Flashing that does not shed water. Suspect areas should be recorded. 570. slipped. loose. tanks. Unprotected insulation where parts have been removed. torn. Site-specific requirements must be followed when removing asbestos. The metal surface must be protectively coated and reinsulated. Eliminate the source of water intrusion. and around nozzles. and nozzles.4 Nondestructive Moisture and Corrosion Detection Techniques These techniques and devices can enhance visual inspection on any type of insulation. Corrosion is often found above vacuum rings and insulation support rings. 6. and below breaks in top head moisture barriers. The damaged equipment or parts must be repaired as necessary or replaced. damaged. or holes in jackets and covers. Unsealed metal wall thickness test points. Unsealed piping terminations.4.2 Infrared thermography 6. the extent of corrosion or structural damage to the Ultrasonic thickness and pit depth measurement techniques are usually used to determine the remaining wall thickness of pipe.4.6 Equipment Inspection Methods 6. Gaps in jackets around pipe hangers. Mildew or moisture at insulation support rings or vacuum rings on vessels.2.RP0198-98 equipment and piping in the area should be conducted. and on sidewalls. 6.4.6 Ultrasonic testing (UT) of the equipment from the inside 6. The total system must be inspected and cleaned. and spot nondestructive evaluation (NDE) may be misleading.4.4.4 If there is no corrosion and the insulation is dry. The following procedure should be used for assessing the damage: 6.3 Examine the equipment for thick rust deposits on carbon steel and hard.6 If corrosion damage has occurred. equipment must be assessed. at the tip of vertical pipe runs. 6. Punctured.4. dislodged.5 If there is no corrosion but the insulation is wet. inelastic. and other plant equipment when there is direct access to the exterior surface. missing.6. the CUI pattern may be nonuniform.4 Flash radiography 6. Improper installation interfering with water runoff. where there is probable corrosion damage.5 Assessment of Damage If investigations or observations indicate wet insulation. deposits. Insulation should be removed or the corrosion should be evaluated by a suitable NDE technique.4. and at other protrusions such as structural stainless steel supports.5.6. 6. Testing should be conducted using established test procedures such 21 22 as those found in API 510. vessel heads. pressure vessels. or missing caulking on piping. remove all the insulation from the damaged areas.5 Electromagnetic (eddy current) 6. remove the insulation to the point where it is completely dry. 6. use replaceable insulation plugs to close inspection holes in the insulation.7 Fluoroscopic imaging of piping 6. 120 to 150 cm 2 (18 to 24 in. respirable ceramic fiber (RCF). sidewalls. replace the insulation and seal thoroughly. using proper insulation installation techniques. On pressure vessels and piping.6.1 Carbon Steel 6.) in diameter.1 Delmhorst moisture meter 6.5. Stains.8 Profile radiography 6. Inspection personnel should be alert to the following warning signs: (a) Weathered.2 Stainless Steel 6.

Red dye penetrant should be applied by spray or brush on ambient temperature surfaces.2 Liquid Dye Penetrant Inspection (PT) When eddy current examinations are not practical. Stripping all insulation before mothballing is the most cost-effective way of storing carbon steel and stainless steel piping and equipment. Heavy grit blasting or sanding may smear over the cracks and decrease the effectiveness of the PT. A very thin coating of developer should be applied followed by visual inspection after at least 10 min for indications of cracking. (a) (b) Hydroblasting — Conventional abrasive blasting should not be used.8 Shutdown and Mothballing Some severe cases of CUI have occurred during extended shutdowns or mothballing of equipment. 42nd St. 11 W.2 The prepared area should be washed with water.7. This procedure will not be effective at an elevated temperature. New York. 26 NACE International .6. and clips on vessels as well. and typically. NY.1 Replacement of equipment may be necessary if its integrity is affected by severe corrosion of carbon steel or by ESCC of austenitic stainless steel. Weather barriers deteriorate during these idle periods.2. Before beginning repairs. 6. Pencil grinding — This can be used to prepare fillet welds where a sander cannot reach. 7 crushed flint.7 Repair The extent of damage will determine the type and amount of repair required. Eddy current examination must be performed by qualified specialists. ____________________________ (7) American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The metal surface must be as near ambient temperature as possible. Brown stains on stainless steel often indicate ESCC. Only halogen-free PT materials should be used.4 Replace flashing around vacuum and insulation support rings. 6. liquid dye penetrant inspection is a useful procedure for ESCC detection.3 Replace deteriorated caulking with silicone caulking compounds. The periphery of cracked areas should be examined for less obvious cracking. with types that direct water away.6. When plant management is uncertain whether equipment will be used again.1 The stainless steel surface should be prepared for PT by one or more of the following techniques to remove surface deposits and to avoid peening shut any ESCC. 6. 6.RP0198-98 Eddy current inspection is recommended for stainless steel surface inspection. 6. API 510 for pressure vessels.3.7. Excess penetrant should be wiped off with a lint-free cloth soaked in chloridefree solvent. Examples of repair techniques and insulation refurbishment practices are: 6. however. allowing 15 min to penetrate. no maintenance or repair is performed. Too much pressure will force grit into cracks. and reinsulated before use in a CUI environment. Disc sanding — This can be done with coarse grit and moderate pressure. cleaned with chloride-free solvent. As a rule. 6. such as No. and API 570 for piping. Stainless steel is susceptible to ESCC by the waterleached salts when the equipment is brought on-line after idle periods. Stored equipment shall be abrasive-blasted. it is not likely to corrode under insulation during storage. Methods must be consistent with good practices and code requirements.3. funds or facilities to maintain weather barriers or to move equipment indoors may not be provided..3 Surface Preparation and Cleaning One effective surface cleaning procedure for PT of stainless steels involves aspirating a small amount of grit. and wiped dry with a lint-free cloth.7. (c) (d) 6. When properly used. effective method for detecting ESCC.7. Repair of equipment that has corroded must follow the requirements of applicable codes and (7) standards. recoated. These include the ANSI National Board 23 Inspection Code (NB-23). especially if weld repair is being considered. Flapper sanding — This can be done with coarse grit and moderate pressure. API 653 for tanks. Carbon steel piping and equipment may be severely corroded at ambient temperature when mothballed. rusting of exposed carbon steel is less severe and more uniform than corrosion under wet insulation. 6. a qualified corrosion/materials specialist should be consulted to assist in assessing damage and choosing repair methods. it is a rapid. into a high-pressure water-blast nozzle to remove deposits (but not the brown stains occurring on stainless steel) and minimize dusting.

Corrosion of Metals Under Thermal Insulation. 1935). Rating. Cellular Polystyrene Thermal Insulation” (West Conshohocken. Storage. 18-23. PA: ASTM). 22.G. ASTM C 871 (latest revision). PA: ASTM. “Standard Specification for Rigid. “Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: Maintenance Inspection. “Wax Coating Systems for Underground Piping Systems” (Houston. (New York. p. 11.N. PA: ASTM).” in Process Industries Corrosion. TX: NACE). W. “Standard Specification for Thermal Insulation for Use in Contact with Austenitic Stainless Steel” (West Conshohocken. 19. 16. PA: ASTM). eds.J. 2. Pollock (Houston. DC: API). CFR 1910 (latest revision). “Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Thermal Insulation Materials for Leachable Chloride. ASTM C 692 (latest revision). PA: ASTM). Moniz. 1986). 3. “Standard Specification for Preformed Flexible Elastomeric Cellular Thermal Insulation in Sheet and Tubular Form” (West Conshohocken. TX: NACE. 20. 18. and Application of Thermal Insulation Materials For Use in Contact with Austenitic Stainless Steel” (West Conshohocken. “Piping Inspection Code: Inspection. API Standard 570 (latest revision). Transporting. 17. 9. 5 (1965): pp.RP0198-98 _______________________________________________________________________ References 1. Fluoride. PA: ASTM). “Standard Practice for Handling. ASTM C 929 (latest revision). “Tank Inspection. Pollock and J. and Alteration” (Washington. ASTM C 1126 (latest revision). W. PA: ASTM). p. Repair. ASTM C 610 (latest revision). Shipping. 10. Repair.. 4. DC: API). NACE International 27 . TX: NACE). DC: OSHA). 2nd ed. W. 761. Receiving. “Occupational Safety and Health Standards” (Washington. PA: ASTM). F. Corrosion — Causes and Prevention. PA: ASTM). “Standard Specification for Cellular Glass Thermal Insulation” (West Conshohocken. W.I. 8. 7. NACE Publication 6H189 (latest revision). 21. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 15. API Standard 510 (latest revision). (West Conshohocken.M. “Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Influence of Thermal Insulations on External Stress Corrosion Cracking Tendency of Austenitic Stainless Steel” (West Conshohocken. Ashbaugh. Barnhart. and Reconstruction” (Washington. ASTM C 552 (latest revision). “Standard Specification for Molded Expanded Perlite Block and Pipe Thermal Insulation” (West Conshohocken. “External Stress Corrosion Cracking of Stainless Steel Under Thermal Insulation. DC: API). STP 880. eds. ASTM C 533 (latest revision). PA: ASTM)..” MP 4. 1985). B. “Standard Specification for Unfaced Preformed Rigid Cellular Polyisocyanurate Thermal Insulation” (West Conshohocken. Alteration. “Standard Specification for Faced or Unfaced Rigid Cellular Phenolic Thermal Insulation” (West Conshohocken. ASTM C 795 (latest revision). PA: ASTM). ASTM C 1029 (latest revision). NY: ANSI). “A Stateof-the-Art Report on Protective Coatings for Carbon Steel and Austenitic Stainless Steel Surfaces Under Thermal Insulation and Cementitious Fireproofing” (Houston. 153 and Fig. 23. PA: ASTM). 6. “Standard Specification for Calcium Silicate Block and Pipe Thermal Insulation” (West Conshohocken. 12. ASTM C 591 (latest revision). “Corrosion of Steel and Stainless Steel Under Thermal Insulation. and Sodium Ions” (West Conshohocken. 5. Alteration. 25. 14. “National Board Inspection Code: Manual for Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors” (New York. Repair. Speller. Ashbaugh. API Standard 653 (latest revision). ASTM C 578 (latest revision).I. 13. NACE Standard RP0375 (latest revision).G. Silicate. and Rerating of InService Piping Systems” (Washington. PA: ASTM). NB-23 (latest revision). “Standard Specification for Spray-Applied Rigid Cellular Polyurethane Thermal Insulation” (West Conshohocken. ASTM C 534 (latest revision).

1991.G. E. S.” Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings 2. NACE Publication 6B161. plenary lecture. 216. 1976. 1971.” Chemical Engineering Progress.F. 66. W. 10. “Zinc Filled Inorganic Coatings. Haney. 1982.G. Delahunt.” Pittsburgh. 28 ISBN 1-57590-049-1 NACE International . Ashbaugh. TX: NACE. Zinc: Its Corrosion Resistance.” Houston. NY: International Lead Zinc Research Organization.00. “Inorganic Zinc Coatings for Immersion (Tank Lining) Service. Mattsson. Montle.” Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings 3. 36.G. “The Atmospheric Corrosion Properties of Some Common Structural Metals—A Comparative Study. Houston. Ashbaugh. Houston. “The Zinc-Steel Potential Reversal in Cathodic Protection. SSPC Publication PS 12. New York.RP0198-98 _______________________________________________________________________ Bibliography Ashbaugh. 5 (1965): p.” Houston. TX: NACE. TX: NACE. 44. PA: SSPC. 1961.. “ESCC of Stainless Steel under Thermal Insulation. 10 (1970): p. paper no. J. E. and J.” CORROSION/81. 1 (1985): p. 1 (1986): p. Delahunt. “Corrosion of Underground Insulated Pipelines. “Guide for Selecting ZincRich Painting Systems.G.F. 1981. “Stress Corrosion Cracking of Process Equipment. Inc.” Materials Protection 4. NACE Publication 6A176. W.” CORROSION/82. 18. W.. TX: NACE. “Problem Solving Forum.

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